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Sample records for mls jaanus paal

  1. MLS: Airplane system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. D.; Stapleton, B. P.; Walen, D. B.; Rieder, P. F.; Moss, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis, modeling, and simulations were conducted as part of a multiyear investigation of the more important airplane-system-related items of the microwave landing system (MLS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the airplane RF system, including the antenna radiation distribution, the cabling options from the antenna to the receiver, and the overall impact of the airborne system gains and losses upon the direct-path signal structure. In addition, effort was expended toward determining the impact of the MLS upon the airplane flight management system and developing the initial stages of a fast-time MLS automatic control system simulation model. Results ot these studies are presented.

  2. Volume MLS ray casting.

    PubMed

    Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2008-01-01

    The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data. PMID:18988986

  3. Wither the MLS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years a troubling pattern has emerged, one that might be termed the trivialization of the Master of Library Science (MLS). As a result of several factors, not least the closing of library schools, low rates of pay for librarians, and high costs of living in many parts of the country, some college libraries have found it difficult…

  4. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  5. Validation of UARS MLS C10 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J.; Read, W.; Froideveaux, L.; Lungu, T.; Perun, V.; Stachnik, R.; Jarnot, R.; Cofield, R.; Fishbein, E.; Flower, D.; Burke, J.; Hardy, J.; Nakamura, L.; Ridenoure, B.; Shippony, Z.; Thurstans, R.; Avallone, L.; Toohey, D.; deZafra, R.; Shindell, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the validation of stratospheric C10 measurements by the MLS on the UARS. The comparisons done to date between MLS and other measurements of C10 indicate general agreement to within the estimated MLS uncertainties and the uncertainties of the comparative measurements.

  6. Research on MLS airborne antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Numerical solutions for the radiation patterns of antennas mounted on aircraft are developed. The airborne antenna problems associated with the Microwave Landing System (MLS) are emphasized. Based on the requirements of the MLS, volumetric pattern solutions are essential. Previous attempts at solving for the volumetric patterns were found to be far too complex and very inefficient. However as a result of previous efforts, it is possible to combine the elevation and roll plane pattern solutions to give the complete volumetric pattern. This combination is described as well as the aircraft simulation models used in the analysis. A numerical technique is presented to aid in the simulation of the aircraft studied. Finally, a description of the input data used in the computer code is given.

  7. Validation of UARS MLS Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, L.; Read, W. G.; Lungu, T. A; Cofield, R. E.; Fishbein, E. F.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. f.; Ridenoure, B. P.; Shippony, Z.; Waters, J. W.; Margitan, J. J.; Stachnik, I. S.; Peckham, G. E.; Braathen, G.; Deshler, T.; Fishman, J.; Hofmann, D. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; McDermid, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the validation of ozone data from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The MLS ozone retrievals are obtained from the calibrated microwave radiances (emission spectra) in two separate bands, at frequencies near 205 and 183 GHz.

  8. Optimization of MLS receivers for multipath environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalpine, G. A.; Highfill, J. H., III; Irwin, S. H.; Padgett, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A receiver is designed for aircraft (A/C), which, as a component of the proposed Microwave Landing System (MLS), is capable of optimal performance in the multipath environments found in air terminal areas. Topics discussed include: the angle-tracking problem of the MLS receiver; signal modeling; preliminary approaches to optimal design; suboptimal design; and simulation study.

  9. Arctic Ozone Depletion from UARS MLS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of ozone during four Arctic winters are compared. The evolution of ozone in the lower stratosphere is related to temperature, chlorine monoxide (also measured by MLS), and the evolution of the polar vortex. Lagrangian transport calculations using winds from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office's Stratosphere-Troposphere Data Assimilation system are used to estimate to what extent the evolution of lower stratospheric ozone is controlled by dynamics. Observations, along with calculations of the expected dynamical behavior, show evidence for chemical ozone depletion throughout most of the Arctic lower stratospheric vortex during the 1992-93 middle and late winter, and during all of the 1994-95 winter that was observed by MLS. Both of these winters were unusually cold and had unusually cold and had unusually strong Arctic polar vortices compared to meteorological data over the past 17 years.

  10. Assimilation of MLS and OMI Ozone Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, I.; Wargan, K.; Chang, L.-P.; Hayashi, H.; Pawson, S.; Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N.

    2005-01-01

    Ozone data from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were assimilated into the ozone model at NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). This assimilation produces ozone fields that are superior to those from the operational GMAO assimilation of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV/2) instrument data. Assimilation of Aura data improves the representation of the "ozone hole" and the agreement with independent Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III and ozone sonde data. Ozone in the lower stratosphere is captured better: mean state, vertical gradients, spatial and temporal variability are all improved. Inclusion of OMI and MLS data together, or separately, in the assimilation system provides a way of checking how consistent OMI and MLS data are with each other, and with the ozone model. We found that differences between OMI total ozone column data and model forecasts decrease after MLS data are assimilated. This indicates that MLS stratospheric ozone profiles are consistent with OMI total ozone columns. The evaluation of error characteristics of OMI and MLS ozone will continue as data from newer versions of retrievals becomes available. We report on the initial step in obtaining global assimilated ozone fields that combine measurements from different Aura instruments, the ozone model at the GMAO, and their respective error characteristics. We plan to use assimilated ozone fields in estimation of tropospheric ozone. We also plan to investigate impacts of assimilated ozone fields on numerical weather prediction through their use in radiative models and in the assimilation of infrared nadir radiance data from NASA's Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS).

  11. Optimization of MLS receivers for multipath environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalpine, G. A.; Irwin, S. H.; NELSON; Roleyni, G.

    1977-01-01

    Optimal design studies of MLS angle-receivers and a theoretical design-study of MLS DME-receivers are reported. The angle-receiver results include an integration of the scan data processor and tracking filter components of the optimal receiver into a unified structure. An extensive simulation study comparing the performance of the optimal and threshold receivers in a wide variety of representative dynamical interference environments was made. The optimal receiver was generally superior. A simulation of the performance of the threshold and delay-and-compare receivers in various signal environments was performed. An analysis of combined errors due to lateral reflections from vertical structures with small differential path delays, specular ground reflections with neglible differential path delays, and thermal noise in the receivers is provided.

  12. Synthesis of two distinct pyrrole moiety-containing arenes from nitroanilines using Paal-Knorr followed by an indium-mediated reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeong Hyo; Bae, Seolhee; Go, Ahra; Lee, Hyunseung; Gong, Cheoloh; Lee, Byung Min

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of arenes substituted with two differently substituted-pyrrole moieties was investigated. A Paal-Knorr condensation reaction of nitroanilines with 1,4-diketone to nitrophenyl-1H-pyrroles followed by an indium-mediated reduction-triggered coupling reaction with another kind of 1,4-diketone resulted in two distinct pyrrole-containing arenes, variously substituted 1-((1H-pyrrol-1-yl)phenyl)-1H-pyrroles, in reasonable yield. PMID:26593044

  13. Version 3 Products from EOS MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddy, D.

    2009-12-01

    In early August of 2009, Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) began production with a newer version (Version 3) of Level 1 and Level 2 software. Over the next year, MLS intends to reprocess all of the mission data with these newer algorithms. Version 3 of MLS algorithms includes minor updates to Level 1 software; improvements in our Level 2 data products; and the addition of a new data product ¬ CH3Cl. Updates to Level 1 include redefining the Galactic Core for the instrument field of view. Improvements in Level 2 include O3 at higher vertical resolution with twice the resolution through the troposphere and a useful product at 260 hPa; H2O with removal of a kink at 2.3 hPa; CO with a reduced high bias; ClO with a reduced negative bias; HCl with the removal of various kinks; and HCN with a useful range from 100hPa to 10 hPa. For every product we make it easier to exclude heights and geographic locations where the quality is known to be poor. Version 3 metadata employs eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format replacing the old Object Definition Language (ODL) format. The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) archives and distributes these products to the users.

  14. Space Station Water Processor Mostly Liquid Separator (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzarone, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the development testing conducted under this contract to the Space Station Water Processor (WP) Mostly Liquid Separator (MLS). The MLS units built and modified during this testing demonstrated acceptable air/water separation results in a variety of water conditions with inlet flow rates ranging from 60 - 960 LB/hr.

  15. Monitoring of MLS Measurements for Ozone Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Nathan; Stajner, I.; Rood, R.; Goplan, A.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ozone data assimilation system at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Data Assimilation Office (DAO) has operationally provided near real time global three dimensional analyzed ozone fields since December 1999. Presently, 4 system assimilates both total column ozone and profile measurements from the NOAA - 16 SBUV/2 instrument into an off-line transport model using a physical space statistical analysis scheme (PS AS). Recently, this system was modified to investigate a possible impact from including MLS profile observations. Over a period from December 13, 1991 to March 1, 1992 the system assimilated both NOAA 11 SBUV/2 profile measurements and TOMS total column measurements. Short term ozone forecasts were produced and compared to MLS observations. The resulting observed -minus -forecast (O-F) residuals were studied regionally (by both latitude bands and pressure levels) in order to explore the potential impact of MLS observations on the assimilation and sensitivity to the UARS yaw maneuver and other instrument and algorithm characteristics. In addition, MLS profiles were compared to nearest neighbor SBUV and analysis profiles. In the tropics, analyzed ozone values tend to be too high from 1-3 hPa and too low from 10-20 hPa. MLS measurements in these regions tend be lower and higher (respectively) than forecast ozone values. This indicates that assimilating MLS measurements may improve, analysis results in these areas. Further, nearest neighbor profile comparisons in the southern high latitudes indicate that laminar features present in the analysis but not present in SBUV measurements, are also present in MLS measurements. This, together with the availability of MLS measurements in polar night regions indicates that assimilating MLS measurements in polar night regions indicates that assimilating MLS measurements may improve analyzed ozone values in high latitudes.

  16. Processing EOS MLS Level-2 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. Van; Wu, Dong; Read, William; Jiang, Jonathan; Wagner, Paul; Livesey, Nathaniel; Schwartz, Michael; Filipiak, Mark; Pumphrey, Hugh; Shippony, Zvi

    2006-01-01

    A computer program performs level-2 processing of thermal-microwave-radiance data from observations of the limb of the Earth by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The purpose of the processing is to estimate the composition and temperature of the atmosphere versus altitude from .8 to .90 km. "Level-2" as used here is a specialists f term signifying both vertical profiles of geophysical parameters along the measurement track of the instrument and processing performed by this or other software to generate such profiles. Designed to be flexible, the program is controlled via a configuration file that defines all aspects of processing, including contents of state and measurement vectors, configurations of forward models, measurement and calibration data to be read, and the manner of inverting the models to obtain the desired estimates. The program can operate in a parallel form in which one instance of the program acts a master, coordinating the work of multiple slave instances on a cluster of computers, each slave operating on a portion of the data. Optionally, the configuration file can be made to instruct the software to produce files of simulated radiances based on state vectors formed from sets of geophysical data-product files taken as input.

  17. Testing of CMA-2000 Microwave Landing System (MLS) airborne receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labreche, L.; Murfin, A. J.

    1989-09-01

    Microwave landing system (MLS) is a precision approach and landing guidance system which provides position information and various air to ground data. Position information is provided on a wide coverage sector and is determined by an azimuth angle measurement, an elevation angle measurement, and a range measurement. MLS performance standards and testing of the MLS airborne receiver is mainly governed by Technical Standard Order TSO-C104 issued by the Federal Aviation Administration. This TSO defines detailed test procedures for use in determining the required performance under standard and stressed conditions. It also imposes disciplines on software development and testing procedures. Testing performed on the CMA-2000 MLS receiver and methods used in its validation are described. A computer automated test system has been developed to test for compliance with RTCA/DO-177 Minimum Operation Performance Standards. Extensive software verification and traceability tests designed to ensure compliance with RTCA/DO-178 are outlined.

  18. Performance of a commercial transport under typical MLS noise environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of a 747-200 automatic flight control system (AFCS) subjected to typical Microwave Landing System (MLS) noise is discussed. The performance is then compared with the results from a previous study which had a B747 AFCS subjected to the MLS standards and recommended practices (SARPS) maximum allowable noise. A glide slope control run with Instrument Landing System (ILS) noise is also conducted. Finally, a linear covariance analysis is presented.

  19. Equatorial Kelvin waves: A UARS MLS view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canziani, Pablo O.; Holton, James R.; Fishbein, Evan; Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe W.

    1994-01-01

    Data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are used to compare two periods of Kelvin wave activity during different stages of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation. The analysis is carried out using an asynoptic mapping technique. A wide bandpass filter is used to isolate the frequency bands where Kelvin waves have been identified in previous studies. Time-height and time-latitude plots of the bandpassed data are used to identify Kelvin wave activity in the temperature and ozone fields. Frequency spectra of temperature and ozone amplitudes are constructed to further analyze the latitudinal and meridional distribution of Kelvin wave activity in zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2. The characteristics identified in these plots agree well with theoretical predictions and previous observations of middle atmosphere Kelvin waves. The time-height and time-latitude plots support the existence of Kelvin waves in discrete frequency bands; the slow, fast, and ultrafast Kelvin modes are all identified in the data. The characteristics of these modes do not vary much despite different mean flow conditions in the two periods examined. For the Kelvin wave-induced perturbations in ozone, the change from a transport-dominated regime below 10 hPa to a photochemically controlled regime above 10 hPa is clearly apparent in the height dependence of the phase difference between temperature and ozone. The ratios of the ozone perturbation amplitude to the temperature perturbation amplitude for the various observed Kelvin wave modes are in agreement with model estimates and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) observations in the lower half of the region sampled but appear to be too large in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere.

  20. Global Gravity Wave Variances from Aura MLS: Characteristics and Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.; Eckermann, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    The gravity wave (GW)-resolving capabilities of 118-GHz saturated thermal radiances acquired throughout the stratosphere by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite are investigated and initial results presented. Because the saturated (optically thick) radiances resolve GW perturbations from a given altitude at different horizontal locations, variances are evaluated at 12 pressure altitudes between 21 and 51 km using the 40 saturated radiances found at the bottom of each limb scan. Forward modeling simulations show that these variances are controlled mostly by GWs with vertical wavelengths z 5 km and horizontal along-track wavelengths of y 100-200 km. The tilted cigar-shaped three-dimensional weighting functions yield highly selective responses to GWs of high intrinsic frequency that propagate toward the instrument. The latter property is used to infer the net meridional component of GW propagation by differencing the variances acquired from ascending (A) and descending (D) orbits. Because of improved vertical resolution and sensitivity, Aura MLS GW variances are 5?8 times larger than those from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) MLS. Like UARS MLS variances, monthly-mean Aura MLS variances in January and July 2005 are enhanced when local background wind speeds are large, due largely to GW visibility effects. Zonal asymmetries in variance maps reveal enhanced GW activity at high latitudes due to forcing by flow over major mountain ranges and at tropical and subtropical latitudes due to enhanced deep convective generation as inferred from contemporaneous MLS cloud-ice data. At 21-28-km altitude (heights not measured by the UARS MLS), GW variance in the tropics is systematically enhanced and shows clear variations with the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation, in general agreement with GW temperature variances derived from radiosonde, rocketsonde, and limb-scan vertical profiles.

  1. Analysis of a range estimator which uses MLS angle measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, David R.; Linse, Dennis

    1987-01-01

    A concept that uses the azimuth signal from a microwave landing system (MLS) combined with onboard airspeed and heading data to estimate the horizontal range to the runway threshold is investigated. The absolute range error is evaluated for trajectories typical of General Aviation (GA) and commercial airline operations (CAO). These include constant intercept angles for GA and CAO, and complex curved trajectories for CAO. It is found that range errors of 4000 to 6000 feet at the entry of MLS coverage which then reduce to 1000-foot errors at runway centerline intercept are possible for GA operations. For CAO, errors at entry into MLS coverage of 2000 feet which reduce to 300 feet at runway centerline interception are possible.

  2. The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, J. W.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Flower, D. A.; Lau, G. K.; Pickett, H. M.; Santee, M. L.; Wu, D. L.; Boyles, M. A.; Burke, J. R.; Lay, R. R.; Loo, M. S.; Livesey, N. J.; Lungu, T. A.; Manney, G. L.; Nakamura, L. L.;  Perun, V. S.;  Ridenoure, B. P.;  Shippony, Z.;  Siegel, P. H.;  Thurstans, R. P.;  Harwood, R. S.;  Pumphrey, H. C.;  Filipiak, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments obtain measurements of atmospheric composition, temperature, and pressure by observations of millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength thermal emission as the instrument field of view is scanned through the atmospheric limb. Features of the measurement technique include the ability to measure many atmospheric gases as well as temperature and pressure, to obtain measurements even in the presence of dense aerosol and cirrus, and to provide near-global coverage on a daily basis at all times of day and night from an orbiting platform. The composition measurements are relatively insensitive to uncertainties in atmospheric temperature. An accurate spectroscopic database is available, and the instrument calibration is also very accurate and stable. The first MLS experiment in space, launched on the (NASA) Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in September 1991, was designed primarily to measure stratospheric profiles of ClO, O3, H2O, and atmospheric pressure as a vertical reference. Global measurement of ClO, the predominant radical in chlorine destruction of ozone, was an especially important objective of UARS MLS. All objectives of UARS MLS have been accomplished and additional geophysical products beyond those for which the experiment was designed have been obtained, including measurement of upper-tropospheric water vapor, which is important for climate change studies. A follow-on MLS experiment is being developed for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) and is scheduled to be launched on the EOS CHEMISTRY platform in late 2002. EOS MLS is designed for many stratospheric measurements, including HOx radicals, which could not be measured by UARS because adequate technology was not available, and better and more extensive upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric measurements.

  3. EOS Aura MLS, first year post-launch engineering assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Karen A.; Lay, Richard R.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Cofield, Richard E.; Flower, Dennis A.; Pickett, Herbert M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status of the MLS instrument which now continuously provides data to produce global maps of targeted chemical species as well as temperature, cloud ice, and gravity wave activity. Performance trends are assessed with respect to characterization during initial on-orbit activiation of the instrument, and with data from ground test verification prior to launch.

  4. Educational Requirements beyond the MLS for Academic Librarians in 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aufderhaar, Kathleen E.

    Eight-hundred sixty-five advertisements for academic librarian positions in the 1990 issues of "American Libraries" were examined to determine how many position advertisements were asking for advanced degrees in addition to the MLS. Data from the 231 advertisements asking for advanced degrees were compared with data from previous studies as well…

  5. 76 FR 47226 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily Loan Sale (MLS 2011-2)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily Loan Sale (MLS 2011-2) AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Housing Administration (FHA) insurance, in a competitive, sealed bid sale (MLS 2011-2). This notice also... numbers. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: HUD announces the sale in MLS 2011-2 of certain unsubsidized...

  6. 78 FR 74157 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily Loan Sale (MLS 2014-1)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily Loan Sale (MLS 2014-1) AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... by Units of Local Governments (ULGs) and Non-profit Corporations on December 12, 2013 (MLS 2014-1..., Boston, MA 02111, Attention: MLS 2014-1 Sale Coordinator, Fax: 1-978-967-8607. FOR FURTHER...

  7. 76 FR 24045 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily Loan Sale (MLS 2011-1)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily Loan Sale (MLS 2011-1) AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Federal Housing Administration (FHA) insurance, in a competitive, sealed bid sale (MLS 2011-1). This...-free numbers. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: HUD announces its intention to sell in MLS 2011-1...

  8. Interannual Variations of MLS Carbon Monoxide Induced by Solar Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    More than eight years (2004-2012) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed. The mesospheric CO, largely produced by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to the solar irradiance variability. The long-term variation of observed mesospheric MLS CO concentrations at high latitudes is likely driven by the solar-cycle modulated UV forcing. Despite of different CO abundances in the southern and northern hemispheric winter, the solar-cycle dependence appears to be similar. This solar signal is further carried down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex. Aura MLS CO is compared with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) total solar irradiance (TSI) and also with the spectral irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) region from the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE). Significant positive correlation (up to 0.6) is found between CO and FUVTSI in a large part of the upper atmosphere. The distribution of this positive correlation in the mesosphere is consistent with the expectation of CO changes induced by the solar irradiance variations.

  9. Version 3.3 Data Products from EOS MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddy, D.; Wagner, P.; Read, W. G.; Perun, V.; Nguyen, H.

    2010-12-01

    In April of 2010, Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) began production with a newer version (version v03.30) of Level 1 and Level 2 software. Near the end of calendar 2010, MLS intends to have re-processed all of the mission data with these newer algorithms. Version 3.3 of MLS algorithms includes minor updates to Level 1 software; improvements in our Level 2 data products; and the addition of a new data product ¬ CH3Cl. Updates to Level 1 include redefining the Galactic Core for the instrument field of view. Improvements in Level 2 include O3 at higher vertical resolution with twice the resolution through the troposphere and pushed the lower useful altitude pressure from 215 to 260 hPa; H2O with removal of a kinks near the stratopause; CO with a reduced high bias; ClO with a reduced negative bias; HCl with the removal of various kinks; and CH3CN is improved. For every product we make it easier to exclude heights and geographic locations where the quality is known to be poor. Version 3.3 metadata employs eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format replacing the old Object Definition Language (ODL) format. The standard product files have been augmented with extra dimension fields to make them compatible with the newest version of HDF5-based netCDF. The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) serves as the data archives and distributes these products to the users community.

  10. EOS MLS Lessons Learned: Design Ideas for Safer and Lower Cost Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dominick

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a complex instrument with a front end computer and 32 subsystem computers. MLS is one of four instruments on NASA's EOS Aura spacecraft With almost 8 years in orbit, MLS has a few lessons learned which can be applied during the design phase of future instruments to effect better longevity, more robust operations and a significant cost benefit during operations phase.

  11. Air traffic control by distributed management in a MLS environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Parkin, L.; Hart, S.

    1977-01-01

    The microwave landing system (MLS) is a technically feasible means for increasing runway capacity since it could support curved approaches to a short final. The shorter the final segment of the approach, the wider the variety of speed mixes possible so that theoretically, capacity would ultimately be limited by runway occupance time only. An experiment contrasted air traffic control in a MLS environment under a centralized form of management and under distributed management which was supported by a traffic situation display in each of the 3 piloted simulators. Objective flight data, verbal communication and subjective responses were recorded on 18 trial runs lasting about 20 minutes each. The results were in general agreement with previous distributed management research. In particular, distributed management permitted a smaller spread of intercrossing times and both pilots and controllers perceived distributed management as the more 'ideal' system in this task. It is concluded from this and previous research that distributed management offers a viable alternative to centralized management with definite potential for dealing with dense traffic in a safe, orderly and expeditious manner.

  12. Software safety analysis activities during software development phases of the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Hui-Yin; Sherif, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the MLS software safety analysis activities and documents the SSA results. The scope of this software safety effort is consistent with the MLS system safety definition and is concentrated on the software faults and hazards that may have impact on the personnel safety and the environment safety.

  13. Mesodermal expression of the C. elegans HMX homolog mls-2 requires the PBC homolog CEH-20

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Shi, Herong; Amin, Nirav M.; Sultan, Ibrahim; Liu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Metazoan development proceeds primarily through the regulated expression of genes encoding transcription factors and components of cell signaling pathways. One way to decipher the complex developmental programs is to assemble the underlying gene regulatory networks by dissecting the cis-regulatory modules that direct temporal-spatial expression of developmental genes and identify corresponding trans-regulatory factors. Here, we focus on the regulation of a HMX homoebox gene called mls-2, which functions at the intersection of a network that regulates cleavage orientation, cell proliferation and fate specification in the C. elegans postembryonic mesoderm. In addition to its transient expression in the postembryonic mesodermal lineage, the M lineage, mls-2 expression is detected in a subset of embryonic cells, in three pairs of head neurons and transiently in the somatic gonad. Through mutational analysis of the mls-2 promoter, we identified two elements (E1 and E2) involved in regulating the temporal-spatial expression of mls-2. In particular, we showed that one of the elements (E1) required for mls-2 expression in the M lineage contains two critical putative PBC-Hox binding sites that are evolutionarily conserved in C. briggsae and C. remanei. Furthermore, the C. elegans PBC homolog CEH-20 is required for mls-2 expression in the M lineage. Our data suggests that mls-2 might be a direct target of CEH-20 in the M lineage and that the regulation of CEH-20 on mls-2 is likely Hox-independent. PMID:18316179

  14. Polar stratospheric clouds as deduced from MLS and CLAES measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ricaud, P.D.; Carr, E.S.; Harwood, R.S.; Lahoz, W.A.

    1995-08-01

    From 30 August 1992 to 3 September 1992 a supersaturated area at 465 K potential temperature ({approximately}50 hPa) is deduced from MLS water vapour measurements over western Antarctica, where high extinction coefficients measured by CLAES indicate Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs). These PSCs are attributed partly to the effect of an anticyclone located over South America and partly to localized orographic waves, which raise the isentropes and generate rapid adiabatic cooling. A local minimum in column O{sub 3} ({<=}200DU) is observed in this area, which is believed to be a consequence of the dynamics. Enhanced ClO abundances downstream of the region indicate PSC processing and chlorine activation. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  15. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing Software. Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perun, Vincent S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Wagner, Paul A.; Cofield, Richard E., IV; Nguyen, Honghanh T.; Vuu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This software is an improvement on Version 2, which was described in EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), p. 34. It accepts the EOS MLS Level 0 science/engineering data, and the EOS Aura spacecraft ephemeris/attitude data, and produces calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. This version makes the code more robust, improves calibration, provides more diagnostics outputs, defines the Galactic core more finely, and fixes the equator crossing. The Level 1 processing software manages several different tasks. It qualifies each data quantity using instrument configuration and checksum data, as well as data transmission quality flags. Statistical tests are applied for data quality and reasonableness. The instrument engineering data (e.g., voltages, currents, temperatures, and encoder angles) is calibrated by the software, and the filter channel space reference measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement with the interpolates being differenced from the measurements. Filter channel calibration target measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement, and are used to compute radiometric gain. The total signal power is determined and analyzed by each digital autocorrelator spectrometer (DACS) during each data integration. The software converts each DACS data integration from an autocorrelation measurement in the time domain into a spectral measurement in the frequency domain, and estimates separately the spectrally, smoothly varying and spectrally averaged components of the limb port signal arising from antenna emission and scattering effects. Limb radiances are also calibrated.

  16. HNO3 From MLS: Building on the UARS Legacy With Aura Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santee, M. L.; Manney, G. L.; Read, W. G.; Livesey, N. J.; Filipiak, M. J.; Waters, J. W.

    2003-12-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measured the global distribution of stratospheric HNO3 over annual cycles for much of the 1990s, albeit with reduced sampling frequency in the latter half of the decade. The UARS MLS HNO3 dataset, unique in its scope, has previously been studied to explore the seasonal, interhemispheric, and interannual variations in the distribution of HNO3. This work, however, suffered from a number of limitations: It was confined to a single level in the lower stratosphere (465 K potential temperature), it was based on version~4 MLS data, and it relied heavily on zonal-mean comparisons of the evolution of HNO3 in the northern and southern hemispheres. Here we update and significantly expand the previous work by examining the distribution of HNO3 throughout the lower and middle stratosphere from 420 to 960 K. We use version~6 MLS HNO3 data, which, in addition to having much better precision, a larger vertical range, and better definition of the HNO3 profile, have also been corrected to account for the neglect of some excited vibrational state lines that caused the version~4 (and version~5) retrievals to substantially overestimate HNO3 peak values. In addition, we calculate averages over equivalent latitude, which are more representative of vortex behavior than zonal means, especially in the Arctic. This work provides a comprehensive picture of the behavior of stratospheric HNO3 during the UARS timeframe and establishes an important baseline for upcoming measurements from the EOS Aura mission, which will include a second-generation MLS experiment. The capability of EOS MLS is greatly enhanced over that of UARS MLS. We review the anticipated improvements in the EOS MLS HNO3 measurements (e.g., better spatial and temporal coverage, better horizontal and vertical resolution, larger vertical range), show some results from retrieval simulations, and discuss a few specific polar process studies that

  17. Modeling methodology for MLS range navigation system errors using flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.

    1982-01-01

    Flight test data was used to develop a methodology for modeling MLS range navigation system errors. The data used corresponded to the constant velocity and glideslope approach segment of a helicopter landing trajectory. The MLS range measurement was assumed to consist of low frequency and random high frequency components. The random high frequency component was extracted from the MLS range measurements. This was done by appropriate filtering of the range residual generated from a linearization of the range profile for the final approach segment. This range navigation system error was then modeled as an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) process. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to identify the parameters of the ARMA process.

  18. EOS MLS Level 2 Data Processing Software Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livesey, Nathaniel J.; VanSnyder, Livesey W.; Read, William G.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Lambert, Alyn; Santee, Michelle L.; Nguyen, Honghanh T.; Froidevaux, Lucien; wang, Shuhui; Manney, Gloria L.; Wu, Dong L.; Wagner, Paul A.; Vuu, Christina; Pumphrey, Hugh C.

    2011-01-01

    This software accepts the EOS MLS calibrated measurements of microwave radiances products and operational meteorological data, and produces a set of estimates of atmospheric temperature and composition. This version has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The software is controlled by a Level 2 Configuration File that controls all aspects of the software: defining the contents of state and measurement vectors, defining the configurations of the various forward models available, reading appropriate a priori spectroscopic and calibration data, performing retrievals, post-processing results, computing diagnostics, and outputting results in appropriate files. In production mode, the software operates in a parallel form, with one instance of the program acting as a master, coordinating the work of multiple slave instances on a cluster of computers, each computing the results for individual chunks of data. In addition, to do conventional retrieval calculations and producing geophysical products, the Level 2 Configuration File can instruct the software to produce files of simulated radiances based on a state vector formed from a set of geophysical product files taken as input. Combining both the retrieval and simulation tasks in a single piece of software makes it far easier to ensure that identical forward model algorithms and parameters are used in both tasks. This also dramatically reduces the complexity of the code maintenance effort.

  19. Guidance law simulation studies for complex approaches using the Microwave Landing System (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents results for MLS guidance algorithm development conducted by DAC for NASA under the Advance Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Technology Studies program (NAS1-18028). The study consisted of evaluating guidance laws for vertical and lateral path control, as well as speed control, by simulating an MLS approach for the Washington National Airport. This work is an extension and generalization of a previous ATOPS contract (NAS1-16202) completed by DAC in 1985. The Washington river approach was simulated by six waypoints and one glideslope change and consisted of an eleven nautical mile approach path. Tracking performance was generated for 10 cases representing several different conditions, which included MLS noise, steady wind, turbulence, and windshear. Results of this simulation phase are suitable for use in future fixed-base simulator evaluations employing actual hardware (autopilot and a performance management system), as well as crew procedures and information requirements for MLS.

  20. Physical Mechanisms Controlling Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor as Revealed by MLS Data from UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, Reginald E.; Douglass, Anne (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The third year and final report on the physical mechanisms controlling upper tropospheric water vapor revealed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is presented.

  1. Monitoring and Assimilation of MLS Measurements in the DAO Ozone Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor); Winslow, Nathan; Stajner, Ivanka; Rood, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Since 1999 the DAO (Data Assimilation Office) at NASA Goddard has operationally assimilated ozone measurements in near real time. Currently, the assimilation system analyzes SBUV profile and total column measurements using an off line CTM with parameterized chemistry within the 3D-PSAS algorithm. During the last year the assimilation system was modified to either monitor or actively assimilate MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) measurements in conjunction with the active assimilation of TOMS total column and SBUV profiles. It is expected that the active assimilation of MLS profiles will improve analysis results in two ways. First, there should be an improvement in the vertical resolution. Second, there should be an improvement in regions where SBUV measurements do not exist (such as in the polar night). A series of experiments using UARS (Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite) MLS data from December 1991 to March 1992 were run. In these experiments MLS data was either monitored in conjunction with active assimilation of the SBUV profile and TOMS total column measurements, or some combination of MLS, TOMS, and SBUV observations was actively assimilated. Monitoring of MLS data indicated that the MLS observations contain verifiable information that should improve the vertical structure of the analysis results, especially below the ozone peak and above the tropopause. The monitoring also substantiated the potential to improve the assimilation in the polar night. Active assimilation of MLS data does indeed improve the analysis results in these two ways, although the quality of the improvements is not uniform. This suggests that refinement of the specification of the error covariances might be needed to optimize the system. In addition it may be necessary to account for biases between the different sources of ozone information.

  2. Solar Occultation Satellite Data and Derived Meteorological Products: Sampling Issues and Comparisons with Aura MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria; Daffer, William H.; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Bernath, Peter F.; Hoppel, Karl W.; Walker, Kaley A.; Knosp, Brian W.; Boone, Chris; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Santee, Michelle L.; Harvey, V. Lynn; Pawson, Steven; Jackson, David R.; Deaver, Lance; Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Lambert, Alyn; Schwartz, Michael J.; Froidevaux, Lucien; McLeod, Sean; Takacs, Lawrence L.; Suarez, Max J.; Trepte, Charles R.; Livesey, Nathaniel; Harwood, Robert S.; Waters, Joe W.

    2007-01-01

    Derived Meteorological Products (DMPs, including potential temperature (theta), potential vorticity, equivalent latitude (EqL), horizontal winds and tropopause locations) have been produced for the locations and times of measurements by several solar occultation (SO) instruments and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). DMPs are calculated from several meteorological analyses for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II and III, Halogen Occultation Experiment, and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement II and III SO instruments and MLS. Time-series comparisons of MLS version 1.5 and SO data using DMPs show good qualitative agreement in time evolution of O3, N2O, H20, CO, HNO3, HCl and temperature; quantitative agreement is good in most cases. EqL-coordinate comparisons of MLS version 2.2 and SO data show good quantitative agreement throughout the stratosphere for most of these species, with significant biases for a few species in localized regions. Comparisons in EqL coordinates of MLS and SO data, and of SO data with geographically coincident MLS data provide insight into where and how sampling effects are important in interpretation of the sparse SO data, thus assisting in fully utilizing the SO data in scientific studies and comparisons with other sparse datasets. The DMPs are valuable for scientific studies and to facilitate validation of non-coincident measurements.

  3. Climatology 2011: An MLS and Sonde Derived Ozone Climatology for Satellite Retrieval Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, Richard D.; Labow, Gordon J.

    2012-01-01

    The ozone climatology used as the a priori for the version 8 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) retrieval algorithms has been updated. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on Aura has excellent latitude coverage and measures ozone daily from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. The new climatology consists of monthly average ozone profiles for ten degree latitude zones covering pressure altitudes from 0 to 65 km. The climatology was formed by combining data from Aura MLS (2004-2010) with data from balloon sondes (1988-2010). Ozone below 8 km (below 12 km at high latitudes) is based on balloons sondes, while ozone above 16 km (21 km at high latitudes) is based on MLS measurements. Sonde and MLS data are blended in the transition region. Ozone accuracy in the upper troposphere is greatly improved because of the near uniform coverage by Aura MLS, while the addition of a large number of balloon sonde measurements improves the accuracy in the lower troposphere, in the tropics and southern hemisphere in particular. The addition of MLS data also improves the accuracy of climatology in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. The revised climatology has been used for the latest reprocessing of SBUV and TOMS satellite ozone data.

  4. Recent Divergences Between Stratospheric Water Vapor Measurements by Aura MLS and Frost Point Hygrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, D. F.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.; Read, W. G.; Voemel, H.; Selkirk, H. B.

    2015-12-01

    A recent comparison of stratospheric water vapor measurements by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and frost point hygrometers (FPs) during 2004-2012 reported agreement better than 1% from 68 to 26 hPa, small but statistically significant biases at 83 and 100 hPa, and no compelling evidence of long-term linear trends in FP-MLS differences [Hurst et al., 2014]. A previous comparison [Voemel et al., 2007] also found good agreement above 83 hPa. Recently it has become evident that differences between FP and MLS stratospheric water vapor measurements have widened during the last 5 years at two Northern Hemisphere (NH) mid-latitude sounding sites. Here we examine differences between coincident MLS and FP measurements of stratospheric water vapor at five sounding sites: two in the NH mid-latitudes (Boulder, Colorado and Lindenberg, Germany), two in the tropics (San Jose, Costa Rica and Hilo, Hawaii), and one in the SH mid-latitudes (Lauder, New Zealand). Analyses of the Boulder and Lindenberg data reveal reasonably uniform breakpoints in the timeseries of FP-MLS differences throughout the stratosphere, indicating that trends after mid-2010 are statistically different from trends before mid-2010. At Boulder and Lindenberg the post-breakpoint trends are statistically significant and fairly consistent over eight MLS retrieval pressures (100-26 hPa), averaging -0.08 ± 0.02 and -0.05 ± 0.02 ppmv per year, respectively (Figure 1). These translate to mean changes in stratospheric FP-MLS differences of -0.42 ± 0.08 ppmv (-10 ± 2%) and -0.23 ± 0.08 ppmv (-6 ± 2%) between mid-2010 and mid-2015. Breakpoints for the eight MLS pressure levels above Lauder are less uniform than for the two NH sites, however forced breakpoints of mid-2010 produce a mean stratospheric trend of -0.05 ± 0.02 ppmv per year in the FP-MLS differences. Breakpoints for the two tropical sites are inconsistent, as are the trend results with forced breakpoints of mid-2010. Hurst, D.F., et al., (2014

  5. A total ozone-dependent ozone profile climatology based on ozonesondes and Aura MLS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labow, Gordon J.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; McPeters, Richard D.; Haffner, David P.; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2015-03-01

    Ozone profiles measured with the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and ozonesondes are used to create a new ozone climatology that can be used for satellite retrievals and radiative transfer studies. The climatology is binned according to total column ozone amount and latitude rather than with season. Because of high correlation between ozone profile shape and total ozone, the ozone profiles in this climatology capture ozone variations well, especially near the tropopause. This climatology has been constructed from nearly a million individual MLS ozone profile measurements taken between 2004 and 2013 as well as over 55,000 ozonesonde measurements from 1988 to 2011. The MLS profiles were sorted by total column ozone as measured by Ozone Monitoring Instrument in observations that were coincident with the MLS measurements. The data from the sondes were used in the troposphere and lower stratosphere and MLS in the middle and upper stratosphere. These two data sets were blended together between 13 and 17 km (~159-88 hPa). This climatology consists of average ozone profiles as a function of total ozone for six 30° latitude bands covering altitudes between 0 and 75 km (in Z* pressure altitude coordinates) as well as the corresponding standard deviations for each layer. There is no seasonal component. This new climatology shows some remarkable and somewhat unexpected correlations between the total column ozone and the ozone amount at some layers, particularly in the lower and middle troposphere in some latitude bands.

  6. Relationships of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor, Clouds and SST: MLS Observations, ECMWF Analyses and GCM Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Hui; Waliser, Duane E.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Li, Jui-lin; Read, William G.; Waters, Joe W.; Tompkins, Adrian M.

    2006-01-01

    The relationships of upper tropospheric water vapor (UTWV), cloud ice and sea surface temperature (SST) are examined in the annual cycles of ECMWF analyses and simulations from 15 atmosphere-ocean coupled models which were contributed to the IPCC AR4. The results are compared with the observed relationships based on UTWV and cloud ice measurements from MLS on Aura. It is shown that the ECMWF analyses produce positive correlations between UTWV, cloud ice and SST, similar to the MLS data. The rate of the increase of cloud ice and UTWV with SST is about 30% larger than that for MLS. For the IPCC simulations, the relationships between UTWV, cloud ice and SST are qualitatively captured. However, the magnitudes of the simulated cloud ice show a considerable disagreement between models, by nearly a factor of 10. The amplitudes of the approximate linear relations between UTWV, cloud ice and SST vary by a factor up to 4.

  7. Polar processing and development of the 2004 Antarctic ozone hole : first results from MLS on Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santee, M. L.; Manney, G. L.; Livesey, N. J.; Froidevaux, L.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Read, W. G.; Schwartz, M. J.; Waters, J. W.; Harwood, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on Aura is providing an extensive data set on stratospheric winter polar processing, including the first daily global observations of HCl, together with simultaneous measurements of ClO, HNO3, H2O, O3, N2O, and temperature (among others). We present first results charting the evolution of these quantities during the 2004 Antarctic late winter. MLS observations of chlorine deactivation and ozone loss during this period are shown to be consistent with results from the SLIMCAT chemical transport model.

  8. Tropical stratospheric water vapor measured by the microwave limb sounder (MLS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.S.; Harwood, R.S.; Mote, P.W.

    1995-03-15

    The lower stratospheric variability of equatorial water vapor, measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), follows an annual cycle modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation. At levels higher in the stratosphere, water vapor measurements exhibit a semiannual oscillatory signal with the largest amplitudes at 2.2 and 1hPa. Zonal-mean cross sections of MLS water vapour are consistent with previous satellite measurements from the LIMS and SAGE II instruments in that they show water vapor increasing upwards and pole-wards from a well defined minimum in the tropics. The minimum values vary in height between the retreived 46 and 22hPa pressure levels.

  9. Refinement and validation of two digital Microwave Landing System (MLS) theoretical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duff, W. G.; Guarino, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    Two digital microwave landing system theoretical models are considered which are generic models for the Doppler and scanning-beam frequency reference versions of the MLS. These models represent errors resulting from both system noise and discrete multipath. The data used for the validation effort were obtained from the Texas Instrument conventional scanning beam and the Hazeltine Doppler feasibility hardware versions of the MLS. Topics discussed include tape read software, time history plots, computation of power spectral density, smoothed power spectra, best-fit models, different equations for digital simulation, and discrete multipath errors.

  10. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 3: A comparison of waypoint guidance algorithms for RNAV/MLS transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an investigation carried out for the Langley Research Center Terminal Configured Vehicle Program are presented. The investigation generated and compared three path update algorithms designed to provide smooth transition for an aircraft guidance system from DME, VORTAC, and barometric navaids to the more precise MLS by modifying the desired 3-D flight path. The first, called the Zero Cross Track, eliminates the discontinuity in cross track and altitude error by designating the first valid MLS aircraft position as the desired first waypoint, while retaining all subsequent waypoints. The discontinuity in track angle is left unaltered. The second, called the Tangent Path also eliminates the discontinuity in cross track and altitude and choose a new desired heading to be tangent to the next oncoming circular arc turn. The third, called the Continued Track eliminates the discontinuity in cross track, altitude and track angle by accepting the current MLS position and track angle as the desired ones and recomputes the location of the next waypoint. A method is presented for providing a waypoint guidance path reconstruction which treats turns of less than, and greater than, 180 degrees in a uniform manner to construct the desired path.

  11. Flight performance of the TCV B-737 airplane at Jorge Newberry Airport, Buenos Aires, Argentina using TRSB/MLS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L.

    1980-01-01

    The flight performance of the Terminal Configured Vehicle airplane is summarized. Demonstration automatic approaches and landings utilizing time reference scanning beam microwave landing system (TRSB/MLS) guidance are presented. The TRSB/MLS was shown to provide the terminal area guidance necessary for flying curved automatic approaches with final legs as short as 2 km.

  12. Automated landing, rollout, and turnoff using MLS and magnetic cable sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.; Schmidt, S. F.; Mann, F. I.

    1977-01-01

    A description of the simulation program used to study the landing approach, rollout and turnoff of the B737-100 aircraft utilizing MLS and a buried magnetic leader cable as navigation aids is presented. Simulation results are given and show the concept to be both feasible and practical for commercial type aircraft terminal area control.

  13. Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Grillo, A.; Ferrero, G.B.; Baldini, A.; Ballabio, A.; Zoghbi, H.Y.; Roth, E.J.; Magenis, E.; Grompe, M.; Hulten, M.

    1994-01-15

    The microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome (MIM309801) is a severe developmental disorder observed in XX individuals with distal Xp segmental monosomy. The phenotype of this syndrome overlaps with that of both Aicardi (MIM 305050) and Goltz (MIM 305600) syndromes, two X-linked dominant, male-lethal disorders. Here the authors report the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization of 3 patients with this syndrome. Two of these patients are females with a terminal Xpter-p22.2 deletion. One of these 2 patients had an aborted fetus with anencephaly and the same chromosome abnormality. The third patient is an XX male with Xp/Yp exchange spanning the SRY gene which results in distal Xp monosomy. The extensive clinical variability observed in these patients and the results of the molecular analysis suggest that X-inactivation plays an important role in determining the phenotype of the MLS syndrome. The authors propose that the MLS, Aicardi, and Goltz syndromes are due to the involvement of the same gene(s), and that different patterns of X-inactivation are responsible for the phenotypic differences observed in these 3 disorders. However, they cannot rule out that each component of the MLS phenotype is caused by deletion of a different gene (a contiguous gene syndrome). 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Global Carbon Monoxide Products from Combined AIRS, TES and MLS Measurements on A-Train Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Juying X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attie, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background modelbased field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  15. A Total Ozone Dependent Ozone Profile Climatology Based on Ozone-Sondes and Aura MLS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labow, G. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    A new total ozone-based ozone profile climatology has been created for use in satellite and/or ground based ozone retrievals. This climatology was formed by combining data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) with data from balloon sondes and binned by zone and total ozone. Because profile shape varies with total column ozone, this climatology better captures the ozone variations than the previously used seasonal climatologies, especially near the tropopause. This is significantly different than ozone climatologies used in the past as there is no time component. The MLS instrument on Aura has excellent latitude coverage and measures ozone profiles daily from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere at ~3.5 km resolution. Almost a million individual MLS ozone measurements are merged with data from over 55,000 ozonesondes which are then binned as a function of total ozone. The climatology consists of average ozone profiles as a function of total ozone for six 30 degree latitude bands covering altitudes from 0-75 km (in Z* pressure altitude coordinates). This new climatology better represents the profile shape as a function of total ozone than previous climatologies and shows some remarkable and somewhat unexpected correlations between total ozone and ozone in the lower altitudes, particularly in the lower and middle troposphere. These data can also be used to infer biases and errors in either the MLS retrievals or ozone sondes.

  16. CloudSat and Aura MLS Constrain upon Ice Cloud Particle Size Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan Valle, L. F.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.

    2014-12-01

    Despite years of measurements, ice clouds remain one of the largest uncertainties in climate models. In part, because individual cloud ice remote sensing techniques or instruments observe only portions of the complete ice particle size distribution (PSD) and therefore, to deduce cloud ice water, the retrievals need to assume a given PSD. Uncertainty in such knowledge currently accounts for most of the factor of two or greater uncertainties in satellite based cloud ice water content measurements. The Aura-Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observes limb microwave emissions from the Earth's atmosphere at 118, 191, 240, 640 and 2500 GHz enabling cloud ice measurements across a large range of particle sizes. This study explores the synergy of collocated A-train radar backscatter CloudSat measurements and MLS radiances in search of a better understanding of cloud ice PSDs. For each "scene" jointly observed by CloudSat and MLS, we quantify the ability of each of several candidate PSDs to account for the observed signals. First, a CloudSat retrieval is used to determine the cloud altitude and location along the MLS line of sight as well as the cloud ice water content that, for a given PSD, would give rise to the observed CloudSat signal. Then, for each PSD, estimated MLS measurements are reconstructed, compared to those actually observed and a chi-squared metric is used to determined which PSD gives the best fit. We will discuss potential applications of this technique to studies of convection and the impacts of aerosol pollution on ice PSD.

  17. Divergent MLS1 Promoters Lie on a Fitness Plateau for Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Andrew C; Olsen, Gerilyn M; Fay, Justin C

    2016-05-01

    Qualitative patterns of gene activation and repression are often conserved despite an abundance of quantitative variation in expression levels within and between species. A major challenge to interpreting patterns of expression divergence is knowing which changes in gene expression affect fitness. To characterize the fitness effects of gene expression divergence, we placed orthologous promoters from eight yeast species upstream of malate synthase (MLS1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae As expected, we found these promoters varied in their expression level under activated and repressed conditions as well as in their dynamic response following loss of glucose repression. Despite these differences, only a single promoter driving near basal levels of expression caused a detectable loss of fitness. We conclude that the MLS1 promoter lies on a fitness plateau whereby even large changes in gene expression can be tolerated without a substantial loss of fitness. PMID:26782997

  18. Enhanced Positive Water Vapor Feedback Associated with Tropical Deep Convection: New Evidence from Aura MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Hui; Read, William G.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Waters, Joe W.; Wu, Dong L.; Fetzer, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent simultaneous observations of upper tropospheric (UT) water vapor and cloud ice from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite provide new evidence for tropical convective influence on UT water vapor and its associated greenhouse effect. The observations show that UT water vapor increases as cloud ice water content increases. They also show that, when sea surface temperature (SST) exceeds approx.300 K, UT cloud ice associated with tropical deep convection increases sharply with increasing SST. The moistening of the upper troposphere by deep convection leads to an enhanced positive water vapor feedback, about 3 times that implied solely by thermodynamics. Over tropical oceans when SST greater than approx.300 K, the 'convective UT water vapor feedback' inferred from the MLS observations contributes approximately 65% of the sensitivity of the clear-sky greenhouse parameter to SST.

  19. NASA/FAA Helicopter ATC simulation investigation of RNAV/MLS instrument approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, L. L., Jr.; Tobias, L.; Lee, H. Q.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA/FAA Helicopter Air Traffic Control (ATC) simulation investigations to determine the feasibility of simultaneous, independent instrument approach procedures for helicopters at major terminal areas, using Area Navigation/Microwave Landing System (RNAV/MLS) guidance, was conducted at several levels of helicopter display sophistication, up to that of a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) system. Test objectives included the determination of pilot acceptability and the tracking performance of the RNAV/MLS's noninterfering rotorcraft approach path structure, along with the evaluation of the effect on controller workload of multiroute structures combining conventional and rotorcraft approaches at various arrival rates and traffic separations. The utility of electronic area maps and CDTI displays was also investigated. Participating pilots flew 127 simulated instrument approaches in an ATC simulation laboratory.

  20. Tropical stratospheric water vapor measured by the microwave limb sounder (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, E. S.; Harwood, R. S.; Mote, P. W.; Peckham, G. E.; Suttie, R. A.; Lahoz, W. A.; O'Neill, A.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Read, W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The lower stratospheric variability of equatorial water vapor, measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), follows an annual cycle modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation. At levels higher in the stratosphere, water vapor measurements exhibit a semi-annual oscillatory signal with the largest amplitudes at 2.2 and 1hPa. Zonal-mean cross sections of MLS water vapor are consistent with previous satellite measurements from the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) and the stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) instruments in that they show water vapor increasing upwards and the polewards from a well defined minimum in the tropics. The minimum values vary in height between the retrieved 46 and 22hPa pressure levels.

  1. Divergent MLS1 Promoters Lie on a Fitness Plateau for Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Andrew C.; Olsen, Gerilyn M.; Fay, Justin C.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative patterns of gene activation and repression are often conserved despite an abundance of quantitative variation in expression levels within and between species. A major challenge to interpreting patterns of expression divergence is knowing which changes in gene expression affect fitness. To characterize the fitness effects of gene expression divergence, we placed orthologous promoters from eight yeast species upstream of malate synthase (MLS1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As expected, we found these promoters varied in their expression level under activated and repressed conditions as well as in their dynamic response following loss of glucose repression. Despite these differences, only a single promoter driving near basal levels of expression caused a detectable loss of fitness. We conclude that the MLS1 promoter lies on a fitness plateau whereby even large changes in gene expression can be tolerated without a substantial loss of fitness. PMID:26782997

  2. EOS MLS Science Data Processing System: A Description of Architecture and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddy, David T.; Echeverri, Mark D.; Wagner, Paul A.; Hanzel, Audrey T.; Fuller, Ryan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and capabilities of the Science Data Processing System (SDPS) for the EOS MLS. The SDPS consists of two major components--the Science Computing Facility and the Science Investigator-led Processing System. The Science Computing Facility provides the facilities for the EOS MLS Science Team to perform the functions of scientific algorithm development, processing software development, quality control of data products, and scientific analyses. The Science Investigator-led Processing System processes and reprocesses the science data for the entire mission and delivers the data products to the Science Computing Facility and to the Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Science Distributed Active Archive Center, which archives and distributes the standard science products.

  3. Science Accomplishments from a Decade of Aura OMI/MLS Tropospheric Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Joiner, Joanna; Duncan, Bryan N.; Olsen, Mark A.; Oman, Luke D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Liu, X.; Wargan, K.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Strahan, Susan E.; Pawson, Steven; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Newman, Paul A.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Cooper, Owen R.; Haffner, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of tropospheric ozone from combined Aura OMI and MLS instruments have yielded a large number of new and important science discoveries over the last decade. These discoveries have generated a much greater understanding of biomass burning, lightning NO, and stratosphere-troposphere exchange sources of tropospheric ozone, ENSO dynamics and photochemistry, intra-seasonal variability-Madden-Julian Oscillation including convective transport, radiative forcing, measuring ozone pollution from space, improvements to ozone retrieval algorithms, and evaluation of chemical-transport and chemistry-climate models. The OMI-MLS measurements have been instrumental in giving us better understanding of the dynamics and chemistry involving tropospheric ozone and the many drivers affecting the troposphere in general. This discussion will provide an overview focusing on our main science results.

  4. Global ozone observations from the UARS MLS: An overview of zonal-mean results

    SciTech Connect

    Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J.W.; Read, W.G.; Elson, L.S.; Flower, D.A.; Jarnot, R.F.

    1994-10-15

    Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the zonal-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Well-known features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longer-term changes are believed to be related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), with a strong semiannual signal above 20 hPa. Ozone values near 50 hPa exhibit an equatorial low from October 1991 to June 1992, after which the low ozone pattern splits into two subtropical lows (possibly in connection with residual circulation changes tied to the QBO) and returns to an equatorial low in September 1993. The ozone hole development at high southern latitudes is apparent in MLS column data integrated down to 100 hPa, with a pattern generally consistent with Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) measurements of total column; the MLS data reinforce current knowledge of this lower-stratospheric phenomenon by providing a height-dependent view of the variations. The region from 30{degrees}S to 30{degrees}N (an area equal to half the global area) shows very little change in the ozone column from year to year and within each year. Finally, residual ozone values extracted from TOMS-minus-MLS column data are briefly presented as a preliminary view into the potential usefulness of such studies, with information on tropospheric ozone as an ultimate goal. 99 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Analysis of the Suitability of OMPS LP Ozone Profile Dataset for Extending the Aura MLS Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramarova, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Stolarski, R. S.; DeLand, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    The new Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), launched on 28 October 2011 on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite, represents the next generation of the US ozone monitoring system. The OMPS Limb Profiler (LP) sensor measures solar radiances scattered from the atmospheric limb in the UV and visible spectral ranges and reconstruct the vertical ozone profiles from the cloud top up to 60 km. The regular LP observations started in early 2012, and now the LP data record exceeds 2.5 years. In this presentation we will demonstrate capability of the new LP sensor to characterize the vertical ozone distribution in different atmospheric regions that are most sensitive to the changes in the stratospheric composition and dynamics. We will consider: a) the seasonal ozone patterns in the lower stratosphere - upper troposphere; b) the vertical ozone distribution inside the Antarctic ozone hole; c) the ozone patterns forced by the Quasi-Biennial Oscillations in the lower tropical stratosphere. The main focus of this study is to perform a comprehensive analysis of ozone patterns obtained from OMPS LP with those observed by Aura MLS to isolate similarities and differences between two sensors in characterizing these processes. We will examine how well LP reproduces the named above natural signals in comparison with MLS in terms of amplitude, phase and vertical structure. One of the key issues is that two instruments measure ozone in different coordinate systems: the LP measures ozone profiles as number density on a regular altitude scale, while Aura MLS retrieves ozone profiles as mixing ratios on pressure vertical grids. The comparison of two measurements requires unit conversion that in turn involves temperature profiles. Thus, the uncertainties related to the unit conversion should be accounted during the analysis. This scientific validation is critical for the further LP algorithm improvement and continuation of the Aura MLS ozone record in the future.

  6. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perun, Vincent; Jarnot, Robert; Pickett, Herbert; Cofield, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Wagner, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A computer program performs level- 1B processing (the term 1B is explained below) of data from observations of the limb of the Earth by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), which is an instrument aboard the Aura spacecraft. This software accepts, as input, the raw EOS MLS scientific and engineering data and the Aura spacecraft ephemeris and attitude data. Its output consists of calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. [This software is one of several computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing EOS MLS data. Starting from level 0 (representing the aforementioned raw data, the PGEs and their data products are denoted by alphanumeric labels (e.g., 1B and 2) that signify the successive stages of processing.] At the time of this reporting, this software is at version 2.2 and incorporates improvements over a prior version that make the code more robust, improve calibration, provide more diagnostic outputs, improve the interface with the Level 2 PGE, and effect a 15-percent reduction in file sizes by use of data compression.

  7. B-737 flight test of curved-path and steep-angle approaches using MLS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, J. R.; White, W. F.

    1989-01-01

    A series of flight tests were conducted to collect data for jet transport aircraft flying curved-path and steep-angle approaches using Microwave Landing System (MLS) guidance. During the test, 432 approaches comprising seven different curved-paths and four glidepath angles varying from 3 to 4 degrees were flown in NASA Langley's Boeing 737 aircraft (Transport Systems Research Vehicle) using an MLS ground station at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. Subject pilots from Piedmont Airlines flew the approaches using conventional cockpit instrumentation (flight director and Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI). The data collected will be used by FAA procedures specialists to develop standards and criteria for designing MLS terminal approach procedures (TERPS). The use of flight simulation techniques greatly aided the preliminary stages of approach development work and saved a significant amount of costly flight time. This report is intended to complement a data report to be issued by the FAA Office of Aviation Standards which will contain all detailed data analysis and statistics.

  8. Constraining Middle Atmospheric Moisture in GEOS-5 Using EOS-MLS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Jianjun; Pawson, Steven; =Wargan, Krzysztof; Livesey, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Middle atmospheric water vapor plays an important role in climate and atmospheric chemistry. In the middle atmosphere, water vapor, after ozone and carbon dioxide, is an important radiatively active gas that impacts climate forcing and the energy balance. It is also the source of the hydroxyl radical (OH) whose abundances affect ozone and other constituents. The abundance of water vapor in the middle atmosphere is determined by upward transport of dehydrated air through the tropical tropopause layer, by the middle atmospheric circulation, production by the photolysis of methane (CH4), and other physical and chemical processes in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis with GEOS-5 did not assimilate any moisture observations in the middle atmosphere. The plan is to use such observations, available sporadically from research satellites, in future GEOS-5 reanalyses. An overview will be provided of the progress to date with assimilating the EOS-Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) moisture retrievals, alongside ozone and temperature, into GEOS-5. Initial results demonstrate that the MLS observations can significantly improve the middle atmospheric moisture field in GEOS-5, although this result depends on introducing a physically meaningful representation of background error covariances for middle atmospheric moisture into the system. High-resolution features in the new moisture field will be examined, and their relationships with ozone, in a two-year assimilation experiment with GEOS-5. Discussion will focus on how Aura MLS moisture observations benefit the analyses.

  9. Impact of EOS MLS ozone data on medium-extended range ensemble weather forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, J. C. H.; Haigh, J. D.; Jackson, D. R.

    2014-08-01

    As the stratosphere is largely characterized by its ozone abundance, the quality of the ozone field is important for a realistic representation of the stratosphere in weather and climate models. While the stratosphere is directly affected by radiative heating from ozone photodissociation, ozone abundance might also impact the representation of the troposphere since the stratosphere and troposphere are dynamically linked. In this paper, we examine the potential benefits of using ozone data from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) for medium-extended range tropospheric forecasts in a current numerical weather prediction system. The global component of the Met Office Global and Regional Ensemble Prediction System is used, which is run at a resolution of N216 L85 with 24 ensemble members. We compare two scenarios of 31 day forecasts covering the same period, one with the current operational ozone climatology and the other with a monthly mean zonally averaged ozone field computed from the MLS data set. In the extreme case of the Arctic "ozone hole" of March 2011, our results show a general reduction in stratospheric forecast errors in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere as a result of the improved representation of ozone. However, even in such a scenario, where the MLS ozone field is much superior to that of the control, we find that tropospheric forecast errors in the medium-extended range are dominated by the spread of ensemble members and no significant reduction in the root-mean-square forecast errors.

  10. Analysis of Small-Scale Atmospheric Gravity Waves Using UARS MLS Radiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.

    1999-01-01

    Gravity waves play an important role in determining atmospheric circulation and small-scale mixing. Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) 63-GHz radiances can be used to calculate small-scale wave variances at 30-80 km altitudes. The major results from this new data set are summarized in the following: (1) MLS radiance fluctuations are contributed mostly by gravity waves of small (about 100 km) horizontal and large (>10 km) vertical scales. (2) MLS observations show that variance enhancements are strongly correlated with the stratospheric polar vortices, tropospheric deep convection zones, and surface topography. (3) As expected for gravity wave propagation, the normalized wave variances grow exponentially with height in the stratosphere but saturate in the mesosphere. (4) The long-term variations of the wave variance are dominated by an annual cycle in the stratosphere and a semiannual cycle in the mesosphere. (5) Separate analyses of the ascending and descending measurements show that the variances are sensitive to wave propagation directions. The subtropical variances, which are associated with deep convection, are likely caused by the gravity waves that propagate upward and eastward in the westward background wind. Additional information contained in the original.

  11. Models for estimating runway landing capacity with Microwave Landing System (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosic, V.; Horonjeff, R.

    1975-01-01

    A model is developed which is capable of computing the ultimate landing runway capacity, under ILS and MLS conditions, when aircraft population characteristics and air traffic control separation rules are given. This model can be applied in situations when only a horizontal separation between aircraft approaching a runway is allowed, as well as when both vertical and horizontal separations are possible. It is assumed that the system is free of errors, that is that aircraft arrive at specified points along the prescribed flight path precisely when the controllers intend for them to arrive at these points. Although in the real world there is no such thing as an error-free system, the assumption is adequate for a qualitative comparison of MLS with ILS. Results suggest that an increase in runway landing capacity, caused by introducing the MLS multiple approach paths, is to be expected only when an aircraft population consists of aircraft with significantly differing approach speeds and particularly in situations when vertical separation can be applied. Vertical separation can only be applied if one of the types of aircraft in the mix has a very steep descent angle.

  12. Simulation of Detonation Problems with the MLS Grid-Free Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, J; Gunger, M E; Matuska, D A

    2002-08-27

    The Moving Least Squares (MLS) grid-free method, a simple, flexible finite difference method for solution of general continuum mechanics problems, especially detonation problems, is proposed in this paper. The spatial points that carry time dependent data are distributed in space in such a way that provides nearly uniform spacing of points, accurate presentation of boundaries, easy variation of resolution and arbitrary reorganization of the computational domain. Local finite difference operators are obtained with simple MLS differentiation. There is no specific topological or geometrical restriction of the distribution of data points. Therefore this method avoids many drawbacks of the traditional methods. Because of its flexibility, it can be used to simulate a wide range of mechanics problems. Because of its simplicity, it has the potential to become a preferred method. Most traditional computational continuum mechanics (CCM) methods, from a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) view, can be considered as special cases of grid-free methods of specific kernel functions. Such a generalization allows the development of a unified grid-free method that can represent most finite difference methods by switching the kernel functions. The flexible management and ease of coding make such a unified code attractive for many applications. A simple three-dimensional narrow-band level-set algorithm, which is associated with the MLS grid free data point distribution in three dimensions, is also proposed.

  13. A Global Climatology of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Ozone Derived from Aura OMI and MLS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J.R.; Chandra, S.; Labow, G.; Bhartia, P. K.; Froidevaux, L.; Witte, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    A global climatology of tropospheric and stratospheric column ozone is derived by combining six years of Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone measurements for the period October 2004 through December 2010. The OMI/MLS tropospheric ozone climatology exhibits large temporal and spatial variability which includes ozone accumulation zones in the tropical south Atlantic year-round and in the subtropical Mediterranean! Asia region in summer months. High levels of tropospheric ozone in the northern hemisphere also persist in mid-latitudes over the eastern North American and Asian continents extending eastward over the Pacific Ocean. For stratospheric ozone climatology from MLS, largest ozone abundance lies in the northern hemisphere in the latitude range 70degN-80degN in February-April and in the southern hemisphere around 40degS-50degS during months August-October. The largest stratospheric ozone abundances in the northern hemisphere lie over North America and eastern Asia extending eastward across the Pacific Ocean and in the southern hemisphere south of Australia extending eastward across the dateline. With the advent of many newly developing 3D chemistry and transport models it is advantageous to have such a dataset for evaluating the performance of the models in relation to dynamical and photochemical processes controlling the ozone distributions in the troposphere and stratosphere.

  14. Analysis of DGPS/INS and MLS/INS final approach navigation errors and control performance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    1992-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted jointly by NASA Langley Research Center and Honeywell, Inc., on a B-737 research aircraft to record a data base for evaluating the performance of a differential DGPS/inertial navigation system (INS) which used GPS Course/Acquisition code receivers. Estimates from the DGPS/INS and a Microwave Landing System (MLS)/INS, and various aircraft parameter data were recorded in real time aboard the aircraft while flying along the final approach path to landing. This paper presents the mean and standard deviation of the DGPS/INS and MLS/INS navigation position errors computed relative to the laser tracker system and of the difference between the DGPS/INS and MLS/INS velocity estimates. RMS errors are presented for DGPS/INS and MLS/INS guidance errors (localizer and glideslope). The mean navigation position errors and standard deviation of the x position coordinate of the DGPS/INS and MLS/INS systems were found to be of similar magnitude while the standard deviation of the y and z position coordinate errors were significantly larger for DGPS/INS compared to MLS/INS.

  15. Evaluation of UTLS carbon monoxide simulations in GMI and GEOS-Chem chemical transport models using Aura MLS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Murray, Lee T.; Damon, Megan R.; Su, Hui; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the distribution and variation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) during 2004-2012 as simulated by two chemical transport models, using the latest version of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. The simulated spatial distributions, temporal variations and vertical transport of CO in the UTLS region are compared with those observed by MLS. We also investigate the impact of surface emissions and deep convection on CO concentrations in the UTLS over different regions, using both model simulations and MLS observations. Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) and GEOS-Chem simulations of UTLS CO both show similar spatial distributions to observations. The global mean CO values simulated by both models agree with MLS observations at 215 and 147 hPa, but are significantly underestimated by more than 40 % at 100 hPa. In addition, the models underestimate the peak CO values by up to 70 % at 100 hPa, 60 % at 147 hPa and 40 % at 215 hPa, with GEOS-Chem generally simulating more CO at 100 hPa and less CO at 215 hPa than GMI. The seasonal distributions of CO simulated by both models are in better agreement with MLS in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) than in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), with disagreements between model and observations over enhanced CO regions such as southern Africa. The simulated vertical transport of CO shows better agreement with MLS in the tropics and the SH subtropics than the NH subtropics. We also examine regional variations in the relationships among surface CO emission, convection and UTLS CO concentrations. The two models exhibit emission-convection-CO relationships similar to those observed by MLS over the tropics and some regions with enhanced UTLS CO.

  16. Evaluation of UTLS Carbon Monoxide Simulations in GMI and GEOS-Chem Chemical Transport Models using Aura MLS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Murray, Lee T.; Damon, Megan R.; Su, Hui; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the distribution and variation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) during 2004-2012 as simulated by two chemical transport models, using the latest version of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. The simulated spatial distributions, temporal variations and vertical transport of CO in the UTLS region are compared with those observed by MLS. We also investigate the impact of surface emissions and deep convection on CO concentrations in the UTLS over different regions, using both model simulations and MLS observations. Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) and GEOS-Chem simulations of UTLS CO both show similar spatial distributions to observations. The global mean CO values simulated by both models agree with MLS observations at 215 and 147 hPa, but are significantly underestimated by more than 40% at 100 hPa. In addition, the models underestimate the peak CO values by up to 70% at 100 hPa, 60% at 147 hPa and 40% at 215 hPa, with GEOS-Chem generally simulating more CO at 100 hPa and less CO at 215 hPa than GMI. The seasonal distributions of CO simulated by both models are in better agreement with MLS in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) than in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), with disagreements between model and observations over enhanced CO regions such as southern Africa. The simulated vertical transport of CO shows better agreement with MLS in the tropics and the SH subtropics than the NH subtropics. We also examine regional variations in the relationships among surface CO emission, convection and UTLS CO concentrations. The two models exhibit emission-convection- CO relationships similar to those observed by MLS over the tropics and some regions with enhanced UTLS CO.

  17. Global ozone observations from the UARS MLS: An overview of zonal-mean results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe W.; Read, William G.; Elson, Lee S.; Flower, Dennis A.; Jarnot, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the zonal-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Well-known features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longer-term changes are believed to be related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), with a strong semiannual signal above 20 hPa. Ozone values near 50 hPa exhibit an equatorial low from October 1991 to June 1992, after which the low ozone pattern splits into two subtropical lows (possibly in connection with residual circulation changes tied to the QBO) and returns to an equatorial low in September 1993. The ozone hole development at high southern latitudes is apparent in MLS column data integrated down to 100 hPa, the MLS data reinforce current knowledge of this lower-stratospheric phenomenon by providing a height-dependent view of the variations. The region from 30 deg S to 30 deg N (an area equal to half the global area) shows very little change in the ozone column from year to year and within each year. The most striking ozone changes have occurred at northern midlatitudes, with the October 1992 to July 1993 column values significantly lower than during the prior year. The zonal-mean changes manifest themselves as a slower rate of increase during the 1992/93 winter, and there is some evidence for a lower fall minimum. A recovery occurs during late summer of 1993; early 1994 values are significantly larger than during the two previous winters. The timing and latitudinal extent of the northern midlatitude decreases appear to rule out observed ClO enhancements in the Arctic vortex, with related chemical processing and ozone dilution effects, as a unique cause. Local depletion from ClO-related chemical mechanisms alone is also not sufficient, based

  18. Potassium ion-dependent trehalose phosphorylase from halophilic Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10.

    PubMed

    Nihira, Takanori; Saito, Yuka; Chiku, Kazuhiro; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi; Nakai, Hiroyuki

    2013-11-01

    We discovered a potassium ion-dependent trehalose phosphorylase (Bsel_1207) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 65 from halophilic Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10. Under high potassium ion concentrations, the recombinant Bsel_1207 produced in Escherichia coli existed as an active dimeric form that catalyzed the reversible phosphorolysis of trehalose in a typical sequential bi bi mechanism releasing β-D-glucose 1-phosphate and D-glucose. Decreasing potassium ion concentrations significantly reduced thermal and pH stabilities, leading to formation of inactive monomeric Bsel_1207. PMID:24021648

  19. Fabrication and Thermo-Optical Properties of the MLS Composite Primary Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Paul B.; Dyer, Jack; Dummer, Sam

    2000-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a limb-sounding radiometer sensing emissions in the millimeter and sub-millimeter range. MLS will contribute to an understanding of atmospheric chemistry by assessing stratospheric and tropospheric ozone depletion, climate forcings and volcanic effects. The heart of the antenna is the primary reflector, constructed from graphite/cyanate composites in a facesheet/core construction. The reflector has an aperture of one square meter, a mass of 8.7 kilos and final figure accuracy of 4.37 microns rms. The surface is also modified to ensure RF reflectivity, prevent solar concentration and provide thermal balance to the spacecraft The surface is prepared by precision beadblasting, then coated with vapor deposited aluminum (VDA) and finally a layer of silicon suboxide (SiO(x)) to control the infrared emissivity. The resulting surface has a solar absorptance of 0.43 and an absorptance/emittance ratio of 1.3. BRDF analysis shows that 93% of the incident thermal energy is reflected outside a 10 degree angle of cone. For its mass and aperture, we believe this reflector to have the highest figure accuracy yet achieved in a composite antenna construction.

  20. Comparison of GOME-2/Metop-A ozone profiles with GOMOS, OSIRIS and MLS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Määttä, A.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Tukiainen, S.; Sofieva, V.; Tamminen, J.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a comparison of vertical ozone profiles retrieved by the Ozone ProfilE Retrieval Algorithm (OPERA) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) measurements on board Metop-A with high-vertical-resolution ozone profiles by Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS), Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The comparison, with global coverage, focuses on the stratosphere and the lower mesosphere and covers the period from March 2008 until the end of 2011. The comparison shows an agreement of the GOME-2 ozone profiles with those of GOMOS, OSIRIS and MLS within ±15 % in the altitude range from 15 km up to ~ 35-40 km depending on latitude. The GOME-2 ozone profiles from non-degradation corrected radiances have a tendency to a systematic negative bias with respect to the reference data above ~ 30 km. The GOME-2 bias with respect to the high-vertical resolution instruments depends on season, with the strongest dependence observed at high latitudes.

  1. Impacts of Assimilating MLS Temperature on the Upper Stratosphere in GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawson, S.; Jin, S.; Coy, L.; Wargan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Standard configurations of the GEOS-5 data assimilation system use nadir infrared and microwave sounders that provide deep-layer constraints on the thermal structure in the stratosphere. In the upper stratosphere, this information is currently provided by the Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSU-As) on NOAA s polar-orbiting satellites. The highest peaking AMSU-A channel (14) peaks near 2.5hPa. Evaluation of the upper stratosphere reveals substantial biases in the temperature, cased in part by biases in the underlying GCM, and difficulties in representing the stratopause structure under disturbed conditions. This work demonstrates, unsurprisingly, that the assimilation into GEOS-5 of temperature profiles derived from EOS-Aura MLS leads to a substantially better representation of the stratopause structure from a climatological perspective and for disturbed events. Future plans with GEOS-5 include a reanalysis that includes numerous "research" datasets alongside the operational NOAA datasets that were used in MERRA. As preparation for this reanalysis, the present study examines how assimilating the MLS observations impact the error statistics for the AMSU-A instruments. Discussion will address the issue of bias correction for the AMSU-A Channel 14 radiances, which is presently turned off in GEOS-5 because of the absence of accurate temperature observations that can anchor the GEOS-5 analyses. The issue of what can be done in periods when no limb-sounder data are available will also be addressed.

  2. Evaluation of Microwave Landing System (MLS) effect on the delivery performance of a fixed-path metering and spacing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, L.; Davis, C. M.; Capron, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    Metering and spacing (M & S) system's algorithms described assume an aircraft two dimensional are navigation capability. The three navigation systems compared were: very high frequency omnidirectional range/distance measuring equipment (VOR/DME) and ILS, VOR/DME and + or - 40 MLS, and VOR/DME and + or - 60 MLS. Other factors studied were M & S tentative schedule point location, route geometry effects, and approach gate location effects. Summarized results are: the MLS offers some improvement over VOR/DME and ILS if all approach routes contain computer assisted turns; pilot reaction to moving the gate closer to the runway threshold may adversely affect M & S performance; and coupling en route metering to terminal scheduling transfers most of the terminal holding to more full efficient, higher altitude en route delay.

  3. On Orbit Commissioning of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) On the Aura Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Richard R.; Lee, Karen A.; Holden, James R.; Oswald, John E.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Stek, Paul C.; Cofield, Richard E., III; Flower, Dennis A.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Shoemaker, Candace M.

    2005-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder instrument was launched aboard NASA's EOS AURA satellite in July, 2004. The overall scientific objectives for MLS are to measure temperature, pressure, and several important chemical species in the upper troposphere and stratosphere relevant to ozone processes and climate change. MLS consists of a suite of radiometers designed to operate from 11 8 GHz to 2.5 THz, with two antennas (one for 2.5 THz, the other for the lower frequencies) that scan vertically through the atmospheric limb, and spectrometers with spectral resolution of 6 MHz at spectral line centers. This paper describes the on-orbit commissioning the MLS instrument which includes activation and engineering functional verifications and calibrations.

  4. Role of Stratospheric Water Vapor in Global Warming from GCM Simulations Constrained by MLS Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Stek, P. C.; Su, H.; Jiang, J. H.; Livesey, N. J.; Santee, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past century, global average surface temperature has warmed by about 0.16°C/decade, largely due to anthropogenic increases in well-mixed greenhouse gases. However, the trend in global surface temperatures has been nearly flat since 2000, raising a question regarding the exploration of the drivers of climate change. Water vapor is a strong greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Previous studies suggested that the sudden decrease of stratospheric water vapor (SWV) around 2000 may have contributed to the stall of global warming. Since 2004, the SWV observed by Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on Aura satellite has shown a slow recovery. The role of recent SWV variations in global warming has not been quantified. We employ a coupled atmosphere-ocean climate model, the NCAR CESM, to address this issue. It is found that the CESM underestimates the stratospheric water vapor by about 1 ppmv due to limited representations of the stratospheric dynamic and chemical processes important for water vapor variabilities. By nudging the modeled SWV to the MLS observation, we find that increasing SWV by 1 ppmv produces a robust surface warming about 0.2°C in global-mean when the model reaches equilibrium. Conversely, the sudden drop of SWV from 2000 to 2004 would cause a surface cooling about -0.08°C in global-mean. On the other hand, imposing the observed linear trend of SWV based on the 10-year observation of MLS in the CESM yields a rather slow surface warming, about 0.04°C/decade. Our model experiments suggest that SWV contributes positively to the global surface temperature variation, although it may not be the dominant factor that drives the recent global warming hiatus. Additional sensitivity experiments show that the impact of SWV on surface climate is mostly governed by the SWV amount at 100 hPa in the tropics. Furthermore, the atmospheric model simulations driven by observed sea surface temperature (SST) show that the inter-annual variation of SWV follows that of SST

  5. Characterization of Water Vapor in the North American Monsoon with JLH Mark2 and Aura MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, R. L.; Troy, R. F.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Ray, E. A.; Schwartz, M. J.; Read, W. G.; Bedka, K. M.; Fu, D.; Christensen, L. E.; Bui, T. V.

    2014-12-01

    Several NASA ER-2 aircraft flights during the recent NASA Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) field mission sampled the UTLS region heavily influenced by the North American Monsoon (NAM). Enhanced water vapor was measured in the lower stratosphere between 160 hPa and 80 hPa over the continental United States. Here we present in situ water vapor measurements from the newly improved JPL Laser Hygrometer (JLH Mark2) to characterize the NAM water vapor field during August and September 2013. Regional context is provided by water observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and overshooting deep convective cloud tops from GOES imagery.

  6. Arctic Ozone Depletion Observed by UARS MLS During the 1994-95 Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.; Santee, M. L.; Read, W. G.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Zurek, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    During the unusually cold 1994-95 Arctic winter, the Microwave Limb Sounder observed enhanced chlorine monoxide (ClO) in late Dec and throughout Feb and early Mar. Late Dec ClO was higher than during any of the previous 3 years, consistent with the colder early winter. Between late Dec 1994 and early Feb 1995, 465 K (about 50 hPa) vortex-averaged ozone (03) decreased by about 15%, with local decreases of about 30%; additional local decreases of about 5% were seen between early Feb and early Mar. Transport calculations indicate that vortex-averaged chemical loss between late Dec and early Feb was about 20% at 465 K, with about 1/4 of that masked by downward transport of O3. This Arctic chemical O3 loss is not readily detectable in MLS column O3 data.

  7. Observations of the Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor Feedback in UARS MLS and HALOE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. E.; Minschwaner, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    One of the biggest uncertainties in climate science today concerns the water vapor feedback. Most GCMs hold relative humidity fixed as the climate changes, which provides a strong positive feedback to warming due from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Some in the community, on the other hand, have speculated that tropospheric specific humidity will remain fixed as the climate changes. Observational studies have attempted to resolve this disagreement, but the results have been inconclusive, and few of the studies have focused on the upper troposphere (UT). This is a significant oversight: the surface temperature is especially sensitive to changes in water vapor in the UT owing to the cold temperatures found there. We present an analysis of UARS MLS and HALOE water vapor measurements at 21 5 hPa. We find strong evidence that the water vapor feedback in the UT is positive, but not as strong as fixed relative humidity scenarios. This suggests that GCMs are overestimating the sensitivity of the climate.

  8. Keeping Pace with Information Literacy Instruction for the Real World: When Will MLS Programs Wake Up and Smell the LILACs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies-Hoffman, Kimberly; Alvarez, Barbara; Costello, Michelle; Emerson, Debby

    2013-01-01

    For over thirty years, numerous studies have discussed the contradiction between the growing importance of information literacy instruction to the Library's core mission and lack of pedagogical training for new librarians. This article reviews the more recent contributions on the topic, presents a survey of New York State MLS curricula and…

  9. MLS and CALIOP Cloud Ice Measurements in the Upper Troposphere: A Constraint from Microwave on Cloud Microphysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.; Lambert, Alyn; Read, William G.; Eriksson, Patrick; Gong, Jie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the consistency and microphysics assumptions among satellite ice water content (IWC) retrievals in the upper troposphere with collocated A-Train radiances from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and lidar backscatters from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). For the cases in which IWC values are small (less than 10mg m(exp-23)), the cloud ice retrievals are constrained by both MLS 240- and 640- GHz radiances and CALIOP 532-nm backscatter beta(532). From the observed relationships between MLS cloud-induced radiance T(sub cir) and the CALIOP backscatter integrated gamma532 along the MLS line of sight, an empirical linear relation between cloud ice and the lidar backscatter is found: IWC/beta532=0.58+/-0.11. This lidar cloud ice relation is required to satisfy the cloud ice emission signals simultaneously observed at microwave frequencies, in which ice permittivity is relatively well known. This empirical relationship also produces IWC values that agree well with the CALIOP, version 3.0, retrieval at values, less than 10mg m(exp-3). Because the microphysics assumption is critical in satellite cloud ice retrievals, the agreement found in the IWC-beta532 relationships increase fidelity of the assumptions used by the lidar and microwave techniques for upper-tropospheric clouds.

  10. Relationship between PSC types and ozone destruction rate quantified with CALIPSO and MLS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Takeda, M.; Pitts, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The stratospheric ozone destruction in the Arctic has been smaller than that of Antarctic for years. The main cause of this can be attributed to its higher winter minimum temperature of ~10-20 K than that of Antarctic stratosphere owing to topography. The average winter minimum stratospheric temperature in the Arctic is just around the threshold temperature of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation. This results in the appearance of intermittent PSC formation, which is the key factor of severe ozone depletion. Several types of PSCs are reported. The major ones are nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), supercooled ternary solution (STS), and water ice. However, it still remains unknown whether different types of PSCs have different ability of chlorine activation and ozone destruction efficiency or not. In order to clarify the above question, we made satellite match analysis using CALIPSO and MLS data. Pitts et al. [2009] and [2011] developed a method to categorize the PSC types from 532 nm backscatter ratio and depolarization data from CALIPSO data. They categorized the PSC types into 6 types; i.e., Mix1, Mix2, Mix2-enhanced, Ice, Wave-ice, and STS. Mix denotes the mixture of NAT and STS. We made satellite match analysis from the location of certain type of PSC categorized by CALIPSO. On the forward and backward trajectories, MLS measurement locations were searched within 150 km and +/- 3 hours difference. As a result, ozone destruction rate was estimated in terms of sunlit hours on the trajectory. We analyzed Antarctic winter/spring in 2007, and Arctic winter/spring in 2010 and 2011. It was found that the ozone destruction rate was the greatest for Mix, followed by STS and ICE PSCs. Hemispheric difference for ozone destruction rate was found.

  11. Relationship between PSC types and ozone destruction quantified from CALIPSO and MLS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Pitts, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    The stratospheric ozone destruction in the Arctic has been smaller than that of Antarctic for years. The main cause of this can be attributed to its higher winter minimum temperature of ~10-20 K than that of Antarctic stratosphere owing to topography. The average winter minimum stratospheric temperature in the Arctic is just around the threshold temperature of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation. This results in the appearance of intermittent PSC formation, which is the key factor of severe ozone depletion. Several types of PSCs are reported. The major ones are nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), supercooled ternary solution (STS), and water ice. However, it still remains unknown whether different types of PSCs have different ability of chlorine activation and ozone destruction efficiency or not. In order to clarify the above question, we made satellite match analysis using CALIPSO and MLS data. Pitts et al. [2009] and [2011] developed a method to categorize the PSC types from 532 nm backscatter ratio and depolarization data from CALIPSO data. They categorized the PSC types into 6 types; i.e., Mix1, Mix2, Mix2-enhanced, Ice, Wave-ice, and STS. Mix denotes the mixture of NAT and STS. We made satellite match analysis from the location of certain type of PSC categorized by CALIPSO. On the forward and backward trajectories, MLS measurement locations were searched within 150 km and +/- 3 hours difference. As a result, ozone destruction rate was estimated in terms of sunlit hours on the trajectory. We analyzed Antarctic winter/spring in 2007, and Arctic winter/spring in 2010 and 2011. Difference in ozone destruction efficiency was found for both Antarctic and Arctic cases. Reference: Pitts, M. C., et al., [2009], Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 7577-7589. Pitts, M. C., et al., [2011], Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 2161-2177.

  12. Quantification of ozone destruction in terms of PSC types from CALIPSO and MLS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Ohya, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Pitts, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    The stratospheric ozone destruction in the Arctic has been smaller than that of Antarctic for years. The main cause of this can be attributed to its higher winter minimum temperature of ~10-20 K than that of Antarctic stratosphere owing to topography. The average winter minimum stratospheric temperature in the Arctic is just around the threshold temperature of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation. This results in the appearance of intermittent PSC formation, which is the key factor of severe ozone depletion. Several types of PSCs are reported. The major ones are nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), supercooled ternary solution (STS), and water ice. However, it still remains unknown whether different types of PSCs have different ability of chlorine activation and ozone destruction efficiency or not. In order to clarify the above question, we made satellite match analysis using CALIPSO and MLS data. Pitts et al. [2009] and [2011] developed a method to categorize the PSC types from 532 nm backscatter ratio and depolarization data from CALIPSO data. They categorized the PSC types into 6 types; i.e., Mix1, Mix2, Mix2-enhanced, Ice, Wave-ice, and STS. Mix denotes the mixture of NAT and STS. We made satellite match analysis from the location of certain type of PSC categorized by CALIPSO. On the forward and backward trajectories, MLS measurement locations were searched within 150 km and +/- 3 hours difference. As a result, ozone destruction rate was estimated in terms of sunlit hours on the trajectory. We analyzed Antarctic winter/spring in 2007, and Arctic winter/spring in 2010 and 2011. Difference in ozone destruction efficiency was found for both Antarctic and Arctic cases. Reference: Pitts, M. C., et al., [2009], Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 7577-7589. Pitts, M. C., et al., [2011], Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 2161-2177.

  13. Five-Year (2004-2009)Observations of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor and Cloud Ice from MLS and Comparisons with GEOS-5 Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Su, Hui; Pawson, Steven; Liu, Hui-Chun; Read, William; Waters, Joe W.; Santee, Michelle; Wu, Dong L.; Schwartz, Michael; Lambert, Alyn; Fuller, Ryan; Lee, Jae N.; Livesey, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of August 2004 through July 2009 upper tropospheric (UT) water vapor (H2O) and ice water content (IWC) from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and comparisons with outputs from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system. Both MLS and GEOS-5 show that high values of H2O and IWC at 215 to 147 hPa are associated with areas of deep convection. They exhibit good (within approximately 15%) agreement in IWC at these altitudes, but GEOS-5 H2O is approximately 50% (215 hPa) to approximately 30% (147 hPa) larger than MLS, possibility due to its higher temperatures at these altitudes. GOES-5 produces a weaker intertropical convergence zone than MLS, while a seasonally-migrating band of tropical deep convection is clearly evident in both the MLS and GEOS-5 UT H2O and IWC. MLS and GEOS-5 both show spatial anti-correlation between IWC and H2O at 100 hPa, where less H2O is associated with low temperatures in regions of tropical convection. At 100 hPa, GEOS-5 produces 50% less IWC and 15% less H2O in the tropics, and approximately 20% more H2O in the extra-tropics, than does MLS. Behavior of the 100 hPa H2O, which exhibits a quasi-biennial oscillation, appears consistent with it being controlled by temperature. The seasonal cycle in the vertical transport of tropical mean H2O from approximately 147 hPa to approximately 10 hPa appears much stronger in MLS than in GEOS-5. The UT IWC and H2O interannual variations, from both MLS and GEOS-5, show clear imprints of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation.

  14. Female infant with oncocytic cardiomyopathy and microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS): A clue to the pathogenesis of oncocytic cardiomyopathy?

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.M.; Krous, H.F.; Eichenfield, L.F.; Swalwell, C.I.; Jones, M.C.

    1994-11-01

    A infant girl had red stellate skin lesions on the cheeks and neck, and mildly short palpebral fissures. Her skin abnormality was typical of microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS), a newly recognized syndrome consisting of congenital linear skin defects and ocular abnormalities in females monosomic for Xp22. She died suddenly and unexpectedly at age 4 months; the cause of death was ascribed to oncocytic cardiomyopathy. Oncocytic cardiomyopathy occurs only in young children, who present with refractory arrhythmias leading to cardiac arrest. The coexistence of two rare conditions, one of which is mapped to the X chromosome, and an excess of affected females with oncocytic cardiomyopathy is also X-linked, with Xp22 being a candidate region. Overlapping manifestations in the two conditions (ocular abnormalities in cases of oncocytic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias in MLS) offer additional support for this hypothesis. 43 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Springtime stratospheric water vapour in the Southern Hemisphere as measured by MLS. [Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwood, R. S.; Carr, E. S.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Lahoz, W. A.; Lau, C. L.; Peckham, G. E.; Read, W. G.; Ricaud, P. D.; Suttie, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the break-up of the Antarctic vortex on the water vapor distribution are studied using MLS measurements of water vapor made during September 1991 and November 1991. In early November at 22 hPa a moist area is found within the polar vortex, consistent with an observed descent of order 10 km and strong radiative cooling. As the vortex erodes (beginning of November 1991), parcels of moist air become detached from the edge of the vortex and mix rapidly (within 2-3 days) with drier mid-latitude air. When the vortex breaks up (mid-November), larger parcels of moist air from both the edge and the inner vortex migrate to mid-latitudes. These parcels have a longer lifetime than those produced by vortex erosion, probably because they are correlated with higher potential vorticity gradients. The break-up of the vortex is accompanied by a mean adiabatic equatorward transport resulting in a significant increase in midstratospheric water vapor values at mid-latitudes in late spring.

  16. Polar Vortex Conditions during the 1995-96 Artic Winter: Meteorology and MLS Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Santee, M. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.; Zurek, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    The 1995-96 northern hemisphere (NH) 205 winter stratosphere was colder than in any of the previous 17 winters, with lower stratospheric temperatures continuously below the type 1 (primarily HN03) polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) threshold for over 2 1/2 months. Upper tropospheric ridges in late Feb and early Mar 1996 led to the lowest observed NH lower stratospheric temperatures, and the latest observed NH temperatures below the type 2 (water ice) PSC threshold. Consistent with the unusual cold and chemical processing on PSCS, Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) MLS observed a greater decrease in lower stratospheric ozone (03) in 1995-96 than in any of the previous 4 NH winters. 03 decreased throughout the vortex over an altitude range nearly as large as that typical of the southern hemisphere (SH). The decrease between late Dec 1995 and early Mar 1996 was about 2/3 of that over the equivalent SH period. As in other NH winters, temperatures in 1996 rose above the PSC threshold before the spring equinox, ending chemical processing in the NH vortex much earlier than is usual in the SH. A downward trend in column 03 above 100 hPa during Jan and Feb 1996 appears to be related to the lower stratospheric 03 depletion.

  17. MLS and ACE-FTS measurements of UTLS Trace Gases in the Presence of Multiple Tropopauses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. J.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Walker, K. A.; Hegglin, M. I.

    2010-12-01

    The extra-tropical tropopause region is dynamically complex, with frequent occurrence of multiple tropopauses and of a "tropopause inversion layer" of enhanced static stability just above the tropopause. The tropopause structure is zonally-asymmetric and time-varying and, along with the UT jets and the stratospheric polar night jet, it defines the barriers and pathways that control UTLS transport. Averages of trace gases that do not account for the tropopause structure (such as zonal or equivalent latitude means) can obscure features of trace gas distributions that are important for understanding the role of the extra-tropical tropopause region in determining UTLS composition and hence its significance to climate processes. In this work we examine MLS and ACE-FTS UTLS trace gas profiles (using the recently reprocessed version 3 data from both instruments), including H2O, O3, CO and HNO3, in the context of extra-tropical tropopause structure seen in the GEOS-5 temperature fields, to help define differences in trace gas distributions related to differing UTLS thermal structures.

  18. Characterization of MJO-Related Upper Tropospheric Hydrological Processes using MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Michael J.; Waliser, Duane E.; Tian, Baijun; Wu, Dong L.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Read, William G.

    2008-01-01

    This study quantifies Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)- related hydrological variability in the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere (UT/LS) using Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) cloud ice water content (IWC) and water vapor (H2O). In a composite of six boreal-winter MJO events, the UT/LS IWC anomaly is strongly positively correlated with the convection (TRMM rainfall) anomaly. IWC anomalies range from +/-2 mg/cu m at 215 hPa to +/-0.08 mg/cu m at 100 hPa. The UT/LS H2O anomaly has an eastward-tilting structure similar to the previous-documented temperature structure, but the H2O maximum lags the temperature maximum by about a week. The H2O anomaly is positively correlated with the convection anomaly in the UT (261 hPa) and LS (68 hPa) but negatively correlated with the convection anomaly near the tropopause (100 hPa). This analysis provides a multi-parameter construct useful in validating and improving the parameterization of convection, clouds and cloud microphysics in MJO modeling.

  19. Investigations of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange of Ozone Derived From MLS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Ziemke, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    Daily high-resolution maps of stratospheric ozone have been constructed using observations by MLS combined with trajectory information. These fields are used to determine the extratropical stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) of ozone for the year 2005 using two diagnostic methods. The resulting two annual estimates compare well with past model- and observational-based estimates. Initial analyses of the seasonal characteristics indicate that significant STE of ozone in the polar regions occurs only during spring and early summer. We also examine evidence that the Antarctic ozone hole is responsible for a rapid decrease in the rate of ozone STE during the SH spring. Subtracting the high-resolution stratospheric ozone fiom OMI total column measurements creates a high-resolution tropospheric ozone residual (HTOR) product. The HTOR fields are compared to the spatial distribution of the ozone STE. We show that the mean tropospheric ozone maxima tend to occur near locations of significant ozone STE. This suggests that STE may be responsible for a significant fraction of many mean tropospheric ozone anomalies.

  20. Induction of ribosome methylation in MLS-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae by macrolides and ketolides.

    PubMed

    Zhong, P; Cao, Z; Hammond, R; Chen, Y; Beyer, J; Shortridge, V D; Phan, L Y; Pratt, S; Capobianco, J; Reich, K A; Flamm, R K; Or, Y S; Katz, L

    1999-01-01

    One major mechanism for resistance to macrolide antibiotics in Streptococcus pneumoniae is MLS (macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B) resistance, manifested when the 23S rRNA is methylated by the product of an erm gene. This modification results in the decreased binding of all known macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotics to the ribosome. More than 30 ermAM-containing clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae were examined in our lab and showed high-level resistance (MIC > or =128 microg/ml) to erythromycin, azithromycin, tylosin, clindamycin, and ketolide (macrolides that lack the cladinose sugar) TE-802. We found that the new generation of ketolides A965 and A088 displayed variable activity against the same group of resistant S. pneumoniae strains. To understand the basis of variability of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of A965 and A088, we examined the effects of a series of macrolides and ketolides on the level of 23S rRNA methylation in five ermAM-containing resistant S. pneumoniae isolates. We show here that the basal levels of ribosomal methylation vary from strain to strain. The level of rRNA methylation can be strongly induced by erythromycin, azithromycin, and TE-802, resulting in high-level of resistance to these compounds. Ketolide A965 and A088, however, are weak inducers at sub-MIC drug concentrations, therefore showing variable activities in strains with differential methylation levels. PMID:10566867

  1. Improved Understanding of the Modeled QBO Using MLS Observations and MERRA Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Luke David; Douglass, Anne Ritger; Hurwitz, Maggie M.; Garfinkel, Chaim I.

    2013-01-01

    The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) dominates the variability of the tropical stratosphere on interannual time scales. The QBO has been shown to extend its influence into the chemical composition of this region through dynamical mechanisms. We have started our analysis using the realistic QBO internally generated by the Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5) general circulation model coupled to a comprehensive stratospheric and tropospheric chemical mechanism forced with observed sea surface temperatures over the past 33 years. We will show targeted comparisons with observations from NASAs Aura satellite Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis to provide insight into the simulation of the primary and secondary circulations associated with the QBO. Using frequency spectrum analysis and multiple linear regression we can illuminate the resulting circulations and deduce the strengths and weaknesses in their modeled representation. Inclusion of the QBO in our simulation improves the representation of the subtropical barriers and overall tropical variability. The QBO impact on tropical upwelling is important to quantify when calculating trends in sub-decadal scale datasets.

  2. Evaluation of MLS mesospheric geopotential height profiles and improved altitude registration of the OMPS Limb Profiler measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, L.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chen, Z.; DeLand, M. T.; Jaross, G. R.; Kelly, T. J.; Kramarova, N. A.; Loughman, R. P.; Taha, G.; Xu, P.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a method of evaluating the mesospheric geopotential height (GPH) profiles provided by Aura MLS using Suomi OMPS Limb Profiler (LP) measurements at 350 nm. Our results indicate that the error in MLS GPH profiles increases with altitude. We compare our results with the errors calculated by the MLS team based on internal error analysis. Their error estimates have never been independently verified. This evaluation has, in turn, helped us to develop a more accurate altitude registration method of the OMPS LP measurements, with an estimated accuracy of +/- 100 m. Prior to launch of the Suomi NPP spacecraft in October 2011, there were concerns that flexing of its structure could cause large pitch angle errors at the OMPS instrument location, leading to altitude registration errors. While Suomi NPP contains an accurate star tracker, it is located near the VIIRS instrument on the opposite end of the spacecraft. Our results indicate that the variation in Suomi NPP pitch angle along the orbit at the location of the OMPS LP instrument is less than 20 arc-second (corresponding to 300 m in altitude registration at the limb). We also find that the variation of the pitch error along the orbit is highly repeatable from day to day, and has not varied significantly over the past 3 years since launch. Finally, our results confirm and improve upon previous estimates of ~2 arc-minute pitch error (2 km at the limb) in mounting the OMPS LP instrument on the NPP spacecraft.

  3. An assessment of upper troposphere and lower stratosphere water vapor in MERRA, MERRA2, and ECMWF reanalyses using Aura MLS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Su, Hui; Zhai, Chengxing; Wu, Longtao; Minschwaner, Kenneth; Molod, Andrea M.; Tompkins, Adrian M.

    2015-11-01

    Global water vapor (H2O) measurements from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are used to evaluate upper tropospheric (UT) and lower stratospheric (LS) H2O products produced by NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), its newest release MERRA2, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Reanalyses. Focusing on the H2O amount and transport from UT to LS, we show that all reanalyses overestimate annual global mean UT H2O by up to ~150% compared to MLS observations. Substantial differences in H2O transport are also found between the observations and reanalyses. Vertically, H2O transport across the tropical tropopause (16-20 km) in the reanalyses is faster by up to ~86% compared to MLS observations. In the tropical LS (21-25 km), the mean vertical transport from ECMWF is 168% faster than the MLS estimate, while MERRA and MERRA2 have vertical transport velocities within 10% of MLS values. Horizontally at 100 hPa, both observation and reanalyses show faster poleward transport in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) than in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Compared to MLS observations, the H2O horizontal transport for both MERRA and MERRA2 is 106% faster in the NH but about 42-45% slower in the SH. ECMWF horizontal transport is 16% faster than MLS observations in both hemispheres. The ratio of northward to southward transport velocities for ECMWF is 1.4, which agrees with MLS observation, while the corresponding ratios for MERRA and MERRA2 are about 3.5 times larger.

  4. Polar Stratospheric Cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modelled by ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Wohltmann, I.; Wegner, T.; Takeda, M.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Lehmann, R.; Santee, M. L.; Rex, M.

    2015-08-01

    We examined observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) by CALIPSO and of HCl, ClO and HNO3 by MLS along air mass trajectories to investigate the dependence of the inferred PSC composition on the temperature history of the air parcels, and the dependence of the level of chlorine activation on PSC composition. Several case studies based on individual trajectories from the Arctic winter 2009/10 were conducted, with the trajectories chosen such that the first processing of the air mass by PSCs in this winter occurred on the trajectory. Transitions of PSC composition classes were observed to be highly dependent on the temperature history. In cases of a gradual temperature decrease, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and super-cooled ternary solution (STS) mixture clouds were observed. In cases of rapid temperature decrease, STS clouds were first observed, followed by NAT/STS mixture clouds. When temperatures dropped below the frost point, ice clouds formed, and then transformed into NAT/STS mixture clouds when temperature increased above the frost point. The threshold temperature for rapid chlorine activation on PSCs is approximately 4 K below the NAT existence temperature, TNAT. Furthermore, simulations of the ATLAS chemistry and transport box model along the trajectories were used to corroborate the measurements and show good agreement with the observations. Rapid chlorine activation was observed when an airmass encountered PSCs. The observed and modelled dependence of the rate of chlorine activation on the PSC composition class was small. Usually, chlorine activation was limited by the amount of available ClONO2. Where ClONO2 was not the limiting factor, a large dependence on temperature was evident.

  5. Polar stratospheric cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modeled by ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Wohltmann, Ingo; Wegner, Tobias; Takeda, Masanori; Pitts, Michael C.; Poole, Lamont R.; Lehmann, Ralph; Santee, Michelle L.; Rex, Markus

    2016-03-01

    We examined observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) by CALIPSO, and of HCl and ClO by MLS along air mass trajectories, to investigate the dependence of the inferred PSC composition on the temperature history of the air parcels and the dependence of the level of chlorine activation on PSC composition. Several case studies based on individual trajectories from the Arctic winter 2009/2010 were conducted, with the trajectories chosen such that the first processing of the air mass by PSCs in this winter occurred on the trajectory. Transitions of PSC composition classes were observed to be highly dependent on the temperature history. In cases of a gradual temperature decrease, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and super-cooled ternary solution (STS) mixture clouds were observed. In cases of rapid temperature decrease, STS clouds were first observed, followed by NAT/STS mixture clouds. When temperatures dropped below the frost point, ice clouds formed and then transformed into NAT/STS mixture clouds when temperature increased above the frost point. The threshold temperature for rapid chlorine activation on PSCs is approximately 4 K below the NAT existence temperature, TNAT. Furthermore, simulations of the ATLAS chemistry and transport box model along the trajectories were used to corroborate the measurements and show good agreement with the observations. Rapid chlorine activation was observed when an air mass encountered PSCs. Usually, chlorine activation was limited by the amount of available ClONO2. Where ClONO2 was not the limiting factor, a large dependence on temperature was evident.

  6. Monitoring the distribution of tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan by using OMI/MLS satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noreen, Asma; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Murtaza, Rabbia; Zeb, Naila

    2016-07-01

    Pakistan is a semi-arid, agricultural country located in Indian Sub-continent, Asia. Due to exponential population growth, poor control and regulatory measures and practices in industries, it is facing a major problem of air pollution. The concentration of greenhouse gases and aerosols are showing an increasing trend in general. One of these greenhouse gases is tropospheric ozone, one of the criteria pollutant, which has a radiative forcing (RF) of about 0.4 ± 0.2 Wm-2, contributing about 14% of the present total RF. Spatial distribution and temporal evolution of tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan during 2004 to 2014 was studied by using combined OMI/MLS product, which was derived by tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) method. Results showed an overall increase of 3.2 ± 2.2 DU in tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan since October 2004. The mean spatial distribution showed high concentrations of ozone in the Punjab and southern Sindh where there is high population densities along with rapid urbanization and enhanced anthropogenic activities. The seasonal variations were observed in the provinces of the country and TO3 VCDs were found to be high during summer while minimum during winter. The statistical analysis by using seasonal Mann Kendal test also showed strong positive trends over the four provinces as well as in major cities of Pakistan. These variations were driven by various factors such as seasonality in UV-B fluxes, seasonality in ozone precursor gases such as NOx and VOCs and agricultural fire activities in Pakistan. A strong correlation of 97% was found between fire events and tropospheric ozone concentration over the country. The results also depicted the influence of UV-B radiations on the tropospheric ozone concentration over different regions of Pakistan especially in Baluchistan and Sindh provinces.

  7. Use of AIRS, OMI, MLS, and TES Data in Assessing Forest Ecosystem Exposure to Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-level ozone at high levels poses health threats to exposed flora and fauna, including negative impacts to human health. While concern is common regarding depletion of ozone in the stratosphere, portions of the urban and rural United States periodically have high ambient levels of tropospheric ozone on the ground. Ozone pollution can cause a variety of impacts to susceptible vegetation (e.g., Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine species in the southwestern United States), such as stunted growth, alteration of growth form, needle or leaf chlorosis, and impaired ability to withstand drought-induced water stress. In addition, Southern Californian forests with high ozone exposures have been recently subject to multiyear droughts that have led to extensive forest overstory mortality from insect outbreaks and increased incidence of wildfires. Residual forests in these impacted areas may be more vulnerable to high ozone exposures and to other forest threats than ever before. NASA sensors collect a wealth of atmospheric data that have been used recently for mapping and monitoring regional tropospheric ozone levels. AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) data could be used to assess forest ecosystem exposure to ozone. Such NASA data hold promise for providing better or at least complementary synoptic information on ground-level ozone levels that Federal agency partners can use to assess forest health trends and to mitigate the threats as needed in compliance with Federal laws and mandates. NASA data products on ozone concentrations may be able to aid applications of DSTs (decision support tools) adopted by the USDA FS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service) and by the NPS (National Park Service), such as the Ozone Calculator, in which ground ozone estimates are employed to assess ozone impacts to forested vegetation.

  8. Tropospheric column ozone response to ENSO in GEOS-5 assimilation of OMI and MLS ozone data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Wargan, Krzysztof; Pawson, Steven

    2016-06-01

    We use GEOS-5 analyses of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone observations to investigate the magnitude and spatial distribution of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence on tropospheric column ozone (TCO) into the middle latitudes. This study provides the first explicit spatially resolved characterization of the ENSO influence and demonstrates coherent patterns and teleconnections impacting the TCO in the extratropics. The response is evaluated and characterized by both the variance explained and sensitivity of TCO to the Niño 3.4 index. The tropospheric response in the tropics agrees well with previous studies and verifies the analyses. A two-lobed response symmetric about the Equator in the western Pacific/Indonesian region seen in some prior studies and not in others is confirmed here. This two-lobed response is consistent with the large-scale vertical transport. We also find that the large-scale transport in the tropics dominates the response compared to the small-scale convective transport. The ozone response is weaker in the middle latitudes, but a significant explained variance of the TCO is found over several small regions, including the central United States. However, the sensitivity of TCO to the Niño 3.4 index is statistically significant over a large area of the middle latitudes. The sensitivity maxima and minima coincide with anomalous anti-cyclonic and cyclonic circulations where the associated vertical transport is consistent with the sign of the sensitivity. Also, ENSO related changes to the mean tropopause height can contribute significantly to the midlatitude response. Comparisons to a 22-year chemical transport model simulation demonstrate that these results from the 9-year assimilation are representative of the longer term. This investigation brings insight to several seemingly disparate prior studies of the El Niño influence on tropospheric ozone in the middle latitudes.

  9. Variability in the Speed of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation as Observed by Aura/MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flury, Thomas; Wu, Dong L.; Read, W. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use Aura/MLS stratospheric water vapour (H2O) measurements as tracer for dynamics and infer interannual variations in the speed of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) from 2004 to 2011. We correlate one-year time series of H2O in the lower stratosphere at two subsequent pressure levels (68 hPa, approx.18.8 km and 56 hPa, approx 19.9 km at the Equator) and determine the time lag for best correlation. The same calculation is made on the horizontal on the 100 hPa (approx 16.6 km) level by correlating the H2O time series at the Equator with the ones at 40 N and 40 S. From these lag coefficients we derive the vertical and horizontal speeds of the BDC in the tropics and extra-tropics, respectively. We observe a clear interannual variability of the vertical and horizontal branch. The variability reflects signatures of the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Our measurements confirm the QBO meridional circulation anomalies and show that the speed variations in the two branches of the BDC are out of phase and fairly well anti-correlated. Maximum ascent rates are found during the QBO easterly phase. We also find that transport of H2O towards the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is on the average two times faster than to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) with a mean speed of 1.15m/s at 100 hPa. Furthermore, the speed towards the NH shows much more interannual variability with an amplitude of about 21% whilst the speed towards the SH varies by only 10 %. An amplitude of 21% is also observed in the variability of the ascent rate at the Equator which is on the average 0.2mm/s.

  10. The Contributions of Chemistry and Transport to Low Arctic Ozone in March 2011 Derived from Aura MLS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahan, S. E.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Stratospheric and total columns of Arctic O3 (63-90 N) in late March 2011 averaged 320 and 349 DU, respectively. These values are 74 DU lower than averages for the previous 6 years. We use Aura MLS O3 observations to quantify the roles of chemistry and transport and find there are two major reasons for low O3 in March 2011: heterogeneous chemical loss and a late final warming that delayed the resupply of O3 until April. Daily vortex-averaged partial columns in the lowermost stratosphere (p greater than 133 hPa) and middle stratosphere (p less than 29 hPa) are unaffected by local heterogeneous chemistry and show a near total lack of transport into the vortex between late January and late March, contributing to the observed low column. The lower stratospheric (LS) column (133-29 hPa) is affected by both heterogeneous chemistry and transport. Low interannual variability of Aura MLS 0 3 columns and temperature inside the Arctic vortex (2004-2011) shows that the transport contribution to vortex O3 in fall and early winter is nearly the same each year. The descent of MLS N2O vortex profiles in 2011 provides an estimate of O3 transported into the LS column during late winter. By quantifying the role of transport we determine that PSC-driven chemical loss causes 80 (plus or minus 10) DU of vortex-averaged O3 loss by late March 2011. Without heterogeneous chemical loss, March 2011 vortex O3 would have been 40 DU lower than normal due to the late final warming and resupply of O3 which did not occur until April.

  11. A stimulatory Mls-1 superantigen is destroyed by ultraviolet light while other Mtv-7 antigens remain intact

    SciTech Connect

    Dannecker, G.; Mecheri, S.; Clarke, K.; Dudhane, A.; Zhiqin Wang; Hoffmann, M.K. )

    1992-12-01

    Accessory cells present Ag together with costimulatory signals as immunogens and without costimulatory signals as tolerogens. Responsiveness and unresponsiveness are thus alternatives of T cell immune reactions to Ag. Superantigens appear to make an exception; being presented by accessory cells capable of providing costimulatory signals, these Ag induce a strong T cell response but leave T cells unresponsive to a secondary challenge (anergy). The authors show here that T cell anergy is not a mandatory consequence of superantigen-induced activation. Mls-1[sup [minus

  12. Navigation and flight director guidance for the NASA/FAA helicopter MLS curved approach flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.; Lee, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    The navigation and flight director guidance systems implemented in the NASA/FAA helicopter microwave landing system (MLS) curved approach flight test program is described. Flight test were conducted at the U.S. Navy's Crows Landing facility, using the NASA Ames UH-lH helicopter equipped with the V/STOLAND avionics system. The purpose of these tests was to investigate the feasibility of flying complex, curved and descending approaches to a landing using MLS flight director guidance. A description of the navigation aids used, the avionics system, cockpit instrumentation and on-board navigation equipment used for the flight test is provided. Three generic reference flight paths were developed and flown during the test. They were as follows: U-Turn, S-turn and Straight-In flight profiles. These profiles and their geometries are described in detail. A 3-cue flight director was implemented on the helicopter. A description of the formulation and implementation of the flight director laws is also presented. Performance data and analysis is presented for one pilot conducting the flight director approaches.

  13. Investigating In-cloud Relative Humidity and Thin Cirrus in the Upper Tropical Atmosphere Using AIRS, CALIPSO, and MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C. K.; Kahn, B. H.; Eldering, A.; Fetzer, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate vertical and horizontal distributions of tropical oceanic thin cirrus optical and microphysical properties observed by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). These properties are related to thermodynamic quantities, i.e., relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi), and cloud top temperature derived from the AIRS Level 2 operational soundings. Differences between all sky and in-cloud RHi are explored and possible mechanisms that explain these anomalies are discussed. Furthermore, we evaluate the hypothesis that many of the observed clouds are physically much thinner than the nominal resolution of AIRS, which may lead to dry biases of in-cloud RHi. To test this we exploit the co-located AIRS RHi and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) cloud thickness. Finally, we diagnose the ability of AIRS to measure water vapor in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) using co- located observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). From this, a combined AIRS-MLS RHi product is used to investigate joint distributions of cirrus microphysical and optical properties, and RHi in the TTL.

  14. An Assessment of Upper Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Moisture Simulations in Analysis and Reanalysis Models Using 10-Year Aura MLS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.

    2014-12-01

    We use 10-year global water vapor maxing ratio (H2O) measurements from Microwave LimeSounder (MLS) on Aura satellite to evaluate the performance of three analysis/reanalysis models: Goddard Earth Observation System data assimilation system, version 5 (GEOS5); Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for research and Applications (MERRA); and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). We focus on H2O variations on both seasonal and decadal time scales. Vertical and horizontal speeds of H2O transport are estimated from the pressure-time and latitude-time series analyses. The differences between the MLS observations and analysis/reanalysis models are quantified.

  15. Combined assimilation of IASI and MLS observations to constrain tropospheric and stratospheric ozone in a global chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, E.; Barret, B.; Massart, S.; Le Flochmoen, E.; Piacentini, A.; El Amraoui, L.; Pannekoucke, O.; Cariolle, D.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate and temporally resolved fields of free-troposphere ozone are of major importance to quantify the intercontinental transport of pollution and the ozone radiative forcing. In this study we examine the impact of assimilating ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) in a global chemical transport model (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Échelle, MOCAGE). The assimilation of the two instruments is performed by means of a variational algorithm (4-D-VAR) and allows to constrain stratospheric and tropospheric ozone simultaneously. The analysis is first computed for the months of August and November 2008 and validated against ozone-sondes measurements to verify the presence of observations and model biases. It is found that the IASI Tropospheric Ozone Column (TOC, 1000-225 hPa) should be bias-corrected prior to assimilation and MLS lowermost level (215 hPa) excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, a longer analysis of 6 months (July-August 2008) showed that the combined assimilation of MLS and IASI is able to globally reduce the uncertainty (Root Mean Square Error, RMSE) of the modeled ozone columns from 30% to 15% in the Upper-Troposphere/Lower-Stratosphere (UTLS, 70-225 hPa) and from 25% to 20% in the free troposphere. The positive effect of assimilating IASI tropospheric observations is very significant at low latitudes (30° S-30° N), whereas it is not demonstrated at higher latitudes. Results are confirmed by a comparison with additional ozone datasets like the Measurements of OZone and wAter vapour by aIrbus in-service airCraft (MOZAIC) data, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) total ozone columns and several high-altitude surface measurements. Finally, the analysis is found to be little sensitive to the assimilation parameters and the model chemical scheme, due to the high frequency of satellite observations compared to the average life-time of free

  16. Polar Vortex Conditions During the 1995-96 Arctic Winter: MLS CL0 and HNO(sub 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santee, M. L.; Manney, G. L.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric CLO and HNO(sub 3) during the 1995-96 Arctic winter are presented. The 1995-96 Arctic winter was both colder and more persistently cold than usual, leading to an enhancement in lower stratospheric CLO of greater magnitude, vertical extent, and duration than has been previously observed in the Arctic. Vortex concentrations of HNO(sub 3) in mid-December were large due to diabetic decent. Trajectory calculations indicate that localized severe depletions of gas-phase HNO(sub 3) in mid-February and early March did not arise from intrainment of midlatitude air into the vortex and were therefore probably related to polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation.

  17. Bacteria evade immune recognition via TLR13 and binding of their 23S rRNA by MLS antibiotics by the same mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hochrein, Hubertus; Kirschning, Carsten J.

    2013-01-01

    The immune system recognizes pathogens and other danger by means of pattern recognition receptors. Recently, we have demonstrated that the orphan Toll-like receptor 13 (TLR13) senses a defined sequence of the bacterial rRNA and that bacteria use specific mechanisms to evade macrolide lincosamide streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics detection via TLR13. PMID:23802068

  18. Flight tests of three-dimensional path-redefinition algorithms for transition from Radio Navigation (RNAV) to Microwave Landing System (MLS) navigation when flying an aircraft on autopilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains results of flight tests for three path update algorithms designed to provide smooth transition for an aircraft guidance system from DME, VORTAC, and barometric navaids to the more precise MLS by modifying the desired 3-D flight path. The first algorithm, called Zero Cross Track, eliminates the discontinuity in cross-track and altitude error at transition by designating the first valid MLS aircraft position as the desired first waypoint, while retaining all subsequent waypoints. The discontinuity in track angle is left unaltered. The second, called Tangent Path, also eliminates the discontinuity in cross-track and altitude errors and chooses a new desired heading to be tangent to the next oncoming circular arc turn. The third, called Continued Track, eliminates the discontinuity in cross-track, altitude, and track angle errors by accepting the current MLS position and track angle as the desired ones and recomputes the location of the next waypoint. The flight tests were conducted on the Transportation Systems Research Vehicle, a small twin-jet transport aircraft modified for research under the Advanced Transport Operating Systems program at Langley Research Center. The flight tests showed that the algorithms provided a smooth transition to MLS.

  19. Climatology and variability of trace gases in extratropical double-tropopause regions from MLS, HIRDLS, and ACE-FTS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. J.; Manney, G. L.; Hegglin, M. I.; Livesey, N. J.; Santee, M. L.; Daffer, W. H.

    2015-01-01

    Upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the Aura High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS), and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) are used to present the first global climatological comparison of extratropical, nonpolar trace gas distributions in double-tropopause (DT) and single-tropopause (ST) regions. Stratospheric tracers, O3, HNO3, and HCl, have lower mixing ratios ˜2-8 km above the primary (lowermost) tropopause in DT than in ST regions in all seasons, with maximum Northern Hemisphere (NH) differences near 50% in winter and 30% in summer. Southern Hemisphere winter differences are somewhat smaller, but summer differences are similar in the two hemispheres. H2O in DT regions of both hemispheres shows strong negative anomalies in November through February and positive anomalies in July through October, reflecting the strong seasonal cycle in H2O near the tropical tropopause. CO and other tropospheric tracers examined have higher DT than ST values 2-7 km above the primary tropopause, with the largest differences in winter. Large DT-ST differences extend to high NH latitudes in fall and winter, with longitudinal maxima in regions associated with enhanced wave activity and subtropical jet variations. Results for O3 and HNO3 agree closely between MLS and HIRDLS, and differences from ACE-FTS are consistent with its sparse and irregular midlatitude sampling. Consistent signatures in climatological trace gas fields provide strong evidence that transport from the tropical upper troposphere into the layer between double tropopauses is an important pathway for stratosphere-troposphere exchange.

  20. Combined assimilation of IASI and MLS observations to constrain tropospheric and stratospheric ozone in a global chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, E.; Barret, B.; Massart, S.; Le Flochmoen, E.; Piacentini, A.; El Amraoui, L.; Pannekoucke, O.; Cariolle, D.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and temporally resolved fields of free-troposphere ozone are of major importance to quantify the intercontinental transport of pollution and the ozone radiative forcing. We consider a global chemical transport model (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Échelle, MOCAGE) in combination with a linear ozone chemistry scheme to examine the impact of assimilating observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). The assimilation of the two instruments is performed by means of a variational algorithm (4D-VAR) and allows to constrain stratospheric and tropospheric ozone simultaneously. The analysis is first computed for the months of August and November 2008 and validated against ozonesonde measurements to verify the presence of observations and model biases. Furthermore, a longer analysis of 6 months (July-December 2008) showed that the combined assimilation of MLS and IASI is able to globally reduce the uncertainty (root mean square error, RMSE) of the modeled ozone columns from 30 to 15% in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS, 70-225 hPa). The assimilation of IASI tropospheric ozone observations (1000-225 hPa columns, TOC - tropospheric O3 column) decreases the RMSE of the model from 40 to 20% in the tropics (30° S-30° N), whereas it is not effective at higher latitudes. Results are confirmed by a comparison with additional ozone data sets like the Measurements of OZone and wAter vapour by aIrbus in-service airCraft (MOZAIC) data, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) total ozone columns and several high-altitude surface measurements. Finally, the analysis is found to be insensitive to the assimilation parameters. We conclude that the combination of a simplified ozone chemistry scheme with frequent satellite observations is a valuable tool for the long-term analysis of stratospheric and free-tropospheric ozone.

  1. Continuation of SAGE and MLS High-Resolution Ozone Profiles with the Suomi NPP OMPS Limb Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramarova, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Moy, L.; Chen, Z.; Frith, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Limb Profiler (LP) onboard the Suomi NPP satellite is design to measure ozone profiles with a high vertical resolution (~2 km) and dense spatial sampling (~1° latitude). The LP sensor represents a new generation of the US ozone profile instruments with the plan for a follow-up limb instrument onboard the Joint Polar Satellite System 2 (JPSS-2) in 2021. In this study we will examine the suitability of using LP profiles to continue the EOS climate ozone profile record from the SAGE and MLS datasets. First of all, we evaluate the accuracy in determining the LP tangent height by analyzing measured and calculated radiances. The accurate estimation of the tangent height is critical for limb observations. Several methods were explored to estimate the uncertainties in the LP tangent height registration, and the results will be briefly summarized in this presentation. Version 2 of LP data, released in May 2014, includes a static adjustment of ~1.5 km and a dynamic tangent height adjustment within each orbit. A recent analysis of Version 2 Level 1 radiances revealed a 100 m step in the tangent height that occurred on 26 April 2013, due to a switch to two star trackers in determining spacecraft position. In addition, a ~200 m shift in the tangent height along each orbit was detected. These uncertainties in tangent height registrations can affect the stability of the LP ozone record. Therefore, the second step in our study includes a validation of LP ozone profiles against correlative satellite ozone measurements (Aura MLS, ACE-FTS, OSIRIS, and SBUV) with the focus on time-dependent changes. We estimate relative drifts between OMPS LP and correlative ozone records to evaluate stability of the LP measurements. We also test the tangent height corrections found in the internal analysis of Version 2 measurements to determine their effect on the long-term stability of the LP ozone record.

  2. Validation of Aura MLS retrievals of temperature, water vapour and ozone in the upper troposphere and lower-middle stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau during boreal summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiaolu; Wright, Jonathon S.; Zheng, Xiangdong; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Vömel, Holger; Zhou, Xiuji

    2016-08-01

    We validate Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) version 3 (v3) and version 4 (v4) retrievals of summertime temperature, water vapour and ozone in the upper troposphere and lower-middle stratosphere (UTLS; 10-316 hPa) against balloon soundings collected during the Study of Ozone, Aerosols and Radiation over the Tibetan Plateau (SOAR-TP). Mean v3 and v4 profiles of temperature, water vapour and ozone in this region during the measurement campaigns are almost identical through most of the stratosphere (10-68 hPa), but differ in several respects in the upper troposphere and tropopause layer. Differences in v4 relative to v3 include slightly colder mean temperatures from 100 to 316 hPa, smaller mean water vapour mixing ratios in the upper troposphere (215-316 hPa) and a more vertically homogeneous profile of mean ozone mixing ratios below the climatological tropopause (100-316 hPa). These changes substantially improve agreement between ozonesondes and MLS ozone retrievals in the upper troposphere, but slightly worsen existing cold and dry biases at these levels. Aura MLS temperature profiles contain significant cold biases relative to collocated temperature measurements in several layers of the lower-middle stratosphere and in the upper troposphere. MLS retrievals of water vapour volume mixing ratio generally compare well with collocated measurements, excepting a substantial dry bias (-32 ± 11 % in v4) that extends through most of the upper troposphere (121-261 hPa). MLS retrievals of ozone volume mixing ratio are biased high relative to collocated ozonesondes in the stratosphere (18-83 hPa), but are biased low at 100 hPa. The largest relative biases in ozone retrievals (approximately +70 %) are located at 83 hPa. MLS v4 offers substantial benefits relative to v3, particularly with respect to water vapour and ozone. Key improvements include larger data yields, reduced noise in the upper troposphere and smaller fluctuations in the bias profile at pressures larger than 100

  3. Distinct fates of self-specific T cells developing in irradiation bone marrow chimeras: Clonal deletion, clonal anergy, or in vitro responsiveness to self-Mls-1a controlled by hemopoietic cells in the thymus

    SciTech Connect

    Speiser, D.E.; Chvatchko, Y.; Zinkernagel, R.M.; MacDonald, H.R. )

    1990-11-01

    Elimination of potentially self-reactive T lymphocytes during their maturation in the thymus has been shown to be a major mechanism in accomplishing self-tolerance. Previous reports demonstrated that clonal deletion of self-Mls-1a-specific V beta 6+ T lymphocyte is controlled by a radiosensitive I-E+ thymic component. Irradiation chimeras reconstituted with I-E- bone marrow showed substantial numbers of mature V beta 6+ T cells despite host Mls-1a expression. Analysis of the functional properties of such chimeric T cells revealed a surprising variability in their in vitro reactivity to host Mls-1a, depending on the H-2 haplotype of stem cells used for reconstitution. In chimeras reconstituted with B10.S (H-2s) stem cells, mature V beta 6+ lymphocytes were present but functionally anergic to host-type Mls-1a in vitro. In contrast, in chimeras reconstituted with B10.G (H-2q) bone marrow, nondeleted V beta 6+ cells were highly responsive to Mls-1a in vitro. These findings suggest that clonal anergy of V beta 6+ cells to self-Mls-1a may be controlled by the affinity/avidity of T cell receptor interactions with bone marrow-derived cells in the thymus depending on the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules involved. Furthermore, chimeras bearing host (Mls-1a)-reactive V beta 6+ cells did not differ clinically from those with anergic or deleted V beta 6+ cells and survived more than one year without signs of autoimmune disease. Interestingly, their spleen cells had no Mls-1a stimulatory capacity in vitro. Therefore, regulation at the level of antigen presentation may be an alternative mechanism for maintenance of tolerance to certain self-antigens such as Mls-1a.

  4. Combined assimilation of IASI and MLS observations to constrain tropospheric and stratospheric ozone in a global chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Emanuele; Barret, Brice; Massart, Sebastien; Piacentini, Andrea; Pannekoucke, Olivier; Cariolle, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Ozone acts as the main shield against UV radiation in the stratosphere, it contributes to the greenhouse effect in the troposphere and it is a major pollutant in the planetary boundary layer. In the last decades models and satellite observations reached a mature level, providing estimates of ozone with an accuracy of few percents in the stratosphere. On the other hand, tropospheric ozone still represents a challenge, because its signal is less detectable by space-borne sensors, its modelling depends on the knowledge of gaseous emissions at the surface, and stratosphere/troposphere exchanges might rapidly increase its abundance by several times. Moreover there is generally lack of in-situ observations of tropospheric ozone in many regions of the world. For these reasons the assimilation of satellite data into chemical transport models represents a promising technique to overcome limitations of both satellites and models. The objective of this study is to assess the value of vertically resolved observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) to constrain both the tropospheric and stratospheric ozone profile in a global model. While ozone total columns and stratospheric profiles from UV and microwave sensors are nowadays routinely assimilated in operational models, still few studies have explored the assimilation of ozone products from IR sensors such as IASI, which provide better sensitivity in the troposphere. We assimilate both MLS ozone profiles and IASI tropospheric (1000-225 hPa) ozone columns in the Météo France chemical transport model MOCAGE for 2008. The model predicts ozone concentrations on a 2x2 degree global grid and for 60 vertical levels, ranging from the surface up to 0.1 hPa. The assimilation is based on a 4D-VAR algorithm, employs a linear chemistry scheme and accounts for the satellite vertical sensitivity via the averaging kernels. The assimilation of the two products is first tested

  5. Comparison of ER-2 Aircraft and POAM-III, MLS, and SAGE-II Satellite Measurements During SOLVE Using Traditional Correlative Analysis and Trajectory Hunting Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Lyjak, L. V.; Froidevaux, L.; Santee, M. L.; Zawodny, J. M.; Hoppel, K. W.; Richard, E. C.; Spackman, J. R.; Jackman, Charles H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We compared the version 5 Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), version 3 Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement-III (POAM-111) aboard the French satellite SPOT-IV, version 6.0 Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 11 (SAGE-II) aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite, and NASA ER-2 aircraft measurements made in the northern hemisphere in January-February 2000 during the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). This study addresses one of the key scientific objectives of the SOLVE campaign, namely, to validate multi-platform satellite measurements made in the polar stratosphere during winter. This intercomparison was performed using a traditional correlative analysis (TCA) and a trajectory hunting technique (THT). Launching backward and forward trajectories from the points of measurement, the THT identifies air parcels sampled at least twice within a prescribed match criterion during the course of 5 days. We found that the ozone measurements made by these four instruments agree most of the time within 110% in the stratosphere up to 1400 K (approximately 35 km). The water vapor measurements from POAM-III and the ER-2 Harvard Lyman-alpha hygrometer and JPL laser hygrometer agree to within 10.5 ppmv (or about +/-10%) in the lower stratosphere above 380 K. The MLS and ER-2 ClO measurements agree within their error bars for the TCA. The MLS and ER-2 nitric acid measurements near 17-20 km altitude agree within their uncertainties most of the time with a hint of a positive offset by MLS according to the TCA. We also applied the AER box model constrained by the ER-2 measurements for analysis of the ClO and HN03 measurements using the THT. We found that: (1) the model values of ClO are smaller by about 0.3-0.4 (0.2) ppbv below (above) 400 K than those by MLS and (2) the HN03 comparison shows a positive offset of MLS values by approximately 1 and 1-2 ppbv below 400 K and near 450 K, respectively. It is hard to

  6. Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

    2012-01-01

    Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

  7. Evidence of Convective Redistribution of Carbon Monoxide in Aura Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne; Schoeberl, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Vertical convective transport is a key element of the tropospheric circulation. Convection lofts air from the boundary layer into the free troposphere, allowing surface emissions to travel much further, and altering the rate of chemical processes such as ozone production. This study uses satellite observations to focus on the convective transport of CO from the boundary layer to the mid and upper troposphere. Our hypothesis is that strong convection associated with high rain rate regions leads to a correlation between mid level and upper level CO amounts. We first test this hypothesis using the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model. We find the correlation is robust and increases as the precipitation rate (the strength of convection) increases. We next examine three years of CO profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments aboard EOS Aura. Rain rates are taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B-42 multi-satellite product. Again we find a correlation between mid-level and upper tropospheric CO, which increases with rain rate. Our result shows the critical importance of tropical convection in coupling vertical levels of the troposphere in the transport of trace gases. The effect is seen most clearly in strong convective regions such as the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.

  8. MLS and ACE-FTS measurements of UTLS Trace Gases in Relation to Multiple Tropopauses and Upper-Tropospheric Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. J.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Hegglin, M. I.; Walker, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    The extra-tropical tropopause region is dynamically complex, with frequent occurrence of multiple tropopauses and of a "tropopause inversion layer" of enhanced static stability just above the tropopause. The tropopause structure is zonally-asymmetric and time-varying and, along with the UT jets and the stratospheric polar night jet, it defines the barriers and pathways that control UTLS transport. Averages of trace gases that do not account for the tropopause structure (such as zonal or equivalent latitude means) can obscure features of trace gas distributions that are important for understanding the role of the extra-tropical tropopause region in determining UTLS composition and hence its significance to climate processes. In this work we examine MLS and ACE-FTS UTLS trace gas profiles, including H2O, O3, CO and HNO3, in the context of extra-tropical tropopause and UT jet structure seen in the GEOS-5 temperature fields, to gain understanding of UTLS trace gas distributions and transport barriers.

  9. Highlights from the 11-Year Record of Tropospheric Ozone from OMI/MLS and Continuation of that Long Record Using OMPS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Kramarova, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Degenstein, D. A.; Deland, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Since October 2004 the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) onboard the Aura satellite have provided over 11 years of continuous tropospheric ozone measurements. These OMI/MLS measurements have been used in many studies to evaluate dynamical and photochemical effects caused by ENSO, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and shorter timescales, as well as long-term trends and the effects of deep convection on tropospheric ozone. Given that the OMI and MLS instruments have now extended well beyond their expected lifetimes, our goal is to continue their long record of tropospheric ozone using recent Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) measurements. The OMPS onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership NPP satellite was launched on October 28, 2011 and is comprised of three instruments: the nadir mapper, the nadir profiler, and the limb profiler. Our study combines total column ozone from the OMPS nadir mapper with stratospheric column ozone from the OMPS limb profiler to measure tropospheric ozone residual. The time period for the OMPS measurements is March 2012 present. For the OMPS limb profiler retrievals, the OMPS v2 algorithm from Goddard is tested against the University of Saskatchewan (USask) Algorithm. The retrieved ozone profiles from each of these algorithms are evaluated with ozone profiles from both ozonesondes and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Effects on derived OMPS tropospheric ozone caused by the 2015-2016 El Nino event are highlighted. This recent El Nino produced anomalies in tropospheric ozone throughout the tropical Pacific involving increases of approximately 10 DU over Indonesia and decreases approximately 5-10 DU in the eastern Pacific. These changes in ozone due to El Nino were predominantly dynamically-induced, caused by the eastward shift in sea-surface temperature and convection from the western to the eastern Pacific.

  10. Highlights from the 11-year record of tropospheric ozone from OMI/MLS and continuation of that long record using OMPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemke, Jerry; Kramarova, Natalya; Bhartia, Pawan; Degenstein, Doug; Deland, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Since October 2004 the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) onboard the Aura satellite have provided over 11 years of continuous tropospheric ozone measurements. These OMI/MLS measurements have been used in many studies to evaluate dynamical and photochemical effects caused by ENSO, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and shorter timescales, as well as long-term trends and the effects of deep convection on tropospheric ozone. Given that the OMI and MLS instruments have now extended well beyond their expected lifetimes, our goal is to continue their long record of tropospheric ozone using recent Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) measurements. The OMPS onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership NPP satellite was launched on October 28, 2011 and is comprised of three instruments: the nadir mapper, the nadir profiler, and the limb profiler. Our study combines total column ozone from the OMPS nadir mapper with stratospheric column ozone from the OMPS limb profiler to measure tropospheric ozone residual. The time period for the OMPS measurements is March 2012 - present. For the OMPS limb profiler retrievals, the OMPS v2 algorithm from Goddard is tested against the SASKatchewan radiative TRANsfer (SASKTRAN) algorithm. The retrieved ozone profiles from each of these algorithms are evaluated with ozone profiles from both ozonesondes and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Effects on derived OMPS tropospheric ozone caused by the 2015-2016 El Nino event are highlighted. This recent El Nino produced anomalies in tropospheric ozone throughout the tropical Pacific involving increases of ~10 DU over Indonesia and decreases ~5-10 DU in the eastern Pacific. These changes in ozone due to El Nino were predominantly dynamically-induced, caused by the eastward shift in sea-surface temperature and convection from the western to the eastern Pacific.

  11. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 4: Transition path reconstruction along a straight line path containing a glideslope change waypoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The necessary algorithms to reconstruct the glideslope change waypoint along a straight line in the event the aircraft encounters a valid MLS update and transition in the terminal approach area are presented. Results of a simulation of the Langley B737 aircraft utilizing these algorithms are presented. The method is shown to reconstruct the necessary flight path during MLS transition resulting in zero cross track error, zero track angle error, and zero altitude error, thus requiring minimal aircraft response.

  12. Chemical discontinuity at the extratropical tropopause and isentropic stratosphere-troposphere exchange pathways diagnosed using Aura MLS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, J. J.; Livesey, N. J.; Manney, G. L.; Jiang, J. H.; Schwartz, M. J.; Daffer, W. H.

    2013-05-01

    The chemical discontinuity at the extratropical tropopause (ExTP) and stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) pathways are investigated using the long-lived chemical species carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) measured by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). A relative coordinate, tropopause latitude (TpLat), is developed based on potential vorticity (PV) from the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system. TpLat is defined as the shortest geographic distance along an isentropic surface from the extratropical tropopause (ExTP) to an observation location. Our results show that this coordinate highlights the sharp chemical discontinuities at the ExTP more clearly than the widely-used equivalent latitude coordinate. Geographical distributions of STE pathways and barriers are investigated based on meridional gradients in O3 abundances in the new TpLat coordinate in conjunction with analysis of Rossby wave breaking between 330 K and 360 K. In northern hemispheric (NH) winter (Dec-Jan-Feb), NH STE pathways are seen mainly above the northeast Pacific. In NH summer (Jun-Jul-Aug), the NH pathway covers all longitudes at 330 K. However, it is mainly located above Asia at 340 K and above the Atlantic and the North Pacific at 350 K and 360 K. In the southern hemisphere (SH), there is a weaker STE region above the Eastern Indian Ocean and the southwestern Pacific, at and above 350 K in SH winter, and a stronger STE region over the Southeastern Pacific at these levels during SH summer. In addition, this study shows NH PV gradients are slightly stronger near the ExTP in summer than in winter even though the subtropical jet is weaker and Rossby wave breaking is stronger in summer than in winter.

  13. The seasonal variation of the Hough modes of the tidal components of ozone heating evaluated from Aura/MLS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiyao; Smith, Anne; Jiang, Guoying; Yuan, Wei; Gao, Hong

    The global distribution of atmospheric ozone from Aug. 2004 to Dec. 2008 observed by Aura/MLS is used to calculate the variation of the ozone heating rate with the local time. The heating rates are calculated using the Strobel/Zhu parameterized model. The harmonic components of the heating rate, which include the daily mean, the 24-hour, the 12-hour, the 8-hour and the 6-hour periodicities are calculated. Each harmonic component of the heating is then decomposed into Hough modes. And the annual (AO), semiannual (SAO), and quasi-biennial (QBO) periodicities of each Hough mode are presented. The results show that, for the diurnal component, the majority of the O3 heating goes into the symmetric (1,-2), (1,1) and (1,-4) modes. The largest propagating mode (1,1) and the largest trapped mode (1,-2) have obvious SAO signatures near the stratopause. The forcing of the propagating (1,1) mode by ozone heating is larger during solstices than during equinoxes. The strongest annual vari-ation takes place in the (1,-1) mode. For the semi-diurnal and ter-diurnal components, the majority of the O3 heating goes into the several initial symmetric modes, such as, (2,2), (2,4), (2,6), (3,3), and (3,5). These modes have obvious SAO signatures near the stratopause. The strongest annual variation takes place in the asymmetric modes, such as, (2,3), (2,5), (2,7), (3,4), (3,6), and (3,8). New parameterizations of these components of the heating rate, which covers the vertical range from 10 km to 70 km, are developed based on the seasonal variations in each Hough mode.

  14. The response of the MLS mesospheric daytime hydroxyl radical and water vapor to the short-term solar irradiance variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. V.; Rozanov, E.; Shapiro, A.; Wang, S.; Egorova, T. A.; Schmutz, W. K.; Peter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Solar radiation, which is the main energy source in the terrestrial atmosphere, is highly variable on different time-scales. The variations of the SSI may have substantial impact on chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere. The mesospheric hydroxyl radical (OH), which is the main ozone destructor, is produced due to the photolysis of the water vapor (H2O) by highly variable short wave solar radiation. Chemistry-climate models suggest strong response of the mesospheric OH and H2O caused by the solar irradiance variability. However the response was not yet defined with observed data. We analyzed the response of the tropical mean OH and H2O data observed by Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) to the solar irradiance variations during rotational cycle. We performed the analysis for the two time periods. The data from December 2004 to December 2005 were used to estimate the OH and H2O responses to the solar irradiance variability in high solar activity conditions (when the 27-day rotational cycle is well pronounced). The response for the solar minimum conditions (when the 27-day rotational cycle is vague) was considered using the data from November 2008 to November 2009. We found, for the first time, that during the period of the high solar activity the daily time series of the mesospheric OH correlate well with the solar irradiance at zero time-lag and the correlation coefficient reaches 0.79 at 76-82 km. The H2O for the same period anticorrelates with the solar irradiance at about 6-7 days time-lag with the correlation coefficient up to -0.7. At the same time the OH and H2O responses are negligible for the solar minimum period. This confirms that the 27-day solar cycles in OH, H2O and solar irradiance are physically connected.

  15. MLS: Hire Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    While some professions maintain strong professional boundaries, public librarianship remains a field in which a significant number of those delivering service do not have library degrees. In this article, the author discusses the results of a new hiring practices survey from "Library Journal" ("LJ"). The survey, coupled with interviews, looks at…

  16. Clinical spectrum of females with HCCS mutation: from no clinical signs to a neonatal lethal form of the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Segmental Xp22.2 monosomy or a heterozygous HCCS mutation is associated with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) or MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea) syndrome, an X-linked disorder with male lethality. HCCS encodes the holocytochrome c-type synthase involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and programmed cell death. Methods We characterized the X-chromosomal abnormality encompassing HCCS or an intragenic mutation in this gene in six new female patients with an MLS phenotype by cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR. The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern was determined and clinical data of the patients were reviewed. Results Two terminal Xp deletions of ≥11.2 Mb, two submicroscopic copy number losses, one of ~850 kb and one of ≥3 Mb, all covering HCCS, 1 nonsense, and one mosaic 2-bp deletion in HCCS are reported. All females had a completely (>98:2) or slightly skewed (82:18) XCI pattern. The most consistent clinical features were microphthalmia/anophthalmia and sclerocornea/corneal opacity in all patients and congenital linear skin defects in 4/6. Additional manifestations included various ocular anomalies, cardiac defects, brain imaging abnormalities, microcephaly, postnatal growth retardation, and facial dysmorphism. However, no obvious clinical sign was observed in three female carriers who were relatives of one patient. Conclusion Our findings showed a wide phenotypic spectrum ranging from asymptomatic females with an HCCS mutation to patients with a neonatal lethal MLS form. Somatic mosaicism and the different ability of embryonic cells to cope with an OXPHOS defect and/or enhanced cell death upon HCCS deficiency likely underlie the great variability in phenotypes. PMID:24735900

  17. HCl and ClO profiles inside the Antarctic vortex as observed by SMILES in November 2009: comparisons with MLS and ACE-FTS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, T.; Kasai, Y.; Terao, Y.; Hayashida, S.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Sagawa, H.; Suzuki, M.; Shiotani, M.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-07-01

    We present vertical profiles of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine monoxide (ClO) as observed by the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) inside the Antarctic vortex on 19-24 November 2009. The SMILES HCl value reveals 2.8-3.1 ppbv between 450 and 500 K levels in potential temperature (PT). The high value of HCl is highlighted since it is suggested that HCl was a main component of the total inorganic chlorine (Cly), defined as Cly ≃ HCl + ClO + chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) inside the Antarctic vortex in spring, owing to low ozone values. To confirm the quality of two SMILES Level 2 (L2) data products provided by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) from a view point of the partitioning of Cly, comparisons are made using other satellite data, from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). HCl values from the SMILES NICT L2 product agree to within 10% with the MLS HCl data between 425 and 650 K levels in PT and with the ACE-FTS HCl data between 425 and 575 K, respectively. The SMILES JAXA L2 product is 10 to 20% smaller than that from MLS (ACE-FTS) between 400 (500 K) and 700 K. For ClO in daytime, the difference between SMILES (JAXA and NICT) and MLS was less than ±0.05 ppbv between 500 and 650 K with the ClO values less than 0.2 ppbv. ClONO2 values as measured by ACE-FTS also reveal 0.2 ppbv at 475-500 K level, resulting in the HCl/Cly ratios of 0.91-0.95. The high HCl value and HCl/Cly ratio found from the three satellite instruments agree with the past observations inside the Antarctic vortex at this time (October to November) of year in the lower stratosphere.

  18. HCl and ClO profiles inside the Antarctic vortex as observed by SMILES in November 2009: comparisons with MLS and ACE-FTS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, T.; Kasai, Y.; Terao, Y.; Hayashida, S.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Sagawa, H.; Suzuki, M.; Shiotani, M.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-11-01

    We present vertical profiles of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine monoxide (ClO) as observed by the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) on the International Space Station (ISS) inside the Antarctic vortex on 19-24 November 2009. The SMILES HCl value reveals 2.8-3.1 ppbv between 450 K and 500 K levels in potential temperature (PT). The high value of HCl is highlighted since it is suggested that HCl is a main component of the total inorganic chlorine (Cly), defined as Cly ≃ HCl + ClO + chlorine nitrate (ClONO2), inside the Antarctic vortex in spring, owing to low ozone values. To confirm the quality of two SMILES level 2 (L2) data products provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Japan's National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), vis-à-vis the partitioning of Cly, comparisons are made using other satellite data from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). HCl values from the SMILES NICT L2 product agree to within 10% (0.3 ppbv) with the MLS HCl data between 450 and 575 K levels in PT and with the ACE-FTS HCl data between 425 and 575 K. The SMILES JAXA L2 product is 10 to 20% (0.2-0.5 ppbv) lower than that from MLS between 400 and 700 K and from ACE-FTS between 500 and 700 K. For ClO in daytime, the difference between SMILES (JAXA and NICT) and MLS is less than ±0.05 ppbv (100 %) between 500 K and 650 K with the ClO values less than 0.2 ppbv. ClONO2 values as measured by ACE-FTS also reveal 0.2 ppbv at 475-500 K level, resulting in the HCl / Cly ratios of 0.91-0.95. The HCl / Cly ratios derived from each retrieval agree to within -5 to 8 % with regard to their averages. The high HCl values and HCl / Cly ratios observed by the three instruments in the lower stratospheric Antarctic vortex are consistent with previous observations in late Austral spring.

  19. UARS MLS Observations of Lower Stratospheric ClO in the 1992-93 and 1993-94 Arctic Winter Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J. W.; Manney, G. L.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) measurements of lower stratospheric ClO during the 1992-93 and 1993-94 Arctic winters are presented. Enhanced ClO in the 1992-93 winter was first observed in early December, and extensively during February when temperatures were continually low enough for PSCs. Sporadic episodes of enhanced ClO were observed for most of the 1993-94 winter as minimum temperatures hovered near the PSC threshold, with largest ClO amounts occurring in early March after a sudden deep cooling in late February.

  20. UARS MLS observations of lower stratospheric ClO in the 1992-93 and 1993-94 Arctic winter vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J. W.; Manney, G. L.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric ClO during 1992-93 and 1993-94 Arctic winters are presented. Enhanced ClO in the 1992-93 winter was first observed in early December, and extensively during February when temperatures were continually low enough for polar stratospheric cloud (PSCs). Sporadic episodes of enhanced ClO were observed for most of the 1993-94 winter as minimum temperatures hovered near the PSC threshold, with largest ClO amounts occurring in early March after a sudden deep cooling in late February.

  1. Intercomparisons of Aura MLS, ACE, and HALOE Observations of Long-Lived Trace Species Using the Langley Lagrangian Chemistry and Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Considine, David B.; Natarajan, Murali; Fairlie, T. D.; Lingenfelser, Gretchen S.; Bernath, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We use the LaRC Lagrangian Chemistry and Transport Model (LCTM) [Considine et al., 2007; Pierce et al., 2003] to intercompare ACE, Aura, and HALOE observations of long-lived trace species. The LCTM calculates the transport, mixing, and photochemical evolution of an ensemble of parcels that have been initialized from ACE-FTS measurements. Here we focus on late November, 2004 comparisons, due to the previous 3-week period of continuous HALOE observations and MLS v2.2 data on November 29, 2004.

  2. Overproduction of anti-Tn antibody MLS128 single-chain Fv fragment in Escherichia coli cytoplasm using a novel pCold-PDI vector.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Ganesh P; Satoh, Tadashi; Hanashima, Shinya; Ikeda, Akemi; Nakada, Hiroshi; Sato, Reiko; Mizuno, Mamoru; Yuasa, Noriyuki; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki

    2012-03-01

    Overproduction of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is often hampered by their failure to fold correctly, leading to their accumulation within inclusion bodies. To overcome the problem, a variety of techniques aimed at soluble expression have been developed including low temperature expression and/or fusion of soluble tags and chaperones. However, a general protocol for bacterial expression of disulfide bond-containing proteins has hitherto not been established. Single chain Fv fragments (scFvs) are disulfide bond-containing proteins often difficult to express in soluble forms in E. coli. We here examine in detail the E. coli expression of a scFv originating from an anti-carbohydrate MLS128 antibody as a model system. We combine three techniques: (1) tagging scFv with thioredoxin, DsbC and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), (2) expressing the proteins at low temperature using the pCold vector system, and (3) using Origami E. coli strains with mutations in the thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase genes. We observed a high expression level of soluble MLS128-scFv in the Origami strain only when PDI is used as a tag. The recombinant protein retains full binding activity towards synthetic carbohydrate antigens. The developed "pCold-PDI" vector has potential for overproduction of other scFvs and disulfide-containing proteins in the Origami strains. PMID:22245752

  3. Assessment and Applications of NASA Ozone Data Products Derived from Aura OMI-MLS Satellite Measurements in Context of the GMI Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Wargan, K.; Liu, X.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Yang, K.; Kaplan, T. B.; Pawson, S.; Duncan, B. N.; Newman, P. A.; Bhartia, K.; Heney, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), both onboard the Aura spacecraft, have been used to produce daily global maps of column and profile ozone since August 2004. Here we compare and evaluate three strategies to obtain daily maps of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone from OMI and MLS measurements: trajectory mapping, direct profile retrieval, and data assimilation. Evaluation is based upon an assessment that includes validation using ozonesondes and comparisons with the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model (CTM). We investigate applications of the three ozone data products from near-decadal and inter-annual timescales to day-to-day case studies. Zonally averaged inter-annual changes in tropospheric ozone from all of the products in any latitude range are of the order 1-2 Dobson Units while changes (increases) over the 8-year Aura record investigated http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/atbd-category/49 vary approximately 2-4 Dobson Units. It is demonstrated that all of the ozone products can measure and monitor exceptional tropospheric ozone events including major forest fire and pollution transport events. Stratospheric ozone during the Aura record has several anomalous inter-annual events including stratospheric warming split events in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics that are well captured using the data assimilation ozone profile product. Data assimilation with continuous daily global coverage and vertical ozone profile information is the best of the three strategies at generating a global tropospheric and stratospheric ozone product for science applications.

  4. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Czech Cystic Fibrosis Patients: High Rate of Ribosomal Mutation Conferring Resistance to MLS(B) Antibiotics as a Result of Long-Term and Low-Dose Azithromycin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tkadlec, Jan; Vařeková, Eva; Pantůček, Roman; Doškař, Jiří; Růžičková, Vladislava; Botka, Tibor; Fila, Libor; Melter, Oto

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens infecting the respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study was the first to examine S. aureus isolates from CF patients in the Czech Republic. Among 100 S. aureus isolates from 92 of 107 observed patients, we found a high prevalence of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) antibiotics (56%). More than half of the resistant strains (29 of 56) carried a mutation in the MLS(B) target site. The emergence of MLS(B) resistance and mutations conferring resistance to MLS(B) antibiotics was associated with azithromycin treatment (p=0.000000184 and p=0.000681, respectively). Methicillin resistance was only detected in 3% of isolates and the rate of resistance to other antibiotics did not exceed 12%. The prevalence of small-colony variant (SCV) strains was relatively low (9%) and eight of nine isolates with the SCV phenotype were thymidine dependent. The study population of S. aureus was heterogeneous in structure and both the most prevalent community-associated and hospital-acquired clonal lineages were represented. Of the virulence genes, enterotoxin genes seg (n=52), sei (n=49), and sec (n=16) were the most frequently detected among the isolates. The PVL genes (lukS-PV and lukF-PV) have not been revealed in any of the isolates. PMID:25826283

  5. An Assessment of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor in the MERRA-2 Reanalysis: Comparisons with MLS and In Situ Water Vapor Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkirk, H. B.; Molod, A.; Pawson, S.; Douglass, A. R.; Voemel, H.; Hurst, D. F.; Jiang, J. H.; Read, W. G.; Schwartz, M. J.; Manyin, M.

    2015-12-01

    The recently released MERRA-2 reanalysis represents a significant evolution of the GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model and data assimilation system since the original MERRA project, and it is expected that MERRA-2 will be widely used in climate change studies as has its predecessor. A number of studies have demonstrated critical sensitivities of the climate system to the water vapor content of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) and it is therefore important to assess how well the MERRA-2 reanalysis represents the mean structure and variability of water vapor in this part of the atmosphere. Recent comparisons with MLS water vapor indicate that the ECMWF and original MERRA reanalyses overestimate water vapor throughout the global upper troposphere by 50-80%. These overestimates are particularly acute at 147 hPa and 215 hPa and occur in all seasons. In this presentation, we analyze differences between the MLS v.4.2 water vapor data and the new MERRA-2 reanalysis to assess improvements in the treatment of water vapor in the GEOS-5 system since MERRA. We also include in our analysis a comparison of MERRA-2 profiles with water vapor and relative humidity profiles from frostpoint hygrometers at five sites with long-term records and a sixth with an intensive campaign of one month. Three of the long-term sites, Boulder, Colorado, Lindenburg, Germany and Lauder, New Zealand, lie in middle latitudes, and two sites, San José, Costa Rica and Hilo, Hawaii, are in the tropics and subtropics, respectively. The campaign-only database is from the NASA SEAC4RS mission at Ellington Field, Houston, TX in 2013.

  6. MIPAS temperature from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere: Comparison of vM21 with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Comas, M.; Funke, B.; Gardini, A.; López-Puertas, M.; Jurado-Navarro, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Kiefer, M.; Boone, C. D.; Leblanc, T.; Marshall, B. T.; Schwartz, M. J.; Sheese, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    We present vM21 MIPAS temperatures from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, which cover all optimized resolution measurements performed by MIPAS in the middle-atmosphere, upper-atmosphere and noctilucent-cloud modes during its lifetime, i.e., from January 2005 to April 2012. The main upgrades with respect to the previous version of MIPAS temperatures (vM11) are the update of the spectroscopic database, the use of a different climatology of atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide, and the improvement in important technical aspects of the retrieval setup (temperature gradient along the line of sight and offset regularizations, apodization accuracy). Additionally, an updated version of ESA-calibrated L1b spectra (5.02/5.06) is used. The vM21 temperatures correct the main systematic errors of the previous version because they provide on average a 1-2 K warmer stratopause and middle mesosphere, and a 6-10 K colder mesopause (except in high-latitude summers) and lower thermosphere. These lead to a remarkable improvement in MIPAS comparisons with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and the two Rayleigh lidars at Mauna Loa and Table Mountain, which, with a few specific exceptions, typically exhibit differences smaller than 1 K below 50 km and than 2 K at 50-80 km in spring, autumn and winter at all latitudes, and summer at low to midlatitudes. Differences in the high-latitude summers are typically smaller than 1 K below 50 km, smaller than 2 K at 50-65 km and 5 K at 65-80 km. Differences between MIPAS and the other instruments in the mid-mesosphere are generally negative. MIPAS mesopause is within 4 K of the other instruments measurements, except in the high-latitude summers, when it is within 5-10 K, being warmer there than SABER, MLS and OSIRIS and colder than ACE-FTS and SOFIE. The agreement in the lower thermosphere is typically better than 5 K, except for high latitudes during spring and summer, when MIPAS usually exhibits larger vertical gradients.

  7. MIPAS temperature from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere: comparison of version vM21 with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Comas, M.; Funke, B.; Gardini, A.; López-Puertas, M.; Jurado-Navarro, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Kiefer, M.; Boone, C. D.; Leblanc, T.; Marshall, B. T.; Schwartz, M. J.; Sheese, P. E.

    2014-07-01

    We present vM21 MIPAS temperatures from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, which cover all optimized resolution measurements performed by MIPAS in the Middle Atmosphere, Upper Atmosphere and NoctiLucent Cloud modes during its lifetime. i.e., from January 2005 to March 2012. The main upgrades with respect to the previous version of MIPAS temperatures (vM11) are the update of the spectroscopic database, the use of a different climatology of atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide, and the improvement of important technical aspects of the retrieval setup (temperature gradient along the line of sight and offset regularizations, apodization accuracy). Additionally, an updated version of ESA calibrated L1b spectra (5.02/5.06) is used. The vM21 temperatures correct the main systematic errors of the previous version because they on average provide a 1-2 K warmer stratopause and middle mesosphere, and a 6-10 K colder mesopause (except in high latitude summers) and lower thermosphere. These lead to a remarkable improvement of MIPAS comparisons with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and the two Rayleigh lidars at Mauna Loa and Table Mountain, that, with few specific exceptions, typically exhibit differences smaller than 1 K below 50 km and than 2 K at 50-80 km in spring, autumn, winter at all latitudes, and summer at low to mid-latitudes. Differences in the high latitude summers are typically smaller than 1 K below 50 km, smaller than 2 K at 50-65 km and 5 K at 65-80 km. Differences with the other instruments in the mid-mesosphere are generally negative. MIPAS mesopause is within 4 K of the other instruments measurements, except in the high latitude summers, where it is within 5-10 K of the other instruments, being warmer than SABER, MLS and OSIRIS and colder than ACE-FTS and SOFIE. The agreement in the lower thermosphere is typically better than 5 K, except for high latitudes during spring and summer, where MIPAS usually exhibits larger vertical gradients.

  8. Variability in Antarctic ozone loss in the last decade (2004-2013): high-resolution simulations compared to Aura MLS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttippurath, J.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Lefèvre, F.; Santee, M. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2015-09-01

    A detailed analysis of the polar ozone loss processes during 10 recent Antarctic winters is presented with high-resolution MIMOSA-CHIM (Modèle Isentrope du transport Méso-échelle de l'Ozone Stratosphérique par Advection avec CHIMie) model simulations and high-frequency polar vortex observations from the Aura microwave limb sounder (MLS) instrument. The high-frequency measurements and simulations help to characterize the winters and assist the interpretation of interannual variability better than either data or simulations alone. Our model results for the Antarctic winters of 2004-2013 show that chemical ozone loss starts in the edge region of the vortex at equivalent latitudes (EqLs) of 65-67° S in mid-June-July. The loss progresses with time at higher EqLs and intensifies during August-September over the range 400-600 K. The loss peaks in late September-early October, when all EqLs (65-83° S) show a similar loss and the maximum loss (> 2 ppmv - parts per million by volume) is found over a broad vertical range of 475-550 K. In the lower stratosphere, most winters show similar ozone loss and production rates. In general, at 500 K, the loss rates are about 2-3 ppbv sh-1 (parts per billion by volume per sunlit hour) in July and 4-5 ppbv sh-1 in August-mid-September, while they drop rapidly to 0 by mid-October. In the middle stratosphere, the loss rates are about 3-5 ppbv sh-1 in July-August and October at 675 K. On average, the MIMOSA-CHIM simulations show that the very cold winters of 2005 and 2006 exhibit a maximum loss of ~ 3.5 ppmv around 550 K or about 149-173 DU over 350-850 K, and the warmer winters of 2004, 2010, and 2012 show a loss of ~ 2.6 ppmv around 475-500 K or 131-154 DU over 350-850 K. The winters of 2007, 2008, and 2011 were moderately cold, and thus both ozone loss and peak loss altitudes are between these two ranges (3 ppmv around 500 K or 150 ± 10 DU). The modeled ozone loss values are in reasonably good agreement with those estimated from

  9. Collocated approximations on unstructured grids: a comparison between General Finite Differences (GFD), Moving Least Squares (MLS), and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliv, Yaroslav; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    In the meshfree family of methods, partial differential equations are solved on unstructured grids where a search radius establishes an implicit nodal connectivity used to determine whether to include or exclude neighboring nodes in the constructed approximation. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is widely attributed to be the eldest of the meshfree methods dating back to an astrophysics paper published in 1977 by Gingold and Monaghan. However, beating them by five years was Jensen when he published Finite Differences for Arbitrary Grids (FIDAG) in 1972. Ultimately this work and others were generalized by Liszka and Orkisz in 1979 as a weighted least squares formulation solving for the Taylor coefficients and is now commonly known as General Finite Differences (GFD). Shortly after in 1981, Lancaster and Salkauskas introduced the Moving Least Squares (MLS) approximation for surface reconstruction using a weighted least squares formulation where the unknown coefficients are treated as functions varying from node to node in the support domain. Here we examine important differences, similarities and limitations of each method by solving the 2D Poisson equation on unstructured grids. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1148903.

  10. Ticosonde CFH at Costa Rica: A Seasonal Climatology of Tropical UT-LS Water Vapor and Inter-Comparisons with MLS and CALIPSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Voemel, Holger; Avery, Melody; Rosenlof, Karen; Davis, Sean; Hurst, Dale; Schoeberl, Mark; Diaz, Jorge Andres; Morris, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Balloon sonde measurements of tropical water vapor using the Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer were initiated in Costa Rica in July 2005 and have continued to the present day. Over the nine years through July 2014, the Ticosonde program has launched 174 CFH payloads, representing the longest-running and most extensive single-site balloon dataset for tropical water vapor. In this presentation we present a seasonal climatology for water vapor and ozone at Costa Rica and examine the frequency of upper tropospheric supersaturation with comparisons to cloud fraction and cloud ice water content observations from the Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on the CALIPSO mission. We then make a critical comparison of these data to water vapor measurements from the MLS instrument on board Aura in light of recently published work for other sites. Finally, we examine time series of 2-km altitude averages in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere at Costa Rica in light of anomalies and trends seen in various large-scale indices of tropical water vapor.

  11. ClO Observations from Space by JEM/SMILES: First results of SMILES L2 research product and comparison with MLS and Odin/SMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Kasai, Yasuko; Baron, Philippe; Ochiai, Satoshi; Kanamori, Hideto; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Takeshi; Urban, Joachim; Murtagh, Donal; Smiles Mission Team

    Submillimetre-wave receiving Systems based on sensitive SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) detector Technology provide new opportunities for Accurate Observation of ClO in the at-mosphere. The Superconducting Submillimetre-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) was launched and installed onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) in September 2009. The SMILES project is a collaboration of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The aims of THE SMILES project are: i) Space demonstration of super-conductive SIS mixer for submillimetre-wave limb emission sounding cooled down to 4K using a mechanical cooler. ii) Global measurements of atmospheric molecules and radicals. SMILES observes atmospheric species and isotopologues such as Osub3/sub, Hsup35/supCl, Hsup37/supCl, ClO, Upper tro-pospheric humidity, BrO, HOBr, HOCl, HOsub2/sub, Hsub2/subOsub2/sub, HNOsub3/sub, CHsub3/subCN, SOsub2/sub, and ozone isotope species in the altitude region from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere with a precision of a few percent. SMILES observes day and night profiles of ClO in the altitude range 20-65km between 65N and 38S. We have been analyzing the ClO observations. We will present the recent status of the analysis with respect to the NICT research level-2 data product, give an error estimation, and provide early comparison/validation results from comparisons with global measurements from Odin/SMR and MLS.

  12. A tropospheric chemistry reanalysis for the years 2005-2012 based on an assimilation of OMI, MLS, TES, and MOPITT satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, K.; Eskes, H. J.; Sudo, K.

    2015-07-01

    We present the results from an 8-year tropospheric chemistry reanalysis for the period 2005-2012 obtained by assimilating multiple data sets from the OMI, MLS, TES, and MOPITT satellite instruments. The reanalysis calculation was conducted using a global chemical transport model and an ensemble Kalman filter technique that simultaneously optimises the chemical concentrations of various species and emissions of several precursors. The optimisation of both the concentration and the emission fields is an efficient method to correct the entire tropospheric profile and its year-to-year variations, and to adjust various tracers chemically linked to the species assimilated. Comparisons against independent aircraft, satellite, and ozonesonde observations demonstrate the quality of the analysed O3, NO2, and CO concentrations on regional and global scales and for both seasonal and year-to-year variations from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere. The data assimilation statistics imply persistent reduction of model error and improved representation of emission variability, but they also show that discontinuities in the availability of the measurements lead to a degradation of the reanalysis. The decrease in the number of assimilated measurements increased the ozonesonde-minus-analysis difference after 2010 and caused spurious variations in the estimated emissions. The Northern/Southern Hemisphere OH ratio was modified considerably due to the multiple-species assimilation and became closer to an observational estimate, which played an important role in propagating observational information among various chemical fields and affected the emission estimates. The consistent concentration and emission products provide unique information on year-to-year variations in the atmospheric environment.

  13. A tropospheric chemistry reanalysis for the years 2005-2012 based on an assimilation of OMI, MLS, TES and MOPITT satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, K.; Eskes, H. J.; Sudo, K.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results from an eight-year tropospheric chemistry reanalysis for the period 2005-2012 obtained by assimilating multiple retrieval data sets from the OMI, MLS, TES, and MOPITT satellite instruments. The reanalysis calculation was conducted using a global chemical transport model and an ensemble Kalman filter technique that simultaneously optimises the chemical concentrations of various species and emissions of several precursors. The optimisation of both the concentration and the emission fields is an efficient method to correct the entire tropospheric profile and its year-to-year variations, and to adjust various tracers chemically linked to the species assimilated. Comparisons against independent aircraft, satellite, and ozonesonde observations demonstrate the quality of the analysed O3, NO2, and CO concentrations on regional and global scales and for both seasonal and year-to-year variations from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere. The data assimilation statistics imply persistent reduction of model error and improved representation of emission variability, but also show that discontinuities in the availability of the measurements lead to a degradation of the reanalysis. The decrease in the number of assimilated measurements increased the ozonesonde minus analysis difference after 2010 and caused spurious variations in the estimated emissions. The Northern/Southern Hemisphere OH ratio was modified considerably due to the multiple species assimilation and became closer to an observational estimate, which played an important role in propagating observational information among various chemical fields and affected the emission estimates. The consistent concentration and emission products provide unique information on year-to-year variations of the atmospheric environment.

  14. A tropospheric chemistry reanalysis for the years 2005-2014 based on an assimilation of OMI, MLS, TES and MOPITT satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, K.; Eskes, H.; Sudo, K.

    2015-12-01

    I will present the results from a ten-year tropospheric chemistry reanalysis for the period 2005-2014 obtained by assimilating multiple data sets from the OMI, MLS, TES, and MOPITT satellite instruments. The reanalysis calculation was conducted using a global CTM and an EnKF data assimilation approach that simultaneously optimises the chemical concentrations of various species and emissions of several precursors. The optimisation of both the multiple species concentration and the emission fields is an efficient method to correct the entire tropospheric profile and its year-to-year variations, and to adjust various tracers chemically linked to the species assimilated, while taking their feedbacks into account. Comparisons against independent aircraft, satellite, and ozonesonde observations demonstrate the quality of the analysed O3, NO2, and CO concentrations on regional and global scales and for both seasonal and year-to-year variations from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere. The northern/southern hemisphere OH ratio was modified considerably due to the multiple species assimilation and became closer to an observational estimate, which played an important role in propagating observational information among various chemical fields and affected the emission estimates. In comparison to the a priori emissions based on bottom-up inventories, the optimized surface NOx emissions were higher over eastern China, the eastern United States, southern Africa, and central-western Europe, suggesting that the anthropogenic emissions are mostly underestimated in the inventories. In addition, the seasonality and year-to-year variability of the estimated emissions differed from that of the a priori emission over both industrial and biomass burning areas. The assimilation of multiple chemical data sets with different vertical sensitivity profiles also provides comprehensive constraints on the global lightning NOx source while improving the representations of the entire

  15. Comparison of NASA OMI and MLS Ozone Products with US Forest Service Ground-based Ozone Monitoring Data for US Forest Service Air Quality / Forest Management Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S.; Brooks, A.; Moussa, Y.; Spencer, T.; Thompson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone, formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react with sunlight, is a significant threat to the health of US National Forests. Approximately one third of ozone is absorbed by plants during the uptake of carbon dioxide. This increases the vegetation's susceptibility to drought, beetle infestation, and wildfire. Currently the US Forest Service has ground monitoring stations sparsely located across the country. This project looks specifically at the area surrounding several Class I Wilderness Areas in the Appalachian region. These areas are the highest priority for protection from air pollutants. The Forest Service must interpolate ozone concentrations for areas between these monitoring stations. Class I Wilderness Areas are designated by the Forest Service and are defined as a total 5000 acres or greater when the Clean Air Act was passed in 1977. This Act mandated that the EPA create national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for six major air pollutants including ground-level ozone. This project assessed the feasibility of incorporating NASA ozone data into Forest Service ozone monitoring in an effort to enhance the accuracy and precision of ozone exposure measurements in Class I Wilderness Areas and other federally managed lands in order to aid in complying with the Clean Air Act of 1977. This was accomplished by establishing a method of comparison between a preliminary data product produced at the Goddard Space Flight Center that uses OMI/MLS data to derive global tropospheric ozone measurements and Forest Service ozone monitoring station measurements. Once a methodology for comparison was established, statistical comparisons of these data were performed to assess the quantitative differences.

  16. A nudged chemistry-climate model simulation of chemical constituent distribution at northern high-latitude stratosphere observed by SMILES and MLS during the 2009/2010 stratospheric sudden warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyoshi, H.; Nakamura, T.; Miyasaka, T.; Shiotani, M.; Suzuki, M.

    2016-02-01

    Stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) is a dramatic phenomenon of the winter stratosphere in which the distribution of chemical constituents, associated chemical tendency, and transport of chemical constituents differ significantly inside and outside of the polar vortex. In this study, the chemical constituent distributions in the major SSW of 2009/2010 were simulated by the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate 3.2-Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM) nudged toward the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts-Interim Re-Analysis data. The results were compared with Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. In addition, ozone tendency due to ozone transport and chemical ozone loss in the high-latitude lower stratosphere before and after the SSW was analyzed for the period from 1 January 2010 to 11 February 2010. The evolution and distribution of ozone and HCl inside/outside the polar vortex associated with the vortex shift to the midlatitudes in January are quite similar between SMILES and MLS. Those of ClO are also similar, considering the difference in the local time for the measurement. Analyses of the nudged CCM run indicate that inside the polar vortex at 50 hPa, the ozone concentration increased moderately owing to partial cancelation between the large negative ozone tendency due to chemical ozone destruction and large positive ozone tendency due to horizontal ozone influx from outside of the vortex as well as downward advection. In the region of a high ozone concentration with the same area as that of the polar vortex at 50 hPa, the large increase in ozone was primarily due to a downward advection of ozone. SMILES and MLS observations, nudged CCM simulations, and ozone tendency analyses revealed a highly longitudinal dependent ozone tendency at high latitudes during the SSW.

  17. A 46,X,der(X)t(X;Y)(p22.3;q11.2) karyotype found in a newborn with microcornea and sclerocornea: An example of the MLS/Goltz/Aicardi contiguous gene syndrome?

    SciTech Connect

    Milatovich, A.; Becker, T.; Kaufman, A.

    1994-09-01

    There have been 15 reports in the literature of patients with microphthalmia and linear skin defects (MLS) who have deletions of the distal region of the short arm of the X chromosome, Xp22.3-pter. Since there appears to be some overlap of features between MLS, Goltz and Aicardi syndromes, it has been suggested that these syndromes represent a contiguous gene syndrome. At least three individuals have been reported with t(X;Y) and some common clinical features. We have seen a female infant with several anterior chamber anomalies including microcornea and sclerocornea, who also has an unbalanced translocation between the X and Y chromosomes, 46,X,der(X)t(X;Y) (p22.3;q11.2). Q-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a Y chromosome cocktail (Oncor) confirmed the identity of this derivative chromosome. X-inactivation studies done by RBG-banding showed that the der(X) is preferentially inactivated in all 50 metaphase cells examined from PHA-stimulated lymphocytes. It is likely some gene(s) on the distal Xp do not escape inactivation and when deleted result in anterior chamber abnormalities. X-inactivation patterns may be different in different tissues or at different times during development. Molecular studies will be helpful in determining what gene(s) are actually deleted in this case. This case is important because the clinical findings are limited to the development of the eyes and may help to define the critical regions and/or minimum region of overlap among MLS, Goltz and Aicardi syndromes.

  18. Long-term (2004-2015) tendencies and variabilities of tropical UTLS water vapor mixing ratio and temperature observed by AURA/MLS using multivariate regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, S.; Sandhya, M.

    2016-09-01

    Long-term variabilities and tendencies in the tropical (30°N-30°S)monthly averaged zonal mean water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) and temperature in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), obtained from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument onboard Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite for the period October 2004-September 2015, are studied using multivariate regression analysis. It is found that the WVMR shows a decreasing trend of 0.02-0.1 ppmv/year in WVMR below 100 hPa while the trend is positive (0.02-0.035 ppmv/year) above 100 hPa. There is no significant trend at 121 hPa. The WVMR response to solar cycle (SC) is negative below 21 hPa. However, the magnitude decreases with height from 0.13 ppmv/100 sfu(solar flux unit) at 178 hPa to 0.07 ppmv/100sfuat 26 hPa. The response of WVMR to multivariate El Niño index (MEI), which is a proxy for El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), is positive at and below 100 hPa and negative above 100 hPa. It is negative at 56-46 hPa with maximum value of 0.1 ppmv/MEI at 56 hPa. Large positive (negative) quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in WVMR at 56-68 hPa reconstructed from the regression analysis coincide with eastward (westward) to westward (eastward) transition of QBO winds at that level. The trend in zonal mean tropical temperature is negative above 56 hPa with magnitude increasing with height. The maximum negative trend of 0.05 K/year is observed at 21-17 hPa and the trend insignificant around tropopause. The response of temperature to SC is negative in the UTLS region and to ENSO is positive below 100 hPa and mostly negative above 100 hPa. The negative response of WVMR to MEI in the stratosphere is suggested to be due to the extended cold trap of tropopause temperature during El Niño years that might have controlled the water vapor entry into the stratosphere. The WVMR response to residual vertical velocity at 70 hPa is positive in the stratosphere, whereas the temperature response is positive in the

  19. Pipe Attrition Acoustic Locater (PAAL) from multi-mode dispersion analysis.

    PubMed

    Vogelaar, Bouko; Golombok, Michael; Campman, Xander

    2016-05-01

    Multi-mode dispersion imaging shows that pure dispersion-free torsional waves are reflected at a pipe end and flexural wave modes are suppressed. This effect can be used to locate and assess internal damage. The end reflection coefficient of this single propagating mode decreases with increasing wear. The pipe damage is located from the travel time of the torsional wave component reflected from the damage point. PMID:26922401

  20. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 5: Design and development of a Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for steep final approach using modern control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, N.

    1983-01-01

    The design and development of a 3-D Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) Research Aircraft, a B-737-100 is described. The system was designed using sampled data Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LOG) methods, resulting in a direct digital design with a modern control structure which consists of a Kalman filter followed by a control gain matrix, all operating at 10 Hz. DIALS uses Microwave Landing System (MLS) position, body-mounted accelerometers, as well as on-board sensors usually available on commercial aircraft, but does not use inertial platforms. The phases of the final approach considered are the localizer and glideslope capture which may be performed simultaneously, localizer and steep glideslope track or hold, crab/decrab and flare to touchdown. DIALS captures, tracks and flares from steep glideslopes ranging from 2.5 deg to 5.5 deg, selected prior to glideslope capture. Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System is the first modern control design automatic landing system successfully flight tested. The results of an initial nonlinear simulation are presented here.

  1. Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage - Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, SABER and radiosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. J.; Hindley, N. P.; Moss, A. C.; Mitchell, N. J.

    2015-07-01

    Gravity waves in the terrestrial atmosphere are a vital geophysical process, acting to transport energy and momentum on a wide range of scales and to couple the various atmospheric layers. Despite the importance of these waves, the many studies to date have often exhibited very dissimilar results, and it remains unclear whether these differences are primarily instrumental or methodological. Here, we address this problem by comparing observations made by a diverse range of the most widely-used gravity wave resolving instruments in a common geographic region around the southern Andes and Drake Passage, an area known to exhibit strong wave activity. Specifically, we use data from three limb-sounding radiometers (MLS-Aura, HIRDLS and SABER), the COSMIC GPS-RO constellation, a ground-based meteor radar, the AIRS infrared nadir sounder and radiosondes to examine the gravity wave potential energy (GWPE) and vertical wavelengths (λz) of individual gravity wave packets from the lower troposphere to the edge of the lower thermosphere. Our results show important similarities and differences. Limb sounder measurements show high intercorrelation, typically > 0.80 between any instrument pair. Meteor-radar observations agree in form with the limb sounders, despite vast technical differences. AIRS and radiosonde observations tend to be uncorrelated or anticorrelated with the other datasets, suggesting very different behaviour of the wave field in the different spectral regimes accessed by each instrument. Except in spring, we see little dissipation of GWPE throughout the stratosphere and lower mesosphere. Observed GWPE for individual wave packets exhibits a log-normal distribution, with short-timescale intermittency dominating over a well-repeated monthly-median seasonal cycle. GWPE and λz exhibit strong correlations with the stratospheric winds, but not with local surface winds. Our results provide guidance for interpretation and intercomparison of such datasets in their full

  2. Optimization of MLS receivers for multipath environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalpine, G. A.; Highfill, J. H., III

    1979-01-01

    The angle tracking problems in microwave landing system receivers along with a receiver design capable of optimal performance in the multipath environments found in air terminal areas were studied. Included were various theoretical and evaluative studies like: (1) signal model development; (2) derivation of optimal receiver structures; and (3) development and use of computer simulations for receiver algorithm evaluation. The development of an experimental receiver for flight testing is presented. An overview of the work and summary of principal results and conclusions are reported.

  3. Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage - Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, SABER and radiosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Corwin J.; Hindley, Neil P.; Moss, Andrew C.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.

    2016-03-01

    Gravity waves in the terrestrial atmosphere are a vital geophysical process, acting to transport energy and momentum on a wide range of scales and to couple the various atmospheric layers. Despite the importance of these waves, the many studies to date have often exhibited very dissimilar results, and it remains unclear whether these differences are primarily instrumental or methodological. Here, we address this problem by comparing observations made by a diverse range of the most widely used gravity-wave-resolving instruments in a common geographic region around the southern Andes and Drake Passage, an area known to exhibit strong wave activity. Specifically, we use data from three limb-sounding radiometers (Microwave Limb Sounder, MLS-Aura; HIgh Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder, HIRDLS; Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry, SABER), the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS-RO constellation, a ground-based meteor radar, the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS) infrared nadir sounder and radiosondes to examine the gravity wave potential energy (GWPE) and vertical wavelengths (λz) of individual gravity-wave packets from the lower troposphere to the edge of the lower thermosphere ( ˜ 100 km). Our results show important similarities and differences. Limb sounder measurements show high intercorrelation, typically > 0.80 between any instrument pair. Meteor radar observations agree in form with the limb sounders, despite vast technical differences. AIRS and radiosonde observations tend to be uncorrelated or anticorrelated with the other data sets, suggesting very different behaviour of the wave field in the different spectral regimes accessed by each instrument. Evidence of wave dissipation is seen, and varies strongly with season. Observed GWPE for individual wave packets exhibits a log-normal distribution, with short-timescale intermittency dominating over a well-repeated monthly-median seasonal

  4. The M.L.S. Hiring Requirement. SPEC Kit 257.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blixrud, Julia C., Comp.

    2000-01-01

    This survey of ARL (Association of Research Libraries) libraries was conducted in 1999 to determine whether findings of a 1994 survey that examined if research libraries were hiring non-M.L.S. (Master of Library Science) degreed applicants into professional positions had changed. Results revealed that, of the 111 ARL members responding, 73…

  5. MLS, a magnetic logic simulator for magnetic bubble logic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsman, Thomas B.; Cendes, Zoltan J.

    1987-04-01

    A computer program that simulates the logic functions of magnetic bubble devices has been developed. The program uses a color graphics screen to display the locations of bubbles on a chip during operation. It complements the simulator previously developed for modeling bubble devices on the gate level [Smith et al., IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-19, 1835 (1983); Smith and Kryder, ibid. MAG-21, 1779 (1985)]. This new tool simplifies the design and testing of bubble logic devices, and facilitates the development of complicated LSI bubble circuits. The program operation is demonstrated with the design of an in-stream faulty loop compensator using bubble logic.

  6. Shanghai Texts. MLS Macarthur Linguistic Studies No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccles, Lance

    Twenty texts in the Chinese dialect of Shanghai city are presented as a tool for those familiar with some dialect of Chinese who are learning this variety. The texts, recorded as spontaneous speech, were originally collected for grammatical analysis and have been revised somewhat for print form. They are arranged in approximate order of…

  7. Graduate and Post-MLS Study in Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blummer, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    As librarians confront the Information Age, it is imperative that they remain aware of the issues that affect the profession. Traditional library skills are no longer adequate for maintaining a competitive edge in the field. Post-graduate education in digital libraries offers information professionals an opportunity to broaden their knowledge of…

  8. Nano-organocatalyst: Magnetically retrievable ferrite-anchored glutathione for microwave-assisted Paal-Knorr reaction, Aza-Michael addition and pyrazole synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Postsynthetic surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles by glutathione imparts desirable chemical functionality and enables the generation of catalytic sites on the surfaces of ensuing organocatalysts. In this article, we discuss the developments, unique activity and high s...

  9. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 2: RNAV/MLS transition problems for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems in navigation and guidance encountered by aircraft in the initial transition period in changing from distance measuring equipment, VORTAC, and barometric instruments to the more precise microwave landing system data type navaids in the terminal area are investigated. The effects of the resulting discontinuities on the estimates of position and velocity for both optimal (Kalman type navigation schemes) and fixed gain (complementary type) navigation filters, and the effects of the errors in cross track, track angle, and altitude on the guidance equation and control commands during the critical landing phase are discussed. A method is presented to remove the discontinuities from the navigation loop and to reconstruct an RNAV path designed to land the aircraft with minimal turns and altitude changes.

  10. Simple Approaches to Improve the Automatic Inventory of ZEBRA Crossing from Mls Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, P.; Riveiro, B.; Soilán, M.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.

    2015-08-01

    The city management is increasingly supported by information technologies, leading to paradigms such as smart cities, where decision-makers, companies and citizens are continuously interconnected. 3D modelling turns of great relevance when the city has to be managed making use of geospatial databases or Geographic Information Systems. On the other hand, laser scanning technology has experienced a significant growth in the last years, and particularly, terrestrial mobile laser scanning platforms are being more and more used with inventory purposes in both cities and road environments. Consequently, large datasets are available to produce the geometric basis for the city model; however, this data is not directly exploitable by management systems constraining the implementation of the technology for such applications. This paper presents a new algorithm for the automatic detection of zebra crossing. The algorithm is divided in three main steps: road segmentation (based on a PCA analysis of the points contained in each cycle of collected by a mobile laser system), rasterization (conversion of the point cloud to a raster image coloured as a function of intensity data), and zebra crossing detection (using the Hough Transform and logical constrains for line classification). After evaluating different datasets collected in three cities located in Northwest Spain (comprising 25 strips with 30 visible zebra crossings) a completeness of 83% was achieved.

  11. ATC simulation of helicopter IFR approaches into major terminal areas using RNAV, MLS, and CDTI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, L.; Lee, H. Q.; Peach, L. L.; Willett, F. M., Jr.; Obrien, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The introduction of independent helicopter IFR routes at hub airports was investigated in a real time air traffic control system simulation involving a piloted helicopter simulator, computer generated air traffic, and air traffic controllers. The helicopter simulator was equipped to fly area navigation (RNAV) routes and microwave landing system approaches. Problems studied included: (1) pilot acceptance of the approach procedure and tracking accuracy; (2) ATC procedures for handling a mix of helicopter and fixed wing traffic; and (3) utility of the cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) for the helicopter in the hub airport environment. Results indicate that the helicopter routes were acceptable to the subject pilots and were noninterfering with fixed wing traffic. Merging and spacing maneuvers using CDTI were successfully carried out by the pilots, but controllers had some reservations concerning the acceptability of the CDTI procedures.

  12. Traffic sign detection in MLS acquired point clouds for geometric and image-based semantic inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soilán, Mario; Riveiro, Belén; Martínez-Sánchez, Joaquín; Arias, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, mobile laser scanning has become a valid technology for infrastructure inspection. This technology permits collecting accurate 3D point clouds of urban and road environments and the geometric and semantic analysis of data became an active research topic in the last years. This paper focuses on the detection of vertical traffic signs in 3D point clouds acquired by a LYNX Mobile Mapper system, comprised of laser scanning and RGB cameras. Each traffic sign is automatically detected in the LiDAR point cloud, and its main geometric parameters can be automatically extracted, therefore aiding the inventory process. Furthermore, the 3D position of traffic signs are reprojected on the 2D images, which are spatially and temporally synced with the point cloud. Image analysis allows for recognizing the traffic sign semantics using machine learning approaches. The presented method was tested in road and urban scenarios in Galicia (Spain). The recall results for traffic sign detection are close to 98%, and existing false positives can be easily filtered after point cloud projection. Finally, the lack of a large, publicly available Spanish traffic sign database is pointed out.

  13. Simulation, guidance and navigation of the B-737 for rollout and turnoff using MLS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.; Schmidt, S. F.; Mann, F.

    1975-01-01

    A simulation program is described for the B-737 aircraft in landing approach, a touchdown, rollout and turnoff for normal and CAT III weather conditions. Preliminary results indicate that microwave landing systems can be used in place of instrument landing systems landing aids and that a single magnetic cable can be used for automated rollout and turnoff. Recommendations are made for further refinement of the model and additional testing to finalize a set of guidance laws for rollout and turnoff.

  14. TES/MLS Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nadir (TML2CO)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-04-05

    ...   Reverb   Reverb Tutorial FTP Access:   Data Pool OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  CO ... Versioning and Validation Status Level 2 Global Survey Readme Files:  Readme Level 2 Read ...

  15. TES/MLS Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nadir (TML2COS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-04-06

    ...   Reverb   Reverb Tutorial FTP Access:   Data Pool OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  CO ... Versioning and Validation Status Level 2 Global Survey Readme Files:  Readme Level 2 Read ...

  16. Seasonal Behavior of Tropical to Mid-Latitude Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor from UARS MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, B.; Read, W.; Waters, J.; Rosenlof, K.

    1998-01-01

    Upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) is a fundamental importance in understanding earth's atmosphere and climate. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas and it is in the upper troposphere that water vapor most strongly influences radiative forcing.

  17. Physical Mechanisms Controlling Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor as Revealed by MLS Data from UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, Reginald E.

    1998-01-01

    The seasonal changes of the upper tropospheric humidity are studied with the water vapor data from the Microwave Limb Sounder on the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, and the winds and vertical velocity data obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Using the same algorithm for vertical transport as that used for horizontal transport (Zhu and Newell, 1998), we find that the moisture in the tropical upper troposphere may be increased mainly by intensified local convection in a small portion, less than 10%, of the whole area between 40 deg S to 40 deg N. The contribution of large scale background circulations and divergence of horizontal transport is relatively small in these regions. These dynamic processes cannot be revealed by the traditional analyses of moisture fluxes. The negative feedback suggested by Lindzen (1990) also exists, if enhanced convection is concentrated in the tropics, but is apparently not the dominant process in the moisture budget.

  18. The evolution of ozone observed by UARS MLS in the 1992 late winter southern polar vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Manney, G.L.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J.W.; Elson, L.S.; Fishbein, E.F.; Zurek, R.W. ); Harwood, R.S.; Lahoz, W.A. )

    1993-06-18

    This paper presents initial data analysis of ozone distributions in the southern polar vortex region during the winter of 1992. The data comes from the microwave limb sounder on the upper atmosphere research satellite. The data provides never before available coverage of the polar stratosphere, and reveals the development of an ozone hole from column ozone data, changes in ozone mixing ratios in the lower stratosphere consistent with ozone destruction processes in the stratosphere, and evidence to support the transport of ozone toward the pole by tidal wave activity in the stratosphere. The ozone measurements are compared with the development of the polar vortex derived from national meteorological center data.

  19. Low-Level Tie Feature Extraction of Mobile Mapping Data (mls/images) and Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jende, P.; Hussnain, Z.; Peter, M.; Oude Elberink, S.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-03-01

    Mobile Mapping (MM) is a technique to obtain geo-information using sensors mounted on a mobile platform or vehicle. The mobile platform's position is provided by the integration of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). However, especially in urban areas, building structures can obstruct a direct line-of-sight between the GNSS receiver and navigation satellites resulting in an erroneous position estimation. Therefore, derived MM data products, such as laser point clouds or images, lack the expected positioning reliability and accuracy. This issue has been addressed by many researchers, whose aim to mitigate these effects mainly concentrates on utilising tertiary reference data. However, current approaches do not consider errors in height, cannot achieve sub-decimetre accuracy and are often not designed to work in a fully automatic fashion. We propose an automatic pipeline to rectify MM data products by employing high resolution aerial nadir and oblique imagery as horizontal and vertical reference, respectively. By exploiting the MM platform's defective, and therefore imprecise but approximate orientation parameters, accurate feature matching techniques can be realised as a pre-processing step to minimise the MM platform's three-dimensional positioning error. Subsequently, identified correspondences serve as constraints for an orientation update, which is conducted by an estimation or adjustment technique. Since not all MM systems employ laser scanners and imaging sensors simultaneously, and each system and data demands different approaches, two independent workflows are developed in parallel. Still under development, both workflows will be presented and preliminary results will be shown. The workflows comprise of three steps; feature extraction, feature matching and the orientation update. In this paper, initial results of low-level image and point cloud feature extraction methods will be discussed as well as an outline of the project and its framework will be given.

  20. MLS antenna locations for the deHaviland DASH 7 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilreath, M. C.; Earl, H. S., Jr.; Langford, B. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Several proposed aircraft antenna locations were investigated to determine their potential for satisfying the microwave landing system antenna coverage requirements. The results of this investigation are presented and antenna locations are recommended for the deHavilland DASH 7 aircraft.

  1. The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Joe W.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Harwood, Robert S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Read, William G.; Siegel, Peter H.; Cofield, Richard E.; Filipiak, Mark J.; Flower, Dennis A.; Holden, James R.; Lau, Gary K.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Manney, Gloria L; Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Santee, Michelle L.; Wu, Dong L.; Cuddy, David T.; Lay, Richard R.; Loo, Mario S.; Perun, Vincent S.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Stek, Paul C.; Thurstans, Robert P.; Boyles, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder measures several atmospheric chemical species (OH, HO2, H2O, O3, HCl, ClO, HOCl, BrO, HNO3, N2O, CO, HCN, CH3CN, volcanic SO2), cloud ice, temperature, and geopotential height to improve our understanding of stratospheric ozone chemistry, the interaction of composition and climate, and pollution in the upper troposphere. All measurements are made simultaneously and continuously, during both day and night. The instrument uses heterodyne radiometers that observe thermal emission from the atmospheric limb in broad spectral regions centered near 118, 190, 240, and 640 GHz, and 2.5 THz. It was launched July 15, 2004 on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Aura satellite and started full-up science operations on August 13, 2004. An atmospheric limb scan and radiometric calibration for all bands are performed routinely every 25 s. Vertical profiles are retrieved every 165 km along the suborbital track, covering 82 S to 82 N latitudes on each orbit. Instrument performance to date has been excellent; data have been made publicly available; and initial science results have been obtained.

  2. Computer Competencies for MLS Graduates: A Study of the UH Graduate School of Library Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Denise M.

    This study is designed to identify the computer competencies that should be required of library/information studies (LIS) graduates of the Graduate School of Library Studies (GSLS) at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The long term objective of the study is to provide information for the policy and planning of GSLS. The study examines how certain…

  3. Does C-C bonding proceed during exposure of adequate metal surfaces to CH{sub 4}? Reply to {open_quotes}Comment by Z. Hlavathy, Z. Paal, and P. Tetenyi{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Amaraiglio, A.; Pareja, P.; Amariglio, H.

    1997-02-01

    The comments, results, and reflections presented by Hlavathy and co-workers in their Letter aim at demonstrating that C-C bonding between CH{sub x} adspecies, formed upon exposure of Pt to CH{sub 4}, can proceed as well during the exposure itself as during further exposure to H{sub 2}. This possibility was implicitly put forward because they thought that a tight parallelism exists between the interactions of CH{sub 4} and CO with a metal surface, provided that the exposure to CH{sub 4} is carried out at a high enough temperature (450{degrees}C). In both cases these authors assumed that three kinds of carbon, C{sub {alpha}}, C{sub {beta}}, and C{sub {gamma}}, can be formed, C{sub {alpha}} being the main species responsible for the production of CH{sub 4} and of the C{sub 2}, alkanes obtained when the metal was further contacted with H{sub 2} at 100{degrees}C. As they argued that C{sub {alpha}} (also named carbidic carbon) has only metal atoms in its first coordination shell, they were implicitly led it that C-C bonding must take place during the hydrogenation step. The authors have not denied this possibility, but they have suggested that different situations can result from exposures to CH{sub 4} conducted at temperatures much lower than those used by Koerts et al.. 13 refs.

  4. Atmospheric Profiling Combining the Features of GPS ro & Mls: Satellite to Satellite Occultations Near Water & Ozone Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate models & their predictions requires observations that determine the state of the real climate system precisely and unambiguously, independently from models. For this purpose, we have been developing a new orbiting remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone & Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) which is a cross between GPS RO and the Microwave Limb Sounder. ATOMMS actively probes water vapor, ozone & other absorption lines at cm & mm wavelengths in a satellite to satellite occultation geometry to simultaneously profile temperature, pressure, water vapor and ozone as well as other important constituents. Individual profiles of water vapor, temperature & pressure heights will extend from near the surface into the mesosphere with ~1%, 0.4K and 10 m precision respectively and still better accuracy, with 100 m vertical resolution. Ozone profiles will extend upward from the upper troposphere. Line of sight wind profiles will extend upwards from the mid-stratosphere. ATOMMS is a doubly differential absorption system which eliminates drift and both sees clouds and sees thru them, to deliver performance in clouds within a factor of 2 of the performance in clear skies. This all-weather sampling combined with insensitivity to surface emissivity avoids sampling biases that limit most existing satellite records. ATOMMS will profile slant liquid water in clouds & rain and as well as turbulence via scintillations ("twinkling of a star"). Using prototype ATOMMS instrumentation that we developed with funding from NSF, several ATOMMS ground field campaigns precisely measured water vapor, cloud amount, rainfall, turbulence and absorption line spectroscopy. ATOMMS's dynamic range was demonstrated as water vapor was derived to 1% precision in optical depths up to 17. We are developing high altitude aircraft to aircraft instrumentation to further demonstrate ATOMMS performance, refine spectroscopy & support future field campaigns. Our vision is a constellation of microsatellites carrying ATOMMS to provide radiosonde-like profiles for weather prediction, an unprecedented characterization of present climate, a continuous global field campaign to constrain critical processes to improve models, and a long term record quantifying trends in climatic behavior.

  5. The Ideal Candidate for School Library Media Specialist: Views from School Administrators, Library School Faculty, and MLS Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roys, Nadine K.; Brown, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    Preferred characteristics in applicants for school library media specialist (SLMS) positions are studied in this article from three perspectives, that of the library school faculty, the library school student, and the school administrator. Surveys were sent to public high school administrators in the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho;…

  6. Real-time simulation of helicopter IFR approaches into major terminal areas using RNAV, MLS, and CDTI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, L.; Lee, H. Q.; Peach, L. L.; Willett, F. M., Jr.; Obrien, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Helicopter IFR routes at hub airports have been investigated in an air-traffic-control system simulation involving a piloted helicopter simulator, computer-generated air traffic, and air traffic controllers. Problems studied included: (1) pilot acceptance of the approach procedure and tracking accuracy; (2) ATC procedures for handling a mix of helicopter and fixed-wing traffic; and (3) utility of the Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) for the helicopter. Results indicate that the helicopter routes were pilot acceptable and were noninterfering with fixed-wing traffic. Merging and spacing maneuvers using CDTI were successfully carried out by the pilots, but controllers had some reservations concerning CDTI.

  7. Multilingual and Native English-Speaking Student Writers in Medical Laboratory Sciences (MLS): A Comparative Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice M.; Thompson, Julie M.; Eliason, Patricia A.; Collins, Molly Rojas; Murie, Robin; Spannaus-Martin, Donna J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical laboratory scientists are health care practitioners who perform testing on blood and other body fluids providing vital information to physicians for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of patients in health and disease. Miscommunications between laboratory personnel and other health care practitioners can result in unwarranted delays…

  8. Tropical and Midlatitude Tropospheric Column Ozone Response to ENSO in GEOS-5 Assimilation of OMI and MLS Ozone Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, M. A.; Wargan, K.; Pawson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Nine years of ozone observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and Microwave Limb Sounder have been assimilated into the Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 data assimilation system. We investigate the magnitude and spatial distribution of the influence by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on tropospheric column ozone (TCO) in the tropics through the middle latitudes. The tropospheric response in the tropics agrees well with previous studies. A newly identified two-lobed response symmetric about the Equator in the western Pacific/Indonesian region is consistent with the large-scale vertical transport. The ozone response is weaker in the middle latitudes, but significant explained variance of the TCO is found over several small regions, including the central United States. However, the sensitivity of TCO to the Niño 3.4 index is significant over a large area of the middle latitudes. The sensitivity maxima and minima coincide with anomalous anti-cyclonic and cyclonic circulations. The associated vertical transport is consistent with the sign of the sensitivity. ENSO related changes to the mean depth of the tropospheric column have little impact on the TCO response in the tropics but can contribute significantly to the midlatitude response. Comparisons to a 22-year chemical transport model simulation demonstrate that these results from the nine-year assimilation are representative of the longer-term. This investigation brings insight to several seemingly disparate prior studies of the El Niño influence on tropospheric ozone in the middle latitudes. In addition, these results are valuable as a process-oriented assessment of the tropospheric response in model simulations.

  9. Use of GTE, Mozaic, Sonex, and UARS-MLS Data in Understanding Tropospheric Processes Critical to Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, Reginald E. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    During the first year we focused on the analysis of data collected on over 7600 commercial aircraft flights (the MOZAIC program). The aim was to further our understanding of the fundamental dynamical processes that drive mesoscale phenomena in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and their effects on the advection of passive scalars. Through these studies we made the following findings. 2001]: We derived the Kolmogorov equation for the third-order velocity structure function on an f-plane. We showed how the sign of the function yields the direction of the energy cascade. The remarkable linearity of the measured off diagonal third-order structure function was studied. We suggested that the Coriolis term, which appears explicitly in this equation, may be crucial in understanding the observed kinetic energy spectra at scales larger than 100 km, instead of the nonlinear advection term as previously assumed. Also, we showed that decreases with latitude for mid- to high-latitudes, and tabulated the values. Ozone concentration structure functions were calculated by restricting the data points to approximately isentropic pairings. In this way we were able to make comparisons with scalar advection theories. We found that, at even the largest scales, there was no evidence for the simple scaling predicted for smooth advection/diffusion.

  10. Magnetic nanoparticle-supported glutathione: a conceptually sustainable organocatalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conceptually novel nanoparticle-supported and magnetically recoverable organocatalyst has been developed, which is readily prepared from inexpensive starting materials in a truly sustainable manner; which catalyzes Paal-Knorr reaction with high yield in pure aqueous medium that...

  11. In Mls-1a mice, fetal-type beta-gene rearrangements are frequent among self-anergic V beta 6 T cells.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, R; Sirr, A; McCarty, M; Sim, G K; Augustin, A

    1993-11-01

    T lymphocytes generated in the fetal and neonatal period are characterized by T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements that lack N region nucleotides (fetal-type TCR). Using fetal-type TCR as a lineage marker, we show that such T cells are long-lived and persist in the periphery of adult mice. Moreover, in both neonatal and adult environments, upon encounter with self-antigens, they are less likely to be deleted. Inefficient clonal deletion could be due to the intrinsic properties of the T cells generated during this period, or to yet unknown properties of the perinatal thymus. Such anergic T cells constitute a subset that can further expand in vivo in an antigen-independent fashion, leaving open the possibility for self-aggression under the appropriate triggering conditions. PMID:7693855

  12. Comparison of GPS/SAC-C and MIPAS/ENVISAT temperature profiles and its implementation for EOS AURA-MLS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Wang, Ding-Yi; Romans, Larry J.; Ao, Chi O.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Stiller, Gabriele P.; von Clarmann, Thomas; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Funke, Bernd; Gil-Lopez, Sergio; Glatthor, Norbert; Grabowski, Udo; Hopfner, Michael; Kellmann, Sylvia; Kiefer, Michael; Linden, Andrea; Tsidu, Glzaw Mengitsu; Milz, Mathias; Steck, Tilman; Fischer, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    A new generation GPS flight receiver was launched on the Argentinian satellite SAC-C in 2001. It has demonstrated the potential applicability for the continuous monitoring of the earth's atmosphere with radio occultation technology, and providing high vertical resolution profiles of temperature and water vapour data complementary to other sounding techniques.

  13. Flight simulation study to determine MLS lateral course width requirements on final approach for general aviation. [runway conditions affecting microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumrine, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of various lateral course widths and runway lengths for manual CAT I Microwave Landing System instrument approaches was carried out with instrument rated pilots in a General Aviation simulator. Data are presented on the lateral dispersion at the touchdown zone, and the middle and outer markers, for approaches to 3,000, 8,000 (and trial 12,000 foot) runway lengths with full scale angular lateral course widths of + or - 1.19 deg, + or - 2.35 deg, and + or - 3.63 deg. The distance from touchdown where the localizer deviation went to full scale was also recorded. Pilot acceptance was measured according to the Cooper-Harper rating system.

  14. Sensitivity of tropical stratospheric ozone to rotational UV variations estimated from UARS and Aura MLS observations during the declining phases of solar cycles 22 and 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossay, Sébastien; Bekki, Slimane; Marchand, Marion; Poulain, Virginie; Toumi, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    The correlation between tropical stratospheric ozone and UV radiation on solar rotational time scales is investigated using daily satellite ozone observations and reconstructed solar spectra. We consider two 3-year periods falling within the descending phases of two 11-year solar cycles 22 (1991-1994) and 23 (2004-2007). The UV rotational cycle is highly irregular and even disappears for half a year during cycle 23. For the 1991-1994 period, ozone and 205 nm UV flux are found to be correlated between about 10 and 1 hPa with a maximum of 0.29 at ~5 hPa; ozone sensitivity (percentage change in ozone for 1% change in UV) peaks at ~0.4. Correlation during cycle 23 is weaker with a peak ozone sensitivity of 0.2. The correlation is found to vary widely, not only with altitude, but also from one year to the next with a rotational signal in ozone appearing almost intermittent. Unexpectedly, the correlation is not found to bear any relation with the solar rotational forcing. For instance, solar rotational fluctuations are by far the strongest during 1991-1992 whereas the correlation peaks at the end of 1993, a rotationally quiescent period. When calculated over sliding intervals of 1-year, the sensitivity is found to vary very strongly within both 3-year periods; it is almost negligible over the entire vertical profile during some 1-year intervals or reaches close to 1 around 2-5 mb for other intervals. Other sources of variability, presumably of dynamical origin, operate on the rotational spectral range and determine to a large extent the estimated solar rotational signal. Even considering 3 years of observations (corresponding to about 40 solar cycles), the extraction of the rotational solar signal does not appear to be robust during declining phases of 11-year solar cycles. As observational studies cover at best three 11-year solar cycles, it must be challenging to produce a reliable estimation of the 11-year solar cycle signal in stratospheric ozone, especially in the presence of decadal climate variability.

  15. Atmospheric Dynamics Deduced from UARS Using Middle Atmosphere ISAMS Carbon Monoxide and Upper-Tropospheric MLS Water Vapor and Ice Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standford, John L.

    2002-01-01

    This project involved analyses of atmospheric constituent data fields, carbon monoxide in the upper stratospheric/lower mesosphere, and water vapor in the upper troposphere. The observational data analyses were compared with atmospheric models.

  16. 78 FR 56687 - Texas Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... existing looped \\1\\ Mainline System (MLS) 26-2 and MLS 26-1 pipelines and its Bastrop-Eunice System (BAE... abandonment consists mostly of a contiguous pipeline designated as either MLS 26-2, MLS 26-1, or BAE 26-1... pipeline consisting of: 246.5 miles of the MLS 26-2 Pipeline from the Hardinsburg Compressor Station...

  17. 14 CFR 171.307 - Minimum requirements for approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171... before the FAA approves an IFR procedure for a non-Federal MLS facility: (1) The performance of the MLS... maintain the MLS facility in accordance with § 171.325. (4) The owner must agree to furnish...

  18. 14 CFR 171.303 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.303 Definitions. As used in.... Microwave Landing System (MLS) means the MLS selected by ICAO for international standardization. Minimum... approach procedures and obstacle clearance criteria. MLS Approach Reference Datum is a point at a...

  19. 14 CFR 171.317 - Approach elevation performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (MLS) § 171.317 Approach elevation performance requirements. This section prescribes the performance requirements for the elevation equipment components of the MLS as follows: (a) Elevation coverage requirements... Approval of MLS.) (3) Be located such that the MLS Approach Reference Datum and ILS Reference Datum...

  20. 14 CFR 171.307 - Minimum requirements for approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171... before the FAA approves an IFR procedure for a non-Federal MLS facility: (1) The performance of the MLS... maintain the MLS facility in accordance with § 171.325. (4) The owner must agree to furnish...

  1. 14 CFR 171.317 - Approach elevation performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (MLS) § 171.317 Approach elevation performance requirements. This section prescribes the performance requirements for the elevation equipment components of the MLS as follows: (a) Elevation coverage requirements... Approval of MLS.) (3) Be located such that the MLS Approach Reference Datum and ILS Reference Datum...

  2. 14 CFR 171.323 - Fabrication and installation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (MLS) § 171.323 Fabrication and installation requirements. (a) The MLS facility must be permanent and... requirements and siting requirements of §§ 171.313(b) and 171.317(b). (b) The MLS facility components must... time of the MLS equipment must be equal to or less than 0.5 hours with a maximum corrective...

  3. 14 CFR 171.303 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.303 Definitions. As used in.... Microwave Landing System (MLS) means the MLS selected by ICAO for international standardization. Minimum... approach procedures and obstacle clearance criteria. MLS Approach Reference Datum is a point at a...

  4. 14 CFR 171.323 - Fabrication and installation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (MLS) § 171.323 Fabrication and installation requirements. (a) The MLS facility must be permanent and... requirements and siting requirements of §§ 171.313(b) and 171.317(b). (b) The MLS facility components must... time of the MLS equipment must be equal to or less than 0.5 hours with a maximum corrective...

  5. Extant and Extinct Lunar Regolith Simulants: Modal Analyses of NU-LHT-1M and -2m, OB-1, JSC-1, JSC-1A and -1AF,FJS-1, and MLS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian; Rickman, Doug; McLemore, Carole; Fikes, John; Wilson, Stephen; Stoeser, Doug; Butcher, Alan; Botha, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    This work is part of a larger effort to compile an internally consistent database on lunar regolith (Apollo samples) and lunar regolith simulants. Characterize existing lunar regolith and simulants in terms of: a) Particle type; b) Particle size distribution; c) Particle shape distribution; d) Bulk density; and e) Other compositional characteristics. Evaluate regolith simulants (Figure of Merit) by above properties by comparison to lunar regolith (Apollo sample) This presentation covers new data on lunar simulants.

  6. Solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy of adduction products of 2,5-hexanedione with ribonuclease, albumin, and rat neurofilament protein.

    PubMed

    Yan, B; DeCaprio, A P; Zhu, M; Bank, S

    1996-10-21

    The Paal-Knorr condensation reaction between the gamma-diketone 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) and epsilon-amine moieties of proteins of various molecular weight, including ribonuclease (RNase), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and rat neurofilament (NF), has been investigated by solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. These proteins all reacted with 2,5-HD with the formation of 2,5-dimethylpyrrole (2,5-DMP) derivatives. The size and complexity of the protein affected the rate of formation of 2,5-DMP derivatives. Using the selective reducing reagent NaCNBH3, the Paal-Knorr reaction intermediates were trapped by conversion into amines, which were identified by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The secondary autoxidation reaction following the formation of 2,5-DMP derivatives was also studied by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. PMID:8950225

  7. 14 CFR 171.301 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.301 Scope. This subpart...-Federal Microwave Landing System (MLS) facilities that provide the basis for instrument flight rules...

  8. 14 CFR 171.301 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.301 Scope. This subpart...-Federal Microwave Landing System (MLS) facilities that provide the basis for instrument flight rules...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... arranged so that at least one is recorded each second. 27. Localizer Deviation, MLS Azimuth, or GPS... so that at least one is recorded each second. It is not necessary to record ILS and MLS at the same time, only the approach aid in use need be recorded. 28. Glideslope Deviation, MLS Elevation, or...

  10. 77 FR 31178 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  11. 76 FR 60930 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... and industry. The Mass Layoff Statistics (MLS) program uses a standardized, automated approach to... implementation of the MLS program by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) through the Fiscal Years 1984-1992..., funding for the MLS program became part of the Bureau of Labor Statistics permanent budget. Also in...

  12. 76 FR 1355 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec....

  13. 14 CFR 171.313 - Azimuth performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171... azimuth equipment of the MLS as follows: (a) Approach azimuth coverage requirements. The approach azimuth... offset 10 −511 m to +511 m (See note 3) 1 m Approach azimuth to MLS datum point distance 13 0 m to 8...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recorded each second. 27. Localizer Deviation, MLS Azimuth, or GPS Lateral Deviation ±400 Microamps or... second. It is not necessary to record ILS and MLS at the same time, only the approach aid in use need be recorded. 28. Glideslope Deviation, MLS Elevation, or GPS Vertical Deviation ±400 Microamps or...

  15. 76 FR 37263 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  16. 76 FR 64006 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec....

  17. 76 FR 78810 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  18. 14 CFR 171.311 - Signal format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.311 Signal format requirements. The signals radiated by the MLS must conform to the signal format in which angle... ±50 Hz in any one second period. The MLS angle/data and DME equipment must operate on one of...

  19. 75 FR 32094 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  20. 78 FR 5253 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  1. 78 FR 54562 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs;...

  2. 76 FR 55235 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  3. 76 FR 11944 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and...

  4. 78 FR 43781 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  5. 75 FR 32655 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  6. 77 FR 37799 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  7. 77 FR 66536 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs;...

  8. 76 FR 28173 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  9. 76 FR 18381 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  10. 78 FR 16608 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  11. 78 FR 42555 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... (COLs), standard design approvals (SDAs), or manufacturing licenses (MLs); at certain intervals after... eligible under the Atomic Energy Act to apply for ESPs, SDCs, COLs, or MLs. 5. The number of annual... with conditions, OLs, MLs, SDAs, and preapplication reviews of site suitability issues. Part 52...

  12. 77 FR 45925 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  13. 76 FR 25231 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs;...

  14. Investigating How and What Prospective Teachers Learn through Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria Lorelei

    2010-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] combines elements of Japanese lesson study and microteaching. A case study of MLS was conducted with 18 prospective teachers in an initial course on learning to teach. Various data sources (i.e., pre- and post-lesson plans, MLS lesson plans, videotaped lessons, transcripts of group discussions, observation field…

  15. 78 FR 18803 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  16. 77 FR 33085 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  17. 14 CFR 171.309 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.309 General requirements. The MLS is a precision approach and landing guidance system which provides position information.... (a) An MLS constructed to meet the requirements of this subpart must include: (1) Approach...

  18. 75 FR 76628 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs;...

  19. 76 FR 52237 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  20. 75 FR 25759 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  1. 76 FR 56971 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and...

  2. 75 FR 80680 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs;...

  3. 75 FR 54769 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  4. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... arranged so that at least one is recorded each second. 27. Localizer Deviation, MLS Azimuth, or GPS Lateral... least one is recorded each second. It is not necessary to record ILS and MLS at the same time, only the approach aid in use need be recorded. 28. Glideslope Deviation, MLS Elevation, or GPS Vertical...

  5. 78 FR 14009 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  6. 75 FR 42310 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  7. 76 FR 61040 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs;...

  8. 14 CFR 171.327 - Operational records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.327 Operational records. The owner of the MLS facility or his maintenance representative must submit the following... Form 6030-1 is permanent record of all the activities required to maintain the MLS facility....

  9. 75 FR 21981 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Deviation, MLS Azimuth, or GPS Latitude Deviation ±400 Microamps or available sensor range as installed±62... record ILS and MLS at the same time, only the approach aid in use need be recorded. 28. Glideslope Deviation, MLS Elevation, or GPS Vertical Deviation ±400 Microamps or available sensor range as...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Localizer Deviation, MLS Azimuth, or GPS Lateral Deviation ±400 Microamps or available sensor range as... to record ILS and MLS at the same time, only the approach aid in use need be recorded. 28. Glideslope Deviation, MLS Elevation, or GPS Vertical Deviation ±400 Microamps or available sensor range as...

  12. 76 FR 65951 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec....

  13. 78 FR 7652 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  14. 75 FR 915 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  15. 14 CFR 171.325 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (MLS) § 171.325 Maintenance and operations requirements. (a) The owner of the facility must establish an adequate maintenance system and provide MLS qualified maintenance personnel to maintain the... to maintain an MLS facility, including proficiency in maintenance procedures and the use...

  16. 77 FR 5694 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a....27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec....

  17. 78 FR 10060 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  18. 78 FR 68704 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  19. 78 FR 5130 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  20. 14 CFR 171.313 - Azimuth performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171... azimuth equipment of the MLS as follows: (a) Approach azimuth coverage requirements. The approach azimuth... offset 10 −511 m to +511 m (See note 3) 1 m Approach azimuth to MLS datum point distance 13 0 m to 8...

  1. 78 FR 32087 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  2. 75 FR 72940 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec....

  3. 76 FR 35098 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs;...

  4. 14 CFR 171.325 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (MLS) § 171.325 Maintenance and operations requirements. (a) The owner of the facility must establish an adequate maintenance system and provide MLS qualified maintenance personnel to maintain the... to maintain an MLS facility, including proficiency in maintenance procedures and the use...

  5. 78 FR 37452 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  6. 14 CFR 171.327 - Operational records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.327 Operational records. The owner of the MLS facility or his maintenance representative must submit the following... Form 6030-1 is permanent record of all the activities required to maintain the MLS facility....

  7. 78 FR 56829 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and...

  8. 78 FR 25386 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  9. 76 FR 70055 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs;...

  10. 77 FR 1013 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  11. 78 FR 28133 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  12. 14 CFR 171.311 - Signal format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.311 Signal format requirements. The signals radiated by the MLS must conform to the signal format in which angle... ±50 Hz in any one second period. The MLS angle/data and DME equipment must operate on one of...

  13. 75 FR 39150 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  14. 14 CFR 171.305 - Requests for IFR procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.305 Requests for IFR procedure. (a) Each person who requests an IFR procedure based on an MLS facility which that... with this subparagraph. (b) FAA inspects and evaluates the MLS facility; it advises the owner of...

  15. 75 FR 55961 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec....

  16. 75 FR 8243 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  17. 75 FR 60305 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec....

  18. 77 FR 56762 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and...

  19. 76 FR 47988 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  20. 77 FR 50014 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  1. 75 FR 22217 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  2. 14 CFR 171.305 - Requests for IFR procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.305 Requests for IFR procedure. (a) Each person who requests an IFR procedure based on an MLS facility which that... with this subparagraph. (b) FAA inspects and evaluates the MLS facility; it advises the owner of...

  3. 76 FR 21234 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  4. 78 FR 5132 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... recorded each second. 27. Localizer Deviation, MLS Azimuth, or GPS Lateral Deviation ±400 Microamps or... second. It is not necessary to record ILS and MLS at the same time, only the approach aid in use need be recorded. 28. Glideslope Deviation, MLS Elevation, or GPS Vertical Deviation ±400 Microamps or...

  6. 76 FR 72613 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs;...

  7. 75 FR 19539 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February.../DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec. 97.35...

  8. 78 FR 64170 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and...

  9. 78 FR 50326 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  10. 75 FR 63710 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RA DAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  11. 76 FR 43578 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  12. 75 FR 9098 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  13. 75 FR 42168 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ...), or Manufacturing Licenses (MLs); and every 10 to 20 years for applications for renewal. 6. Who will... companies, and any person eligible under the Atomic Energy Act to apply for ESPs, SDCs, COLs, or MLs. 7. An... single license a construction permit, and an operating license with conditions, OLs, MLs, SDAs, and...

  14. 77 FR 51896 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPSs; and...

  15. Airborne antenna coverage requirements for the TCV B-737 aircraft. [for operation with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, W. A., Jr.; White, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The airborne antenna line of sight look angle requirement for operation with a Microwave Landing System (MLS) was studied. The required azimuth and elevation line of sight look angles from an antenna located on an aircraft to three ground based antenna sites at the Wallops Flight Center (FPS-16 radar, MLS aximuth, and MLS elevation) as the aircraft follows specific approach paths selected as representative of MLS operations at the Denver, Colorado, terminal area are presented. These required azimuth and elevation look angles may be interpreted as basic design requirements for antenna of the TCV B-737 airplane for MLS operations along these selected approach paths.

  16. National INFOSEC technical baseline: multi-level secure systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J P

    1998-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a baseline description of the state of multilevel processor/processing to the INFOSEC Research Council and at their discretion to the R&D community at large. From the information in the report, it is hoped that the members of the IRC will be aware of gaps in MLS research. A primary purpose is to bring IRC and the research community members up to date on what is happening in the MLS arena. The review will attempt to cover what MLS products are still available, and to identify companies who still offer MLS products. We have also attempted to identify requirements for MLS by interviewing senior officers of the Intelligence community as well as those elements of DoD and DOE who are or may be interested in procuring MLS products for various applications. The balance of the report consists of the following sections; a background review of the highlights of the developments of MLS, a quick summary of where we are today in terms of products, installations, and companies who are still in the business of supplying MLS systems [or who are developing MLS system], the requirements as expressed by senior members of the Intelligence community and DoD and DOE, issues and unmet R&D challenges surrounding MLS, and finally a set of recommended research topics.

  17. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, L.; Jiang, Y. B.; Lambert, A.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Fuller, R. A.; Marcy, T. P.; Popp, P. J.; Gao, R. S.; Fahey, D. W.; Jucks, K. W.; Stachnik, R. A.; Toon, G. C.; Christensen, L. E.; Webster, C. R.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Walker, K. A.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Harwood, R. S.; Manney, G. L.; Schwartz, M. J.; Daffer, W. H.; Drouin, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite has provided daily global HCl profiles since August 2004. We provide a characterization of the resolution, random and systematic uncertainties, and known issues for the version 2.2 MLS HCl data. The MLS sampling allows for comparisons with many (1500 to more than 3000) closely matched profiles from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). These data sets provide HCl latitudinal distributions that are, overall, very similar to those from (coincident) MLS profiles, although there are some discrepancies in the upper stratosphere between the MLS and HALOE gradients. As found in previous work, MLS and ACE HCl profiles agree very well (within approximately 5%, on average), but the MLS HCl abundances are generally larger (by 10-20%) than HALOE HCl. The bias versus HALOE is unlikely to arise mostly from MLS, as a similar systematic bias (of order 15%) is not observed between average MLS and balloon-borne measurements of HCl, obtained over Fort Sumner, New Mexico, in 2004 and 2005. At the largest pressure (147 hPa) for MLS HCl, a high bias (approximately 0.2 ppbv) is apparent in analyses of low to midlatitude data versus in situ aircraft chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) HCl measurements from the Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) campaigns in 2004, 2005, and 2006; this bias is also observed in comparisons of MLS and aircraftHCl/O3 correlations. Good agreement between MLS and CIMS HCl is obtained at 100 to 68 hPa. The recommended pressure range for MLS HCl is from 100 to 0.15 hPa.

  18. Operational considerations in utilization of microwave landing system approach and landing guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L. V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of microwave landing system (MLS) equipment are reviewed and the flight performance of the terminal configured vehicle B-737 airplane during nearly five years of flight experience with MLS is summarized. Most of these flights involved curved, descending flight paths with automatic landings and final approaches as short as 0.44 n. mi. Possible uses to solve noise abatement problems with MLS equipment of varying degrees of complexity are discussed. It is concluded that altitude derived from MLS is superior to other sources near the airport traffic pattern.

  19. MOKE Study of Fe/Co/Al Multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Jani, Snehal; Lakshmi, N.; Venugopalan, K.; Rajput, Parasmani; Zajaoc, M.; Rueffer, R.; Reddy, V. R.; Gupta, Ajay

    2011-07-15

    The multilayer system (MLS)-[{sup 57}Fe{sub 25}A/Co{sub 11}A/Al{sub 17}A]x20 has been deposited by Ion beam sputtering (IBS) technique. The MLS has been annealed at 700 deg. C for 1 h. Overall composition of as deposited and annealed MLS have been characterized by EDX and magnetic properties have been studied through angular dependent magneto optic Kerr effect (MOKE) hysteresis curves. The study shows that the as-deposited MLS has excellent soft magnetic properties coupled with perpendicular magnetic isotropy which is destroyed on annealing.

  20. Chinese herbs as modulators of human mesangial cell proliferation: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y C; Sun, C M; Tsai, W J; Ou, J C; Chen, W P; Lin, C Y

    1998-07-01

    In the hope of identifying agents of therapeutic value in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA-N), we tested crude methanol extracts of 15 Chinese herbs for their effect on human mesangial cel proliferation in vitro. The results indicated that 7 out of the 15 crude extracts inhibited human mesangial cell proliferation activated by interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6. The extracts and their median inhibitory concentrations were as follows (in microg/ml): Selaginella tamariscina (MLS-032), 56.0 +/- 2.0; Ixeris chinensis (MLS-033), 62.7 +/- 1.7; Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi (MLS-034), 25.0 +/- 1.5; Scutellaris rivularis (MLS-036), 39.6 +/- 1.1; Condonacanthus paucifiorus (MLS-042),63.6 +/- 2.6; Xanthium strumarium (MLS-043), 42.8 +/- 1.3; Daemonoropus margaritae (MLS-044), 56.1 +/- 1.9. These findings indicate that human mesangial cells were most sensitive to MLS-034 treatment. These herbs also decreased interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Moreover, TNF-alpha mRNA expression was inhibited by MLS-034. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity was involved, because no cell deaths were observable. We hypothesize that the inhibitory mechanisms of these Chinese herbs may be related to the impairments of gene expression and production of cytokines in human mesangial cells. Plans are underway for the isolation of pure compounds from these Chinese herbs and the elucidation of their mechanisms of action. PMID:9665376

  1. Optical and structural characterization of CeO2/B4C multilayers near boron K-edge energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertsu, M. G.; Giglia, A.; Brose, S.; Comisso, A.; Wang, Z. S.; Juschkin, L.; Nicolosi, P.

    2015-05-01

    A search for novel materials for making multilayers of high reflectivity has been driven by the vigorous demand towards miniaturizing photonics. A typical consumer of high performance multilayers (MLs) is the extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) based on the 13.5 nm laser produced plasma (LPP) source. To sustain "Moore's law" and print fine features below 10 nm on integrated circuits (IC), source of radiation for the EUVL has to shift towards even shorter wavelengths where 6.x nm wavelength seems to be immediate successor. However, the 6.x nm EUV lithography needs MLs of reflectivity performance above 70 % to support high volume manufacturing (HVM). It is clear that more work is required particularly on the development of MLs with high reflectance, stable to thermal heat and sufficient lifetime. In this work new MLs of B4C/CeO2 are deposited, analyzed and characterized for the first time. Combinations of X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and EUV reflectance measurements near resonance edge of boron are analyzed to derive structural and optical parameters of MLs. ML coatings of B4C/CeO2 MLs have shown similar reflectance performance with the leading candidate MLs around 6.x nm wavelength. Analysis shows that interlayer diffusion is a major reason for low reflectivity performance. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the MLs have proved formation of interlayer diffusion.

  2. HSP90 inhibition blocks ERBB3 and RET phosphorylation in myxoid/round cell liposarcoma and causes massive cell death in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Setareh; Järnum, Sofia; Vannas, Christoffer; Udhane, Sameer; Jonasson, Emma; Tomic, Tajana Tesan; Grundevik, Pernilla; Fagman, Henrik; Hansson, Magnus; Kalender, Zeynep; Jauhiainen, Alexandra; Dolatabadi, Soheila; Stratford, Eva Wessel; Myklebost, Ola; Eriksson, Mikael; Stenman, Göran; Stock, Regine Schneider; Ståhlberg, Anders; Åman, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Myxoid sarcoma (MLS) is one of the most common types of malignant soft tissue tumors. MLS is characterized by the FUS-DDIT3 or EWSR1-DDIT3 fusion oncogenes that encode abnormal transcription factors. The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) encoding RET was previously identified as a putative downstream target gene to FUS-DDIT3 and here we show that cultured MLS cells expressed phosphorylated RET together with its ligand Persephin. Treatment with RET specific kinase inhibitor Vandetanib failed to reduce RET phosphorylation and inhibit cell growth, suggesting that other RTKs may phosphorylate RET. A screening pointed out EGFR and ERBB3 as the strongest expressed phosphorylated RTKs in MLS cells. We show that ERBB3 formed nuclear and cytoplasmic complexes with RET and both RTKs were previously reported to form complexes with EGFR. The formation of RTK hetero complexes could explain the observed Vandetanib resistence in MLS. EGFR and ERBB3 are clients of HSP90 that help complex formation and RTK activation. Treatment of cultured MLS cells with HSP90 inhibitor 17-DMAG, caused loss of RET and ERBB3 phosphorylation and lead to rapid cell death. Treatment of MLS xenograft carrying Nude mice resulted in massive necrosis, rupture of capillaries and hemorrhages in tumor tissues. We conclude that complex formation between RET and other RTKs may cause RTK inhibitor resistance. HSP90 inhibitors can overcome this resistance and are thus promising drugs for treatment of MLS/RCLS. PMID:26595521

  3. Machine learning of fault characteristics from rocket engine simulation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Min; Ali, Moonis

    1990-01-01

    Transformation of data into knowledge through conceptual induction has been the focus of our research described in this paper. We have developed a Machine Learning System (MLS) to analyze the rocket engine simulation data. MLS can provide to its users fault analysis, characteristics, and conceptual descriptions of faults, and the relationships of attributes and sensors. All the results are critically important in identifying faults.

  4. Practitioners' & LIS Students' Perceptions on Preparedness in the New York Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Stacy L.; Pollicino, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a study that focused on the perceived preparedness of recent graduates. Fifty-five St. John's University MLS students surveyed 348 practitioners in public libraries (181) and school libraries (167) concerning perceived preparedness of recent MLS graduates for the realities of working in libraries. The overriding…

  5. 77 FR 31220 - Microloan Operating Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ..., subpart V (48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983), the programs and activities within this rule are excluded from the... provide technical assistance to borrowers. Though MLs are not limited to beginning farmers, they will... number of MLs made might be quite high, although the potential for increased losses could be minimized...

  6. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation in Learning Science, and Their Relationships: A Comparative Study within the Chinese Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences in high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs), motivation in learning science (MLS), and the different relationships between them in Taiwan and China. 310 Taiwanese and 302 Chinese high school students' SEBs and MLS were assessed quantitatively. Taiwanese students generally were more prone…

  7. Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria L.; Robinson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] is a cooperative learning experience that we felt could challenge our prospective teachers thinking about teaching and support their connection of theory and practice during an initial course on learning to teach mathematics. We studied seventy-four prospective teachers' perspectives on MLS over four sections of…

  8. 75 FR 14206 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... (SDAs), or Manufacturing Licenses (MLs); and every 10 to 20 years for applications for renewal. 4. Who... companies, and any person eligible under the Atomic Energy Act to apply for ESPs, SDCs, COLs, or MLs. 5. The... combine in a single license a construction permit, and an operating license with conditions, OLs,...

  9. Microteaching Lesson Study: Mentor Interaction Structure and Its Relation to Elementary Preservice Mathematics Teacher Knowledge Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Roxanne V.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated Microteaching Lesson Study (MLS) and three possible MLS mentor interaction structures during the debriefing sessions in relation to elementary preservice teacher development of knowledge for teaching. One hundred three elementary preservice teachers enrolled in five different sections of a mathematics methods course at a…

  10. 78 FR 65388 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... collection on July 16, 2013 (78 FR 42555). 1. Type of submission, new, revision, or extension: Extension. 2... to apply for ESPs, SDCs, COLs, or MLs. 7. An estimate of the number of annual responses: 1,050. 8... construction permit, and an operating license with conditions, OLs, MLs, SDAs, and preapplication reviews...

  11. 76 FR 82322 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Mass Layoff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Federal Register on September 30, 2011 (76 FR 60930). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments...: The information collected and compiled in the MLS program is used to satisfy the legislatively... workers displaced by, permanent layoffs and plant closings. In addition to the BLS uses of MLS data,...

  12. 77 FR 11563 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Local Appeals to Single-Family...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...; correction. SUMMARY: On February 14, 2012, at 77 FR 8276, HUD published a information collection notice... housing sales data extracted from multiple listing services (MLS) that includes all or nearly all one... (MLS) that includes all or nearly all one-family and condominium sales in the area for a...

  13. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  14. 14 CFR 171.325 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System... an adequate maintenance system and provide MLS qualified maintenance personnel to maintain the... explanation of the kinds of activities (such as construction or grading) in the vicinity of the MLS...

  15. 14 CFR 171.325 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System... an adequate maintenance system and provide MLS qualified maintenance personnel to maintain the... explanation of the kinds of activities (such as construction or grading) in the vicinity of the MLS...

  16. Virtual and Traditional Slides for Teaching Cellular Morphology to Medical Laboratory Science Undergraduates: A Comparative Study of Performance Outcomes, Retention, and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Brooke L.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of massive retirement and educational program expense and closure, the field of Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) is facing a critical workforce shortage. Combatting this issue by increasing undergraduate class size is a difficult proposition due to the intense psychomotor curricular requirements of MLS programs. Technological advances…

  17. Abstract of Lectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, Lucien

    1993-01-01

    Three lectures will be given. The first one will draw from the general literature on microwave sounding from space. The next two will focus on a description of the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and results obtained from its measurements relating to atmospheric chemistry and dynamics; this will draw from material recently published (or soon-to-be published) by the MLS team.

  18. 14 CFR 171.321 - DME and marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DME and marker beacon performance... (MLS) § 171.321 DME and marker beacon performance requirements. (a) The DME equipment must meet the..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) MLS marker beacon equipment must meet the performance...

  19. 14 CFR 171.321 - DME and marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false DME and marker beacon performance... (MLS) § 171.321 DME and marker beacon performance requirements. (a) The DME equipment must meet the..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) MLS marker beacon equipment must meet the performance...

  20. 14 CFR 171.321 - DME and marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false DME and marker beacon performance... (MLS) § 171.321 DME and marker beacon performance requirements. (a) The DME equipment must meet the..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) MLS marker beacon equipment must meet the performance...

  1. 14 CFR 171.321 - DME and marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false DME and marker beacon performance... (MLS) § 171.321 DME and marker beacon performance requirements. (a) The DME equipment must meet the..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) MLS marker beacon equipment must meet the performance...

  2. 14 CFR 171.321 - DME and marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false DME and marker beacon performance... (MLS) § 171.321 DME and marker beacon performance requirements. (a) The DME equipment must meet the..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) MLS marker beacon equipment must meet the performance...

  3. Mobile Laser Scanning Geodesy: a Complement to Space-based Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) is an emerging tool that permits autonomous and rapid high-resolution imaging of the surface expression of fault slip. Here, we explore the possibility that MLS geodesy can complement GNSS and InSAR geodetic studies of fault-related deformation. We are particularly interested in transient slip aspects of the earthquake cycle - quasi-continuous creep and post-earthquake afterslip, for example - that have proven elusive to study with other geodetic methods because of their spatially and/or temporally punctuated occurrence. We envision and test two manners of performing MLS geodesy: (1) MLS data referenced to legacy Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data sets and (2) MLS data referenced to other MLS data sets collected from a moving automobile. From 2012 to 2014, we collected multiple MLS data sets from a creeping section of Northern California's Hayward fault near Fremont, CA; the area was also imaged in the 2007 EarthScope regional ALS survey. The study area is a suburban, residential neighborhood and was chosen, in part, so that we could utilize the stability and geometric regularity of built structures as virtual control points in the geodetic analysis. Our analysis derived an estimated offset by a least squares rigid body transformation of planar surfaces from structural features common to each data set. For the ALS-MLS technique this presents a complication because ALS data image mostly house roofs whereas MLS data image a combination of roofs and vertical walls. Using TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) data as ground truth, we find that both ALS-MLS and MLS-MLS techniques have relative accuracy capability of measuring surface fault slip at the ~1cm/yr level. Furthermore, we find good agreement between independently measured creep and the ALS-MLS derived measurement of ~6 cm over 6 years. We discuss the promise of extending this pilot work to cover a much larger portion of the Hayward fault as well as the implications and challenges related

  4. A new gene encoding the ligand for deletion of T cells bearing Tcrb-V6 and V8.1 (Mtv-50)

    SciTech Connect

    Niimi, N.; Tomida, S.; Ueda, M.; Ando, Y.; Yoshikai, Y.; Wajjwalku, W.

    1994-12-31

    The minor lymphocyte-stimulating antigen (Mls), which is defined by the demonstration of a strong primary T-cell proliferative response in a mixed lymphocyte culture between major histocompatibility complex-identical strains, is a representative of self superantigens (Sags) which bind to certain Tcrb-V elements, and delete T cells bearing these elements. Mls-1 antigen encoded by Mtv-7 stimulates T cells bearing Tcrb-V6, V7, V8.1, or V9 in vitro, and delete these T cells in vivo. Recently, Mtv-43, Mtv-44, and exogenous MMTV (SW) have also been found to encode Mls-1-like antigens, which delete Tcrb-V6, V7 (except Mtv-44), V8.1- and/or V9-bearing T cells. In sharp contrast to Mls-1, Mls-1-like antigens encoded by Mtv-43 and MMTV(SW) show only a limited in vitro stimulatory capacity. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Intermolecular interactions of the malate synthase of Paracoccidioides spp

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The fungus Paracoccidioides spp is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a pulmonary mycosis acquired by the inhalation of fungal propagules. Paracoccidioides malate synthase (PbMLS) is important in the infectious process of Paracoccidioides spp because the transcript is up-regulated during the transition from mycelium to yeast and in yeast cells during phagocytosis by murine macrophages. In addition, PbMLS acts as an adhesin in Paracoccidioides spp. The evidence for the multifunctionality of PbMLS indicates that it could interact with other proteins from the fungus and host. The objective of this study was to identify and analyze proteins that possibly bind to PbMLS (PbMLS-interacting proteins) because protein interactions are intrinsic to cell processes, and it might be possible to infer the function of a protein through the identification of its ligands. Results The search for interactions was performed using an in vivo assay with a two-hybrid library constructed in S. cerevisiae; the transcripts were sequenced and identified. In addition, an in vitro assay using pull-down GST methodology with different protein extracts (yeast, mycelium, yeast-secreted proteins and macrophage) was performed, and the resulting interactions were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Some of the protein interactions were confirmed by Far-Western blotting using specific antibodies, and the interaction of PbMLS with macrophages was validated by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. In silico analysis using molecular modeling, dynamics and docking identified the amino acids that were involved in the interactions between PbMLS and PbMLS-interacting proteins. Finally, the interactions were visualized graphically using Osprey software. Conclusion These observations indicate that PbMLS interacts with proteins that are in different functional categories, such as cellular transport, protein biosynthesis, modification and degradation of proteins and signal

  6. Prevalence and mechanisms of erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae from healthy pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Sandra; Radhouani, Hajer; Coelho, Céline; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Carvalho, Eulália; Carvalho, José António; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda; Torres, Carmen; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2009-06-01

    We sought to determine the resistance phenotypes for erythromycin and clindamycin and the mechanisms implicated in 93 Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recovered from healthy pregnant women. Susceptibility testing for erythromycin, clindamycin, penicillin, cefotaxime, vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, choramphenicol, ofloxacin, and meropenen was carried out by disc-diffusion test, and the E-test was also applied for erythromycin and clindamycin. The constitutive MLS(B) resistance (cMLS(B)) and inducible MLS(B) resistance (iMLS(B)) phenotypes, respectively, as well as the M resistance phenotype were determined by the erythromycin-clindamycin double-disc test. The presence of ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, and mef(A/E) macrolide resistance genes was studied by PCR. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was found in 15% and 9.6% of the isolates, respectively. The resistance phenotypes detected among the 14 erythromycin-resistant isolates were as follows (number of isolates): cMLS(B) (9), iMLS(B) (3), and M (2). The MICs for erythromycin and clindamycin were as follows: cMLS(B) isolates (128-256 and >or=32 mg/L, respectively), iMLS(B) isolates (16-256 and 1 mg/L), and M isolates (2-8 and 1 mg/L). The following combination of genes were detected among isolates with cMLS(B) or iMLS(B) phenotypes: erm(B) (6 isolates), ermA + ermTR (3), ermA + ermB + ermTR (1), and none of these genes (2). The two isolates with M phenotype harbored the mef(A/E), and msrA gene was also found in one of them. PMID:19432524

  7. More on the genetical theory of multilevel selection.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A

    2015-09-01

    In my article The genetical theory of multilevel selection, I provided a synthesis of the theory of multilevel selection (MLS) and the theory of natural selection in class-structured populations. I framed this synthesis within Fisher's genetical paradigm, taking a strictly genetical approach to traits and fitness. I showed that this resolves a number of long-standing conceptual problems that have plagued the MLS literature, including the issues of 'aggregate' vs. 'emergent' group traits, 'collective fitness1 ' vs. 'collective fitness2 ' and 'MLS1' vs. 'MLS2 '. In his commentary, Goodnight suggests this theoretical and conceptual synthesis is flawed in several respects. Here, I show this is incorrect, by: reiterating the theoretical and conceptual goals of my synthesis; clarifying that my genetical approach to traits is necessary for a proper analysis of the action of MLS independently of non-Darwinian factors; emphasizing that the Price-Hamilton approach to MLS provides a consistent, useful and conceptually superior theoretical framework; and explaining the role of reproductive value in the study of natural selection in class-structured populations. I also show that Goodnight's contextual analysis treatment of MLS in a class-structured population is mathematically, biologically and conceptually inadequate. PMID:26264884

  8. Mixed-Layer Salinity Budget in the Tropical Indian Ocean: Seasonal cycle based only on Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casimir, Da-Allada; Fabienne, Gaillard; Nicolas, Kolodziejczyk

    2015-04-01

    The mixed-layer salinity (MLS) budget in the tropical Indian Ocean is estimated from a combination of satellite products, atmospheric reanalysis, and in situ observations over the 2004-2012 period, to investigate the mechanisms controlling the seasonal MLS variability. In contrast with previous studies in the Tropical Indian Ocean, our results reveal that the coverage, resolution and quality of available observations are now sufficient to approach a closed climatological seasonal salt budget. In the South-Central Arabian Sea and South-western Tropical Indian Ocean (SCAS and STIO, respectively), where seasonal variability of the MLS is pronounced, the monthly MLS tendency terms are well captured by the diagnostic. In the SCAS region, in agreement with previous results, the seasonal cycle of the MLS is mainly due to meridional advection driven by the monsoon winds. In the STIO, contrary to previous results which indicate that the MLS budget is dominated by meridional advection, our results reveal that freshwater flux due to precipitation plays an important role in the seasonal cycle of MLS.

  9. Improved Tropospheric Ozone Residual and Comparisons to the GMI Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Joiner, J.; Ziemke, G.; Duncan, B.; Stahan, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Our tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) is produced by subtracting the stratospheric ozone column measured by MLS and the tropospheric ozone column measured by OMI. In our approach we use backward and forward trajectories from four days of MLS V2.2 measurements to boost the horizontal resolution of the stratospheric ozone field. The MLS stratospheric column is then subtracted from the OMI Col. 3 total ozone column. High reflectivity scenes (clouds) are no longer discarded - the OMI cloud pressure and radiative cloud fraction is used to adjust the surface pressure to the cloud centroid pressure. The subsequent TOR fields are validated by comparing them to ozonesondes. Our TOR fields show a 0.8 correlation to sonde columns; a clear improvement over earlier calculations. OMI-MLS TOR from 2005 and 2006 are compared with the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) derived tropospheric column. The results show that the OMI-MLS TOR underestimates the tropospheric column. GMI tropospheric column and OMI-MLS TOR compare better if the lowest 1.5 km of the GMI column is excluded. This is consistent with a global -7 DU low offset from the sonde columns that is probably due to lack of OMI boundary layer ozone sensitivity. The GMI model zonal distribution also shows relatively higher tropospheric columns at mid latitudes and lower column amounts at high latitudes compared to the OMI-MLS TOR.

  10. The Finland–United States Investigation of Non–Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Genetics (FUSION) Study. I. An Autosomal Genome Scan for Genes That Predispose to Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Soumitra; Watanabe, Richard M.; Valle, Timo T.; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Magnuson, Victoria L.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Ally, Delphine S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Silander, Kaisa; Kohtamäki, Kimmo; Chines, Peter; Balow, Jr., James; Birznieks, Gunther; Chang, Jennie; Eldridge, William; Erdos, Michael R.; Karanjawala, Zarir E.; Knapp, Julie I.; Kudelko, Kristina; Martin, Colin; Morales-Mena, Anabelle; Musick, Anjene; Musick, Tiffany; Pfahl, Carrie; Porter, Rachel; Rayman, Joseph B.; Rha, David; Segal, Leonid; Shapiro, Shane; Sharaf, Ravi; Shurtleff, Ben; So, Alistair; Tannenbaum, Joyce; Te, Catherine; Tovar, Jason; Unni, Arun; Welch, Christian; Whiten, Ray; Witt, Alyson; Blaschak-Harvan, Jillian; Douglas, Julie A.; Duren, William L.; Epstein, Michael P.; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Kaleta, Hong Shi; Lange, Ethan M.; Li, Chun; McEachin, Richard C.; Stringham, Heather M.; Trager, Edward; White, Peggy P.; Eriksson, Johan; Toivanen, Liisa; Vidgren, Gabriele; Nylund, Stella J.; Tuomilehto-Wolf, Eva; Ross, Edna H.; Demirchyan, Elza; Hagopian, William A.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Boehnke, Michael

    2000-01-01

    We performed a genome scan at an average resolution of 8 cM in 719 Finnish sib pairs with type 2 diabetes. Our strongest results are for chromosome 20, where we observe a weighted maximum LOD score (MLS) of 2.15 at map position 69.5 cM from pter and secondary weighted LOD-score peaks of 2.04 at 56.5 cM and 1.99 at 17.5 cM. Our next largest MLS is for chromosome 11 (MLS = 1.75 at 84.0 cM), followed by chromosomes 2 (MLS = 0.87 at 5.5 cM), 10 (MLS = 0.77 at 75.0 cM), and 6 (MLS = 0.61 at 112.5 cM), all under an additive model. When we condition on chromosome 2 at 8.5 cM, the MLS for chromosome 20 increases to 5.50 at 69.0 cM (P=.0014). An ordered-subsets analysis based on families with high or low diabetes-related quantitative traits yielded results that support the possible existence of disease-predisposing genes on chromosomes 6 and 10. Genomewide linkage-disequilibrium analysis using microsatellite marker data revealed strong evidence of association for D22S423 (P=.00007). Further analyses are being carried out to confirm and to refine the location of these putative diabetes-predisposing genes. PMID:11032783

  11. 2,3-Naphtho-Fused BODIPYs as Near-Infrared Absorbing Dyes.

    PubMed

    Yamazawa, Sho; Nakashima, Mika; Suda, Yukie; Nishiyabu, Ryuhei; Kubo, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    2,3-Naphtho-fused boron-dipyrromethenes (BODIPYs) 1a and 1b, which absorb near-infrared light at 740-770 nm with molar extinction coefficients above 10(5) M(-1) cm(-1) in THF, have been synthesized through a palladium(II)-catalyzed direct acylation of N-BOC hydrazones and subsequent Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis. Simple benzo-annulation of dibenzo-BODIPY caused a significant red-shift in the absorption. Subsequent intramolecular B,O-cyclization of 1b gave 2, which exhibited an intense absorption band at 830 nm. The structure-optical property relationship has been investigated using theoretical calculations and cyclic voltammetry. PMID:26735048

  12. Cyclodextrin-based PNN supramolecular assemblies: a new class of pincer-type ligands for aqueous organometallic catalysis.

    PubMed

    Menuel, S; Bertaut, E; Monflier, E; Hapiot, F

    2015-08-14

    Water-soluble cyclodextrins (CDs) bearing two nitrogen atoms as metal coordinating sites have been synthesized. An appropriate phosphane could be included within their cavity through the primary face to form self-assembled PNN supramolecular edifices. Once the PNN ligands were coordinated to platinum, the resulting complexes proved to be very effective as catalysts in a domino reaction, where a Pt-catalyzed reduction of nitrobenzene was followed by a Paal-Knorr pyrrole reaction. In the nitrobenzene reduction, the modified CDs acted both as first- and second-sphere ligands. Contrary to an acyclic glucopyranose-based NN ligand unable to interact with a phosphane ligand, the CD-based PNN ligands stabilized the catalytic species in water by supramolecular means. Interestingly, the product and the water-soluble Pt-catalyst could be recovered in two different phases once the reaction was complete. PMID:26148430

  13. [MIC and MBC of quinupristin/dalfopristin of erythromycin-resistant MRSA strains isolated from clinical specimens].

    PubMed

    Młynarczyk, Grazyna; Młynarczyk, Andrzej; Szymanek, Ksenia; Bilewska, Agata; Pupek, Julia; Luczak, Mirosław

    2006-01-01

    The MICs and MBCs of quinupristin/dalfopristin were determined for 22 clinical strains MRSA with inducible type of resistance to MLS-B and for 15 of their derivatives with constitutive resistance to MLS-B. For MRSA strains with inducible resistance to MLS-B the obtained results for quinupristin/ dalfopristin were: MIC50 = 0.25, MIC90 = 0.5, MBC50 = 1.0 and MBC90 = 1.0. Mutants of the same strains characterized with the following values for quinopristin/dalfopristin: MIC50 = 0.5, MIC90 = 1.5, MBC50 = 4.0 and MTC90 = 8.0. PMID:17340994

  14. Microwave landing system autoland system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.; Craven, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the ability of present day aircraft equipped with automatic flight control systems to fly advanced Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) approaches. The tactical approach used to achieve this objective included reviewing the design and autoland operation of the MD-80 aircraft, simulating the MLS approaches using a batch computer program, and assessing the performance of the autoland system from computer generated data. The results showed changes were required to present Instrument Landing System (ILS) procedures to accommodate the new MLS curved paths. It was also shown that in some cases, changes to the digital flight guidance systems would be required so that an autoland could be performed.

  15. Epitaxial growth of AlN films via plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Nepal, N.; Qadri, S. B.; Hite, J. K.; Mahadik, N. A.; Mastro, M. A.; Eddy, C. R. Jr.

    2013-08-19

    Thin AlN layers were grown at 200–650 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) simultaneously on Si(111), sapphire (1120), and GaN/sapphire substrates. The AlN growth on Si(111) is self-limited for trimethyaluminum (TMA) pulse of length > 0.04 s, using a 10 s purge. However, the AlN nucleation on GaN/sapphire is non-uniform and has a bimodal island size distribution for TMA pulse of ≤0.03 s. The growth rate (GR) remains almost constant for T{sub g} between 300 and 400 °C indicating ALE mode at those temperatures. The GR is increased by 20% at T{sub g} = 500 °C. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurement shows that the ALE AlN layers grown at T{sub g} ≤ 400 °C have no clear band edge related features, however, the theoretically estimated band gap of 6.2 eV was measured for AlN grown at T{sub g} ≥ 500 °C. X-ray diffraction measurements on 37 nm thick AlN films grown at optimized growth conditions (T{sub g} = 500 °C, 10 s purge, 0.06 s TMA pulse) reveal that the ALE AlN on GaN/sapphire is (0002) oriented with rocking curve full width at the half maximum (FWHM) of 670 arc sec. Epitaxial growth of crystalline AlN layers by PA-ALE at low temperatures broadens application of the material in the technologies that require large area conformal growth at low temperatures with thickness control at the atomic scale.

  16. Mechanism of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics in Streptococcus thermophilus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) group antibiotics in the dairy bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) is documented but the mechanism of resistance has not been elucidated. MIC values for erythromycin (Erm), azithromycin (Azm), tylosin (Tyl), spiramycin (Spm), pristinamyci...

  17. Segmentation-Based Ground Points Detection from Mobile Laser Scanning Point Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, X.; Zhang, J.

    2015-06-01

    In most Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) applications, filtering is a necessary step. In this paper, a segmentation-based filtering method is proposed for MLS point cloud, where a segment rather than an individual point is the basic processing unit. Particularly, the MLS point cloud in some blocks are clustered into segments by a surface growing algorithm, then the object segments are detected and removed. A segment-based filtering method is employed to detect the ground segments. Two MLS point cloud datasets are used to evaluate the proposed method. Experiments indicate that, compared with the classic progressive TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) densification algorithm, the proposed method is capable of reducing the omission error, the commission error and total error by 3.62%, 7.87% and 5.54% on average, respectively.

  18. Magnetism and magnetocrystalline anisotropy of 3dtransition metal monolayers on Pt(001): a density-functional study.

    PubMed

    Taivansaikhan, P; Odkhuu, D; Kwon, O R; Tsogbadrakh, N; Hong, S C

    2014-12-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of having Pt as a substrate and/or capping layer on the magnetism and magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of 3d transition metal (TMs; Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co) monolayers (MLs) by using a first-principles calculationl method. We found that Fe and Co MLs are ferromagnetic (FM) on a Pt(001) surface, but Mn and Cr MLs are antiferromagnetic (AFM). The magnetic moments are quite robust with additional Pt-capping. Furthermore, Pt-capping enhances the small perpendicular MCA (meV) of Fe/Pt(001) significantly to 4.44 meV. Our electronic structure analyses indicate that strong hybridization between Pt-5d and TM-3d orbitals plays a crucial role in determining magnetic ordering and MCA. For comparison we also calculated magnetism and MCA of 3d TM MLs on Ta(001) with and without Ta-capping. PMID:25971000

  19. Validity and reliability of the Kinect within functional assessment activities: comparison with standard stereophotogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Bonnechère, B; Jansen, B; Salvia, P; Bouzahouene, H; Omelina, L; Moiseev, F; Sholukha, V; Cornelis, J; Rooze, M; Van Sint Jan, S

    2014-01-01

    The recent availability of the Kinect™ sensor, a cost-effective markerless motion capture system (MLS), offers interesting possibilities in clinical functional analysis and rehabilitation. However, neither validity nor reproducibility of this device is known yet. These two parameters were evaluated in this study. Forty-eight volunteers performed shoulder abduction, elbow flexion, hip abduction and knee flexion motions; the same protocol was repeated one week later to evaluate reproducibility. Movements were simultaneously recorded by the Kinect (with Microsoft Kinect SDK v.1.5) MLS and a traditional marker-based stereophotogrammetry system (MBS). Considering the MBS as reference, discrepancies between MLS and MBS were evaluated by comparing the range of motion (ROM) between both systems. MLS reproducibility was found to be statistically similar to MBS results for the four exercises. Measured ROMs however were found different between the systems. PMID:24269523

  20. NASA-FAA helicopter Microwave Landing System curved path flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, H. N.; Hamlin, J. R.; Wilson, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    An ongoing series of joint NASA/FAA helicopter Microwave Landing System (MLS) flight tests was conducted at Ames Research Center. This paper deals with tests done from the spring through the fall of 1983. This flight test investigated and developed solutions to the problem of manually flying curved-path and steep glide slope approaches into the terminal area using the MLS and flight director guidance. An MLS-equipped Bell UH-1H helicopter flown by NASA test pilots was used to develop approaches and procedures for flying these approaches. The approaches took the form of Straight-in, U-turn, and S-turn flightpaths with glide slopes of 6 deg, 9 deg, and 12 deg. These procedures were evaluated by 18 pilots from various elements of the helicopter community, flying a total of 221 hooded instrument approaches. Flying these curved path and steep glide slopes was found to be operationally acceptable with flight director guidance using the MLS.

  1. Boresight alignment method for mobile laser scanning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, P.; Studnicka, N.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Zach, G.

    2010-06-01

    Mobile laser scanning (MLS) is the latest approach towards fast and cost-efficient acquisition of 3-dimensional spatial data. Accurately evaluating the boresight alignment in MLS systems is an obvious necessity. However, recent systems available on the market may lack of suitable and efficient practical workflows on how to perform this calibration. This paper discusses an innovative method for accurately determining the boresight alignment of MLS systems by employing 3D laser scanners. Scanning objects using a 3D laser scanner operating in a 2D line-scan mode from various different runs and scan directions provides valuable scan data for determining the angular alignment between inertial measurement unit and laser scanner. Field data is presented demonstrating the final accuracy of the calibration and the high quality of the point cloud acquired during an MLS campaign.

  2. Variations in the Free Chlorine Content of the Stratosphere (1991-1997): Anthropogenic an Volcanic Influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J.; Read, W.; Connell, P.; Kinnison, D.; Russell, J.

    1999-01-01

    Remote sensing of chlorine monoxide (CIO) by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiment aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) has provided global measurements of variations in stratospheric free chlorine (for 1991 to 1997).

  3. Living with Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Washington, DC; Betty C. Proctor, Native Indian Sacred Earth Society, Brandywine, MD; Oscencio W. Tom, M.L.S., ... Privacy Statement | FOIA | FAQs | Comments Moderation Policy Site Map | Viewers and Players

  4. Epitaxial growth and properties of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films with micrometer wide atomic terraces

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Wei; Zhao, Yuelei; Su, Tang; Song, Qi; Tang, Chi; Shi, Jing; Han, Wei

    2015-07-13

    La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) films with extraordinarily wide atomic terraces are epitaxially grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Atomic force microscopy measurements on the LSMO films show that the atomic step is ∼4 Å and the atomic terrace width is more than 2 μm. For a 20 monolayers (MLs) LSMO film, the magnetization is determined to be 255 ± 15 emu/cm{sup 3} at room temperature, corresponding to 1.70 ± 0.11 μ{sub B} per Mn atom. As the thickness of LSMO increases from 8 MLs to 20 MLs, the critical thickness for the temperature dependent insulator-to-metal behavior transition is shown to be 9 MLs. Furthermore, post-annealing in oxygen environment improves the electron transport and magnetic properties of the LSMO films.

  5. Epitaxial growth and properties of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films with micrometer wide atomic terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei; Zhao, Yuelei; Tang, Chi; Su, Tang; Song, Qi; Shi, Jing; Han, Wei

    2015-07-01

    La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) films with extraordinarily wide atomic terraces are epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Atomic force microscopy measurements on the LSMO films show that the atomic step is ˜4 Å and the atomic terrace width is more than 2 μm. For a 20 monolayers (MLs) LSMO film, the magnetization is determined to be 255 ± 15 emu/cm3 at room temperature, corresponding to 1.70 ± 0.11 μB per Mn atom. As the thickness of LSMO increases from 8 MLs to 20 MLs, the critical thickness for the temperature dependent insulator-to-metal behavior transition is shown to be 9 MLs. Furthermore, post-annealing in oxygen environment improves the electron transport and magnetic properties of the LSMO films.

  6. CMR of Co/Cu multilayers with reduced hysteresis and low-field response

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, M.; Gibbons, M.; Law, B.; Grabner, F.; Veron, S.; Cerjan, C.

    1997-02-01

    We present the results of a systematic study on optimization of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) response in Co/Cu multilayers (MLs) for copper layer thickness near the second oscillatory peak. Co/Cu MLs with alternating thick (t(1)Co) and thin (t(2)Co) layers have been prepared in the from of [Cot(1)CoA/Cu20A/Cot(2)CoA/Cu20A]15. We have found that the magnetoresistive hysteresis of these MLs is reduced with decreasing t(2)Co and has disappeared when t(2)Co<4.5A. We have obtained an optimal GMR response with a field sensitivity of 0. 013%/Oe over a field region of -60 Oe centered at -50 Oe. This architecture may enable the use of Cu/Co MLs in low-field magnetic sensor applications.

  7. Comparison of Response Surface Construction Methods for Derivative Estimation Using Moving Least Squares, Kriging and Radial Basis Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan

    2005-01-01

    Response construction methods using Moving Least Squares (MLS), Kriging and Radial Basis Functions (RBF) are compared with the Global Least Squares (GLS) method in three numerical examples for derivative generation capability. Also, a new Interpolating Moving Least Squares (IMLS) method adopted from the meshless method is presented. It is found that the response surface construction methods using the Kriging and RBF interpolation yields more accurate results compared with MLS and GLS methods. Several computational aspects of the response surface construction methods also discussed.

  8. Analytical evaluation of ILM sensors. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability of various sensing concepts to independent landing monitor systems was analyzed. Microwave landing system MLS accuracy requirements are presented along with a description of MLS airborne equipment. Computer programs developed during the analysis are described and include: a mathematical computer model for use in the performance assessment of reconnaissance sensor systems; a theoretical formulation of electromagnetic scattering to generate data at high incidence angles; atmospheric attenuation of microwaves; and microwave radiometry, programs

  9. New Collections of Aura Atmospheric data Products at the GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James; Ahmad, Suraiya; Gerasimov, Irina; Lepthoukh, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the primary archive of atmospheric composition data from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Microwave Limb sounder (MLS), and High-Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instruments. The most recent versions of Aura OMI, MLS and HIRDLS data are available free to the public (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura). TES data are at ASDC (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov).

  10. Study Pollution Impacts on Upper-Tropospheric Clouds with Aura, CloudSat, and CALIPSO Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the impact of pollution on clouds in the Upper Troposphere. Using the data from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), CloudSat, CALIPSO the presentation shows signatures of pollution impacts on clouds in the upper troposphere. The presentation demonstrates the complementary sensitivities of MLS , CloudSat and CALIPSO to upper tropospheric clouds. It also calls for careful analysis required to sort out microphysical changes from dynamical changes.

  11. Satellite Observations of Atmospheric Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, D. L.; Waters, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite produced the first global maps of small-scale gravity wave variances in the middle atmosphere. Observations at 30-88 km altitudes show that the variances of 30-100 km horizontal scales are strongly correlated with surface topography and stratospheric jet streams. The several years of MLS data will provide a climatology of global gravity wave activity needed for modeling atmospheric circulations and mixing processes.

  12. Millimeter radiometer system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Swanson, P. N.

    1989-01-01

    JPL has had a large amount of experience with spaceborne microwave/millimeter wave radiometers for remote sensing. All of the instruments use filled aperture antenna systems from 5 cm diameter for the microwave Sounder Units (MSU), 16 m for the microwave limb sounder (MLS) to 20 m for the large deployable reflector (LDR). The advantages of filled aperture antenna systems are presented. The requirements of the 10 m Geoplat antenna system, 10 m multified antenna, and the MLS are briefly discussed.

  13. Variations and climatology of CI0 in the polar lower stratosphere from UARS Microwave Limb Sounder measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santee, M. L.; Manney, G. L.; Water, J. W.; Livesey, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measured the global distribution of stratospheric ClO over annual cycles for much of the 1990s, albeit with reduced sampling frequency in the latter half of the decade. Here we present an overview of the interannual and interhemispheric variations in the distribution of ClO derived from UARS MLS measurements, with a particular emphasis on enhancements in the winter polar lower stratosphere.

  14. Multilevel summation for dispersion: a linear-time algorithm for r(-6) potentials.

    PubMed

    Tameling, Daniel; Springer, Paul; Bientinesi, Paolo; Ismail, Ahmed E

    2014-01-14

    We have extended the multilevel summation (MLS) method, originally developed to evaluate long-range Coulombic interactions in molecular dynamics simulations [R. D. Skeel, I. Tezcan, and D. J. Hardy, J. Comput. Chem. 23, 673 (2002)], to handle dispersion interactions. While dispersion potentials are formally short-ranged, accurate calculation of forces and energies in interfacial and inhomogeneous systems require long-range methods. The MLS method offers some significant advantages compared to the particle-particle particle-mesh and smooth particle mesh Ewald methods. Unlike mesh-based Ewald methods, MLS does not use fast Fourier transforms and is thus not limited by communication and bandwidth concerns. In addition, it scales linearly in the number of particles, as compared with the O(NlogN) complexity of the mesh-based Ewald methods. While the structure of the MLS method is invariant for different potentials, every algorithmic step had to be adapted to accommodate the r(-6) form of the dispersion interactions. In addition, we have derived error bounds, similar to those obtained by Hardy ["Multilevel summation for the fast evaluation of forces for the simulation of biomolecules," Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2006] for the electrostatic MLS. Using a prototype implementation, we have demonstrated the linear scaling of the MLS method for dispersion, and present results establishing the accuracy and efficiency of the method. PMID:24437863

  15. Correlation of agar dilution and VITEK2 system for detection of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and pristinamycin among Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis: association with genotypes.

    PubMed

    Bémer, P; Juvin, M-E; Corvec, S; Ros, A; Drugeon, H

    2005-08-01

    The performance of the VITEK2 system was evaluated against the agar dilution reference procedure for testing susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins (MLS). Eighty clinical isolates were selected according to their resistance phenotype and genotype. Results for erythromycin and clindamycin showed 100% agreement; results for lincomycin showed agreement of 78%, with one very major error and 17 minor errors; and results for pristinamycin showed agreement of 46%, with one major error and 43 minor errors. Most isolates resistant to lincomycin and streptogramin A (L SgAr phenotype) were falsely susceptible to lincomycin, and intermediately-resistant or resistant to pristinamycin, with the VITEK2 system. No resistance gene was detected. Most (80%) isolates resistant constitutively to MLS (MLS(r)BC phenotype) were falsely intermediately-resistant to pristinamycin with the VITEK2 system. The erm(A) gene was more common than erm(C) in MLS(r)BC strains. Resistance to pristinamycin alone (SgA SgB PTr phenotype), or associated with either lincomycin resistance (L SgA SgB PTr phenotype) or constitutive MLS(B) resistance (MLS(BC) SgA PTr phenotype), was well-characterised without discordant results. Resistance to pristinamycin was always associated with resistance to streptogramin A, encoded by the vga(A), vga(B), vgb(A) and vat(A) genes in association with the erm(A) or erm(C) genes. PMID:16008619

  16. Multilevel summation for dispersion: A linear-time algorithm for r -6 potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tameling, Daniel; Springer, Paul; Bientinesi, Paolo; Ismail, Ahmed E.

    2014-01-01

    We have extended the multilevel summation (MLS) method, originally developed to evaluate long-range Coulombic interactions in molecular dynamics simulations [R. D. Skeel, I. Tezcan, and D. J. Hardy, J. Comput. Chem. 23, 673 (2002)], to handle dispersion interactions. While dispersion potentials are formally short-ranged, accurate calculation of forces and energies in interfacial and inhomogeneous systems require long-range methods. The MLS method offers some significant advantages compared to the particle-particle particle-mesh and smooth particle mesh Ewald methods. Unlike mesh-based Ewald methods, MLS does not use fast Fourier transforms and is thus not limited by communication and bandwidth concerns. In addition, it scales linearly in the number of particles, as compared with the O(N log N) complexity of the mesh-based Ewald methods. While the structure of the MLS method is invariant for different potentials, every algorithmic step had to be adapted to accommodate the r-6 form of the dispersion interactions. In addition, we have derived error bounds, similar to those obtained by Hardy ["Multilevel summation for the fast evaluation of forces for the simulation of biomolecules," Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2006] for the electrostatic MLS. Using a prototype implementation, we have demonstrated the linear scaling of the MLS method for dispersion, and present results establishing the accuracy and efficiency of the method.

  17. Blocking of cell proliferation, cytokines production and genes expression following administration of Chinese herbs in the human mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y C; Sun, C M; Tsai, W J; Ou, J C; Chen, W P; Lin, C Y

    1999-01-01

    In the hope of identifying agents of therapeutic value in immuoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA-N), we tested crude methanol extracts of 15 Chinese herbs for their effect on human mesangial cell proliferation. The results indicated that 4 out of the 15 crude extracts inhibited human cells proliferation activated by IL-1beta and IL-6. The extracts and their median inhibitory concentrations were as follows (in microg/ml): Ludwiga octovalvis (MLS-052), 49.9 +/- 1.8; Rhus semialata (MLS-053), 31.2 +/- 1.6; Tabernaemontana divaricata (MLS-054), 50.0 +/- 2.1; Amepelopsis brevipedunculata (MLS-059), 42.9 +/- 1.1. These findings indicate that human mesangial cells were most sensitive to MLS-053 treatment. These herbs also decreased interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production. Moreover, IL- 1beta mRNA expression was inhibited by Rhus semialata (R. semialata; MLS-053). It is unlikely that cytotoxicity was involved, because no cell deaths were observable. We hypothesize that the inhibitory mechanisms of these Chinese herbs may be related to the impairments of gene expression and production of cytokines in human mesangial cells. Plans are underway for the isolation of pure compounds from these Chinese herbs and the elucidation of their mechanisms of action. PMID:10372651

  18. Thin film semiconductor nanomaterials and nanostructures prepared by physical vapour deposition: An atomic force microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesheva, D.; Petrova, A.; Stavrev, S.; Levi, Z.; Aneva, Z.

    2007-05-01

    Amorphous/nanocrystalline SiOx/CdSe, GeS2/CdSe, SiOx/ZnSe and Se/CdSe amorphous multilayers (MLs) were grown by consecutive physical vapour deposition of the constituent materials at room substrate temperature. A step-by-step manner of deposition was applied for the preparation of each layer (2 10nm thick) of MLs. Surface morphology has been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to get information about ML interfaces. For a scanned area of 3.4×4μmSiOx/CdSe and GeS2/CdSe MLs showed surface roughness which is around three times greater than the roughness of SiOx/ZnSe MLs. This observation has been connected with effects of both film composition and deposition rate. For a scanned area of 250×250nm the roughness determined in all MLs displayed close values and a similar increase with the ML period. The latter has been related to the flexible structure of amorphous materials. The AFM results, in good agreement with previous X-ray diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy data, indicate that the application of step-by-step physical vapour deposition makes possible fabrication of various amorphous/nanocrystalline MLs with smooth interfaces and good artificial periodicity at low substrate temperatures.

  19. Scan Profiles Based Method for Segmentation and Extraction of Planar Objects in Mobile Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoang Long; Belton, David; Helmholz, Petra

    2016-06-01

    The demand for accurate spatial data has been increasing rapidly in recent years. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems have become a mainstream technology for measuring 3D spatial data. In a MLS point cloud, the point clouds densities of captured point clouds of interest features can vary: they can be sparse and heterogeneous or they can be dense. This is caused by several factors such as the speed of the carrier vehicle and the specifications of the laser scanner(s). The MLS point cloud data needs to be processed to get meaningful information e.g. segmentation can be used to find meaningful features (planes, corners etc.) that can be used as the inputs for many processing steps (e.g. registration, modelling) that are more difficult when just using the point cloud. Planar features are dominating in manmade environments and they are widely used in point clouds registration and calibration processes. There are several approaches for segmentation and extraction of planar objects available, however the proposed methods do not focus on properly segment MLS point clouds automatically considering the different point densities. This research presents the extension of the segmentation method based on planarity of the features. This proposed method was verified using both simulated and real MLS point cloud datasets. The results show that planar objects in MLS point clouds can be properly segmented and extracted by the proposed segmentation method.

  20. Cardioprotective function of mitochondrial-targeted and transcriptionally inactive STAT3 against ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Szczepanek, Karol; Xu, Aijun; Hu, Ying; Thompson, Jeremy; He, Jun; Larner, Andrew C; Salloum, Fadi N; Chen, Qun; Lesnefsky, Edward J

    2015-11-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that contributes a crucial role in protection against ischemia (ISC)-reperfusion (REP) injury by driving expression of anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant genes. STAT3 is also present in the mitochondria, where it modulates the activity of the electron transport chain (ETC) and the permeability transition pore. Transgenic mice that overexpress a mitochondrial-targeted, transcriptionally inactive STAT3 in cardiomyocytes (MLS-STAT3E mice) exhibit a persistent, partial blockade of electron transfer through complex I that uniquely did not lead to tissue dysfunction at baseline, yet increased mitochondrial ischemic tolerance. The direct contribution of non-transcriptional, mitochondria-localized STAT3 to protection during ISC-REP remains to be established. We hypothesized that the enhanced mitochondrial tolerance to ischemia present in MLS-STAT3E mice would decrease cardiac injury during ISC-REP. In the isolated buffer-perfused heart model, MLS-STAT3E hearts exhibit a decreased infarct size compared to non-transgenic littermate hearts. Contractile recovery, expressed as a percent of LV developed pressure before ISC, is improved in MLS-STAT3E mice. Mitochondria isolated at the end of 60 min. of REP from MLS-STAT3E hearts show attenuated ROS release. The partial and persistent blockade of complex I present in MLS-STAT3E mice decreases cardiac injury during REP, in part via a persistent decrease in ROS production and attenuation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening at the onset of REP. In vivo, MLS-STAT3E hearts exhibit substantially higher postoperative survival rate and a substantial decrease in myocardial infarct size. STAT3 mediates cardioprotection not only via canonical action as a transcription factor, but also as a modulator of ETC activity directly in the mitochondria. PMID:26358226

  1. Characterization of molybdenum doped indium oxide/aluminum doped zinc oxide thin film stacks for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamurugu, Elangovan; Flores, Raquel; Janeiro, Ricardo; Dahlem, Marcus; Viegas, Jaime

    2014-03-01

    Multilayer (ML) thin films, based on indium molybdenum oxide (IMO) and aluminum zinc oxide (AZO), having different stacking were deposited using RF sputtering at room temperature (RT). The total-layer thickness of the MLs ranges between 93 nm and 98 nm. The deposited films were characterized by their structural, electrical, microstructural, and optical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks obtained at 2θ of around 30.6° and 34.27° are matched with cubic-In2O3 (222) and hexagonal-ZnO (002), respectively. The MLs have both nano-crystalline and polycrystalline structures depending on the layer properties. A conspicuous feature of XRD analysis is the absence of diffraction peak from 50 nm thick IMO layer when it is stacked below 50 nm thick AZO, whereas it appears significantly when the stacking is reversed to place IMO above AZO layer. Hall measurements confirmed that the deposited MLs are n- type conducting and the electrical properties are varied as a function of layer properties. The deposited MLs show high shortwavelength infrared transmittance (SWIRT) even at 3300 nm, which is ranging as high as 75 % - 90 %. Overall, the MLs show high transmittance in the entire Vis-SWIR region. The optical band gap (Eg) calculated using the absorption coefficient (α) and photon energy (hν) of the deposited MLs is ranging between 3.19 eV and 3.56 eV, depending on the layer properties. Selected as- deposited films were annealed in open air at 400 °C for 1 h; the transmittance of annealed films was improved but their electrical properties deteriorated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis shows that the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the MLs ranges between 0.8 nm and 1.5 nm.

  2. A large set of Finnish affected sibling pair families with type 2 diabetes suggests susceptibility loci on chromosomes 6, 11, and 14.

    PubMed

    Silander, Kaisa; Scott, Laura J; Valle, Timo T; Mohlke, Karen L; Stringham, Heather M; Wiles, Kerry R; Duren, William L; Doheny, Kimberly F; Pugh, Elizabeth W; Chines, Peter; Narisu, Narisu; White, Peggy P; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Jackson, Anne U; Li, Chun; Ghosh, Soumitra; Magnuson, Victoria L; Colby, Kimberly; Erdos, Michael R; Hill, Jason E; Hollstein, Pablo; Humphreys, Kathleen M; Kasad, Roshni A; Lambert, Jessica; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Lin, George; Morales-Mena, Anabelle; Patzkowski, Kristin; Pfahl, Carrie; Porter, Rachel; Rha, David; Segal, Leonid; Suh, Yong D; Tovar, Jason; Unni, Arun; Welch, Christian; Douglas, Julie A; Epstein, Michael P; Hauser, Elizabeth R; Hagopian, William; Buchanan, Thomas A; Watanabe, Richard M; Bergman, Richard N; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael

    2004-03-01

    The aim of the Finland-United States Investigation of NIDDM Genetics (FUSION) study is to identify genes that predispose to type 2 diabetes or are responsible for variability in diabetes-related traits via a positional cloning and positional candidate gene approach. In a previously published genome-wide scan of 478 Finnish affected sibling pair (ASP) families (FUSION 1), the strongest linkage results were on chromosomes 20 and 11. We now report a second genome-wide scan using an independent set of 242 Finnish ASP families (FUSION 2), a detailed analysis of the combined set of 737 FUSION 1 + 2 families (495 updated FUSION 1 families), and fine mapping of the regions of chromosomes 11 and 20. The strongest FUSION 2 linkage results were on chromosomes 6 (maximum logarithm of odds score [MLS] = 2.30 at 95 cM) and 14 (MLS = 1.80 at 57 cM). For the combined FUSION 1 + 2 families, three results were particularly notable: chromosome 11 (MLS = 2.98 at 82 cM), chromosome 14 (MLS = 2.74 at 58 cM), and chromosome 6 (MLS = 2.66 at 96 cM). We obtained smaller FUSION 1 + 2 MLSs on chromosomes X (MLS = 1.27 at 152 cM) and 20p (MLS = 1.21 at 20 cM). Among the 10 regions that showed nominally significant evidence for linkage in FUSION 1, four (on chromosomes 6, 11, 14, and X) also showed evidence for linkage in FUSION 2 and stronger evidence for linkage in the combined FUSION 1 + 2 sample. PMID:14988269

  3. Effectiveness of Radiotherapy in Myxoid Sarcomas Is Associated With a Dense Vascular Pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeze, Ronald S.A. de Jong, Daphne de; Haas, Rick L.; Stewart, Fiona; Coevorden, Frits van

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: Surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) have long been the standard treatment for most deep-seated sarcomas; however, since the randomized trial from the National Cancer Institute of Canada, which described similar local control for pre- vs. postoperative RT, both modalities are now widely accepted. As a group, sarcomas are classified as radiation resistant. The subgroup of myxoid liposarcoma (MLS), a sarcoma with a typical vascular crow's feet pattern, is highly radiosensitive, but a mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown. Here we describe our results with preoperative RT and propose a mechanism explaining the high sensitivity based on the distinctive vascularization pattern of MLS. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2006, 31 sarcoma patients, including 10 with MLS, underwent preoperative RT at our institute. Resected specimens were histologically evaluated, focusing on classification, grade, and vascularization patterns. Results: Twenty sarcomas showed more than 80% pathologic response after preoperative RT. A pathologic complete response was found in all 'pure' MLS specimens after preoperative RT (n = 8). There were no pathologic complete responses in the remaining sarcoma patients (n = 23), although 12 showed 80% to 90% pathologic response. In contrast to the remaining RT-resistant sarcomas, the highly responding specimens contained branching vasculature, partial thrombus formation and inflammation of medium sized arterioles, similar to the vascular changes in MLS. Conclusions: Both MLS and sarcomas with MLS-like vasculature are highly radiosensitive. Radiation sensitivity may be explained by changes in medium-sized arterioles, obstructing the specific crow's feet vascularization and inducing hypoxia with secondary tumor cell death.

  4. Satellite telemetry and social modeling offer new insights into the origin of primate multilevel societies

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiao-Guang; Garber, Paul A.; Ji, Weihong; Huang, Zhi-Pang; Huang, Kang; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Song-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Wei; He, Gang; Zhang, Pei; Li, Bao-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Multilevel societies (MLS), in which polygynous reproductive units are nested in a larger social matrix, represent a highly complex social system documented only in a small number of mammalian species. Using long-term behavioural data, satellite telemetry and social network analysis, we present a new framework for understanding the function and social dynamics of the golden snub-nosed monkey MLS. Here we show that several one-male units form a cohesive breeding band that associates with one or more all-male units to form a herd. Herds seasonally aggregate and exchange members, thus facilitating gene flow and inbreeding avoidance. This MLS evolved from the aggregation of independent one-male, multifemale units that characterize ancestral Asian colobines; the evolutionary pathway leading to this MLS contrasts with that proposed for African papionins, which appear to have undergone internal fissioning of multimale–multifemale groups. The results suggest that both environmental and phylogenetic factors are important in the evolution of a primate MLS. PMID:25335993

  5. Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus species

    PubMed Central

    Ilakkiya, A.; Parveen, Shabana; Kumar, C. Naveen; Swathi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Streptococci are Gram-positive spherical bacteria (cocci) that characteristically form pairs and chains during growth. Some macrolide-resistant bacteria lack the proper receptor on the ribosome (through methylation of the rRNA). This may be under plasmid or chromosomal control. Aim and Objectives: The aim was to study the prevalence of macrolide resistance among the isolate and evaluate the degree of resistance by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. And also to detect the phenotypic pattern of macrolide resistance. Materials and Methods: All age group attending general medicine OPD and pediatric OPD with symptoms of respiratory and pyogenic infections are included in the study. Various samples are collected with detailed case history and processed for macrolide resistance among beta hemolytic Streptococci MIC method and D-test. Results: According to our studies resistance pattern in Group A Streptococci by D-test, cMLS was 27.85%, iMLS was 13.92%, M-type was 55.69%, in GCS, cMLS was 17.6%, M-type was 82.35% In GGS, cMLS was 31.58%, iMLS was 10.53% and M-type was 57.89%. Conclusions: Therefore by this study, we would like to highlight the necessity to do antibiotic sensitivity testing for all isolates, and limit the usage of antibiotics, whenever necessary and select the appropriate antibiotics for resistant strains. PMID:26015727

  6. Genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes in Japanese affected sib-pairs confirms susceptibility genes on 3q, 15q, and 20q and identifies two new candidate Loci on 7p and 11p.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yasumichi; Otabe, Shuichi; Dina, Christian; Yasuda, Kazuki; Populaire, Céline; Lecoeur, Cécile; Vatin, Vincent; Durand, Emmanuelle; Hara, Kazuo; Okada, Terumasa; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Boutin, Philippe; Kadowaki, Takashi; Froguel, Philippe

    2002-04-01

    The genetic background that predisposes the Japanese population to type 2 diabetes is largely unknown. Therefore, we conducted a 10-cM genome-wide scan for type 2 diabetes traits in the 359 affected individuals from 159 families, yielding 224 affected sib-pairs of Japanese origin. Nonparametric multipoint linkage analyses performed in the whole population showed one suggestive linked region on 11p13-p12 (maximum logarithm of odds score [MLS] 3.08, near Pax6) and seven potentially linked regions (MLS >1.17) at 1p36-p32, 2q34, 3q26-q28, 6p23, 7p22-p21, 15q13-q21, and 20q12-q13 (near the gene for hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha [HNF-4alpha]). Subset analyses according to maximal BMI and early age at diagnosis added suggestive evidence of linkage with type 2 diabetes at 7p22-p21 (MLS 3.51), 15q13-q21 (MLS 3.91), and 20q12-q13 (MLS 2.32). These results support previous indication for linkage found on chromosome 3q, 15q, and 20q in other populations and identifies two new potential loci on 7p and 11p that may confer genetic risk for type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population. PMID:11916952

  7. a Feasibility Study on Use of Generic Mobile Laser Scanning System for Detecting Asphalt Pavement Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinqu; Li, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to automatically detect pavement cracks on urban roads by employing the 3D point clouds acquired by a mobile laser scanning (MLS) system. Our method consists of four steps: ground point filtering, high-pass convolution, matched filtering, and noise removal. First, a voxel-based upward growing method is applied to construct Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the road surface. Then, a high-pass filter convolutes the DTM to detect local elevation changes that may embed cracking information. Next, a two-step matched filter is applied to extract crack features. Lastly, a noise removal process is conducted to refine the results. Instead of using MLS intensity, this study takes advantages of the MLS elevation information to perform automated crack detection from large-volume, mixed-density, unstructured MLS point clouds. Four types of cracks including longitudinal, transvers, random, and alligator cracks are detected. Our results demonstrated that the proposed method works well with the RIEGL VMX-450 point clouds and can detect cracks in moderate-to-severe severity (13 - 25 mm) within a 200 m by 30 m urban road segment located in Kingston, Ontario, at one time. Due to the resolution capability, small cracks with slight severity remain unclear in the MLS point cloud.

  8. Using Microwave Limb Sounder Data to Validate Model Ice Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waliser, Duane E.; Li, Jui-Lin; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Tompkins, Adrian; Chern, J.-D.; Tao, W.-K.; Khairoutdinov, M.

    2006-01-01

    MLS IWC overall tends to be higher relative to ECMWF after considering MLS track sampling and sensitivity (cutoff application). Disagreement tends to be accentuated over Indian and Western Pacific Oceans and over tropical landmasses. Large disagreement occur at upper level at 147 hPa but small at lower levels at 215 and 316 hPa suggesting the need to investigate the strength of model large-scale circulation and physics associated with the IWC formation. Future work includes: Present MMF/ECMWF Comparisons at AGU/Baltimore Session on MMF/Cloud Resolving Modeling, GMAO/GSFC & at the WPac/Bejing/AGU in Tao's Cloud-Radiation Session. Write-up Results on ECMWF/MLS Comparisons for GRL. Continue with MLS vs ECMWF Water Vapor & Temperature comparisons - will seek more interaction with other MLS colleagues. Investigate the Development of Biases in ECMWF Forecasts - i.e. in the actual model. Work with GMAO-5 development team regarding their cloud microphysics performance. Integrate CloudSat into IWC Analyses.

  9. Structural and Magnetic Properties of LaCoO3/SrTiO3 Multilayers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongrui; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Huaiwen; Lan, Qianqian; Hong, Deshun; Wang, Shufang; Shen, Xi; Khan, Tahira; Yu, Richeng; Sun, Jirong; Shen, Baogen

    2016-07-20

    Structural and magnetic properties of the LaCoO3/SrTiO3 (LCO/STO) multilayers (MLs) with a fixed STO layer of 4 nm but varied LCO layer thicknesses have been systematically studied. The MLs grown on Sr0.7La0.3Al0.65Ta0.35O3 (LSAT) and SrTiO3 (STO) exhibit the in-plane lattice constant of the substrates, but those on LaAlO3 (LAO) show the in-plane lattice constant between those of the first two kinds of MLs. Compared with the LCO single layer (SL), the magnetic order of the MLs is significantly enhanced, as demonstrated by a very slow decrease, which is fast for the SL, of the Curie temperature and the saturation magnetization as the LCO layer thickness decreases. For example, clear ferromagnetic order is observed in the ML with the LCO layer of ∼1.5 nm, whereas it vanishes below ∼6 nm for the LCO SL. This result is consistent with the observation that the dark stripes, which are believed to be closely related to the magnetic order, remain clear in the MLs while they are vague in the corresponding LCO SL. The present work suggests a novel route to tune the magnetism of perovskite oxide films. PMID:27377147

  10. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral view confirmed a MLS, which was further corroborated by high resolution computed tomography. Central bronchiectasis was also observed, which prompted a work-up for ABPA. The child met 7/8 major diagnostic criteria for ABPA. She was then initiated on oral prednisolone that resulted in a marked clinical improvement within a fortnight. Radiological clearance occurred at 3 months with inflation of the middle lobe. ABPA presenting with MLS in a child is yet to be reported. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis of ABPA in a child presenting with MLS. This would obviate the invasive investigations usually done to ascertain the cause of MLS. PMID:26844222

  11. A Genomewide Screen for Autism: Strong Evidence for Linkage to Chromosomes 2q, 7q, and 16p

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Autism is characterized by impairments in reciprocal communication and social interaction and by repetitive and stereotyped patterns of activities and interests. Evidence for a strong underlying genetic predisposition comes from twin and family studies, although susceptibility genes have not yet been identified. A whole-genome screen for linkage, using 83 sib pairs with autism, has been completed, and 119 markers have been genotyped in 13 candidate regions in a further 69 sib pairs. The addition of new families and markers provides further support for previous reports of linkages on chromosomes 7q and 16p. Two new regions of linkage have also been identified on chromosomes 2q and 17q. The most significant finding was a multipoint maximum LOD score (MLS) of 3.74 at marker D2S2188 on chromosome 2; this MLS increased to 4.80 when only sib pairs fulfilling strict diagnostic criteria were included. The susceptibility region on chromosome 7 was the next most significant, generating a multipoint MLS of 3.20 at marker D7S477. Chromosome 16 generated a multipoint MLS of 2.93 at D16S3102, whereas chromosome 17 generated a multipoint MLS of 2.34 at HTTINT2. With the addition of new families, there was no increased allele sharing at a number of other loci originally showing some evidence of linkage. These results support the continuing collection of multiplex sib-pair families to identify autism-susceptibility genes. PMID:11481586

  12. Multilevel selection theory and evidence: a critique of Gardner, 2015.

    PubMed

    Goodnight, C J

    2015-09-01

    Gardner (2015) recently developed a model of a 'Genetical Theory of Multilevel Selection, which is a thoughtfully developed, but flawed model. The model's flaws appear to be symptomatic of common misunderstandings of the multi level selection (MLS) literature and the recent quantitative genetic literature. I use Gardner's model as a guide for highlighting how the MLS literature can address the misconceptions found in his model, and the kin selection literature in general. I discuss research on the efficacy of group selection, the roll of indirect genetic effects in affecting the response to selection and the heritability of group-level traits. I also discuss why the Price multilevel partition should not be used to partition MLS, and why contextual analysis and, by association, direct fitness are appropriate for partitioning MLS. Finally, I discuss conceptual issues around questions concerning the level at which fitness is measured, the units of selection, and I present a brief outline of a model of selection in class-structured populations. I argue that the results derived from the MLS research tradition can inform kin selection research and models, and provide insights that will allow researchers to avoid conceptual flaws such as those seen in the Gardner model. PMID:26265012

  13. Fabrication and critical current density analysis of YBa2Cu3O7+(BaSnO3)‧/YBa2Cu3O7+(BaSnO3)″ multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horide, Tomoya; Sakamoto, Nobuhiro; Ichinose, Ataru; Matsumoto, Kaname

    2016-08-01

    Multilayers (MLs) comprising of YBa2Cu3O7(YBCO)+BaSnO3(BSO) layers with different BSO content were fabricated, and their critical current density (J c) was measured to understand influence of ML structure on vortex pinning. Elongated and segmented nanorods were observed in the MLs, and ab-plane aligned nanoparticles appeared depending on BSO content. When BSO formed only elongated and segmented nanorods in MLs, J c exhibited a linear relationship between J c in the single layer films. On the other hand, when MLs contained ab-plane aligned nanoparticles in addition to nanorods, J c decreased with lower-J c-layer fraction more rapidly. These results suggest that J c was degraded due to easy vortex flow along the lower-J c-layers, and that the acceleration of vortex motion depended on the type of lower-J c-layers. Vortex behavior which is not observed in conventional systems such as single layer films and bulk samples is strongly expected in MLs, since fine tuning of pinning center structure is possible.

  14. Pumping tests in networks of multilevel sampling wells: Motivation and methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J., Jr.; McElwee, C.D.; Bohling, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    The identification of spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) on a scale of relevance for transport investigations has proven to be a considerable challenge. Recently, a new field method for the estimation of interwell variations in K has been proposed. This method, hydraulic tomography, essentially consists of a series of short-term pumping tests performed in a tomographic-like arrangement. In order to fully realize the potential of this approach, information about lateral and vertical variations in pumping-induced head changes (drawdown) is required with detail that has previously been unobtainable in the field. Pumping tests performed in networks of multilevel sampling (MLS) wells can provide data of the needed density if drawdown can accurately and rapidly be measured in the small-diameter tubing used in such wells. Field and laboratory experiments show that accurate transient drawdown data can be obtained in the small-diameter MLS tubing either directly with miniature fiber-optic pressure sensors or indirectly using air-pressure transducers. As with data from many types of hydraulic tests, the quality of drawdown measurements from MLS tubing is quite dependent on the effectiveness of well development activities. Since MLS ports of the standard design are prone to clogging and are difficult to develop, alternate designs are necessary to ensure accurate drawdown measurements. Initial field experiments indicate that drawdown measurements obtained from pumping tests performed in MLS networks have considerable potential for providing valuable information about spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity.

  15. Mountain Waves in the Middle Atmosphere: Microwave Limb Sounder Observations and Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Wu, Dong L.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Ma, Jun

    2003-01-01

    Observations and analyses of mesoscale gravity waves in the stratosphere from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are summarized, with focus on global distribution of topography related wave activities. We found most of the orographical wave activities occur during the winter seasons over high latitude mountain ridges. In the northern hemisphere, the strongest waves are those over Scandinavia, Central Eurasia, and southern Greenland, whereas in the southern hemisphere, wave activities are outstanding over the Andes, New Zealand, and Antarctic rim;, MLS observations suggest that these orographic waves are located mostly on the down stream side of the mountain ridge with downward phase progression and have horizontal phase velocities opposite to the stratospheric jet-stream. Future studies using MLS data and numerical modeling will lead to better understanding of gravity wave effects on dynamics and chemistry in the middle atmosphere.

  16. Polymer/metal hybrid multilayers modified Schottky devices

    SciTech Connect

    Torrisi, V.; Isgrò, G.; Li Destri, G.; Marletta, G.; Ruffino, F.; Grimaldi, M. G.; Crupi, I.

    2013-11-04

    Insulating, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and semiconducting, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), nanometer thick polymers/Au nanoparticles based hybrid multilayers (HyMLs) were fabricated on p-Si single-crystal substrate. An iterative method, which involves, respectively, spin-coating (PMMA and P3HT deposition) and sputtering (Au nanoparticles deposition) techniques to prepare Au/HyMLs/p-Si Schottky device, was used. The barrier height and the ideality factor of the Au/HyMLs/p-Si Schottky devices were investigated by current-voltage measurements in the thickness range of 1–5 bilayers. It was observed that the barrier height of such hybrid layered systems can be tuned as a function of bilayers number and its evolution was quantified and analyzed.

  17. Soil Carbon Change and Net Energy Associated with Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands: A Regional Modeling Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bandaru, Varaprasad; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Link, Robert P.; Zhang, Xuesong; Post, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    The use of marginal lands (MLs) for biofuel production has been contemplated as a promising solution for meeting biofuel demands. However, there have been concerns with spatial location of MLs, their inherent biofuel potential, and possible environmental consequences with the cultivation of energy crops. Here, we developed a new quantitative approach that integrates high-resolution land cover and land productivity maps and uses conditional probability density functions for analyzing land use patterns as a function of land productivity to classify the agricultural lands. We subsequently applied this method to determine available productive croplands (P-CLs) and non-crop marginal lands (NC-MLs) in a nine-county Southern Michigan. Furthermore, Spatially Explicit Integrated Modeling Framework (SEIMF) using EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) was used to understand the net energy (NE) and soil organic carbon (SOC) implications of cultivating different annual and perennial production systems.

  18. The Multidimensional Loss Scale: validating a cross-cultural instrument for measuring loss.

    PubMed

    Vromans, Lyn; Schweitzer, Robert D; Brough, Mark

    2012-04-01

    The Multidimensional Loss Scale (MLS) represents the first instrument designed specifically to index Experience of Loss Events and Loss Distress across multiple domains (cultural, social, material, and intrapersonal) relevant to refugee settlement. Recently settled Burmese adult refugees (N = 70) completed a questionnaire battery, including MLS items. Analyses explored MLS internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and factor structure. Cronbach alphas indicated satisfactory internal consistency for Experience of Loss Events (0.85) and Loss Distress (0.92), reflecting a unitary construct of multidimensional loss. Loss Distress did not correlate with depression or anxiety symptoms and correlated moderately with interpersonal grief and trauma symptoms, supporting divergent and convergent validity. Factor analysis provided preliminary support for a five-factor model: Loss of Symbolic Self, Loss of Interdependence, Loss of Home, Interpersonal Loss, and Loss of Intrapersonal Integrity. Received well by participants, the new scale shows promise for application in future research and practice. PMID:22456590

  19. 177-207 GHz Radiometer Front End: Single Sideband Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galin, I.; Schnitzer, C. A.; Dengler, R. J.; Quintero, O.

    1999-01-01

    Twenty years of progress in 200 GHz receivers for spaceborne remote sensing has yielded a 180-220 GHz technology with maturing characteristics, as evident by increasing availability of relevant hardware, paralleled by further refinement in receiver performance requirements at this spectrum band. The 177-207 GHz superheterodyne receiver, for the Earth observing system (EOS) microwave limb sounder (MLS), effectively illustrates such technology developments. This MLS receiver simultaneously detects six different signals, located at sidebands below and above its 191.95 GHZ local-oscillator (LO). The paper describes the MLS 177-207 GHz receiver front-end (RFE), and provides measured data for its lower and upper sidebands. Sideband ratio data is provided as a function of IF frequency, at different LO power drive, and for variation in the ambient temperature.

  20. Localization of P-glycoprotein at the nuclear envelope of rat brain cells

    SciTech Connect

    Babakhanian, Karlo; Bendayan, Moise; Bendayan, Reina . E-mail: r.bendayan@utoronto.ca

    2007-09-21

    P-Glycoprotein is a plasma membrane drug efflux protein implicated in extrusion of cytotoxic compounds out of a cell. There is now evidence that suggests expression of this transporter at several subcellular sites, including the nucleus, mitochondria, and Golgi apparatus. This study investigated the localization and expression of P-glycoprotein at the nuclear membrane of rat brain microvessel endothelial (RBE4) and microglial (MLS-9) cell lines. Immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels using P-glycoprotein monoclonals antibodies demonstrated the localization of the protein at the nuclear envelope of RBE4 and MLS-9 cells. Western blot analysis revealed a single band of 170-kDa in purified nuclear membranes prepared from isolated nuclei of RBE4 and MLS-9 cells. These findings indicate that P-glycoprotein is expressed at the nuclear envelope of rat brain cells and suggest a role in multidrug resistance at this subcellular site.

  1. DNA damage and radiosensitizers: M. luteus sensitive sites for misonidazole-TAN combination

    SciTech Connect

    Skov, K.A.; Palcic, B.; Skarsgard, L.D.

    1982-10-01

    It has been shown previously that TAN does not enhance production of single-strand breaks (SSB) in DNA of Chinese hamster cells irradiated under hypoxia. In contrast, misonidazole does enhance the yield of SSB, but this SSB enhancement by misonidazole is reduced if TAN is present with misonidazole during irradiation. It was also shown that each of these sensitizers enhances base/sugar damage, measured with the aid of bacterial enzymes (MLS). The results presented here for MLS damage in mammalian cells irradiated in the presence of the misonidazole-TAN combination indicate that the two drugs act independently in enhancing MLS damage, and hence they interact with different types of lesions to produce base/sugar damage. It is proposed that the protection by TAN in mammalian cells observed at the survival level is due to repair of some of that type of damage which would otherwise become a misonidazole-enhanced SSB.

  2. Preliminary assessment of the microwave landing system requirements for STOL operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrous, C. N.; Brown, S. C.; Goka, T.; Park, K. E.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an investigation made to assess the Microwave Landing System (MLS) Requirements for use by civil STOL aircraft are described. The principal MLS characteristics investigated in the report were signal accuracy and volume of coverage. The study utilized a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom digital simulation of a De Havilland Buffalo C-8A aircraft. Fully automatic control of timed curve flight down to touchdown was simulated. Selected MLS accuracy and coverage parameters for the azimuth, primary elevation, flare evelation and DME signals were varied. The resulting STOL aircraft system performance in following a representative curved flight path was statistically determined. Coverage requirements for STOL aircraft operating in the terminal area environment were also investigated.

  3. Improved estimates for neutral air temperatures at 90 km and 78°N using satellite and meteor radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrland, M. E.; Hall, C. M.; Mulligan, F. J.; Tsutsumi, M.; Sigernes, F.

    2010-08-01

    A technique for using satellite-derived temperatures to calibrate initial estimates of 90 km temperatures measured by meteor wind radar is presented. Temperatures derived from the Nippon/Norway Svalbard Meteor Radar, situated on Svalbard at 78°N, 16°E, are calibrated using data from the Aura spacecraft's Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiment. The calibration was performed in a two-step process: after an initial calibration of first-guess temperatures, results were used to adjust the MLS values to reflect daily means rather than the 0200-1100 UT observation period of the satellite instrument; thereafter the calibration was repeated with the revised MLS temperatures. The resulting temperature time series represents a marked improvement on earlier results calibrated using hydroxyl emission and potassium/K-Lidar observations, as the uncertainty is reduced from 17 to 7 K. These latest results represent a new step toward reliable and continual monitoring of upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere temperature.

  4. Variability of ozone loss during Arctic winter (1991 to 2000) estimated from UARS Microwave Limb Sounder measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G.; Froidevaux, F.; Santee, M. L.; Livesey, N. J.; Sabutis, J. L.; Waters, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of version 5 Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone data using a Lagrangian Transport (LT) model provides estimates of chemical ozone depletion for the 1991-1992 through 1997-1998 Arctic winters. These new estimates give a consistent, three-dimensional picture of ozone loss during seven Arctic winters; previous Arctic ozone loss estimates from MLS were based on various earlier data versions and were done only for late winter and only for a subset of the years observed by MLS. We find large interannual variability in the amount, timing, and patterns of ozone depletion and in the degree to which chemical loss is masked by dynamical processes.

  5. Geometric validation of a mobile laser scanning system for urban applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Haiyan; Li, Jonathan; Yu, Yongtao; Liu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Mobile laser scanning (MLS) technologies have been actively studied and implemented over the past decade, as their application fields are rapidly expanding and extending beyond conventional topographic mapping. Trimble's MX-8, as one of the MLS systems in the current market, generates rich survey-grade laser and image data for urban surveying. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether Trimble MX-8 MLS data satisfies the accuracy requirements of urban surveying. According to the formula of geo-referencing, accuracies of navigation solution and laser scanner determines the accuracy of the collected LiDAR point clouds. Two test sites were selected to test the performance of Trimble MX-8. Those extensive tests confirm that Trimble MX-8 offers a very promising tool to survey complex urban areas.

  6. Ecological approach of macrolide-lincosamides-streptogramin producing actinomyces from Cuban soils.

    PubMed

    González, I; Niebla, A; Lemus, M; González, L; Iznaga, I O; Pérez, M E; Vallin, C

    1999-09-01

    We report in this study the frequency of Streptomyces strains to produce macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics isolated from Cuban soils. The screening assay is based on the induction of MLS-resistance phenotype in a clinical isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus S-18. Our results suggest that of 800 Streptomyces strains isolated from different soil samples, 6% were positives in the screening test used. The ferralitic red soil from Pinar del Río (north) provided the major percentage (3.6%) of MLS producing strains. The other soil samples tested belonging to Guira de Melena and Bauta in Havana, Matanzas City, Topes De Collantes (Villa Clara), and Soroa Mountains (Pinar del Rio) hill reached very low percentages. PMID:10530035

  7. Middle lobe syndrome: a singularly rare presentation of complicated pulmonary hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Kunal, Shekhar; Pilaniya, Vikas; Shah, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is crucial to the diagnosis of pulmonary hydatid disease, as it is often the first modality that raises suspicion of the disease. Middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of this disease is a distinct rarity. A 45-year-old woman, a never-smoker, presented with cough and streaky haemoptysis. Imaging demonstrated a trapezoidal opacity with its base towards the hilum and contiguous with the right cardiac border. The reformatted sagittal view confirmed the diagnosis of MLS. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) revealed an avascular white membranous structure wholly occluding the medial segment of the middle lobe. This was completely removed through gentle suction. Bronchial aspirate revealed hooklets of hydatid and echinococcal serology was positive. Subsequently, three cycles of albendazole were administered with remarkable clinical and radiological improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed description of MLS caused by pulmonary hydatidosis that was completely removed through FOB. PMID:27045051

  8. Promoting motivation through mode of instruction: The relationship between use of affective teaching techniques and motivation to learn science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Rivera, Yamil

    The purpose of this study is to add to what we know about the affective domain and to create a valid instrument for future studies. The Motivation to Learn Science (MLS) Inventory is based on Krathwohl's Taxonomy of Affective Behaviors (Krathwohl et al., 1964). The results of the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) demonstrated that the MLS Inventory is a valid and reliable instrument. Therefore, the MLS Inventory is a uni-dimensional instrument composed of 9 items with convergent validity (no divergence). The instrument had a high Chronbach Alpha value of .898 during the EFA analysis and .919 with the CFA analysis. Factor loadings on the 9 items ranged from .617 to .800. Standardized regression weights ranged from .639 to .835 in the CFA analysis. Various indices (RMSEA = .033; NFI = .987; GFI = .985; CFI = 1.000) demonstrated a good fitness of the proposed model. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to statistical analyze data where students' motivation to learn science scores (level-1) were nested within teachers (level-2). The analysis was geared toward identifying if teachers' use of affective behavior (a level-2 classroom variable) was significantly related with students' MLS scores (level-1 criterion variable). Model testing proceeded in three phases: intercept-only model, means-as-outcome model, and a random-regression coefficient model. The intercept-only model revealed an intra-class correlation coefficient of .224 with an estimated reliability of .726. Therefore, data suggested that only 22.4% of the variance in MLS scores is between-classes and the remaining 77.6% is at the student-level. Due to the significant variance in MLS scores, X2(62.756, p<.0001), teachers' TAB scores were added as a level-2 predictor. The regression coefficient was non-significant (p>.05). Therefore, the teachers' self-reported use of affective behaviors was not a significant predictor of students' motivation to learn science.

  9. A Review on the Toxicity and Non-Target Effects of Macrocyclic Lactones in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Errouissi, Faiek; Floate, Kevin; Römbke, Jörg; Wardhaugh, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The avermectins, milbemycins and spinosyns are collectively referred to as macrocyclic lactones (MLs) which comprise several classes of chemicals derived from cultures of soil micro-organisms. These compounds are extensively and increasingly used in veterinary medicine and agriculture. Due to their potential effects on non-target organisms, large amounts of information on their impact in the environment has been compiled in recent years, mainly caused by legal requirements related to their marketing authorization or registration. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present knowledge about the acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects of MLs on organisms, mainly invertebrates, in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Detailed information is presented on the mode-of-action as well as the ecotoxicity of the most important compounds representing the three groups of MLs. This information, based on more than 360 references, is mainly provided in nine tables, presenting the effects of abamectin, ivermectin, eprinomectin, doramectin, emamectin, moxidectin, and spinosad on individual species of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates as well as plants and algae. Since dung dwelling organisms are particularly important non-targets, as they are exposed via dung from treated animals over their whole life-cycle, the information on the effects of MLs on dung communities is compiled in an additional table. The results of this review clearly demonstrate that regarding environmental impacts many macrocyclic lactones are substances of high concern particularly with larval instars of invertebrates. Recent studies have also shown that susceptibility varies with life cycle stage and impacts can be mitigated by using MLs when these stages are not present. However information on the environmental impact of the MLs is scattered across a wide range of specialised scientific journals with research focusing mainly on ivermectin and to a lesser extent on abamectin

  10. Sequence and properties of pIM13, a macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance plasmid from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Monod, M; Denoya, C; Dubnau, D

    1986-01-01

    We initiated a study of pIM13, a multicopy, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS) plasmid first isolated from a strain of Bacillus subtilis and described by Mahler and Halvorson (J. Gen. Microbiol. 120:259-263, 1980). The copy number of this plasmid was about 200 in B. subtilis and 30 in Staphylococcus aureus. The MLS resistance determinant of pIM13 was shown to be highly homologous to ermC, an inducible element on the S. aureus plasmid pE194. The product of the pIM13 determinant was similar in size to that of ermC and immunologically cross-reactive with it. The MLS resistance of pIM13 was expressed constitutively. The complete base sequence of pIM13 is presented. The plasmid consisted of 2,246 base pairs and contained two open reading frames that specified products identified in minicell extracts. One was a protein of 16,000 molecular weight, possibly required for replication. The second was the 29,000-molecular-weight MLS resistance methylase. The regulatory region responsible for ermC inducibility was missing from pIM13, explaining its constitutivity. The remainder of the pIM13 MLS determinant was nearly identical to ermC. The ends of the region of homology between pIM13 and pE194 were associated with hyphenated dyad symmetries. A segment partially homologous to one of these termini on pIM13 and also associated with a dyad was found in pUB110 near the end of a region of homology between that plasmid and pBC16. The entire sequence of pIM13 was highly homologous to that of pE5, an inducible MLS resistance plasmid from S. aureus that differs from pIM13 in copy control. Images PMID:3087948

  11. Mutations in NDUFB11, Encoding a Complex I Component of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain, Cause Microphthalmia with Linear Skin Defects Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    van Rahden, Vanessa A.; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Alawi, Malik; Brand, Kristina; Fellmann, Florence; Horn, Denise; Zeviani, Massimo; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is an X-linked male-lethal disorder also known as MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea). Additional clinical features include neurological and cardiac abnormalities. MLS syndrome is genetically heterogeneous given that heterozygous mutations in HCCS or COX7B have been identified in MLS-affected females. Both genes encode proteins involved in the structure and function of complexes III and IV, which form the terminal segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC). However, not all individuals with MLS syndrome carry a mutation in either HCCS or COX7B. The majority of MLS-affected females have severe skewing of X chromosome inactivation, suggesting that mutations in HCCS, COX7B, and other as-yet-unidentified X-linked gene(s) cause selective loss of cells in which the mutated X chromosome is active. By applying whole-exome sequencing and filtering for X-chromosomal variants, we identified a de novo nonsense mutation in NDUFB11 (Xp11.23) in one female individual and a heterozygous 1-bp deletion in a second individual, her asymptomatic mother, and an affected aborted fetus of the subject’s mother. NDUFB11 encodes one of 30 poorly characterized supernumerary subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, known as complex I (cI), the first and largest enzyme of the MRC. By shRNA-mediated NDUFB11 knockdown in HeLa cells, we demonstrate that NDUFB11 is essential for cI assembly and activity as well as cell growth and survival. These results demonstrate that X-linked genetic defects leading to the complete inactivation of complex I, III, or IV underlie MLS syndrome. Our data reveal an unexpected role of cI dysfunction in a developmental phenotype, further underscoring the existence of a group of mitochondrial diseases associated with neurocutaneous manifestations. PMID:25772934

  12. New molecular detection methods of malaria parasites with multiple genes from genomes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Himanshu; Srivastava, Shikha; Chaudhari, Sima; Vasudevan, Thanvanthri G; Hande, Manjunath H; D'souza, Sydney C; Umakanth, Shashikiran; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2016-08-01

    For the effective control of malaria, development of sensitive, accurate and rapid tool to diagnose and manage the disease is essential. In humans subjects, the severe form of malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) and there is need to identify these parasites in acute, chronic and latent (during and post-infection) stages of the disease. In this study, we report a species specific and sensitive diagnostic method for the detection of Pf and Pv in humans. First, we identified intra and intergenic multiloci short stretch of 152 (PfMLS152) and 110 (PvMLS110) nucleotides which is present up to 44 and 34 times in the genomes of Pf and Pv respectively. We developed the single-step amplification-based method using isolated DNA or from lysed red blood cells for the detection of the two malaria parasites. The limit of detection of real-time polymerase chain reaction based assays were 0.1copyof parasite/μl for PfMLS152 and PvMLS110 target sequences. Next, we have tested 250 clinically suspected cases of malaria to validate the method. Sensitivity and specificity for both targets were 100% compared to the quantitative buffy coat microscopy analysis and real-time PCR (Pf-chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) and Pv-lactate dehydrogenase (PvLDH)) based assays. The sensitivity of microscopy and real-time PCR (PfCRT and PvLDH primers) assays were 80.63%; 95%CI 75.22%-85.31%; p<0.05 and 97.61%; 95%CI 94.50%-99.21%; p<0.05 in detecting malaria infection respectively when compared to PfMLS152 and PvMLS110 targets to identify malaria infection in patients. These improved assays may have potential applications in evaluating malaria in asymptomatic patients, treatment, blood donors and in vaccine studies. PMID:27130076

  13. Abundance and distribution of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin resistance genes in an anaerobic-aerobic system treating spiramycin production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Ding, Ran; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Tong; Yang, Min

    2014-10-15

    The behaviors of the Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes were investigated in an anaerobic-aerobic pilot-scale system treating spiramycin (SPM) production wastewater. After screening fifteen typical MLS resistance genes with different mechanisms using conventional PCR, eight detected genes were determined by quantitative PCR, together with three mobile elements. Aerobic sludge in the pilot system exhibited a total relative abundance of MLS resistance genes (per 16S rRNA gene) 2.5 logs higher than those in control samples collected from sewage and inosine wastewater treatment systems (P < 0.05), implying the presence of SPM could induce the production of MLS resistance genes. However, the total relative gene abundance in anaerobic sludge (4.3 × 10(-1)) was lower than that in aerobic sludge (3.7 × 10(0)) despite of the higher SPM level in anaerobic reactor, showing the advantage of anaerobic treatment in reducing the production of MLS resistance genes. The rRNA methylase genes (erm(B), erm(F), erm(X)) were the most abundant in the aerobic sludge (5.3 × 10(-1)-1.7 × 10(0)), followed by esterase gene ere(A) (1.3 × 10(-1)) and phosphorylase gene mph(B) (5.7 × 10(-2)). In anaerobic sludge, erm(B), erm(F), ere(A), and msr(D) were the major ones (1.2 × 10(-2)-3.2 × 10(-1)). These MLS resistance genes (except for msr(D)) were positively correlated with Class 1 integron (r(2) = 0.74-0.93, P < 0.05), implying the significance of horizontal transfer in their proliferation. PMID:24973730

  14. Highly Significant Linkage to the SLI1 Locus in an Expanded Sample of Individuals Affected by Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is defined as an unexplained failure to acquire normal language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. We have reported elsewhere a full-genome scan in 98 nuclear families affected by this disorder, with the use of three quantitative traits of language ability (the expressive and receptive tests of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals and a test of nonsense word repetition). This screen implicated two quantitative trait loci, one on chromosome 16q (SLI1) and a second on chromosome 19q (SLI2). However, a second independent genome screen performed by another group, with the use of parametric linkage analyses in extended pedigrees, found little evidence for the involvement of either of these regions in SLI. To investigate these loci further, we have collected a second sample, consisting of 86 families (367 individuals, 174 independent sib pairs), all with probands whose language skills are ⩾1.5 SD below the mean for their age. Haseman-Elston linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score (MLS) of 2.84 on chromosome 16 and an MLS of 2.31 on chromosome 19, both of which represent significant linkage at the 2% level. Amalgamation of the wave 2 sample with the cohort used for the genome screen generated a total of 184 families (840 individuals, 393 independent sib pairs). Analysis of linkage within this pooled group strengthened the evidence for linkage at SLI1 and yielded a highly significant LOD score (MLS = 7.46, interval empirical P<.0004). Furthermore, linkage at the same locus was also demonstrated to three reading-related measures (basic reading [MLS = 1.49], spelling [MLS = 2.67], and reading comprehension [MLS = 1.99] subtests of the Wechsler Objectives Reading Dimensions). PMID:15133743

  15. Investigation of quantum efficiency in mid-wave infrared (MWIR) InAs/GaSb type-II strained layer superlattice (T2SL) detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Lilian; Klein, Brianna; Tian, Zhao-Bing; Frantz, Eric; Myers, Stephen; Gautam, Nutan; Schuler-Sandy, Ted; Plis, Elena; Krishna, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study is to optimize the absorption in the active region of InAs/GaSb T2SL photodetectors for the realization of high-performance MWIR devices. Two sets of MWIR (λ100% cut-off ~ 5.5μm at 77K) T2SL detectors were realized; one set with varied detector absorber thickness, the other set with varied T2SL period. The T2SL material quality was evaluated on the basis of room temperature photoluminescence (RTPL) and the high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) data. Then the device performance was compared using spectral response, dark current and responsivity measurements. Finally, quantum efficiency was calculated and employed as a metric for the definition of the optimal T2SL period and active region thickness. For the first part of the study, a homojunction pin architecture based on 8 monolayers (MLs) InAs/8MLs GaSb T2SL was used. The thickness of the non-intentionally doped absorber layers were 1.5μm, 2.5μm, and 3.5μm. For the second part of the study, unipolar barrier (pBiBn) devices were grown. The thickness of the absorber region and the T2SL constituent InAs layer thicknesses were kept the same (1.5 μm and 8 MLs, respectively) whereas the T2SL constituent GaSb thickness was varied as 6 MLs, 8 MLs, and 10 MLs. We have found that the pin detector with 2.5 μm thick absorber and the pBiBn detector with 8 ML InAs/ 8 ML GaSb T2SL composition are, within the scope of this study, optimal for the realization of MWIR single-element devices and FPAs with corresponding architectures.

  16. The effect of a 6 Fr catheter in women: Are they obstructive?

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Patrick; Ordonez, Nydia Icaza; Tu, Le Mai

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a 6 Fr transurethral catheter on the uroflowmetry and to assess whether it potentially contributes to the bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women. Methods: We reviewed the charts of 1367 women who underwent an urodynamic study. We included patients with a non-invasive free-flow study (NIFFS) and pressure flow study (PFS) performed through a 6 Fr double lumen transurethral catheter. Results: In total, 120 women met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Mean maximal flow rate (Qmax) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the NIFFS (27.2±11.1 mL/s) than in the PFS (19.3±10.6 mL/s). The mean difference between both Qmax was 7.9±12.0 mL/s. Of these women, 92.3% (24/26) with a Qmax <12 mL/s during PFS were found to have a Qmax ≥12 mL/s during the NIFFS. Ten of the 72 women with an available Pdet.Qmax were deemed to have a BOO according to the PFS and all of them had a Qmax >12 mL/s during the NIFFS. Of the 10 patients, only 2 reported obstructive symptoms. Conclusion: The presence of 6 Fr transurethral catheters alters the PFS and results in a significant reduction of the Qmax in patients who voided more than 250 mL. We believe that NIFFS should be performed in all patients before any urethral manipulation to lower a possible overdiagnosis of BOO and findings should always be correlated to clinical symptoms. PMID:23826045

  17. Validation of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, L.; Read, W. G.; Lungu, T. A.; Cofield, R. E.; Fishbein, E. F.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Ridenoure, B. P.; Shippony, Z.; Waters, J. W.; Margitan, J. J.; McDermid, I. S.; Stachnik, R. A.; Peckham, G. E.; Braathen, G.; Deshler, T.; Fishman, J.; Hofmann, D. J.; Oltmans, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the validation of ozone data from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The MLS ozone retrievals are obtained from the calibrated microwave radiances (emission spectra) in two separate bands, at frequencies near 205 and 183 GHz. Analyses described here focus on the MLS Version 3 data (the first set of files made publicly available). We describe results of simulations performed to assess the quality of the retrieval algorithms, in terms of both mixing ratio and radiance closure. From actual MLS observations, the 205-GHz ozone retrievals give better closure (smaller radiance residuals) than that from the 183-GHz measurements and should be considered more accurate from the calibration aspects. However, the 183-GHz data are less noise limited in the mesosphere and can provide the most useful scientific results in that region. We compare the retrieved 205-GHz ozone profiles in the middle-to lower stratosphere to ozonesonde measurements at a wide range of latitudes and seasons. Ground-based lidar data from Table Mountain, California, provide a good reference for comparisons at higher altitudes. Based on these analyses, comparisons with balloon-borne measurements and others, as well as a detailed budget of estimated uncertainties, MLS results appear to be generally of high quality, with some biases worth mentioning. Results for the lowermost stratosphere (approx. 50 to 100 bPa) are still in need of improvement. A set of estimated precision and accuracy values is derived for the MLS ozone data sets. We also comment on recent updates in the retrieval algorithms and their impact on ozone values.

  18. Alkaloids as Inhibitors of Malate Synthase from Paracoccidioides spp.: Receptor-Ligand Interaction-Based Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Studies, Antifungal Activity, and the Adhesion Process

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Fausto Guimaraes; Neto, Benedito Rodrigues da Silva; Gonçalves, Ricardo Lemes; da Silva, Roosevelt Alves; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves; Kato, Lucília; Freitas, Carla dos Santos; Giannini, Maria José Soares Mendes; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioides is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Malate synthase plays a crucial role in the pathogenicity and virulence of various fungi, such as those that are human pathogens. Thus, an inhibitor of this enzyme may be used as a powerful antifungal without side effects in patients once these enzymes are absent in humans. Here, we searched for compounds with inhibitory capacity against the malate synthase of Paracoccidioides species (PbMLS). The three-dimensional (3D) structure of PbMLS was determined using the I-TASSER server. Compounds were selected from the ZINC database. Based on the mechanism underlying the interaction of the compounds with PbMLS, it was possible to identify β-carboline moiety as a standard key structure. The compounds with β-carboline moiety that are available in our laboratories were investigated. A total of nine alkaloid compounds were selected. The primary mechanisms of interaction of the alkaloid compounds in the binding pocket of PbMLS were identified and compared with the mechanism of interaction of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). We discovered that the amphipathic nature of the compounds, concomitant with the presence of β-carboline moiety, was crucial for their stability in the binding pocket of PbMLS. In addition, the importance of a critical balance of the polar and nonpolar contacts of the compounds in this region was observed. Four β-carboline alkaloid compounds showed the ability to inhibit recombinant PbMLS (PbMLSr) activity, Paracoccidioides species growth, and adhesion of the fungus and PbMLSr to the extracellular matrix components. The cytotoxicity of the alkaloids was also evaluated. PMID:26124176

  19. Estimating contaminant mass discharge: A field comparison of the multilevel point measurement and the integral pumping investigation approaches and their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béland-Pelletier, Caroline; Fraser, Michelle; Barker, Jim; Ptak, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    In this field study, two approaches to assess contaminant mass discharge were compared: the sampling of multilevel wells (MLS) and the integral groundwater investigation (or integral pumping test, IPT) that makes use of the concentration-time series obtained from pumping wells. The MLS approached used concentrations, hydraulic conductivity and gradient rather than direct chemical flux measurements, while the IPT made use of a simplified analytical inversion. The two approaches were applied at a control plane located approximately 40 m downgradient of a gasoline source at Canadian Forces Base Borden, Ontario, Canada. The methods yielded similar estimates of the mass discharging across the control plane. The sources of uncertainties in the mass discharge in each approach were evaluated, including the uncertainties inherent in the underlying assumptions and procedures. The maximum uncertainty of the MLS method was about 67%, and about 28% for the IPT method in this specific field situation. For the MLS method, the largest relative uncertainty (62%) was attributed to the limited sampling density (0.63 points/m 2), through a novel comparison with a denser sampling grid nearby. A five-fold increase of the sampling grid density would have been required to reduce the overall relative uncertainty for the MLS method to about the same level as that for the IPT method. Uncertainty in the complete coverage of the control plane provided the largest relative uncertainty (37%) in the IPT method. While MLS or IPT methods to assess contaminant mass discharge are attractive assessment tools, the large relative uncertainty in either method found for this reasonable well monitored and simple aquifer suggests that results in more complex plumes in more heterogeneous aquifers should be viewed with caution.

  20. Traceable calibration of Si avalanche photodiodes using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, I.; Klein, R. M.; Hollandt, J.; Ulm, G.; Werner, L.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present a new substitution method based on the unique properties of synchrotron radiation and of the Metrology Light Source (MLS), the dedicated electron storage ring of the PTB. The MLS is used as a light source with a dynamic range of its photon flux of 11 orders of magnitude to bridge the gap in optical power measurement between a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer and a single photon detector. Two single photon avalanche diodes were calibrated at 651 nm with combined relative uncertainties of 0.17% and 0.16% traceable to a primary standard, a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer.

  1. Near real time data processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousessian, Ardvas; Vuu, Christina

    2008-08-01

    Raytheon recently developed and implemented a Near Real Time (NRT) data processing subsystem for Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS3) instrument on NASA Aura spacecraft. The NRT can be viewed as a customized Science Information Processing System (SIPS) where the measurements and information provided by the instrument are expeditiously processed, packaged, and delivered. The purpose of the MLS NRT is to process Level 0 data up through Level 2, and distribute standard data products to the customer within 3-5 hours of the first set of data arrival.

  2. The first report of a Chinese family with McLeod syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Man, Bik Ling; Yuen, Yuet Ping; Fu, Yat Pang

    2014-01-01

    We report the first case of a Chinese family with McLeod syndrome (MLS). The two affected brothers show significant phenotypic heterogeneity. The index case has peripheral acanthocytosis, choreoathetosis of his feet, a slowly progressive neuropathy and myopathy, and an elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) level. His elder brother has more prominent chorea of the shoulders, epilepsy, a rapidly progressive neuropathy and normal serum CK. The diagnosis of MLS was confirmed by a genetic test which showed a hemizygous frameshift mutation in the XK gene. PMID:24895410

  3. Theory of light emission in sonoluminescence as thermal radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, W.-K.; Leung, P. T.

    2006-05-15

    Based on the model proposed by Hilgenfeldt et al. [Nature (London) 398, 401 (1999)], we present here a comprehensive theory of thermal radiation in single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL). We first invoke the generalized Kirchhoff's law to obtain the thermal emissivity from the absorption cross section of a multilayered sphere (MLS). A sonoluminescing bubble, whose internal structure is determined from hydrodynamic simulations, is then modeled as a MLS and in turn the thermal radiation is evaluated. Numerical results obtained from simulations for argon bubbles show that our theory successfully captures the major features observed in SBSL experiments.

  4. Theory of light emission in sonoluminescence as thermal radiation.

    PubMed

    Tse, Wang-Kong; Leung, P T

    2006-05-01

    Based on the model proposed by Hilgenfeldt [Nature (London) 398, 401 (1999)], we present here a comprehensive theory of thermal radiation in single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL). We first invoke the generalized Kirchhoff's law to obtain the thermal emissivity from the absorption cross section of a multilayered sphere (MLS). A sonoluminescing bubble, whose internal structure is determined from hydrodynamic simulations, is then modeled as a MLS and in turn the thermal radiation is evaluated. Numerical results obtained from simulations for argon bubbles show that our theory successfully captures the major features observed in SBSL experiments. PMID:16803032

  5. The design, development, and flight test results of the Boeing 737 aircraft antennas for the ICAO demonstration of the TRSB microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, T. G.; White, W. E.; Gilreath, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    The Research Support Flight System, a modified Boeing 737, was used to evaluate the performance of several aircraft antennas and locations for the Time Reference Scanning Beam (TRSB) Microwave Landing System (MLS). These tests were conducted at the National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center (NAFEC), Atlantic City, New Jersey on December 18, 1975. The flight tests measured the signal strength and all pertinent MLS data during a straight-in approach, a racetrack approach, and ICAO approach profiles using the independent antenna-receiver combinations simultaneously on the aircraft. Signal drop-outs were experienced during the various approaches but only a small percentage could be attributed to antenna pattern effects.

  6. Status and potential of GPS-receiver development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahlfs, Dietrich

    The current development status of receivers for Navstar GPS is surveyed, with a focus on equipment for civil aircraft navigation. The basic characteristics of five-channel P-code and six-channel C/A-code receivers are reviewed and illustrated with block diagrams; recent advances in GPS antennas and signal-processing techniques are outlined; and possible approaches to a low-cost accurate aircraft system are considered. Particular attention is given to (1) a high-availability modular GPS/MLS/DME-P navigation system and (2) an integrated system combining GPS, Glonass, MLS-DME-P, and inertial navigation (e.g., a strapdown fiber-optic gyro).

  7. Comparison of Global Distributions of Zonal-Mean Gravity Wave Variance Inferred from Different Satellite Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Offermann, Dirk; Jackman, Charles H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Gravity wave temperature fluctuations acquired by the CRISTA instrument are compared to previous estimates of zonal-mean gravity wave temperature variance inferred from the LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET satellite instruments during northern winter. Careful attention is paid to the range of vertical wavelengths resolved by each instrument. Good agreement between CRISTA data and previously published results from LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET are found. Key latitudinal features in these variances are consistent with previous findings from ground-based measurements and some simple models. We conclude that all four satellite instruments provide reliable global data on zonal-mean gravity wave temperature fluctuations throughout the middle atmosphere.

  8. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  9. Comparison of global distributions of zonal-mean gravity wave variance inferred from different satellite instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Offermann, Dirk

    2000-12-01

    Gravity wave temperature fluctuations acquired by the CRISTA instrument are compared to previous estimates of zonal-mean gravity wave temperature variance inferred from the LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET satellite instruments during northern winter. Careful attention is paid to the range of vertical wavelengths resolved by each instrument. Good agreement between CRISTA data and previously published results from LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET are found. Key latitudinal features in these variances are consistent with previous findings from ground-based measurements and some simple models. We conclude that all four satellite instruments provide reliable global data on zonal-mean gravity wave temperature fluctuations throughout the middle atmosphere.

  10. Magnetic properties of Fe/Zr multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Dubowik, J.; Stobiecki, F.; Szymanski, B.

    1994-03-01

    Measurements of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), magnetic moment, and torque curves have been made for three series of Fe/Zr multilayers (MLs) with thickness ratio of Fe to Zr sublayers equal to 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2, respectively. The authors show that Fe/Zr MLs readily yield to amorphization by a solid-state reaction (SSR) during the deposition process. Nevertheless, the resulting structure may be regarded as inhomogeneous one; there still exist some ferromagnetic phases that they relate to the Fe atoms in various surroundings.

  11. New design and operating techniques and requirements for improved aircraft terminal area operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. P.; Taylor, R. T.; Walsh, T. M.

    1974-01-01

    Current aircraft operating problems that must be alleviated for future high-density terminal areas are safety, dependence on weather, congestion, energy conservation, noise, and atmospheric pollution. The Microwave Landing System (MLS) under development by FAA provides increased capabilities over the current ILS. The development of the airborne system's capability to take maximum advantage of the MLS capabilities in order to solve terminal area problems are discussed. A major limiting factor in longitudinal spacing for capacity increase is the trailing vortex hazard. Promising methods for causing early dissipation of the vortices were explored. Flight procedures for avoiding the hazard were investigated. Terminal configured vehicles and their flight test development are discussed.

  12. Reply to discussion of "Tropospheric ozone variability over the Iberian Peninsula Atmospheric Environment" by Kulkarni et al. (2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.; Bortoli, D.; Salgado, R.; Antón, M.; Costa, M. J.; Silva, A. M.

    2011-05-01

    In the discussion paper on our article ( Kulkarni et al., 2011), de Laat has criticized TOR methodology and TOR data and thus questioned the validity of the findings. He has also pointed out the fact that the authors may have used the OMI/MLS data. In this reply to the discussion, the clarifications and references given herewith endeavour to undoubtedly answer the questions posed by de Laat on TOR methodology and on TOR data and thus proving that the findings of Kulkarni et al. (2011) are scientifically justified and therefore entirely valid. Furthermore, reasons were presented to justify the non use of the OMI/MLS data.

  13. Synthetic and Biological Studies of Sesquiterpene Polygodial: Activity of 9-Epipolygodial against Drug-Resistant Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Ramesh; De Carvalho, Annelise; Medellin, Derek C; Middleton, Kelsey N; Hague, Frédéric; Volmar, Marie N M; Frolova, Liliya V; Rossato, Mateus F; De La Chapa, Jorge J; Dybdal-Hargreaves, Nicholas F; Pillai, Akshita; Mathieu, Véronique; Rogelj, Snezna; Gonzales, Cara B; Calixto, João B; Evidente, Antonio; Gautier, Mathieu; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Glass, Rainer; Burth, Patricia; Pelly, Stephen C; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Kiss, Robert; Kornienko, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Polygodial, a terpenoid dialdehyde isolated from Polygonum hydropiper L., is a known agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). In this investigation a series of polygodial analogues were prepared and investigated for TRPV1-agonist and anticancer activities. These experiments led to the identification of 9-epipolygodial, which has antiproliferative potency significantly exceeding that of polygodial. 9-Epipolygodial was found to maintain potency against apoptosis-resistant cancer cells as well as those displaying the multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype. In addition, the chemical feasibility for the previously proposed mechanism of action of polygodial, involving the formation of a Paal-Knorr pyrrole with a lysine residue on the target protein, was demonstrated by the synthesis of a stable polygodial pyrrole derivative. These studies reveal rich chemical and biological properties associated with polygodial and its direct derivatives. These compounds should inspire further work in this area aimed at the development of new pharmacological agents, or the exploration of novel mechanisms of covalent modification of biological molecules with natural products. PMID:26434977

  14. Specific determination of 20 primary aromatic amines in aqueous food simulants by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Sarah Kelly; Trier, Xenia Thorsager; Foverskov, Annie; Petersen, Jens Hójslev

    2005-10-14

    A multi-analyte method without any pre-treatment steps using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed and applied for the determination of 20 primary aromatic amines (PAA) associated with polyurethane (PUR) products or azo-colours. The method was validated in-house for water and 3% acetic acid food simulants using spiked migrates from plastic laminates. Detection limits ranged from 0.27 to 3 microg amine/L food simulants, and RSD values of within-laboratory reproducibility at the 2 microg PAA/L level ranged from 3.9 to 19%. PAA migration from plastic laminates and black nylon cooking utensils were determined with the method, and high levels of 4,4'-methylenedianiline and aniline were found in migrates from about half of the tested cooking utensils. The method fulfils present legislative demands in the EU for screening and verification of PAA migration from food contact materials. PMID:16395791

  15. The bimolecular gas-phase reaction of protonated alkyldipeptides with acetonylacetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, Erez H.; de Koning, L. J.; Nibbering, N. M. M.

    1997-11-01

    The gas-phase reaction of protonated alkyldipeptides with acetonylacetone has been studied in a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. The reaction is identified as the gas-phase analogue of Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis. Under thermal conditions, the reaction complex loses a water molecule during a condensation reaction, which couples the dipeptide to the acetonylacetone molecule via an imine bond. Low energy collisional activation of the long-lived imine product ion induces additional loss of a water molecule to form the protonated 2,5-dimethylpyrrole derivative of the dipeptide. Detailed insight into the mechanism is obtained by a comparison of the reactivity of various alkyldipeptides with model compounds with amino functional groups. The reaction is catalysed by the peptide carbonyl groups, which assist in the protonation of the acetonylacetone carbonyl oxygen atoms, making the acetonylacetone carbonyl carbon atoms susceptible to nucleophilic attack by the peptide amino group. From both the previously studied bimolecular hydrogen-deuterium exchange behaviour and the presently studied reaction with acetonylacetone, it follows that the bimolecular reactivity of protonated alkyldipeptides is related to the extent of mobility of the proton within the reactive complex.

  16. Home Performance XML to Real Estate Standards Organization Data Dictionary Translator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-10-27

    This translator takes fields from the HPXML and translates them into RESO’s Data Dictionary, which is used in MLS systems for real estate transactions across the country. The purpose is to get energy efficiency data into the real estate transaction.

  17. Testing Microwave Landing Systems With Satellite Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiriazes, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Less time and equipment needed to perform tests. Satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measures accuracy of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at airports used to support Shuttle landings. Provides time and three-dimensional information on position and velocity with unprecedented accuracy. Useful for testing other electronic navigation aids like LORAN, TACAN and microwave landing systems (MLS).

  18. Mutations in COX7B Cause Microphthalmia with Linear Skin Lesions, an Unconventional Mitochondrial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Indrieri, Alessia; van Rahden, Vanessa Alexandra; Tiranti, Valeria; Morleo, Manuela; Iaconis, Daniela; Tammaro, Roberta; D’Amato, Ilaria; Conte, Ivan; Maystadt, Isabelle; Demuth, Stephanie; Zvulunov, Alex; Kutsche, Kerstin; Zeviani, Massimo; Franco, Brunella

    2012-01-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin lesions (MLS) is an X-linked dominant male-lethal disorder associated with mutations in holocytochrome c-type synthase (HCCS), which encodes a crucial player of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC). Unlike other mitochondrial diseases, MLS is characterized by a well-recognizable neurodevelopmental phenotype. Interestingly, not all clinically diagnosed MLS cases have mutations in HCCS, thus suggesting genetic heterogeneity for this disorder. Among the possible candidates, we analyzed the X-linked COX7B and found deleterious de novo mutations in two simplex cases and a nonsense mutation, which segregates with the disease, in a familial case. COX7B encodes a poorly characterized structural subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the MRC complex IV. We demonstrated that COX7B is indispensable for COX assembly, COX activity, and mitochondrial respiration. Downregulation of the COX7B ortholog (cox7B) in medaka (Oryzias latipes) resulted in microcephaly and microphthalmia that recapitulated the MLS phenotype and demonstrated an essential function of complex IV activity in vertebrate CNS development. Our results indicate an evolutionary conserved role of the MRC complexes III and IV for the proper development of the CNS in vertebrates and uncover a group of mitochondrial diseases hallmarked by a developmental phenotype. PMID:23122588

  19. Paternal Alcoholism, Family Functioning, and Infant Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Eiden, Rina Das

    2007-01-01

    The authors share results from two longitudinal studies exploring the impact of father's alcohol use on child development. The Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS) has followed a sample of alcoholic families with 3-5 year old children for 20 years. The Buffalo Longitudinal Study (BLS) has followed a sample of alcoholic and nonalcoholic families…

  20. Status of the Metrology Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.; Ulm, G.; Feikes, J.; Hartrott, M. von; Wuestefeld, G.

    2010-06-23

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German national metrology institute, has set up the low-energy electron storage ring Metrology Light Source (MLS) in close cooperation with the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB, formerly BESSY). This new storage ring has been in regular user operation since April 2008 and is dedicated to synchrotron-radiation-based metrology and technological developments in the far-IR/THz, IR, UV, VUV and EUV spectral range. The MLS has a double-bend-achromate lattice structure, injection is from a 105 MeV racetrack microtron. The electron energy can be ramped to any value from 105 MeV up to 630 MeV and the electron beam current covers the range from one stored electron (1 pA) up to 200 mA. The MLS is the first electron storage ring optimized for the generation of coherent synchrotron radiation, based on an electron bunch shortening mode. In this mode, MLS delivers coherent radiation in the far-IR/THz spectral range with enhanced intensity as compared to the normal mode of operation. Several beamlines are in operation or in construction, including one undulator beamline, bending magnet beamlines for the calibration of radiation sources and detectors and for reflectometry, an EUV metrology beamline and three IR/THz beamlines.

  1. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  2. La variacion de /s/ en Valdivia: sexo y edad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen L.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the study of the use of /s/ vs. /h/ or O (in Spanish) in Valdivia, Chile, by speakers who differed in sex and age. No marked differences in relation to sex and age were found, indicating a relatively homogeneous community. (MLS)

  3. Well separated trion and neutral excitons on superacid treated MoS2 monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadiz, Fabian; Tricard, Simon; Gay, Maxime; Lagarde, Delphine; Wang, Gang; Robert, Cedric; Renucci, Pierre; Urbaszek, Bernhard; Marie, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    Developments in optoelectronics and spin-optronics based on transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MLs) need materials with efficient optical emission and well-defined transition energies. In as-exfoliated MoS2 MLs, the photoluminescence (PL) spectra even at low temperature consist typically of broad, overlapping contributions from neutral, charged excitons (trions) and localized states. Here, we show that in superacid treated MoS2 MLs, the PL intensity increases by up to 60 times at room temperature. The neutral and charged exciton transitions are spectrally well separated in PL and reflectivity at T = 4 K, with linewidth for the neutral exciton of 15 meV, but both transitions have similar intensities compared to the ones in as-exfoliated MLs at the same temperature. Time resolved experiments uncover picoseconds recombination dynamics analyzed separately for charged and neutral exciton emissions. Using the chiral interband selection rules, we demonstrate optically induced valley polarization for both complexes and valley coherence for only the neutral exciton.

  4. Salient region preservation for image deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Lai, Jianhuang; Yuen, Pong C.; Xie, Xiaohua

    2014-11-01

    We present an interactive image deformation method which preserves the local shapes of salient objects in the concerned image during the deformation. The proposed method falls into the moving least squares (MLS) framework, but notably differs from the original MLS deformation method. First, a saliency-related distance is developed to replace the original Euclidean distance in the weight definition. Second, the original affine matrix is decomposed into a single rotation matrix and a symmetric matrix by using a singular value decomposition, then the free parameters of these matrices are interpolated according to the saliency information. Furthermore, for the line-based MLS deformation, the closed-form solution of weight cannot be found directly when using the proposed saliency-based distance. To address this problem, we propose a method using an exponential transformation to regulate the weight where the regulation factor is also correlated to saliency information. All these revisions lead a saliency-sensitive mapping which creates a deformation change in the nonvital parts of image while preserving the local shapes of salient parts. Experimental results show that the proposed deformation outperforms the original MLS deformation in terms of visual performance.

  5. The Effect of Parenting Stress on Child Behavior Problems in High-Risk Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Liu, Jing; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Das, Abhik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between early parenting stress and later child behavior in a high-risk sample and measure the effect of drug exposure on the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior. Methods: A subset of child-caregiver dyads (n = 607) were selected from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS), which is a large…

  6. Salary Survey Results. 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassell, Marianne K.

    Based on a survey conducted by the Vermont Department of Libraries during the summer of 1987, this document reports the salaries paid library directors, librarians holding M.L.S. degrees, and support and custodial staff members in the state's libraries. Questionnaires were sent to all the public, academic, special, institutional, and school…

  7. New Definitions for Employment and Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Robert L.

    1967-01-01

    Improvements in methods for measuring employment and unemployment that went into effect in January 1967, new definitions, and comparisons of data collected by the Current Population Survey (CPS) and the new Monthly Labor Survey (MLS) are presented. The improvements are in line with the recommendations of the Gordon Committee in its 1962 report.…

  8. Probability of Potential Multi-Canister Overpack Loading System Drop of Proof Load in the K West Basin South Loadout Pit

    SciTech Connect

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-01-20

    This document presents the results of a probabilistic analysis of the potential for load drop during the load test of the K West Basin South Loadout Pit Gantry. The calculations are in support of the cask loading system (CLS) subproject load test of the gantry. The purpose of this calculation note is to document the probabilistic calculation of the per lift potential for drop of a test load by the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Loading System (MLS) during load testing at the K West Basin south loadout pit. The MLS subproject needs to load test the MLS in the K West Basin south loadout pit. To perform this test, a basket mockup weighing approximately 4,500 lb (125% of a fully loaded MCO basket accounting for water displacement) needs to be used for one or more load tests. The test load will comprise a standard basket lifting attachment with several ring-shaped steel segments to provide the required weight. The test load will exceed the K Basin Safety Analysis Report (WHC-SD-WM-SAR-062) (SAR) allowances for load drop in the K West Basin south loadout pit. This probabilistic calculation will be used as part of the basis for seeking U.S. Department of Energy approval to use an MLS test weight that exceeds SAR allowances.

  9. A reassessment of risk associated with dietary intake of ochratoxin A based on a lifetime exposure model

    PubMed Central

    Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Magnuson, Bernadene A; Nestmann, Earle R

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins, such as ochratoxin A (OTA), can occur from fungal growth on foods. OTA is considered a possible risk factor for adverse renal effects in humans based on renal tumors in male rats. For risk mitigation. Health Canada proposed maximum limits (MLs) for OTA based largely on a comparative risk assessment conducted by Health Canada (Kuiper-Goodman et al., 2010), in which analytical data of OTA in foods were used to determine the possible impact adopting MLs may have on OTA risks. The EU MLs were used for comparison and resultant risk was determined based on age–sex strata groups. These data were reevaluated here to determine comparative risk on a lifetime basis instead of age strata. Also, as there is scientific disagreement over the mechanism of OTA-induced renal tumors, mechanistic data were revisited. On a lifetime basis, risks associated with dietary exposure were found to be negligible, even without MLs, with dietary exposures to OTA three to four orders of magnitude below the pivotal animal LOAEL and the TD05. Our review of the mechanistic data supported a threshold-based mechanism as the most plausible. In particular, OTA was negative in genotoxicity assays with the highest specificity and levels of DNA adducts were very low and not typical of genotoxic carcinogens. In conclusion, OTA exposures from Canadian foods do not present a significant cancer risk. PMID:22276591

  10. Simultaneous Observations fo Polar Stratospheric Clouds and HNO3 over Scandinavia in January, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, S. T.; Santee, M. L.; Read, W. G.; Grainger, R. G.; Lambert, A.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Dye, J. E.; Baumbardner, D.; Randel, W. J.; Tabazadeh, A.; Tie, X.; Pan, L.; Figarol, F.; Wu, F.; Brasseur, G. P.

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of Polar Stratospheric Cloud aerosol extinction and HNO3 mixing ratios over Scandinavia are examined for January 9-10, 1992. Data measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon, Spectrometer (CLAES), and Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMA) experiments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are examined at locations adjacent to parcel trajectory positions.

  11. Evaluation of the Albany Librarianship Trainee Program of the School of Library and Information Science of the State University of New York at Albany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Lucille M.

    In the summer of 1970, the School of Library and Information Science at the State University of New York at Albany (SUNYA) initiated an integrated 3-year undergraduate and graduate program leading to a bachelors degree in an area of the student's choice and a Masters of Library Science (MLS). Twenty-one junior year students, (nine Black or Spanish…

  12. The role of the glyoxylate cycle in the symbiotic fungus Tuber borchii: expression analysis and subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Abba', Simona; Balestrini, Raffaella; Benedetto, Alessandra; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; De Lucas, José Ramón; Bonfante, Paola

    2007-09-01

    Expression profiles of isocitrate lyase (TbICL), malate synthase (TbMLS) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (TbFBP) from the mycorrhizal ascomycete Tuber borchii were investigated by real-time RT-PCR in fruiting bodies at different stages of maturation. In addition, a time course experiment was set up to determine how the transcription profile of TbICL, TbMLS and TbFBP in axenic-grown mycelia is affected by different carbon sources. The transcript levels of the three genes in the fruiting bodies were all much higher than those measured in the vegetative stage. The investigation on axenic-grown mycelia revealed that the main positive regulator of TbICL and TbMLS gene expression is the availability of acetate and ethanol, while oleic acid is a too complex substrate for the limited degradative capacities of T. borchii. Immunolabelling on axenic-grown mycelia showed a co-localization of TbICL and the peroxisomal marker protein FOX2. This result demonstrated that in T. borchii ICL is compartmentalized in peroxisomes. The high induction of TbICL, TbMLS and TbFBP transcription and the translocation of lipids in fruiting bodies let us hypothesize that glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis are key metabolic pathways in the recycling of existing cell material and the channelling towards the biosynthesis of new cell components during the maturation of fruiting bodies. PMID:17701038

  13. Street environment change detection from mobile laser scanning point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wen; Vallet, Bruno; Brédif, Mathieu; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Mobile laser scanning (MLS) has become a popular technique for road inventory, building modelling, infrastructure management, mobility assessment, etc. Meanwhile, due to the high mobility of MLS systems, it is easy to revisit interested areas. However, change detection using MLS data of street environment has seldom been studied. In this paper, an approach that combines occupancy grids and a distance-based method for change detection from MLS point clouds is proposed. Unlike conventional occupancy grids, our occupancy-based method models space based on scanning rays and local point distributions in 3D without voxelization. A local cylindrical reference frame is presented for the interpolation of occupancy between rays according to the scanning geometry. The Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) is utilized for both intra-data evidence fusion and inter-data consistency assessment. Occupancy of reference point cloud is fused at the location of target points and then the consistency is evaluated directly on the points. A point-to-triangle (PTT) distance-based method is combined to improve the occupancy-based method. Because it is robust to penetrable objects, e.g. vegetation, which cause self-conflicts when modelling occupancy. The combined method tackles irregular point density and occlusion problems, also eliminates false detections on penetrable objects.

  14. A Ramble through the Cell: How Can We Clear Such a Complicated Trail?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobich, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    The arrangement of course information in a logical sequence for molecular life science (MLS) courses remains a matter of some controversy, even within a single subdiscipline such as biochemistry. This is due to the explosion of knowledge, the latest bioinformatic revelations, and the observation that new discoveries sometimes reveal specific…

  15. Velopharyngeal Port Status during Classical Singing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Power, David

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation was undertaken to examine the status of the velopharyngeal (VP) port during classical singing. Method: Using aeromechanical instrumentation, nasal airflow (mL/s), oral pressure (cm H[subscript 2]O), and VP orifice area estimates (cm[squared]) were studied in 10 classically trained sopranos during singing and speaking.…

  16. The Evolution of the Reference Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2011-01-01

    The job of the contemporary reference librarian has a virtual component unimaginable a generation ago. Today's library professional can obtain an MLS (or equivalent) online with a minimal residency requirement. Not only the degree, but also library sources, and indeed patrons, have become virtual. Both books and periodicals can be consulted by…

  17. Maze Busters: Carrie Miyoshi Macfarlane & Kathleen Sheehan--Harvard University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Even if one is equipped with an MLS, the 11 libraries that comprise the Harvard College Library can be pretty daunting. That is why Carrie Miyoshi Macfarlane and Kathleen Sheehan created Threading the Maze. The online publication is presented to students in expository writing, the one course all undergraduates must take. "This highly effective…

  18. The Profession's Coach: Cindi Hickey--Institute for Continuous Education, Emporia State University, KS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Kansas librarians were delighted when Cindi Hickey came into their lives. Kansas is a really big state, sprawling over 82,000 square miles. For its small-town librarians, many of whom are without an MLS, professional development opportunities required hours spent driving--as well as hard-to-come-by travel money for overnight lodging. Hickey,…

  19. Activity of a new high efficiency diuretic in man: piretanide (HOE 118).

    PubMed Central

    Pozet, N; Hadj-Aissa, A; Pellet, M; Traeger, J

    1980-01-01

    1 The pharmacological actions of piretanide, a new high efficiency diuretic, were studied in sixteen patients with GFR (inulin clearance) varying from 0.1--2.5 ml/s. 2 After hydration and following two control periods, a single dose of 6 mg piretanide was ingested. Thereafter, urine was collected every 30 min for 2 h and every hour for the next 4 h. Fluid losses were replaced. 3 The following measurements were made: urine flow rate, clearances of inulin, PAH, urea, creatinine, uric acid, osmolar and free water clearances, excretion rates of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphate, bicarbonate, ammonium, titratable acidity and urine pH. 4 Main results showed piretanide was efficient in the group with normal GFR (inulin clearance greater than 1.5 ml/s) and in the group with slightly decreased GFR (1.0 less than inulin clearance less than 1.4 ml/s), in terms of diuresis, natriuresis, kaliuresis and calciuresis. It was inefficient in the group with severe renal insufficiency (inulin clearance less than 0.3 ml/s). 5 Free water clearance showed preservation of diluting ability to a large extent. 6 In the three groups, no significant change in inulin clearance and PAH clearance occurred. PMID:7387813

  20. The Easy Sell: Veronda Pitchford--Metropolitan Library System, Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Pure energy: that is one way to describe Veronda Pitchford, the assistant director of Chicago's Metropolitan Library System (MLS). And she uses that energy to transform the profession one recruit, one project, one library supporter at a time. At work, she is involved with recruitment and taps her public relations B.A. to help member libraries…

  1. Phase evolution in {sup 57}Fe/Al multilayers studied through dc magnetization, conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jani, Snehal; Lakshmi, N.; Venugopalan, K.; Sebastian, Varkey; Reddy, V. R.; Gupta, Ajay; Lalla, N. P.

    2008-12-15

    Fe/Al multilayer thin films with an overall atomic concentration ratio of Fe:Al=1:2 have been prepared by ion-beam sputtering. Phase formation and microstructural evolution with thermal annealing have been studied by x-ray reflectivity, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, dc magnetization, and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy. These studies show that although the starting composition is Al rich, the intermixing of Fe and Al at the interfaces leads to the formation of a magnetic Fe{sub 3}Al-like region at the interface. Thus, the magnetic contribution in the as-deposited multilayer structure (MLS) is not only from pure Fe but also from an Fe{sub 3}Al-like region formed at the interface. On annealing the MLS, a stable nonmagnetic MLS consisting of intermetallic B2Fe{sub 50}Al{sub 50} separated by thin Al layers is formed. Further annealing only induces better ordering of Fe{sub 50}Al{sub 50} and does not destroy the MLS.

  2. Normal and Functional TP53 in Genetically Stable Myxoid/Round Cell Liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Ståhlberg, Anders; Kåbjörn Gustafsson, Christina; Engtröm, Katarina; Thomsen, Christer; Dolatabadi, Soheila; Jonasson, Emma; Li, Chieh-Yuan; Ruff, David; Chen, Shiaw-Min; Åman, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Myxoid/round-cell liposarcoma (MLS/RCLS) is characterized by either the fusion gene FUS-DDIT3 or the less commonly occurring EWSR1-DDIT3 and most cases carry few or no additional cytogenetic changes. There are conflicting reports concerning the status and role of TP53 in MLS/RCLS. Here we analysed four MLS/RCLS derived cell lines for TP53 mutations, expression and function. Three SV40 transformed cell lines expressed normal TP53 proteins. Irradiation caused normal posttranslational modifications of TP53 and induced P21 expression in two of these cell lines. Transfection experiments showed that the FUS-DDIT3 fusion protein had no effects on irradiation induced TP53 responses. Ion Torrent AmpliSeq screening, using the Cancer Hotspot panel, showed no dysfunctional or disease associated alleles/mutations. In conclusion, our results suggest that most MLS/RCLS cases carry functional TP53 genes and this is consistent with the low numbers of secondary mutations observed in this tumor entity. PMID:25393000

  3. Semi-automated extraction and delineation of 3D roads of street scene from mobile laser scanning point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bisheng; Fang, Lina; Li, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Accurate 3D road information is important for applications such as road maintenance and virtual 3D modeling. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) is an efficient technique for capturing dense point clouds that can be used to construct detailed road models for large areas. This paper presents a method for extracting and delineating roads from large-scale MLS point clouds. The proposed method partitions MLS point clouds into a set of consecutive "scanning lines", which each consists of a road cross section. A moving window operator is used to filter out non-ground points line by line, and curb points are detected based on curb patterns. The detected curb points are tracked and refined so that they are both globally consistent and locally similar. To evaluate the validity of the proposed method, experiments were conducted using two types of street-scene point clouds captured by Optech's Lynx Mobile Mapper System. The completeness, correctness, and quality of the extracted roads are over 94.42%, 91.13%, and 91.3%, respectively, which proves the proposed method is a promising solution for extracting 3D roads from MLS point clouds.

  4. Temporal Decrease in Upper Atmospheric Chlorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.; Salawitch, R. J.; Waters, J. W.; Drouin, B.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Bernath, P.; Boone, C.; Nassar, R.; Montzka, S.; Elkins, J.; Cunnold, D.; Waugh, D.

    2006-01-01

    We report a steady decrease in the upper stratospheric and lower mesospheric abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from August 2004 through January 2006, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite. For 60(deg)S to 60(deg)N zonal means, the average yearly change in the 0.7 to 0.1 hPa (approx.50 to 65 km) region is -27 +/- 3 pptv/year, or -0.78 +/- 0.08 percent/year. This is consistent with surface abundance decrease rates (about 6 to 7 years earlier) in chlorine source gases. The MLS data confirm that international agreements to reduce global emissions of ozone-depleting industrial gases are leading to global decreases in the total gaseous chlorine burden. Tracking stratospheric HCl variations on a seasonal basis is now possible with MLS data. Inferred stratospheric total chlorine (CITOT) has a value of 3.60 ppbv at the beginning of 2006, with a (2-sigma) accuracy estimate of 7%; the stratospheric chlorine loading has decreased by about 43 pptv in the 18-month period studied here. We discuss the MLS HCl measurements in the context of other satellite-based HCl data, as well as expectations from surface chlorine data. A mean age of air of approx. 5.5 years and an age spectrum width of 2 years or less provide a fairly good fit to the ensemble of measurements.

  5. Reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…

  6. Changing Paradigms Managed Learning Environments and Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Emory M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how emerging technologies and Web 2.0 services are transforming the structure of the web and their potential impact on managed learning environments (MLS) and learning content management systems (LCMS). Design/methodology/approach: Innovative Web 2.0 applications are reviewed in the paper to…

  7. Dehydration in the tropical tropopause layer: implications from the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Read, W. G.; Wu, D. L.; Waters, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    The new MLS data are consistent with convective input of H(sub 2)O into the bottom of the TTL followed by slow ascent with a maximum relative amplitude in the seasonal cycle occurring near the tropopause nearly in phase with the tropopause temperature seasonal cycle.

  8. Facets and Challenges of Managing the Development of a $1 Billion Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loiacono, John

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the folloving: Presidents budget. Office of Administrator chart. Aura project organization chart. Agreements. Aura observatory configuration. Aura science questions. EOS Aura atmospheric profile measurements. Science objectives: tracking ozone layer recovery; global measurements of air quality; impact of atmospheric constituente on climate. MLS instruments, OH measurement example. Osone monitoring instrument (OMI). OMI technology. OMI will track global ozone changes.

  9. Context for START08 Using Satellite Data and Meteorological Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manney, G. L.; Hegglin, M. I.; Daffer, W. H.; Fuller, R. A.; Atlas, E.; Bowman, K.; Pan, L.; Wofsy, S.; Ballard, J.; Gao, R.; Weinheimer, A.; Campos, T.; Hurst, D.; Livesey, N.; Santee, M.; Walker, K.

    2009-05-01

    In support of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport (START08) campaigns in April, May and June 2008, ozone, water vapor, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide fields in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) were mapped and analyzed to provide global context for the START08 flights. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) also measured trace gases in the UTLS at northern middle and high latitudes during the period of the START08 campaign. To place the START08 measurements in the context of larger-scale meteorology and transport processes, we use information derived from the Goddard Earth Observing System- Version 5.2.0 (GEOS-5) assimilated meteorological analyses to analyze MLS and ACE-FTS data in relation to the tropopause and the upper tropospheric jets during the period of the STARTO08 campaigns. The contributions of these analyses of the MLS and ACE-FTS data to understanding transport and mixing processes in the extra-tropical tropopause layer are discussed. Some START08/MLS comparisons will be shown and discussed in light of the sampling and resolution of the satellite and aircraft measurements. (Work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology is done under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.)

  10. Statistics & Input-Output Measures for Colorado Public Libraries, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidl, Ann M.

    This document contains statistics and input-output measures for all Colorado public libraries. Tables of the following 1997 survey data are provided: state totals and averages; public library addresses; telephone, fax, and URL for public libraries; public library directors; borrowers, outlets and bookmobiles; ALA-MLS librarians, other staff and…

  11. Information Literacy Courses in LIS Schools: Emerging Perspectives for Future Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishimura, Yusuke; Bartlett, Joan C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how information literacy courses have been taught in American Library Association-accredited library and information science programmes. Using a content analysis approach, we compared information literacy course syllabi from Master of Library Science (MLS) programmes collected in 2005 and 2009. In addition, courses in…

  12. The Academic Librarian Labor Market and the Role of the Master of Library Science Degree: 1975 through 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Marybeth F.; Grimes, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the evolving role of the Master of Library Science (MLS) degree in academic libraries, pooled cross-sectional data were collected from job advertisements in "College and Research Library News." Beginning with 1975 and continuing at 5-year intervals through 2005, pertinent information from all job advertisements in each monthly issue…

  13. Promoting Motivation through Mode of Instruction: The Relationship between Use of Affective Teaching Techniques and Motivation to Learn Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez Rivera, Yamil

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to add to what we know about the affective domain and to create a valid instrument for future studies. The Motivation to Learn Science (MLS) Inventory is based on Krathwohl's Taxonomy of Affective Behaviors (Krathwohl et. al., 1964). The results of the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor…

  14. Honouring ESL Students' Lived Experiences in School Learning with Multiliteracies Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Anne; Hardware, Shawnee

    2015-01-01

    The increased presence of technology in school communities and children's lives poses a challenge to traditional teaching and learning tools. The present case study examines ways in which a classroom teacher, Marnie, conceptualised the use of a multiliteracies pedagogy (MLS) and a multimodal approach to elicit the lived experiences of her English…

  15. Spatial Visualization as Mediating between Mathematics Learning Strategy and Mathematics Achievement among 8th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabab'h, Belal; Veloo, Arsaythamby

    2015-01-01

    Jordanian 8th grade students revealed low achievement in mathematics through four periods (1999, 2003, 2007 & 2011) of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). This study aimed to determine whether spatial visualization mediates the affect of Mathematics Learning Strategies (MLS) factors namely mathematics attitude,…

  16. Competency-Based Education Programs: A Library Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Competency-based education (CBE) is an emerging model for higher education designed to reduce certain barriers to educational attainment. This essay describes CBE and the challenges and opportunities for academic librarians desiring to serve students and faculty in Library and Information Management Master of Library Science (MLS) programs. Every…

  17. Adult Learners and Mathematics Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzmaurice, Olivia; Mac an Bhaird, Ciarán; Ní Fhloinn, Eabhnat; O'Sullivan, Ciarán

    2015-01-01

    The provision of some level of Mathematics Learning Support (MLS) is now standard in the majority of Higher Education Institutions in Ireland, the UK, and in many other countries. This provision is, in part, a response to the large numbers of students entering Higher Education who do not have the mathematical skills required and this cohort…

  18. Use Of EOS-AURA Observation In The MERRA-2 Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawson, Steven; Wargan, Krzysztof; Coy, Lawrence L.; McCarty, Will

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological reanalyses provide multi-year gridded datasets that describe the evolution of the atmosphere. Such products use a data assimilation system, comprising of an atmospheric model, a broad suite of observations, and an analysis system that optimally combines the model forecast with the observations, using an algorithm that includes information about model and data accuracy. The mixture of observations is of central importance to the quality of the assimilated datasets. The Modern-era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) included constraints on the thermal structure of the middle atmosphere from nadir sounders on the NOAA polar-orbiting platforms (Stratospheric Sounding Units and Advanced Microwave Sounding Units). These instruments have peak sensitivities that occur well below the stratopause. As such, the radiance measurements do not provide strong constraints on stratopause temperature. The new MERRA-2 reanalysis is using EOS-MLS temperature retrievals after they are available: it will be demonstrated that these data lead to a more realistic stratopause structure in MERRA-2 than in MERRA. Similarly, the work demonstrates the improvements in lower stratospheric ozone in MERRA-2 than in MERRA, for the period when EOS-MLS ozone data are assimilated. This improvement occurs because of the ozone profile information offered by MLS in the low stratosphere, in contrast to the SBUV/2 data used for the rest of MERRA-2. The impacts of choosing to use the EOS-MLS datasets are discussed in context of the continuity of the data record in MERRA- 2.

  19. Extratropical Influence of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor on Greenhouse Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, H.; Liu, W.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the impact of upper tropospheric water vapor on greenhouse warming in midlatitudes by analyzing the recent observations of the upper tropospheric water vapor from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), in conjuction with other space-based measurement and model simulation products.

  20. Operationalising resilience to drought: Multi-layered safety for flooding applied to droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijke, Jeroen; Smith, Jennifer Vessels; Gersonius, Berry; van Herk, Sebastiaan; Pathirana, Assela; Ashley, Richard; Wong, Tony; Zevenbergen, Chris

    2014-11-01

    This paper sets out a way of thinking about how to prepare for and respond to droughts in a holistic way using a framework developed for managing floods. It shows how the multi-layered safety (MLS) approach for flood resilience can be utilised in the context of drought in a way that three layers of intervention can be distinguished for operationalising drought resilience: (1) protection against water shortage through augmentation and diversification of water supplies; (2) prevention of damage in case of water shortage through increased efficiency of water use and timely asset maintenance; (3) preparedness for future water shortages through mechanisms to reduce the use of water and adopt innovative water technologies. Application of MLS to the cities of Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney shows that recent water reforms in these cities were primarily focused on protection measures that aim to reduce the hazard source or exposure to insufficient water supplies. Prevention and preparedness measures could be considered in defining interventions that aim to further increase the drought resilience of these cities. Although further research is needed, the application suggests that MLS can be applied to the context of drought risk management. The MLS framework can be used to classify the suite of plans deployed by a city to manage future drought risks and can be considered a planning tool to identify opportunities for increasing the level of redundancy and hence resilience of the drought risk management system.

  1. Bacillus arsenicoselenatis, sp. nov., and Bacillus selenitireducens, sp. nov.: Two haloalkaliphiles from Mono Lake, California that respire oxyanions of selenium and arsenic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Switzer, Blum J.; Burns, Bindi A.; Buzzelli, J.; Stolz, J.F.; Oremland, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Two gram-positive anaerobic bacteria (strains E1H and MLS10) were isolated from the anoxic muds of Mono Lake, California, an alkaline, hypersaline, arsenic-rich water body. Both grew by dissimilatory reduction of As(V) to As(III) with the concomitant oxidation of lactate to acetate plus CO2. Bacillus arsenicoselenatis (strain E1H) is a spore-forming rod that also grew by dissimilatory reduction of Se(VI) to Se(IV). Bacillus selenitireducens (strain MLS 10) is a short, non-spore-forming rod that grew by dissimilatory reduction of Se(IV) to Se(0). When the two isolates were cocultured, a complete reduction of Se(VI) to Se(0) was achieved. Both isolates are alkaliphiles and had optimal specific growth rates in the pH range of 8.5-10. Strain E1H had a salinity optimum at 60 g 1-1 NaCl, while strain MLS10 had optimal growth at lower salinities (24-60 g 1-1 NaCl). Both strains have limited abilities to grow with electron donors and acceptors other than those given above. Strain MLS10 demonstrated weak growth as a microaerophile and was also capable of fermentative growth on glucose, while strain E1H is a strict anaerobe. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the two isolates with other Bacillus spp. in the low G+C gram-positive group of bacteria.

  2. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder O3 and CO Observations in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livesey, N. J.; Filipiak, M. J.; Froidevaux, L.; Read, W. G.; Lambert, A.; Santee, J. L.; Jiang, J. H.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Waters, J. W.; Cofield, R. E.; Cuddy, D. T.; Daffer, W. H.; Drouin, B. J.; Fuller, R. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Jiang, Y. B.; Knosp, B. W.; Li, Q. B.; Perun, V. S.; Schwartz, M. J.; Snyder, W. V.; Stek, P. C.; Thurstans, R. P.; Wagner, P. A.; Avery, M.

    2008-01-01

    Global satellite observations of ozone and carbon monoxide from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the EOS Aura spacecraft are discussed with emphasis on those observations in the 2 15 - 100 hPa region (the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere). The precision, resolution and accuracy of the data produced by the MLS "version 2.2" processing algorithms are discussed and quantified. O3 accuracy is estimated at approx.40 ppbv +5% (approx.20 ppbv +20% at 215 hPa) while the CO accuracy is estimated at approx.30 ppbv +30% for pressures of 147 hPa and less. Comparisons with expectations and other observations show good agreements for the O3 product, generally consistent with the systematic errors quoted above. In the case of COY a persistent factor of approx.2 high bias is seen at 215 hPa. However, the morphology is shown to be realistic, consistent with raw MLS radiance data, and useful for scientific study. The MLS CO data at higher altitudes are shown to be consistent with other observations.

  3. Chemical Observations of a Polar Vortex Intrusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Kawa, S. R.; Douglass, A. R.; McGee, T. J.; Browell, E.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Froidevaux, L.

    2006-01-01

    An intrusion of vortex edge air in D the interior of the Arctic polar vortex was observed on the January 31,2005 flight of the NASA DC-8 aircraft. This intrusion was identified as anomalously high values of ozone by the AROTAL and DIAL lidars. Our analysis shows that this intrusion formed when a blocking feature near Iceland collapsed, allowing edge air to sweep into the vortex interior. along the DC-8 flight track also shows the intrusion in both ozone and HNO3. Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) were observed by the DIAL lidar on the DC-8. The spatial variability of the PSCs can be explained using MLS HNO3 and H2O observations and meteorological analysis temperatures. We also estimate vortex denitrification using the relationship between N2O and HNO3. Reverse domain fill back trajectory calculations are used to focus on the features in the MLS data. The trajectory results improve the agreement between lidar measured ozone and MLS ozone and also improve the agreement between the HNO3 measurements PSC locations. The back trajectory calculations allow us to compute the local denitrification rate and reduction of HCl within the filament. We estimate a denitrification rate of about lO%/day after exposure to below PSC formation temperature. Analysis of Aura MLS observations made

  4. STS-83 Onboard Photo: Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MLS-1) onboard STS-83 photo of the most recent comet to date, Hale-Bopp, which passed by Earth during the spring and summer of 1997. In this view, the comet is visible during sunset. The streaks and distorted lights seen in the bottom of the photo are city lights and petroleum fires.

  5. Validation of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder ClO Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J. W.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Lungu, T. A.; Perun, V. S.; Stachnik, R. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Fishbein, E. F.; Flower, D. A.; Burke, J. R.; Hardy, J. C.; Nakamura, L. L.; Ridenoure, B. P.; Shippony, Z.; Thurstans, R. P.; Thurstans, R. P.; Avallone, L. M.; Toohey, D. W.; deZafra, R. L.; Shindell, D. T.

    1996-01-01

    Validation of stratospheric ClO measurements by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is described. Credibility of the measurements is established by (1) the consistency of the measured ClO spectral emission line with the retrieved ClO profiles and (2) comparisons of ClO from MLS with that from correlative measurements by balloon-based, ground-based, and aircraft-based instruments. Values of "noise" (random), "scaling" (multiplicative), and "bias" (additive) uncertainties are determined for the Version 3 data, in the first version public release of the known artifacts in these data are identified. Comparisons with correlative measurements indicate agreement to within the combined uncertainties expected for MLS and the other measurements being compared. It is concluded that MLS Version 3 ClO data, with proper consideration of the uncertainties and "quality" parameters produced with these data, can be used for scientific analyses at retrieval surfaces between 46 and 1 hPa (approximately 20-50 km in height). Future work is planned to correct known problems in the data and improve their quality.

  6. The contribution of hydroxyl radical to radiosensitization: a study of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Skov, K A

    1984-09-01

    Using the radioprotector dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO, as a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals, the proportions of DNA damage caused by OH. were determined in mammalian cells irradiated in hypoxia with or without the radiosensitizers misonidazole and TAN or in air. Yields of both single-strand breaks (SSB) and base/sugar damage (MLS for Micrococcus luteus sensitive sites) were measured for each situation. Most of the damage enhanced by the sensitizers was found to be OH. dependent, for both MLS and SSB classes of damage: most breaks (greater than 80%) enhanced by oxygen and about two-thirds of the breaks enhanced by misonidazole (hypoxia) occur at OH.-damaged sites; most if not all base/sugar damage enhanced by the sensitizers misonidazole and TAN (in hypoxia) occurs only in the presence of OH., whereas in air, some (about one-quarter) of the enhanced MLS damage does not require OH.. The sensitizer enhancement ratios in the presence of scavenger and the degree of protection afforded by the scavenger determined for total (MLS + SSB) damage agree well with those derived from corresponding survival experiments. PMID:6089257

  7. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Knowledge, Use, and Attitudes of Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Dean

    2007-01-01

    To assess their knowledge, use, and attitudes regarding peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, this study surveyed academic librarians (n = 162) via a mail-in survey. Correlations between the sample characteristics (age, gender, year of MLS, type of library job) and P2P knowledge, use, and attitudes were also explored. Overall, academic librarians…

  8. Hemispheric Differences in Tropical Lower Stratospheric Constituent Seasonal Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarski, R. S.; Waugh, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    The measured seasonal cycle of ozone in the lower stratosphere shows significant differences between the northern and southern tropics. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle is larger in the northern tropics than in the southern tropics with a 2-3 month phase difference between the hemispheres. MLS data shows a distinct double peak in the magnitude of the northern-tropical seasonal cycle of ozone (in percent) with maxima at 100 hPa and 68 hPa and a relative at 82 hPa. SAGE and HALOE data show a single maximum located near 80 hPa. Analysis of two years of OMPS-limb data from the Suomi-NPP mission confirms the double peak structure measured by MLS. We will show comparisons of data from MLS and OMPS-limb and will examine the interannual variability of the double-peak structure from 10 years of MLS data. It appears that vertical advection is the dominant cause of tracer annual cycles in the southern tropics, while horizontal mixing dominates in the northern tropics. We argue that separating data into separate tropical regions for each hemisphere and examining the seasonal cycle and its interannual variability will lead to increased understanding of the processes that govern transport of ozone and other tracers in the tropical and sub-tropical lower stratosphere.

  9. Automatic change detection using mobile laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebel, M.; Hammer, M.; Gordon, M.; Arens, M.

    2014-10-01

    Automatic change detection in 3D environments requires the comparison of multi-temporal data. By comparing current data with past data of the same area, changes can be automatically detected and identified. Volumetric changes in the scene hint at suspicious activities like the movement of military vehicles, the application of camouflage nets, or the placement of IEDs, etc. In contrast to broad research activities in remote sensing with optical cameras, this paper addresses the topic using 3D data acquired by mobile laser scanning (MLS). We present a framework for immediate comparison of current MLS data to given 3D reference data. Our method extends the concept of occupancy grids known from robot mapping, which incorporates the sensor positions in the processing of the 3D point clouds. This allows extracting the information that is included in the data acquisition geometry. For each single range measurement, it becomes apparent that an object reflects laser pulses in the measured range distance, i.e., space is occupied at that 3D position. In addition, it is obvious that space is empty along the line of sight between sensor and the reflecting object. Everywhere else, the occupancy of space remains unknown. This approach handles occlusions and changes implicitly, such that the latter are identifiable by conflicts of empty space and occupied space. The presented concept of change detection has been successfully validated in experiments with recorded MLS data streams. Results are shown for test sites at which MLS data were acquired at different time intervals.

  10. Comparative toxicity of lead shot in black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    An extreme sensitivity of pen-reared black ducks (BDs) to lead shot was observed incidental to development of an enzyme assay (Pain & Rattner, 1988). Intubation of pen-reared BDs with one no. 4 lead shot resulted in 60% mortality in 6 days. It was concluded that BDs were more sensitive to lead shot than expected, or that lead toxicity may be exacerbated by stressful conditions (elevated temperature, confinement in small pens). We reexamined lead shot toxicity in BDs and mallards (MLs). In winter 1986 (Ta=1.7-14.6? C), pen-reared and wild BDs, and game-farm and wild MLs were sham-dosed or given one no. 4 shot. After 14 days, dosed birds were redosed with two or four additional shot. Since the original observation of enhanced. shot toxicity to BDs occurred during summer, the study was also repeated in summer 1987 (Ta=I7:6-30.9?C), with pen-reared BDs and game-farm MLs. Mortality, overt intoxication, weight change, aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, and protoporphyrin concentration were used to compare sensitivity among groups. Sensitivity to lead shot was similar between BDs and MLs. However, the wild ducks appeared more vulnerable than their domesticated counterparts, and signs of intoxication were more pronounced in winter than in summer.

  11. Microwave landing system modeling with application to air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulose, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    Compared to the current instrument landing system, the microwave landing system (MLS), which is in the advanced stage of implementation, can potentially provide significant fuel and time savings as well as more flexibility in approach and landing functions. However, the expanded coverage and increased accuracy requirements of the MLS make it more susceptible to the features of the site in which it is located. An analytical approach is presented for evaluating the multipath effects of scatterers that are commonly found in airport environments. The approach combines a multiplane model with a ray-tracing technique and a formulation for estimating the electromagnetic fields caused by the antenna array in the presence of scatterers. The model is applied to several airport scenarios. The reduced computational burden enables the scattering effects on MLS position information to be evaluated in near real time. Evaluation in near real time would permit the incorporation of the modeling scheme into air traffic control automation; it would adaptively delineate zones of reduced accuracy within the MLS coverage volume, and help establish safe approach and takeoff trajectories in the presence of uneven terrain and other scatterers.

  12. 14 CFR 171.323 - Fabrication and installation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fabrication and installation requirements. 171.323 Section 171.323 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.323 Fabrication and...

  13. Enhancements in lower stratospheric CH3CN observed by the upper atmosphere research Sattellite Microwave Limb Sounder following boreal forest fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livesey, N. J.; Fromm, M. D.; Waters, J. W.; Manney, G. L.; Santee, M. L.; Read, W. G.

    2004-01-01

    On 25 August 1992, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite observed a significant enhancement in the abundance of lower stratospheric methyl cyanide (CH3CN) at 100??hPa (16??km altitude) in a small region off the east coast of Florida.

  14. Weaving Diversity into LIS: An Examination of Diversity Course Offerings in iSchool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Mega M.; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the current state of diversity course offerings in Library and Information Science (LIS) programs through the analysis of syllabi of diversity-related courses offered in the American Library Association accredited Master of Library and Information Science (MLS) programs at iSchools (a group of information schools that include…

  15. Misleading reconstruction of seawater intrusion via integral depth sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombani, N.; Volta, G.; Osti, A.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2016-05-01

    Saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is an urgent issue for the actual and future groundwater supply and a detailed characterization of groundwater quality with depth is a fundamental prerequisite to correctly distinguish salinization processes. In this study, interpolated Cl- maps of the Po River delta coastal aquifer (Italy), gained with Integrated Depth Sampling (IDS) and Multi-Level Sampling (MLS) techniques, are compared. The data set used to build up the IDS and MLS interpolated Cl- maps come from numerous monitoring campaigns on surface and ground waters, covering the time frame from 2010 to 2014. The IDS interpolated Cl- map recalls the phenomenon of actual seawater intrusion, with Cl- concentration never exceeding that of seawater and the absence of hypersaline groundwater all over the study area. On the contrary, in the MLS interpolated Cl- maps the lower portion of the unconfined aquifer presents hypersaline groundwater making it necessary to consider salinization processes other than actual seawater intrusion, like upward flux from a saline aquitard. Results demonstrate the obligation of using MLS in reconstructing a reliable representation of the distribution of salinity, especially in areas where the density contrast between fresh and saline groundwater is large. Implications of the reported field case are not limited to the local situation but have a wider significance, since the IDS technique is often employed in saltwater intrusion monitoring even in recent works, with detrimental effect on the sustainable water resource management of coastal aquifers.

  16. Non-Librarian Professionals. SPEC Kit 212 and Flyer 212.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenelis, John G., Comp.; Dorrian, Jean M., Comp.

    This document focuses on libraries seeking and hiring professionals without the traditional Masters of Library Science (M.L.S.) degree but with specialized training and education in other areas. A survey was conducted in 1994, and 95 (80%) of the 119 ARL members responded. The SPEC flyer is a two-page summary of the survey and its followup…

  17. Highly significant linkage to chromosome 3q13.31 for rhinitis and related allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brasch‐Andersen, C; Haagerup, A; Børglum, A D; Vestbo, J; Kruse, T A

    2006-01-01

    Background Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis have closely related phenotypes and often occur with atopy. They show strong familial and intra‐individual clustering, suggesting overlapping disease aetiology. Various loci and candidate genes have been suggested to underlie allergy. Many or all are still inconclusive. Following genome‐wide scans on multiple phenotypes, we previously suggested that chromosome 3q13.12–q21.2 harbours an allergy locus. Objective To identify candidate loci in the Danish population, two additional independent sets of sib‐pair families were fine‐scale mapped in candidate regions showing maximum likelihood scores (MLS) ⩾1.5 in the genome‐wide scans. Results Twenty eight microsatellite markers in a denser map on chromosome 3q were analysed in 236 allergy sib‐pair families including 125 sib pairs with rhinitis. We report significant evidence for linkage to chromosome 3q13.31 for rhinitis (MLS 5.55, identity by descent (IBD) 63.9%) and atopy (increased specific immunoglobulin E) (MLS 3.71, IBD 61.7%). We obtained an MLS of 5.1 (IBD 67.3%) at 3q13.31 when sib pairs with both rhinitis and atopy were analysed. Conclusion This study reports the first statistically significant evidence for a genetic susceptibility locus for rhinitis and to our knowledge shows the most significant evidence to date of linkage for any allergy phenotype. PMID:16525028

  18. Performance Analysis of a Pole and Tree Trunk Detection Method for Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtomäki, M.; Jaakkola, A.; Hyyppä, J.; Kukko, A.; Kaartinen, H.

    2011-09-01

    Dense point clouds can be collected efficiently from large areas using mobile laser scanning (MLS) technology. Accurate MLS data can be used for detailed 3D modelling of the road surface and objects around it. The 3D models can be utilised, for example, in street planning and maintenance and noise modelling. Utility poles, traffic signs, and lamp posts can be considered an important part of road infrastructure. Poles and trees stand out from the environment and should be included in realistic 3D models. Detection of narrow vertical objects, such as poles and tree trunks, from MLS data was studied. MLS produces huge amounts of data and, therefore, processing methods should be as automatic as possible and for the methods to be practical, the algorithms should run in an acceptable time. The automatic pole detection method tested in this study is based on first finding point clusters that are good candidates for poles and then separating poles and tree trunks from other clusters using features calculated from the clusters and by applying a mask that acts as a model of a pole. The method achieved detection rates of 77.7% and 69.7% in the field tests while 81.0% and 86.5% of the detected targets were correct. Pole-like targets that were surrounded by other objects, such as tree trunks that were inside branches, were the most difficult to detect. Most of the false detections came from wall structures, which could be corrected in further processing.

  19. Inhibition of mixed-layer deepening during winter in the northeastern Arabian Sea by the West India Coastal Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, D.; Remya, R.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Behera, Ambica

    2015-10-01

    Though the deep mixed layers (MLs) that form in the northeastern Arabian Sea (NEAS) during the winter monsoon (November-February) have been attributed to convective mixing driven by dry, cool northeasterly winds from the Indian subcontinent, data show that the deepest MLs occur in the northern NEAS and the maxima of latent-heat and net heat fluxes in the southern NEAS. We use an oceanic general circulation model to show that the deep MLs in the NEAS extend up to ~20°N till the end of December, but are restricted poleward of ~22°N (~23°N) in January (February). This progressive restriction of the deep mixed layers within the NEAS is due to poleward advection of water of lower salinity by the West India Coastal Current (WICC). The deep MLs are sustained till February in the northern NEAS because convective mixing deepens the ML before the waters of lower salinity reach this region and the wind stirring and convective overturning generate sufficient turbulent energy for the ML to maintain the depth attained in January. Though the atmospheric fluxes tend to cool the ML in the southern NEAS, this cooling is countered by the warming due to horizontal advection. Likewise, the cooling due to entrainment, which continues in the southern NEAS even as the ML shallows during January-February, is almost cancelled by the warming caused by a downwelling vertical velocity field. Therefore, the SST changes very little during December-February even as the ML shallows dramatically in the southern NEAS. These deep MLs of the NEAS also preclude a strong intraseasonal response to the intraseasonal variability in the fluxes. This role of horizontal advection implies that the ML depth in the NEAS is determined by an interplay of physical processes that are forced differently. The convective mixing depends on processes that are local to the region, but the advection is due to the WICC, whose seasonal cycle is primarily forced by remote winds. By inhibiting the formation of deep MLs in

  20. Automatic estimation of midline shift in patients with cerebral glioma based on enhanced voigt model and local symmetry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingyang; Elazab, Ahmed; Jia, Fucang; Wu, Jianhuang; Li, Guanglin; Li, Xiaodong; Hu, Qingmao

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral glioma is one of the most aggressive space-occupying diseases, which will exhibit midline shift (MLS) due to mass effect. MLS has been used as an important feature for evaluating the pathological severity and patients' survival possibility. Automatic quantification of MLS is challenging due to deformation, complex shape and complex grayscale distribution. An automatic method is proposed and validated to estimate MLS in patients with gliomas diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The deformed midline is approximated by combining mechanical model and local symmetry. An enhanced Voigt model which takes into account the size and spatial information of lesion is devised to predict the deformed midline. A composite local symmetry combining local intensity symmetry and local intensity gradient symmetry is proposed to refine the predicted midline within a local window whose size is determined according to the pinhole camera model. To enhance the MLS accuracy, the axial slice with maximum MSL from each volumetric data has been interpolated from a spatial resolution of 1 mm to 0.33 mm. The proposed method has been validated on 30 publicly available clinical head MRI scans presenting with MLS. It delineates the deformed midline with maximum MLS and yields a mean difference of 0.61 ± 0.27 mm, and average maximum difference of 1.89 ± 1.18 mm from the ground truth. Experiments show that the proposed method will yield better accuracy with the geometric center of pathology being the geometric center of tumor and the pathological region being the whole lesion. It has also been shown that the proposed composite local symmetry achieves significantly higher accuracy than the traditional local intensity symmetry and the local intensity gradient symmetry. To the best of our knowledge, for delineation of deformed midline, this is the first report on both quantification of gliomas and from MRI, which hopefully will provide valuable information for diagnosis

  1. Inhibition of mixed-layer deepening during winter in the northeastern Arabian Sea by the West India Coastal Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, D.; Remya, R.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Behera, Ambica

    2016-08-01

    Though the deep mixed layers (MLs) that form in the northeastern Arabian Sea (NEAS) during the winter monsoon (November-February) have been attributed to convective mixing driven by dry, cool northeasterly winds from the Indian subcontinent, data show that the deepest MLs occur in the northern NEAS and the maxima of latent-heat and net heat fluxes in the southern NEAS. We use an oceanic general circulation model to show that the deep MLs in the NEAS extend up to ~20°N till the end of December, but are restricted poleward of ~22°N (~23°N) in January (February). This progressive restriction of the deep mixed layers within the NEAS is due to poleward advection of water of lower salinity by the West India Coastal Current (WICC). The deep MLs are sustained till February in the northern NEAS because convective mixing deepens the ML before the waters of lower salinity reach this region and the wind stirring and convective overturning generate sufficient turbulent energy for the ML to maintain the depth attained in January. Though the atmospheric fluxes tend to cool the ML in the southern NEAS, this cooling is countered by the warming due to horizontal advection. Likewise, the cooling due to entrainment, which continues in the southern NEAS even as the ML shallows during January-February, is almost cancelled by the warming caused by a downwelling vertical velocity field. Therefore, the SST changes very little during December-February even as the ML shallows dramatically in the southern NEAS. These deep MLs of the NEAS also preclude a strong intraseasonal response to the intraseasonal variability in the fluxes. This role of horizontal advection implies that the ML depth in the NEAS is determined by an interplay of physical processes that are forced differently. The convective mixing depends on processes that are local to the region, but the advection is due to the WICC, whose seasonal cycle is primarily forced by remote winds. By inhibiting the formation of deep MLs in

  2. Solar Cycle Induced Variability in Middle Atmospheric HOx — Abundances and Partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Millan Valle, L. F.; Li, K. F.; Sander, S. P.; Yung, Y. L.; Livesey, N. J.; Santee, M. L.; Liang, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Solar UV irradiance variability during the 11-year solar cycle has strong impacts on Earth's atmospheric composition and climate. The odd hydrogen species HOx (primarily OH and HO2), which plays a key role in controlling middle atmospheric ozone, are expected to show distinct variability following the solar cycle. Previous investigations based on total OH abundances from long-term ground-based observation and 5.5 year Aura/Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) OH data and model calculations suggest that the HOx solar cycle variability may dominate the ozone solar cycle variability above 40 km. In the present study, we expand the investigation to both HO2 and OH, as well as the partitioning between them, which is important in the catalytic HOx cycle. With the newly developed MLS offline HO2 product that has significantly improved data quality and better vertical and diurnal coverage, we examine the vertical and latitudinal distribution of the solar cycle signals in HO2 (~10 year data) and compare it with OH. Model simulations using the Caltech/JPL 1-D photochemical model are used to understand the detailed mechanisms controlling the variability in HOx abundances and partitioning. The results of using different solar spectral irradiance (SSI) variabilities in models and the comparison with observations will be discussed. In addition, while the continuous MLS OH data record is only 5.5 year, the MLS THz sub-system was turned back on for a 30-day OH measurement in every August since 2011. Using the most recent version of MLS retrieval software (v4.1x, to be released), some first OH data for selected months will be presented, suggesting reliable quality of the "THz restart" observations and making it promising to combine such OH data with earlier OH data to build a longer-term record.

  3. Test field for airborne laser scanning in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahokas, E.; Kaartinen, H.; Kukko, A.; Litkey, P.

    2014-11-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a widely spread operational measurement tool for obtaining 3D coordinates of the ground surface. There is a need for calibrating the ALS system and a test field for ALS was established at the end of 2013. The test field is situated in the city of Lahti, about 100 km to the north of Helsinki. The size of the area is approximately 3.5 km × 3.2 km. Reference data was collected with a mobile laser scanning (MLS) system assembled on a car roof. Some streets were measured both ways and most of them in one driving direction only. The MLS system of the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) consists of a navigation system (NovAtel SPAN GNSS-IMU) and a laser scanner (FARO Focus3D 120). In addition to the MLS measurements more than 800 reference points were measured using a Trimble R8 VRS-GNSS system. Reference points are along the streets, on parking lots, and white pedestrian crossing line corners which can be used as reference targets. The National Land Survey of Finland has already used this test field this spring for calibrating their Leica ALS-70 scanner. Especially it was easier to determine the encoder scale factor parameter using this test field. Accuracy analysis of the MLS points showed that the point height RMSE is 2.8 cm and standard deviation is 2.6 cm. Our purpose is to measure both more MLS data and more reference points in the test field area to get a better spatial coverage. Calibration flight heights are planned to be 1000 m and 2500 m above ground level. A cross pattern, southwest-northeast and northwest-southeast, will be flown both in opposite directions.

  4. Origin, evolution and structure of meso-α-scale lows associated with cloud clusters and heavy rainfall over the Korean peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Uju; Lee, Tae-Young

    2015-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to describe the locations of initial occurrence, evolution and structure of meso-α-scale lows (MLs) associated with cloud clusters and heavy rainfall over the Korean Peninsula using observation and reanalysis data. We selected 29 heavy rainfall events associated with MLs during the 10-year period of 2001-2010. The locations of initial ML occurrence are widely spread from the eastern flank of the Tibetan Plateau to the Yellow Sea. These locations are grouped into 3 regions: 1) the eastern flank of the Tibetan Plateau (R1, 6 cases), 2) central and eastern China (R2, 16 cases), and 3) the Yellow Sea (R3, 7 cases). Initial MLs tend to occur within a deep trough over the eastern flank of the Tibetan Plateau (R1 cases) or a long trough extended northeastward from the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau along the northwestern rim of the western Pacific subtropical high (a majority of R2 cases and two R3 cases). Horizontal temperature gradients are weak over the areas of initial MLs. Meso-α-scale lows tend to develop in the lower troposphere (e.g., below 700 hPa) in an environment of existing cyclonic vorticity. And they are accompanied by anticyclonic vorticity in the upper troposphere. The speed of ML movement varies with each case and with the location of ML. The average speeds of ML movement are 32.4, 37.2 and 40.4 km h-1 for the R1, R2 and R3 groups, respectively. Meso-α-scale lows are shown to have a warm-core structure in general. They are tilted toward various directions with a majority of them (14 of 29 MLs) tilting northward with height.

  5. Effects of User Puff Topography, Device Voltage, and Liquid Nicotine Concentration on Electronic Cigarette Nicotine Yield: Measurements and Model Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Talih, Soha; Balhas, Zainab; Eissenberg, Thomas; Salman, Rola; Karaoghlanian, Nareg; El Hellani, Ahmad; Baalbaki, Rima; Saliba, Najat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Some electronic cigarette (ECIG) users attain tobacco cigarette–like plasma nicotine concentrations while others do not. Understanding the factors that influence ECIG aerosol nicotine delivery is relevant to regulation, including product labeling and abuse liability. These factors may include user puff topography, ECIG liquid composition, and ECIG design features. This study addresses how these factors can influence ECIG nicotine yield. Methods: Aerosols were machine generated with 1 type of ECIG cartridge (V4L CoolCart) using 5 distinct puff profiles representing a tobacco cigarette smoker (2-s puff duration, 33-ml/s puff velocity), a slow average ECIG user (4 s, 17 ml/s), a fast average user (4 s, 33 ml/s), a slow extreme user (8 s, 17 ml/s), and a fast extreme user (8 s, 33 ml/s). Output voltage (3.3–5.2 V or 3.0–7.5 W) and e-liquid nicotine concentration (18–36 mg/ml labeled concentration) were varied. A theoretical model was also developed to simulate the ECIG aerosol production process and to provide insight into the empirical observations. Results: Nicotine yields from 15 puffs varied by more than 50-fold across conditions. Experienced ECIG user profiles (longer puffs) resulted in higher nicotine yields relative to the tobacco smoker (shorter puffs). Puff velocity had no effect on nicotine yield. Higher nicotine concentration and higher voltages resulted in higher nicotine yields. These results were predicted well by the theoretical model (R 2 = 0.99). Conclusions: Depending on puff conditions and product features, 15 puffs from an ECIG can provide far less or far more nicotine than a single tobacco cigarette. ECIG emissions can be predicted using physical principles, with knowledge of puff topography and a few ECIG device design parameters. PMID:25187061

  6. Grounded theory in medical laboratory science expert practice development.

    PubMed

    Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory and methods related to expert practice development in medical laboratory science were described using data from a large national survey of medical laboratory scientists (MLS) overlaid on findings from analysis of expert practice domains reported in nursing literature. An extensive focus group/expert review iterative process followed by a survey of MLS practitioners produced 25 critical thinking (CT) behaviors important in expert practice. Factor analysis was applied to discern common threads or themes linking the CT behaviors. The 25 important CT behaviors were reduced to a 7-factor structure representing constructs underlying the individual, observable CT behaviors. This 7-factor structure in MLS was compared to the 7 practice domains identified in expert nursing practice. The comparison yielded commonality between MLS and nursing in CT behaviors observed in the 7 expert practice domains of both professions: professional techniques, caring communication, growing professionally, setting priorities, practicing with judgment, anticipating/revising, and creating unique meaning. Emergent grounded theory is that (1) critical thinking is a metaprocess that facilitates learning by interlinking the more basic processes associated with different learning orientations: cognitivist, behaviorist, humanist (affective), and situated/contextual learning, (2) CT behaviors are observable events following from the CT metaprocess, and (3) observations of CT behaviors increase as practice advances from novice to expert. Identification and definition of CT behaviors, i.e., practice competencies, along the continuum of novice to expert can serve as the foundation for MLS curriculum and instructional design as well as measurement and evaluation in both formal and continuing education settings. PMID:22420229

  7. Assimilation of the Microwave Limb Sounder Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargan, K.; Read, W.; Livesey, N.; Wagner, P.; Nguyen. H.; Pawson, S.

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that the assimilation of limb-sounder data can significantly improve the representation of ozone in NASA's GEOS Data Assimilation Systems (GEOS-DAS), particularly in the stratosphere. The studies conducted so far utilized retrieved data from the MIPAS, POAM, ILAS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) instruments. Direct assimilation of the radiance data can be seen as the natural next step to those studies. The motivation behind working with radiances is twofold. First, retrieval algorithms use a priori data which are either climatological or are obtained from previous analyses. This introduces additional uncertainty and, in some cases, may lead to "self-contamination"- when the a priori is taken from the same assimilation system in which subsequently ingests the retrieved observations. Second, radiances can be available in near real time thus providing an opportunity for operational assimilation, which could help improve the use of infrared radiance instruments from operational satellite instruments. In this presentation we summarize our ongoing work on an implementation of the assimilation of EOS MLS radiances into the GEOS-5 DAS. This work focuses on assimilation of band 7 brightness temperatures which are sensitive to ozone. Our implementation uses the MLS Callable Forward Model developed by the MLS team at NASA JPL as the observation operator. We will describe our approach and recent results which are not yet final. In particular, we will demonstrate that this approach has a potential to improve the vertical structure of ozone in the lower tropical stratosphere as compared with the retrieved MLS product. We will discuss the computational efficiency of this implementation.

  8. Validity of blood flow measurement using 320 multi-detectors CT and first-pass distribution theory: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Yu, Xuefang; Xu, Shaopeng; Zhou, Kenneth J.

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of measuring the myocardial blood flow using 320 row detector CT by first-pass technique. Heart was simulated with a container that was filled with pipeline of 3mm diameter; coronary artery was simulated with a pipeline of 2 cm diameter and connected with the simulated heart. The simulated coronary artery was connected with a big container with 1500 ml saline and 150ml contrast agent. One pump linking with simulated heart will withdraw with a speed of 10 ml/min, 15 ml/min, 20 ml/min, 25 ml/min and 30 ml/min. First CT scan starts after 30 s of pumpback with certain speed. The second CT scan starts 5 s after first CT scans. CT images processed as follows: The second CT scan images subtract first CT scan images, calculate the increase of CT value of simulated heart and the CT value of the unit volume of simulated coronary artery and then to calculate the total inflow of myocardial blood flow. CT myocardial blood flows were calculated as: 0.94 ml/s, 2.09 ml/s, 2.74 ml/s, 4.18 ml/s, 4.86 ml/s. The correlation coefficient is 0.994 and r2 = 0.97. The method of measuring the myocardial blood flow using 320 row detector CT by 2 scans is feasible. It is possible to develop a new method for quantitatively and functional assessment of myocardial perfusion blood flow with less radiation does.

  9. The effect of a 6 Fr catheter on flow rate in men

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Patrick; Ordonez, Nydia Icaza; Tu, Le Mai

    2013-01-01

    Background: The pressure-flow study (PFS) is considered the gold standard for the detection of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in men. However, several studies have raised the possibility that transurethral catheterization might have an obstructive effect on PFS while others did not. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a 6 Fr transurethral catheter on the pressure-flow study and to evaluate its clinical implication in men. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review study of 515 men referred for an evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms and who underwent an urodynamic study (UDS). Of those, 133 met our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Non invasive free-flow studies (NIFFS) were performed before every UDS. Cystometrogram and PFS were performed through a 6 Fr transurethral catheter. Results: The maximal flow rate (Qmax) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the NIFFS (15.0 mL/s (range 9.0-23.0)) than in the PFS (11.0 mL/s (range 7.0-18.5)). This difference became greater (18.5 mL/s (range 10.0-30.3) vs. 13.0 mL/s (range 6.0-25.0), in favor of the NIFFS) when we analyzed only the patients (n = 34) who voided a similar volume. According to the International Continence Society (ICS) nomogram, the use of the PFS alone would have resulted in the upstaging of 14% of cases (10/71) in the overall population and 24% (4/17) in the sub-analyzed group. Conclusion: A 6 Fr transurethral catheter significantly lowers the maximal flow rate by 4 mL/s. Its presence resulted in an upstaging on the ICS nomogram. However, further studies will be necessary to confirm this upstaging. PMID:24311907

  10. A Match-based approach to the estimation of polar stratospheric ozone loss using Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livesey, N. J.; Santee, M. L.; Manney, G. L.

    2015-04-01

    The well-established "Match" approach to quantifying chemical destruction of ozone in the polar lower stratosphere is applied to ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on NASA's Aura spacecraft. Quantification of ozone loss requires distinguishing transport- and chemically induced changes in ozone abundance. This is accomplished in the Match approach by examining cases where trajectories indicate that the same airmass has been observed on multiple occasions. The method was pioneered using ozone sonde observations, for which hundreds of matched ozone observations per winter are typically available. The dense coverage of the MLS measurements, particularly at polar latitudes, allows matches to be made to thousands of observations each day. This study is enabled by recently developed MLS Lagrangian Trajectory Diagnostic (LTD) support products. Sensitivity studies indicate that the largest influence on the ozone loss estimates are the value of potential vorticity (PV) used to define the edge of the polar vortex (within which matched observations must lie) and the degree to which the PV of an airmass is allowed to vary between matched observations. Applying Match calculations to MLS observations of nitrous oxide, a long-lived tracer whose expected rate of change on these timescales is negligible, enables quantification of the impact of transport errors on the Match-based ozone loss estimates. Our loss estimates are generally in agreement with previous estimates for selected Arctic winters, though indicating smaller losses than many other studies. Arctic ozone losses are greatest during the 2010/11 winter, as seen in prior studies, with 2.0 ppmv (parts per million by volume) loss estimated at 450 K potential temperature. As expected, Antarctic winter ozone losses are consistently greater than those for the Arctic, with less interannual variability (e.g., ranging between 2.3 and 3.0 ppmv at 450 K). This study exemplifies the insights into atmospheric

  11. The derivation of tropospheric column ozone using the TOR approach and mapping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qing

    2007-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone columns (TCOs) derived from differences between the Dutch-Finnish Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements of the total atmospheric ozone column and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of stratospheric ozone columns are discussed. Because the measurements by these two instruments are not spatially coincident, interpolation techniques, with emphasis on mapping the stratospheric columns in space and time using the relationships between lower stratospheric ozone and potential vorticity (PV) and geopotential heights (Z), are evaluated at mid-latitudes. It is shown that this PV mapping procedure produces somewhat better agreement in comparisons with ozonesonde measurements, particularly in winter, than does simple linear interpolation of the MLS stratospheric columns or the use of typical coincidence criteria at mid-latitudes. The OMI/MLS derived tropospheric columns are calculated to be 4 Dobson units (DU) smaller than the sonde measured columns at mid-latitudes. This mean difference is consistent with the MLS (version 1.5) stratospheric ozone columns being high relative to Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) columns by 3 DU. Standard deviations between the derived tropospheric columns and those measured by ozonesondes are 9 DU (30%) annually but they are just 6 DU (15%) in summer. Uncertainties in the interpolated MLS stratospheric columns are likely to be the primary cause of these standard deviations. An important advantage of the PV mapping approach is that it works well when MLS data are missing (e.g., when an orbit of measurements is missing). In the comparisons against ozonesonde measurements, it provides up to twice as many comparisons compared to the other techniques. The OMI/MLS derived tropospheric ozone columns have been compared with corresponding columns based on the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) measurements, and Regional chEmical trAnsport Model (REAM) simulations. The variability of

  12. Ozone and temperature: A test of the consistency of models and observations in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orris, Rebecca Lyn

    1997-08-01

    Several stratospheric monthly-, zonally-averaged satellite ozone and temperature datasets have been created, merged with other observational datasets, and extrapolated to form ozone climatologies, with coverage from the surface to 80km and from 90oS to 90oN. Equilibrium temperatures in the stratosphere for each ozone dataset are calculated using a fixed dynamical heating (FDH) model and are compared with measured temperatures. An extensive study is conducted of the sensitivity of the modeled temperatures to uncertainties of inputs, with emphasis on the accuracy of the radiative transfer models, the uncertainty of the ozone mixing ratios, and inter-annual variability. We examine the long-term variability of the temperature with 25 years of data from the 3o resolution SKYHI GCM and find evidence of low frequency variation of the 3o model temperatures with a time scale of about 10 years. This long-term variability creates a significant source of uncertainty in our study, since dynamical heating rates derived from only 1 year of 1o SKYHI data are used. Most measured datasets are only available for a few years, which is an inadequate sample for averaging purposes. The uncertainty introduced into the comparison of FDH-modeled temperatures and measurements near 1mb in the tropics due to interannual variability has a maximum of approximately ±8K. Global-mean calculations on isobaric surfaces are shown to eliminate most of the interannual variability of the modeled and measured temperatures. Multiple years of global-mean UARS MLS temperatures, as well as MLS and LIMS temperatures at pressures of 1mb and greater, agree to within ±2K. For most months studied, global-mean Barnett and Corney (BC) temperatures are found to be significantly warmer (3.5-5K) than either the MLS or LIMS temperatures between 2-10mb. Comparisons of global-mean FDH-modeled temperatures with measured LIMS and MLS temperatures show the model is colder than measurements by 3-7K. Consistency between

  13. In vitro investigation of contrast flow jet timing in patient-specific intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Virendra R.; Britz, Garvin W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The direction and magnitude of intra-aneurysmal flow jet are significant risk factors of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the change of flow jet during an endovascular procedure has been used for prediction of aneurysm occlusion or whether an additional flow diverter (FD) is warranted. However, evaluation of flow jets is often unreliable due to a large variation of flow jet on the digital subtraction angiograms, and this flow pattern variation may result in incorrect clinical diagnosis Therefore, factors contributing to the variation in flow jet are examined at an in vitro setting, and the findings can help us to understand the nature of flow jet and devise a better plan to quantify the aneurysmal hemodynamics accurately. Methods Intra-aneurysmal flows in three patient-specific aneurysms between 11 and 25 mm were investigated in vitro, and a FD was deployed in each aneurysm model. X-ray imaging of these models were performed at injection rates between 0.2 and 2 mL/s. Pulsatile blood pump and aneurysm model were imaged together to determine the timing of flow jet. Results The contrast bolus arrives at the aneurysm early at high contrast injection rates. The flow patterns with slow injection rates exhibit strong inertia that is associated with the systole flow. Flow jets arrive at the aneurysms at the peak systole when the bolus is injected at 0.2 mL/s. The contrast-to-signal ratio is the highest at the injection rate of 0.5 mL/s. Effect of flow diversion can only be assessed at an injection rate greater than 0.5 mL/s. Conclusions Intra-aneurysmal flow jet is highly dependent on the injection rate of the contrast agent. For the internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms, the systolic flows can be visualized at slow injection rates (<0.5 mL/s), while the diastolic flow jets are visible at higher injection rates (>1 mL/s). Dependence of flow jet on the contrast injection rate has serious clinical implications and needs to be considered during diagnostic procedures

  14. PREFACE: Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolin, A.; Abramov, V.; Fuchs, J.; Paal, E.; Shestopalov, Y.; Silvestrov, S.

    2012-02-01

    This proceedings volume presents results obtained by the participants of the 6th Baltic-Nordic workshop 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics (AGMP-6)' held at the Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences in Tjärnö, Sweden on October 25-30, 2010. The Baltic-Nordic Network AGMP 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics' http://www.agmp.eu was created in 2005 on the initiative of two Estonian universities and two Swedish universities: Tallinn University of Technology represented by Eugen Paal (coordinator of the network), Tartu University represented by Viktor Abramov, Lund University represented by Sergei Silvestrov, and Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg represented by Alexander Stolin. The goal was to promote international and interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and research groups in the countries of the Baltic-Nordic region in mathematics and mathematical physics, with special emphasis on the important role played by algebra and geometry in modern physics, engineering and technologies. The main activities of the AGMP network consist of a series of regular annual international workshops, conferences and research schools. The AGMP network also constitutes an important educational forum for scientific exchange and dissimilation of research results for PhD students and Postdocs. The network has expanded since its creation, and nowadays its activities extend beyond countries in the Baltic-Nordic region to universities in other European countries and participants from elsewhere in the world. As one of the important research-dissimilation outcomes of its activities, the network has a tradition of producing high-quality research proceedings volumes after network events, publishing them with various international publishers. The PDF also contains the following: List of AGMP workshops and other AGMP activities Main topics discussed at AGMP-6 Review of AGMP-6 proceedings Acknowledgments List of Conference Participants

  15. Electron-transfer mediator for a NAD-glucose dehydrogenase-based glucose sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Min-yeong; Reddy, Sanapalli S; Cho, Jaegeol; Cho, Chul-ho; Jung, Suntae; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2013-12-01

    A new electron-transfer mediator, 5-[2,5-di (thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-1,10-phenanthroline iron(III) chloride (FePhenTPy) oriented to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent-glucose dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) system was synthesized through a Paal-Knorr condensation reaction. The structure of the mediator was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, proton and carbon nucler magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy, and its electron-transfer characteristic for a glucose sensor was investigated using voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. A disposable amperometric glucose sensor with NAD-GDH was constructed with FePhenTPy as an electron-transfer mediator on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) and its performance was evaluated, where the addition of reduces graphene oxide (RGO) to the mediator showed the enhanced sensor performance. The experimental parameters to affect the analytical performance and the stability of the proposed glucose sensor were optimized, and the sensor exhibited a dynamic range between 30 mg/dL and 600 mg/dL with the detection limit of 12.02 ± 0.6 mg/dL. In the real sample experiments, the interference effects by acetaminophen, ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid, caffeine, and other monosaccharides (fructose, lactose, mannose, and xylose) were completely avoided through coating the sensor surface with the Nafion film containing lead(IV) acetate. The reliability of proposed glucose sensor was evaluated by the determination of glucose in artificial blood and human whole blood samples. PMID:24199942

  16. Investigations on structural and multiferroic properties of artificially engineered lead zirconate titanate-cobalt iron oxide layered nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Achury, Nora Patricia

    Mutiferroics are a novel class of next generation multifunctional materials, which display simultaneous magnetic, electric, and ferroelastic ordering, have drawn increasing interest due to their multi-functionality for a variety of device applications. Since, very rare single phase materials exist in nature this kind of properties, an intensive research activity is being pursued towards the development of new engineered materials with strong magneto-electric (ME) coupling. In the present investigation, we have fabricated polycrystalline and highly oriented PbZr0.53,Ti0.47O3--CoFe 2O4 (PZT/CFO) artificially multilayers (MLs) engineered nanostructures thin films which were grown on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si and La 0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (LSCO) coated (001) MgO substrates respectively, using the pulsed laser deposition technique. The effect of various PZT/CFO sandwich configurations having 3, 5, and 9 layers, while maintaining similar total PZT and CFO thickness, has been systematically investigated. The first part of this thesis is devoted to the analysis of structural and microstructure properties of the PZT/CFO MLs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro Raman analysis revealed that PZT and CFO were in the perovskite and spinel phases respectively in the all layered nanostructure, without any intermediate phase. The TEM and STEM line scan of the ML thin films showed that the layered structure was maintained with little inter-diffusion near the interfaces at nano-metric scale without any impurity phase, however better interface was observed in highly oriented films. Second part of this dissertation was dedicated to study of the dielectric, impedance, modulus, and conductivity spectroscopies. These measurements were carried out over a wide range of temperatures (100 K to 600 K) and frequencies (100 Hz to 1 MHz) to investigate the grain and grain boundary effects on electrical properties of MLs. The temperature dependent dielectric and loss tangent illustrated step-like behavior and

  17. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Acaricides Used to Control the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in Dairy Herds Raised in the Brazilian Southwestern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luciana G; Barbieri, Fábio S; Rocha, Rodrigo B; Oliveira, Márcia C S; Ribeiro, Elisana Sales

    2011-01-01

    The adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) acaricides were the least effective (48.35-76.84%), followed by SP + organophosphate (OP) associations (68.91-81.47%) and amidine (51.35-100%). For the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the milbemycin (94.84-100%) was the most effective, followed by spinosad (93.21-100%) and the avermectins (81.34-100%). The phenylpyrazole (PZ) group had similar efficacy (99.90%) to the MLs. Therefore, SP acaricides, including associations with OP, and formulations based on amidine presented low in vitro efficacy to control the R. microplus populations surveyed. PMID:21547224

  18. Spreading Modes on Copper and Steel Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feoktistov, Dmitry; Orlova, Evgeniya; Islamova, Anastasiya

    2016-02-01

    This work presents the experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and liquid flow rate on the dynamic contact angle during spreading of distilled nondeaerated water drop on a solid horizontal substrate. Copper and steel substrates with different roughness have been investigated. Three spreading modes were conventionally indicated. It was found that the spreading of drops on substrates made of different materials occurs in similar modes. However, the duration of each mode for substrates made of copper and steel are different. Spreading of a liquid above the asperities of a surface micro relief was observed to be dominant for large volumetric flow rates of drops (0.01 ml/s). Liquid was spreading inside the grooves of a rough substrate at low rates (0.005 ml/s).

  19. Construction of Response Surface with Higher Order Continuity and Its Application to Reliability Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Romero, V. J.

    2002-01-01

    The usefulness of piecewise polynomials with C1 and C2 derivative continuity for response surface construction method is examined. A Moving Least Squares (MLS) method is developed and compared with four other interpolation methods, including kriging. First the selected methods are applied and compared with one another in a two-design variables problem with a known theoretical response function. Next the methods are tested in a four-design variables problem from a reliability-based design application. In general the piecewise polynomial with higher order derivative continuity methods produce less error in the response prediction. The MLS method was found to be superior for response surface construction among the methods evaluated.

  20. A Fault Tolerant System for an Integrated Avionics Sensor Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Lancraft, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    An aircraft sensor fault tolerant system methodology for the Transport Systems Research Vehicle in a Microwave Landing System (MLS) environment is described. The fault tolerant system provides reliable estimates in the presence of possible failures both in ground-based navigation aids, and in on-board flight control and inertial sensors. Sensor failures are identified by utilizing the analytic relationships between the various sensors arising from the aircraft point mass equations of motion. The estimation and failure detection performance of the software implementation (called FINDS) of the developed system was analyzed on a nonlinear digital simulation of the research aircraft. Simulation results showing the detection performance of FINDS, using a dual redundant sensor compliment, are presented for bias, hardover, null, ramp, increased noise and scale factor failures. In general, the results show that FINDS can distinguish between normal operating sensor errors and failures while providing an excellent detection speed for bias failures in the MLS, indicated airspeed, attitude and radar altimeter sensors.