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Sample records for mm borax ph

  1. Desulphurization of coal using borax

    SciTech Connect

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    1996-12-31

    In this study, a high sulphur Turkish lignite was mixed with various amounts of solid borax [Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}10H{sub 2}O] and then these mixtures were subjected to various oxydesulphurization processes. Effects of amount of borax, temperature and partial pressure of oxygen on sulphur removal and coal recovery were investigated in the ranges of 0.625--15.000 g for 5 g lignite, 423--498 K, 0.0--1.5 MPa, respectively.

  2. 40 CFR 415.270 - Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory. 415.270...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.270 Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory. The...

  3. [Infrared spectral analysis for calcined borax].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cui; Ren, Li-Li; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Bo-Tao

    2011-08-01

    To valuate the quality of calcined borax which is sold in the market, 18 samples of calcined borax were studied using the Fourier transform infrared, and samples with different water content were selected and analyzed. Then, the results of analysis were used to evaluate the quality of calcined borax. Results show that the infrared spectra of calcined borax include OH vibration, BO3(-3) vibration and BO4(5-) vibration absorption bands. The position and width of OH vibration absorption band depend on the level of water content, and the more the water content, the wider the absorption band. The number of BO3(3-) vibration and BO4(5-) vibration bands also depend on the level of water content, and the more the water content, and the stronger the hydrogen bond and the lower the symmetry of B atoms, the more the number of infrared absorption peaks. It was concluded that because the quality of calcined borax has direct correlation with water content, the infrared spectroscopy is an express and objective approach to quality analysis and evaluation of calcined borax. PMID:22007396

  4. Assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human developmental and reproductive toxicity of agents

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3BO3 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). The element, boron, does not exist naturally. In dilute aqueous solution and at physiological pH (7.4), the predominant species in undissociated boric acid (greater than 98%), irrespective of whether the initial material was boric acid of borax. Therefore, it is both useful and correct to compare exposures and dosages to boric acid and borax in terms of `boron equivalents`, since both materials form equivalent species in dilute aqueous solution with similar systemic effects. In order to be clear in this document, the term `boron` will refer to `boron equivalents` or percent boron in boric acid and borax.

  5. Dry borax applicator operator's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Karsky, Richard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting their roots and eventually killing the trees. The fungus Heterobasidion annosum causes annosum root rot. The fungus colonizes readily on freshly cut stumps. Partially cut stands have a high risk of infestation because the fungus can colonize on each of the stumps and potentially infect the neighboring trees. Wind and rain carry the annosum spores. Spores that land on freshly cut stumps grow down the stump's root system where they can infect living trees through root grafts or root contacts. Once annosum becomes established, it can remain active for many years in the Southern United States and for several decades in the north. About 7% of the trees that become infected die. When thinning, stumps can be treated successfully using a competing fungus, Phlebia gigantea, and with ''Tim-Bor'' in liquid formulations. These liquid products are no longer approved in the United States. Only the dry powder form is registered and approved by the EPA. Stumps can be treated with a dry formula of borax, (Sporax), significantly reducing one of the primary routes by which Heterobasidion annosum infects a stand of trees. Sporax is used by the USDA Forest Service to control annosum root rot. Sporax is now applied by hand, but once the felled trees are skidded it becomes very hard to locate the stumps. A stump applicator will reduce error, labor costs, and hazards to workers.

  6. Crystallization kinetics of the borax decahydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, A. A.; Sahin, Ö.; Bulutcu, A. N.

    2007-03-01

    The growth and dissolution rates of borax decahydrate have been measured as a function of supersaturation for various particle sizes at different temperature ranges of 13 and 50 °C in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed crystallizer. The values of mass transfer coefficient, K, reaction rate constant, kr and reaction rate order, r were determined. The relative importances of diffusion and integration resistance were described by new terms named integration and diffusion concentration fraction. It was found that the overall growth rate of borax decahydrate is mainly controlled by integration (reaction) steps. It was also estimated that the dissolution region of borax decahydrate, apart from other materials, is controlled by diffusion and surface reaction. Increasing the temperature and particle size cause an increase in the values of kinetic parameters ( Kg, kr and K). The activation energies of overall, reaction and mass transfer steps were determined as 18.07, 18.79 and 8.26 kJmol -1, respectively.

  7. Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gordon, A S; Prichard, J S; Freedman, M H

    1973-03-17

    During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale. PMID:4691106

  8. 40 CFR 436.130 - Applicability; description of the borax subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Subcategory § 436...subpart are applicable to the processing of borate minerals. Borax obtained from brine lakes is regulated...

  9. 40 CFR 436.130 - Applicability; description of the borax subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Subcategory § 436...subpart are applicable to the processing of borate minerals. Borax obtained from brine lakes is regulated...

  10. 40 CFR 436.130 - Applicability; description of the borax subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Subcategory § 436...subpart are applicable to the processing of borate minerals. Borax obtained from brine lakes is regulated...

  11. 40 CFR 436.130 - Applicability; description of the borax subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Subcategory § 436...subpart are applicable to the processing of borate minerals. Borax obtained from brine lakes is regulated...

  12. 40 CFR 436.130 - Applicability; description of the borax subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Subcategory § 436...subpart are applicable to the processing of borate minerals. Borax obtained from brine lakes is regulated...

  13. Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, A. S.; Prichard, J. S.; Freedman, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4691106

  14. Borax-Loaded PLLA for Promotion of Myogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rico, Patricia; Rodrigo-Navarro, Aleixandre; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Boron is an essential metalloid, which plays a key role in plant and animal metabolisms. It has been reported that boron is involved in bone mineralization, has some uses in synthetic chemistry, and its potential has been only recently exploited in medicinal chemistry. However, in the area of tissue engineering, the use of boron is limited to works involving certain bioactive glasses. In this study, we engineer poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) substrates with sustained release of boron. Then, we analyze for the first time the uniqueness effects of boron in cell differentiation using murine C2C12 myoblasts and discuss a potential mechanism of action in cooperation with Ca(2+). Our results demonstrate that borax-loaded materials strongly enhance myotube formation at initial steps of myogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ca(2+) plays an essential role in combination with borax as chelating or blocking Ca(2+) entry into the cell leads to a detrimental effect on myoblast differentiation observed on borax-loaded materials. This research identifies borax-loaded materials to trigger differentiation mechanisms and it establishes a new tool to engineer microenvironments with applications in regenerative medicine for muscular diseases. PMID:26239605

  15. A new Tertiary borax deposit in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, R. N.; Helvac?, C.; Sureda, R. J.; Viramonte, J. G.

    1988-10-01

    The Loma Blanca borate deposit was formed in the muds of playa-lake environments during the Late Miocene and is the fourth Tertiary commercial borax deposit discovered within the borate districts of the world. It is the only South American deposit known to contain any of the minerals colemanite, inyoite, ulexite, borax, tincalconite and teruggite with a unique and characteristic mineral sequence among the other Argentinian borate deposits. The Loma Blanca deposit is characterized by abundant Ca, Na and B, very low Cl and relatively high As, S and Mg concentrations compared with other borate deposits. Thermal springs and hydrothermal solutions associated with local volcanic activity are thought to be the source of the borates. The early colemanite, inyoite, ulexite, borax and teruggite nodules and crystals appear to have been formed directly from brines penecontemporaneously within the unconsolidated sediments, and they continued to grow as the sediments were compacted. Later generations of borate minerals occur in vughs, veins and as thin layers. Diagenetic alterations include the partial replacement of borax by ulexite and tincalconite; when weathered, borates are often almost completely replaced by calcite.

  16. Effect of borax on the crystallization kinetics of boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ahin, Ömer

    2002-03-01

    The effect of different borax concentrations on the growth and dissolution rates of boric acid crystals were measured in a fluidized bed crystallizer under well-established conditions of supersaturation and undersaturation and fluidization. It was found that the presence of borax in boric-acid solution decreases the mass-transfer coefficient, kd, the surface-reaction constant, kr and reaction order r pertaining to growth and dissolution rates of boric acid crystals. The effectiveness factors were estimated from the growth rate data to evaluate the relative magnitudes of the two resistances in series, diffusion and integration. The controlling mechanism is mainly by integration for the crystal growth of boric acid in the pure state and in the presence of borax in solution. The kinetic parameters ( kr, kd, r) were determined by a new method which is called trial and error under no assumption. This method gives a high accuracy of determination of the mass-transfer coefficient, kd, the surface-reaction constant, kr and surface-reaction order, r. The relative standard deviation between the equation Rg= kr(( ??- ?eq)- Rg(1- w?)/ kd) r and those experimentally obtained and represented by the equation Rg= kg( ??- ?eq) g do not exceed 0.013 for both the growth and dissolution regions.

  17. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives. PMID:23923788

  18. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium...

  3. Hydrologic data and description of a hydrologic monitoring plan for the Borax Lake area, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Tiffany Rae; McFarland, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Information from field visits was used to develop a monitoring plan. The plan would include monitoring Borax Lake by measuring discharge, stage, evaporation, temperature, and specific conductance; water-quality sampling and analysis; and monitoring shallow ground-water levels near Borax Lake using shallow piezometers. Minimally, one hot spring in North Borax Lake Spring Group 1 would be monitored for temperature and specific conductance and sampled for water-quality analysis. In addition, two flowing wells would be monitored for water levels, temperature, specific conductance, and discharge and sampled for water-quality analysis. The construction characteristics of these wells must be verified before long-term data collection begins. In the future, it may be helpful to monitor shallow and (or) deep observation wells drilled into the thermal aquifer to understand the possible effects of geothermal development on Borax Lake and nearby springs.

  4. Geophysical Characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, Southeastern Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, S.; Paul, C.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Clement, W.; Liberty, L.; Myers, R.; Donaldson, P.

    2003-12-01

    We are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system as part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs, is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. As a result of Basin and Range extension, the Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We are using several geophysical techniques to generate both basin-wide and high-resolution local characterizations of the Alvord Basin and the BLHS. To date we have completed two scales of seismic reflection surveys: an east-west trending basin scale survey and a shallow (~10 - 300 m depth) 3D survey of the BLHS. The basin scale seismic survey consists of 11 km of 2D, 60 fold CMP data acquired with a 200 lb accelerated weight drop. We acquired the 3D survey of the BLHS using a 7.62x39 mm SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The 3D patch covers ~ 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. Additionally, we have completed a regional total-field magnetic survey for a large portion of the Alvord Basin and a 3D transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey of the BLHS. The 3D TEM survey covers the central portion of the 3D seismic survey. Initial results from the regional magnetic and seismic surveys indicate a mid-basin basement high. The basement high appears to correlate with the northeast trending BLHS. Additionally, the cross-basin seismic profile clearly shows that recent deformation has primarily been along an eastward dipping normal fault that bounds the basement high to the east. This suggests that both spatial and temporal characteristics of deformation control hydrothermal activity within the BLHS.

  5. Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) on the Growth Rate and Morphology of Borax Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharso; Parkinson, Gordon; Ogden, Mark

    An investigation of the effect of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on both growth rate and morphology of borax crystal has been carried out. This experiment was carried out at temperature of 25°C and relative supersaturation of 0.21 and 0.74 under in situ cell optical microscopy method. The result shows that CTAB inhibits the growth rate and changes the morphology of borax crystal.

  6. Measurement and analysis of polar stratospheric ClO and N2O by ground-based mm-wave spectroscopy. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Emmons, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis and interpretation of measured spectra of spring-time stratospheric ClO and N2O in Antarctica and Greenland during three field campaigns are presented in this dissertation. Measurements were made at McMurdo Station, Antarctica during September and October in 1992, and at Thule Air Base, Greenland during February and March in 1992 and 1993, using a ground-based mm-wave receiver. Measurements of ClO, a direct product of ozone destruction, were made through the evolution of the Antarctic `ozone hole.` The emission spectrum of ClO at 278.632 GHz was observed and vertical profiles have been determined from measurements both inside and outside the polar vortex and a sharp difference is seen between them. Comparisons are made to coincident balloon and satellite measurements of ozone, and ground-based measurements of NO2. The Arctic polar vortex generally has warmer stratospheric temperatures and is more variable in its position over the pole, consequently no ozone hole has been observed there. However, these measurements, as well as others, show the presence of ClO indicating some ozone depletion has occurred by the same mechanisms at work in the Antarctic. Low altitude mixing ratios of ClO in 1992 were never above 0.2 ppbv, but in 1993 up to 0.5 ppbv was observed in late February. The diurnal variation of the low altitude layer of ClO present in the Antarctic ozone `hole` has also been measured. The mixing ratio increases after sunrise, from less than 0.1 ppbv just before sunrise to approximately 1.5 ppbv at midday, and decreases with increasing solar zenith angle after midday. This diurnal record is unique and is valuable for the validation of photochemical models of the polar stratosphere. N2O is a good tracer of stratospheric dynamics, having only ground sources and having a long chemical lifetime in the atmosphere. N2O spectra at 276.328 GHz were observed at Thule from late February to late March, 1992.

  7. Borax counteracts genotoxicity of aluminum in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyiko?lu, Fatime; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of borax (BX) on genotoxicity induced by aluminum (Al) in rat liver, using liver micronucleus assay as an indicator of genotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into six groups and each group had four animals. Aluminum chloride (AlCl?; 5 mg/kg b.w.) and BX (3.25 and 13 mg/kg b.w.) were injected intraperitoneally to rats. Besides, animals were also treated with Al for 4 consecutive days followed by BX for 10 days. Rats were anesthetized after Al and BX injections and the hepatocytes were isolated for counting the number of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs). AlCl? was found to significantly (p < 0.05) increase the number of MNHEPs. Rats treated with BX, however, showed no increase in MNHEPs. Moreover, simultaneous treatments with BX significantly modulated the genotoxic effects of AlCl? in rats. It can be concluded that BX has beneficial influences and has the ability to antagonize Al toxicity. PMID:22491726

  8. Experimental determination of the metastable zone width of borax decahydrate by ultrasonic velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürbüz, H.; Özdemir, B.

    2003-05-01

    The metastable zone width of borax decahydrate (disodium tetraborate decahydrate), represented by the maximum undercooling ? Tmax, both in pure and impure aqueous solutions were determined according to polythermal method by using the ultrasonic technique. It is found that the metastable zone width of borax decahydrate in pure solutions determined by ultrasonic method fulfills well the linear relation between log? Tmax and log(-d T/d t). However, the sensitivity of the method using the ultrasonic technique increases with increasing saturation temperature, probably due to the increase of temperature dependence of solubility with increasing saturation temperature. A comparison of the nucleation temperatures from ultrasonic measurements and from visual determination shows that both detection techniques give almost the same results for borax decahydrate. The results obtained from ultrasonic measurements show, that the presence of Ca 2+ as impurity has only a small effect on the metastable zone width of borax decahydrate as long as the impurity concentrations is in the range of 25-200 ppm. Similar to the effect of Ca 2+, Mg 2+ also has a small effect on the metastable zone width of borax up to the impurity concentration of 100 ppm. However, the presence of 200 ppm Mg 2+ results in a reasonable increase of the metastable zone width.

  9. Response to Thermal Exposure of Ball-Milled Aluminum-Borax Powder Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, Yucel

    2013-04-01

    Aluminum-borax powder mixtures were ball milled and heated above 873 K (600 °C) to produce Al-B master alloys. Ball-milled powder blends reveal interpenetrating layers of deformed aluminum and borax grains that are increasingly refined with increasing milling time. Thermal exposure of the ball-milled powder blends facilitates a series of thermite reactions between these layers. Borax, dehydrated during heating, is reduced by Al, and B thus generated reacts with excess Al to produce AlB2 particles dispersed across the aluminum grains starting at 873 K (600 °C). AlB2 particles start to form along the interface of the aluminum and borax layers. Once nucleated, these particles grow readily to become hexagonal-shaped crystals that traverse the aluminum grains with increasing temperatures as evidenced by the increase in the size as well as in the number of the AlB2 particles. Ball milling for 1 hour suffices to achieve a thermite reaction between borax and aluminum. Ball milling further does not impact the response of the powder blend to thermal exposure. The nucleation-reaction sites are multiplied, however, with increasing milling time and thus insure a higher number of smaller AlB2 particles. The size of the AlB2 platelets may be adjusted with the ball milling time.

  10. Prediction of Layer Thickness in Molten Borax Bath with Genetic Evolutionary Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan, Fatih

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the vanadium carbide coating in molten borax bath process is modeled by evolutionary genetic programming (GEP) with bath composition (borax percentage, ferro vanadium (Fe-V) percentage, boric acid percentage), bath temperature, immersion time, and layer thickness data. Five inputs and one output data exist in the model. The percentage of borax, Fe-V, and boric acid, temperature, and immersion time parameters are used as input data and the layer thickness value is used as output data. For selected bath components, immersion time, and temperature variables, the layer thicknesses are derived from the mathematical expression. The results of the mathematical expressions are compared to that of experimental data; it is determined that the derived mathematical expression has an accuracy of 89%.

  11. Effect of borax concentration on the structure of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.; Aswal, V. K.

    2012-06-01

    Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) hydrogels cross-linked with varying concentrations of borax have been studied using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and X-Ray Diffraction. The intensity of scattering increases with borax concentration from 1 mg/ml up to 2 mg/ml and falls thereafter for 4 mg/ml, increasing again for a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The mesoscopic structural changes that cause these trends in the SANS data are in keeping with the variations in the X-ray diffraction patterns pertaining to structures within the PVA chains.

  12. Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

    2011-03-01

    Ellagic acid (C(14)H(6)O(8)), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0×10(-10) to 4.0×10(-5) mol L(-1); and the detection limits are 3.2×10(-10) mol L(-1) and 5.9×10(-10) mol L(-1) excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex. PMID:21239219

  13. Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

    2011-03-01

    Ellagic acid (C 14H 6O 8), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0 × 10 -10 to 4.0 × 10 -5 mol L -1; and the detection limits are 3.2 × 10 -10 mol L -1 and 5.9 × 10 -10 mol L -1 excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex.

  14. Dispersion of borax in plastic is excellent fire-retardant heat insulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, H.; Hughes, J.; Schmitz, F.

    1967-01-01

    A mix of borax powder and a chlorinated anhydrous polyester resin yields a plastic composition that is fire-retardant, yields a minimum of toxic gases when heated, and exhibits high thermal insulating properties. This composition can be used as a coating or can be converted into laminated or cast shapes.

  15. Determination of kinetic parameters of crystal growth rate of borax in aqueous solution by using the rotating disc technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Omer; Aslan, Fevzi; Ozdemir, Mustafa; Durgun, Mustafa

    2004-10-01

    Growth rate of polycrystalline disc of borax compressed at different pressure and rotated at various speed has been measured in a rotating disc crystallizer under well-defined conditions of supersaturation. It was found that the mass transfer coefficient, K, increased while overall growth rate constant, Kg, and surface reaction constant, kr, decreased with increasing smoothness of the disc. It was also determined that kinetic parameters (kr , r , K , g) of crystal growth rate of borax decreased with increasing rotating speed of the polycrystalline disc. The effectiveness factor was calculated from the growth rate data to evaluate the relative magnitude of the steps in series bulk diffusion through the mass transfer boundary layer and the surface integration. At low rotating speed of disc, the crystal growth rate of borax is mainly controlled by integration. However, both diffusion and integration steps affect the growth rate of borax at higher rotating speed of polycrystalline disc.

  16. Characterization of uranium surfaces machined with aqueous propylene glycol-borax or perchloroethylene-mineral oil coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, S.S.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.; Dillon, J.J.; Richards, H.L.; Seals, R.D.; Byrd, V.R.

    1986-12-31

    The use of perchloroethylene (perc) as an ingredient in coolants for machining enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been discontinued because of environmental concerns. A new coolant was substituted in December 1985, which consists of an aqueous solution of propylene glycol with borax (sodium tetraborate) added as a nuclear poison and with a nitrite added as a corrosion inhibitor. Uranium surfaces machined using the two coolants were compared with respects to residual contamination, corrosion or corrosion potential, and with the aqueous propylene glycol-borax coolant was found to be better than that of enriched uranium machined with the perc-mineral oil coolant. The boron residues on the final-finished parts machined with the borax-containing coolant were not sufficient to cause problems in further processing. All evidence indicated that the enriched uranium surfaces machined with the borax-containing coolant will be as satisfactory as those machined with the perc coolant.

  17. Corrosion resistance of inconel 690 to borax, boric acid, and boron nitride at 1100{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    1996-12-12

    Significant general and localized corrosion was observed on Inconel 690 coupons following exposure to borax, boric acid and boron nitride at 1100{degrees}C. Severe localized attack at and below the melt line was observed on coupons exposed to borax. An intergranular attack at and below the melt line was observed on coupons exposed to borax. An intergranular attack (IGA) of the Inconel 690 was also observed. Severe internal void formation and IGA (30 mils penetration after 3 days) was observed in the coupon exposed to boric acid. Both borax and boric acid remove the protective chromium oxide; however, this layer can be reestablished by heating the Inconel 690 to 975 {degrees}C in air for several hours. Inconel 690 in direct contact with boron nitride resulted in the formation of a thick chromium borate layer, a general corrosion rate of 50 to 90 mils per year, and internal void formation of 1 mil per day.

  18. Supplemental Data Molecular Cell, Volume 36

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Darren

    incubated at room temperature for 30 min with 5 µL 5x borate buffer (148 mM borax,148 mM boric acid, pH 8 vacuum dried and dissolved in 60 µL 1x borax buffer (30 mM borax, 30mM boric acid, 50 mM NaOH, pH 9

  19. a Theoretical Analysis of Physical Properties of Aqueous Trehalose with Borax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahara; Aniya, Masaru

    2013-07-01

    The temperature and composition dependence of the viscosity of aqueous trehalose and aqueous trehalose-borax mixtures has been investigated by means of the Bond Strength-Coordination Number Fluctuation (BSCNF) model. The result indicates that the variation in the fragility of the system is very small in the composition range analyzed. The values of the materials parameters determined are consistent with those of the trehalose-water-lithium iodide system which were analyzed in a previous study. Based on the analysis of the obtained parameters of the BSCNF model, the physical interpretation of the WLF parameters reported in a previous study is reconfirmed.

  20. Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Boyer, Norman W. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  1. Characterization of two glycoside hydrolase family 36 ?-galactosidases: Novel transglycosylation activity, lead-zinc tolerance, alkaline and multiple pH optima, and low-temperature activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junpei; Lu, Qian; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yiyan; Wu, Qian; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Xu, Bo; Ding, Junmei; Huang, Zunxi

    2016-03-01

    Two ?-galactosidases, AgaAJB07 from Mesorhizobium and AgaAHJG4 from Streptomyces, were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant AgaAJB07 showed a 2.9-fold and 22.6-fold increase in kcat with a concomitant increase of 2.3-fold and 16.3-fold in Km in the presence of 0.5mM ZnSO4 and 30.0mM Pb(CH3COO)2, respectively. Recombinant AgaAHJG4 showed apparent optimal activity at pH 8.0 in McIlvaine or Tris-HCl buffer and 9.5 in glycine-NaOH or HCl-borax-NaOH buffer, retention of 23.6% and 43.2% activity when assayed at 10 and 20°C, respectively, and a half-life of approximately 2min at 50°C. The activation energies for p-nitrophenyl-?-d-galactopyranoside hydrolysis by AgaAJB07 and AgaAHJG4 were 71.9±0.8 and 48.2±2.0kJmol(-1), respectively. Both AgaAJB07 and AgaAHJG4 exhibited transglycosylation activity, but they required different acceptors and produced different compounds. Furthermore, potential factors for alkaline and multiple pH optima and low-temperature adaptations of AgaAHJG4 were presumed. PMID:26471539

  2. Precipitation method for barium metaborate (BaB2O4) synthesis from borax solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ak?ener, Eymen; Figen, Aysel Kantürk; Pi?kin, Sabriye

    2013-12-01

    In this study, barium metaborate (BaB2O4, BMB) synthesis from the borax solution was carried out. BMB currently is used in production of ceramic glazes, luminophors, oxide cathodes as well as additives to pigments for aqueous emulsion paints and also ?-BaB2O4 single crystals are the best candidate for fabrication of solid-state UV lasers operating at a wavelength of 200 nm due to excellent nonlinear optical properties. In the present study, synthesis was carried out from the borax solution (Na2B4O7?10H2O, BDH) and barium chloride (BaCI2?2H2O, Ba) in the glass-batch reactor with stirring. The effect of, times (5-15 min), molar ratio [stoich.ration (1.0:2.0), 1.25:2.0, 1.5:2.0, 2.5:2:0, 3.0:2.0, 3.5:2.0,4.0:2.0, 5.0:2.0] and also crystallization time (2-6 hour) on the BMB yield (%) was investigated at 80 °C reaction temperature. It is found that, BMB precipitation synthesis with 90 % yield can be performed from 0.50 molar ration (BDH:Ba), under 80 °C, 15 minute, and 6 hours crystallization time. The structural properties of BMB powders were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG instrumental analysis technique.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF BORIC ACID AND BORAX USING THE IEHR EVALUATIVE PROCESS FOR ASSESSING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3803 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decehydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). he element, boron, does not exist naturally. oron always exis...

  4. Preparation and characterization of antimicrobial wound dressings based on silver, gellan, PVA and borax.

    PubMed

    Cencetti, C; Bellini, D; Pavesio, A; Senigaglia, D; Passariello, C; Virga, A; Matricardi, P

    2012-10-15

    Silver-loaded dressings are designed to provide the same antimicrobial activity of topical silver, with the advantages of a sustained silver release and a reduced number of dressing changes. Moreover, such type of dressing must provide a moist environment, avoiding fiber shedding, dehydration and adherence to the wound site. Here we describe the preparation of a novel silver-loaded dressing based on a Gellan/Hyaff(®) (Ge-H) non woven, treated with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/borax system capable to enhance the entrapment of silver in the dressing and to modulate its release. The new hydrophilic non woven dressings show enhanced water uptake capability and slow dehydration rates. A sustained silver release is also achieved. The antibacterial activity was confirmed on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:22939352

  5. Experimenting with cameraless photography using turmeric and borax: an introduction to photophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    An alcoholic extract of the spice turmeric can be used to create a light-sensitive dye that can be used to stain paper. On exposure to sunlight, the dyed paper can be used to capture photographic images of flat objects or reproduce existing images through the preferential degradation of the dye in light-exposed areas over a time period of a few hours. The images can be developed and preserved by spraying the exposed paper with a dilute solution of borax, which forms coloured organo-boron complexes that limit further degradation of the dye and enhance the colour of the image. Similar photochemical reactions that lead to the degradation of the turmeric dye can also be used for reducing the organic pollution load in wastewater produced by many industrial processes and in dye-sensitized solar cells for producing electricity.

  6. Borax in the supraglacial moraine of the Lewis Cliff, Buckley Island quadrangle--first Antarctic occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, J.J.; Muhs, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1987-1988 austral summer field season, membersof the south party of the antarctic search for meteorites south-ern team* working in the Lewis Cliff/Colbert Hills region dis-covered several areas of unusual mineralization within theLewis Cliff ice tongue and its associated moraine field (figure1). The Lewis Cliff ice tongue (84°15'S 161°25'E) is a meteorite-stranding surface of ablating blue ice, about 2.3 by 7.0 kilo-meters, bounded on the west by the Lewis Cliff, on the northand northeast by a large supraglacial moraine, and on the eastby the Colbert Hills. To the south it opens to the Walcott Névé.Because it is a meteorite-stranding surface, the major component of ice motion in the area is believed to be vertical(Whillans and Cassidy 1983). The presence of Thule-Baffinmoraines at the northern terminus of the blue ice tends tosupport the hypothesis that the area underlying the moraineis essentially stagnant and that ice arriving from the south ispiling up against it. Areas containing mineral deposits werefound within the moraine field to the north and east of theblue ice margin and also along the east margins of the blue iceitself. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses of these depositshave shown that they are composed predominantly of nah-colite (NaHCO3), trona [Na3(CO3)(HCO3) · 2H20], borax[Na2B405(OH)4 · 8H20], and a new hexagonal hydrous sulfatespecies. This paper reports the details of the borax occurrence,because it is the first known on the continent.

  7. 1-mm catheterscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, Eric J.

    2008-02-01

    Flexible endoscopes use one sensor element per display pixel. When diameter is reduced to the size of a catheter, there is a significant reduction in the number of pixels within the image. By placing a sub-millimeter microscanner at the tip of a catheter, image quality can be significantly improved. The microscanner consists of a 0.4 mm diameter piezoelectric tube with quadrant electrodes, surrounding a cantilevered singlemode optical fiber. At the distal end, the fiber microscanner is sealed with a 0.9 mm diameter lens assembly, creating a rigid length less than 10 mm at the tip of a highly flexible shaft. The cantilevered fiber is vibrated at the first mode of resonance for bending to generate a circular scan pattern. A spiral scan pattern is generated that constitutes an image frame by modulating the piezoelectric drive signals. By using a custom optical fiber at 80 microns cladding diameter, >10 KHz resonant scanning is achieved, resulting in a 30 Hz frame rate. Red (635 nm), green (532 nm), and blue (442 nm) laser light is scanned by coupling to the fiber scanner. The scanned illumination is detected in a non-confocal arrangement by having one or more optical fibers collecting the backscattered light at MHz pixel rates. Current 1-mm diameter catheterscopes generate 500-line images at maximum fields of view of 100 degrees and spatial resolutions of <20 microns with image zooming. Shaft length of four meters have been fabricated with flexibility of <10 mm bending radius to image previously inaccessible regions of the body.

  8. In vitro studies on chemoprotective effect of borax against aflatoxin B1-induced genetic damage in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyiko?lu, Fatime; Dirican, Ebubekir; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2012-12-01

    A common dietary contaminant, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), has been shown to be a potent mutagen and carcinogen in humans and many animal species. Since the eradication of AFB1 contamination in agricultural products has been rare, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boron compounds like borax (BX) and boric acid are the major components of industry and their antioxidant role has recently been reported. In the present report, we evaluated the capability of BX to inhibit the rate of micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formations induced by AFB1. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in both SCE and MN frequencies of cultures treated with AFB1 (3.12 ppm) as compared to controls. However, co-application of BX (1, 2 and 5 ppm) and AFB1 resulted in decreases of SCE and MN rates as compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone. Borax gave 30-50 % protection against AFB1 induced SCEs and MNs. In conclusion, the support of borax was especially useful in aflatoxin-toxicated blood tissue. Thus, the risk on target tissues of AFB1 could be reduced and ensured early recovery from its toxicity. PMID:22526492

  9. Pulsed laser ablation of borax target in vacuum and hydrogen DC glow discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, A. N.; Miotello, A.; Mosaner, P.

    2006-09-01

    The aim of our experiment was to produce a material with B sbnd H bonds for applications in hydrogen storage and generation. By using KrF excimer laser ( ? = 248 nm) ablation of borax (Na 2B 4O 7) target, thin films were deposited on KBr and silicon substrates. Ablation was performed both in vacuum and in hydrogen atmosphere. DC glow discharge technique was utilized to enhance hydrogen gas ionization. Experiments were performed using laser fluence from 5 to 20 J/cm 2. Films were deposited under gas pressure of 1 × 10 -5 to 5 × 10 -2 mbar and substrate temperatures of 130-450 °C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of films showed presence of circular particulates. Film thickness, roughness and particulates number increased with increase in laser fluence. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis shows that sodium content in the particulates is higher than in the target. This effect is discussed in terms of atomic arrangements (both at surface and bulk) in systems where ionic and covalent bonds are present and by looking at the increased surface/bulk ratio of the particulates with respect to the deposited films. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements showed presence of B sbnd O stretching and B sbnd O sbnd B bending bonds. Possible reasons for absence of B sbnd H bonds are attributed to binding enthalpy of the competing molecules.

  10. Impact of the propylene glycol-water-borax coolant on material recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, W.K.; Taylor, P.A.

    1983-05-01

    The reaction of the propylene glycol-water-borax coolant with nitric acid has now been studied in some detail. This document is intended to provide a summary of the results. Findings are summarized under nine headings. Tests have also been conducted to determine if the new coolant would have any adverse effects on the uranium recycle systems. Experiments were scientifically designed after observation of the production operations so that accurate response to the immediate production concerns could be provided. Conclusions from these studies are: formation of glycol nitrates is very improbable; the reaction of concentrated (70%) nitric acid with pure propylene glycol is very violent and hazardous; dilution of the nitric acid-glycol mixture causes a drastic decrease in the rate and intensity of the reaction; the mechanism of the nitric acid propylene glycol reaction is autocatalytic in nitrous acid; no reaction is observed between coolant and 30% nitric acid unless the solution is heated; the coolant reacts fairly vigorously with 55% nitric acid after a concentration-dependent induction time; experiments showed that the dissolution of uranium chips that had been soaked in coolant proceeded at about the same rate as if the chips had not previously contacted glycol; thermodynamic calculations show that the enthalpy change (heat liberated) by the reaction of nitric acid (30%) with propylene glycol is smaller than if the same amount of nitric acid reacted with uranium. Each of these conclusions is briefly discussed. The effect of new coolant on uranium recycle operations is then briefly discussed.

  11. A new scleroglucan/borax hydrogel: swelling and drug release studies.

    PubMed

    Coviello, Tommasina; Grassi, Mario; Palleschi, Antonio; Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Coluzzi, Gina; Banishoeib, Fateme; Alhaique, Franco

    2005-01-31

    The aim of the work was the characterization of a new polysaccharidic physical hydrogel, obtained from Scleroglucan (Sclg) and borax, following water uptake and dimension variations during the swelling process. Furthermore, the release of molecules of different size (Theophylline (TPH), Vitamin B12 (Vit. B12) and Myoglobin (MGB)) from the gel and from the dried system used as a matrix for tablets was studied. The increase of weight of the tablets with and without the loaded drugs was followed together with the relative variation of the dimensions. The dry matrix, in the form of tablets was capable, during the swelling process, to incorporate a relevant amount of solvent (ca. 20 g water/g dried matrix), without dissolving in the medium, leading to a surprisingly noticeable anisotropic swelling that can be correlated with a peculiar supramolecular structure of the system induced by compression. Obtained results indicate that the new hydrogel can be suitable for sustained drug release formulations. The delivery from the matrix is deeply dependent on the size of the tested model drugs. The experimental release data obtained from the gel were satisfactorily fitted by an appropriate theoretical approach and the relative drug diffusion coefficients in the hydrogel were estimated. The release profiles of TPH, Vit. B12 and MGB from the tablets have been analyzed in terms of a new mathematical approach that allows calculating of permeability values of the loaded drugs. PMID:15652203

  12. Mg- and K-bearing borates and associated evaporites at Eagle Borax spring, Death Valley, California: A spectroscopic exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Efflorescent crusts at the Eagle Borax spring in Death Valley, California, contain an array of rare Mg and K borate minerals, several of which are only known from one or two other localities. The Mg- and/or K-bearing borates include aristarainite, hydroboracite, kaliborite, mcallisterite, pinnoite, rivadavite, and santite. Ulexite and probertite also occur in the area, although their distribution is different from that of the Mg and K borates. Other evaporite minerals in the spring vicinity include halite, thenardite, eugsterite, gypsum-anhydrite, hexahydrite, and bloedite. Whereas the first five of these minerals are found throughout Death Valley, the last two Mg sulfates are more restricted in occurrence and are indicative of Mg-enriched ground water. Mineral associations observed at the Eagle Borax spring, and at many other borate deposits worldwide, can be explained by the chemical fractionation of borate-precipitating waters during the course of evaporative concentration. The Mg sulfate and Mg borate minerals in the Eagle Borax efflorescent crusts point to the fractionation of Ca by the operation of a chemical divide involving Ca carbonate and Na-Ca borate precipitation in the subsurface sediments. At many other borate mining localities, the occurrence of ulexite in both Na borate (borax-kernite) and Ca borate (ulexite-colemanite) deposits similarly reflects ulexite's coprecipitation with Ca carbonate at an early concentration stage. Such ulexite may perhaps be converted to colemanite by later reaction with the coexisting Ca carbonate - the latter providing the additional Ca2+ ions needed for the conversion. Mg and Ca-Mg borates are the expected late-stage concentration products of waters forming ulexite-colemanite deposits and are therefore most likely to occur in the marginal zones or nearby mud facies of ulexite-colemanite orebodies. Under some circumstances, Mg and Ca-Mg borates might provide a useful prospecting guide for ulexite-colemanite deposits, although the high solubility of Mg borate minerals may prevent their formation in lacustrine settings and certainly inhibits their geologic preservation. The occurrence of Mg borates in borax-kernite deposits is also related to fractionation processes and points to the operation of an Mg borate chemical divide, characterized by Mg borate precipitation ahead of Mg carbonate. All of these considerations imply that Mg is a significant chemical component of many borate-depositing ground waters, even though Mg borate minerals may not be strongly evident in borate orebodies. The Eagle Borax spring borates and other evaporite minerals were studied using spectroscopic and X-ray powder diffraction methods, which were found to be highly complementary. Spectral reflectance measurements provide a sensitive means for detecting borates present in mixtures with other evaporites and can be used to screen samples rapidly for X-ray diffraction analysis. The apparently limited occurrence of Mg and K borate minerals compared to Ca and Na borates may stem partly from the inefficiency of X-ray diffraction methods for delineating the mineralogy of large and complex deposits. Spectral reflectance measurements can be made in the laboratory, in the field, on the mine face, and even remotely. Reflectance data should have an important role in studies of existing deposit mineralogy and related chemical fractionation processes, and perhaps in the discovery of new borate mineral resources.

  13. High-compactness coating grown by plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 magnesium alloy in the solution of silicate-borax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, M. J.; Wang, X. J.; Zhang, M. F.

    2012-10-01

    A ceramic coating was formed on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in the silicate solution with and without borax doped. The composition, morphology, elements and roughness as well as mechanical property of the coating were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reciprocal-sliding tribometer. The results show that the PEO coating is mainly composed of magnesia. When using borax dope, boron element is permeating into the coating and the boron containing phase exist in the form of amorphous. In addition, the microhardness and compactness of the PEO coating are improved significantly due to doped borax.

  14. Primeval galaxies in the sub-mm and mm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, J. Richard; Myers, Steven T.

    1993-01-01

    Although the results of COBE's FIRAS experiment 1 constrain the deviation in energy from the CMB blackbody in the 500-5000 micron range to be delta E/E, sub cmb less than 0.005, primeval galaxies can still lead to a brilliant sub-mm sky of non-Gaussian sources that are detectable at 10 inch resolution from planned arrays such as SCUBA on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and, quite plausibly, at sub-arcsecond resolution in planned mm and sub-mm interferometers. Here, we apply our hierarchical peaks method to a CDM model to construct sub-mm and mm maps of bursting PG's appropriate for these instruments with minimum contours chosen to correspond to realistic observational parameters for them and which pass the FIRAS limits.

  15. OpenMM accelerated MMTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kevin P.; Constable, Steve; Faruk, Nabil F.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we provide an interface developed to link the Molecular Modelling toolkit (MMTK) with OpenMM in order to take advantage of the fast evaluation techniques of OpenMM. This interface allows MMTK scripts using the Langevin dynamics integrator, for both classical and path integral simulations, to be executed on a variety of hardware including graphical processing units via OpenMM. The interface has been developed using Python and Cython to take advantage of the high level abstraction thanks to the MMTK and OpenMM software packages. We have tested the interface on a number of systems to observe which systems benefit most from the acceleration libraries of OpenMM.

  16. Preparing high- and low-aspect ratio AlB2 flakes from borax or boron oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A. C.; Economy, J.

    2000-02-01

    The commercial preparation of aluminum-diboride flakes in aluminum relies on relatively expensive starting materials. A new synthesis has been developed that allows AlB2 to be prepared directly from the reaction of borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O) or boron oxide (B2O3) with aluminum. Aluminum metal at temperatures higher than 900°C has been shown to reduce these boron-containing compounds, producing an Al2O3-containing slag and AlB2. A natural separation occurs, leaving AlB2 in the molten aluminum and Al2O3 as part of a slag that forms at the melt surface. Samples containing up to 10 vol.% AlB2 in an aluminum matrix have been directly prepared using this method.

  17. MM Multivariee Morphologie Mathematique Multivariee

    E-print Network

    Lefèvre, Sébastien

    MM Multivari´ee Morphologie Math´ematique Multivari´ee S´ebastien Lef`evre et Erchan Aptoula-ISIS #12;MM Multivari´ee Plan de la pr´esentation 1 Introduction Morphologie Math´ematique Relations d la pr´esentation 1 Introduction Morphologie Math´ematique Relations d'ordre 2 Principales approches

  18. Precipitation method for barium metaborate (BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}) synthesis from borax solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ak?ener, Eymen; Figen, Aysel Kantürk; Pi?kin, Sabriye

    2013-12-16

    In this study, barium metaborate (BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, BMB) synthesis from the borax solution was carried out. BMB currently is used in production of ceramic glazes, luminophors, oxide cathodes as well as additives to pigments for aqueous emulsion paints and also ??BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} single crystals are the best candidate for fabrication of solid-state UV lasers operating at a wavelength of 200 nm due to excellent nonlinear optical properties. In the present study, synthesis was carried out from the borax solution (Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7?}10H{sub 2}O, BDH) and barium chloride (BaCI{sub 2?}2H{sub 2}O, Ba) in the glass-batch reactor with stirring. The effect of, times (5-15 min), molar ratio [stoich.ration (1.0:2.0), 1.25:2.0, 1.5:2.0, 2.5:2:0, 3.0:2.0, 3.5:2.0,4.0:2.0, 5.0:2.0] and also crystallization time (2-6 hour) on the BMB yield (%) was investigated at 80 °C reaction temperature. It is found that, BMB precipitation synthesis with 90 % yield can be performed from 0.50 molar ration (BDH:Ba), under 80 °C, 15 minute, and 6 hours crystallization time. The structural properties of BMB powders were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG instrumental analysis technique.

  19. The GBT 4mm Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frayer, David T.; White, S.; Watts, G.; Stennes, M.; Maddalena, R. J.; Simon, R.; Pospieszalski, M.; Bryerton, E.

    2013-01-01

    The new 4mm receiver (67--93 GHz) for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was built to take advantage of the improved surface accuracy of the dish. The low frequency end of the 3mm atmospheric window is not available with ALMA (<84 GHz), and the sensitivity of the GBT is better than any other facility within this band. We discuss the design and performance of this new receiver for the GBT, and highlight the science opportunities available with the instrument. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  20. Density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO 2 and of sodium metaborate-UO 2 solutions at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donne, M. Dalle; Dorner, S.; Roth, A.

    1983-10-01

    Measurements have been performed of the density, of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and of the viscosity of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO 2 dissolved in each. The viscosity measurements have been performed for the solution of sodium tetraborate with UO 2 and CeO 2, and with CeO 2 only as well. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The density measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 825°C to 1300°C, the viscosity measurements in the temperature range 700-1250°C with a modified Haake viscosity balance. The balance was previously calibrated at ambient temperature with a standard calibration liquid and at high temperatures with data for pure borax available from the literature.

  1. Apollo 12 photography 70 mm, 16 mm, and 35 mm frame index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    For each 70-mm frame, the index presents information on: (1) the focal length of the camera, (2) the photo scale at the principal point of the frame, (3) the selenographic coordinates at the principal point of the frame, (4) the percentage of forward overlap of the frame, (5) the sun angle (medium, low, high), (6) the quality of the photography, (7) the approximate tilt (minimum and maximum) of the camera, and (8) the direction of tilt. A brief description of each frame is also included. The index to the 16-mm sequence photography includes information concerning the approximate surface coverage of the photographic sequence and a brief description of the principal features shown. A column of remarks is included to indicate: (1) if the sequence is plotted on the photographic index map and (2) the quality of the photography. The pictures taken using the lunar surface closeup stereoscopic camera (35 mm) are also described in this same index format.

  2. 3D Seismic and Magnetic characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, southeastern Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, S.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Routh, P.; Liberty, L.; Donaldson, P.

    2004-05-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems, we are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs. BLHS is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. The Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben in the Northern Great Basin bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We conducted a 2D seismic survey to characterize the geologic structure of the basin, a high-resolution 3D seismic survey to characterize the geologic structure of the BLHS, and a high-resolution 3D magnetic survey to characterize any lineaments in the bedrock that might control fluid flow in the BLHS. Previous results from the 2D seismic survey show a mid-basin basement high aligned approximately with the hot springs. In this study we present the results from the high-resolution 3D seismic and magnetic survey of the BLHS. We acquired the 3D seismic data using an SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The seismic survey covers approximately 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. The coincidental magnetic survey was collected using a Geometrics 858G cesium vapor magnetometer. We designed both surveys to span nearly 100 active hydrothermal springs, including an approximately 50 m stepover in the trend of the surface expression of the hot springs. After preliminary processing, the 3D seismic data show continuous reflections up to 300 ms (~ 480 m). The initial interpretation of features seen in the 3D data cube include: normal faults dipping to the east and west, near-surface disturbances that are consistent with the trend of the hot springs, and significant near surface velocity anomalies throughout the survey area. Time slices through the 3D seismic cube show evidence of semi-continuous linear features consistent with the trend of the hot springs. A large scale inversion has been performed on the magnetic data. The fit to the observed data is good given the noise assumption of 3 nT. After more extensive processing, we will compare structures in the inverted magnetic model with features in the seismic data and explore the connection between the subsurface geology and the surface geometry of the hot springs.

  3. a 3.37 mm length b 3.32 mm diameter

    E-print Network

    Marc, Robert E.

    5.2 ml retinal subtense 300 µm/deg retinal arc 51 mm retinal area* 1024 ± 184 mm2 total.3 µl retinal subtense 31 µm/deg retinal arc 4.9 mm retinal area 15.6 mm2 cone:rod ratio 0/deg retinal arc 10.6 mm retinal area 52 mm2 cone:rod ratio mean cone density* mm-2 mean rod

  4. Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, M. Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. Even though the regulation system of pH is very robust, tissue pH can be altered in many diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Traditional high-resolution optical imaging techniques, such as confocal microscopy, routinely image pH in cells and tissues using pH sensitive fluorescent dyes, which change their fluorescence properties with the surrounding pH. Since strong optical scattering in biological tissue blurs images at greater depths, high-resolution pH imaging is limited to penetration depths of 1mm. Here, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye in tissue phantoms. Using both opticalresolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), and acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM), we explored the possibility of recovering the pH values in tissue phantoms. In this paper, we demonstrate that PAM was capable of recovering pH values up to a depth of 2 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

  5. High-water-content mouldable polyvinyl alcohol-borax hydrogels reinforced by well-dispersed cellulose nanoparticles: dynamic rheological properties and hydrogel formation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Han, Jingquan; Lei, Tingzhou; Wu, Qinglin

    2014-02-15

    Cellulose nanoparticle (CNP) reinforced polyvinyl alcohol-borax (PB) hydrogels were produced via a facile approach in an aqueous system. The effects of particle size, aspect ratio, crystal structure, and surface charge of CNPs on the rheological properties of the composite hydrogels were investigated. The rheological measurements confirmed the incorporation of well-dispersed CNPs to PB system significantly enhanced the viscoelasticity and stiffness of hydrogels. The obtained free-standing, high elasticity and mouldable hydrogels exhibited self-recovery under continuous step strain and thermo-reversibility under temperature sweep. With the addition of cellulose I nanofibers, a 19-fold increase in the high-frequency plateau of storage modulus was obtained compared with that of the pure PB. CNPs acted as multifunctional crosslinking agents and nanofillers to physically and chemically bridge the 3D network hydrogel. The plausible mechanism for the multi-complexation between CNPs, polyvinyl alcohol and borax was proposed to understand the relationship between the 3D network and hydrogel properties. PMID:24507286

  6. A Toddler's Treatment of "Mm" and "Mm Hm" in Talk with a Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipi, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The study to be reported in this paper examined the work accomplished by "mm" and "mm hm" in the interactions of a parent and his daughter aged 0;10-2;0. Using the findings of Gardner (2001) for adults, the analysis shows that "mm" accomplished a range of functions based on its sequential placement and prosodic features, whereas "mm hm" was much…

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability...4) Progress reports Yes 63.10(d)(5) Periodic and immediate startup, shutdown, and malfunction...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability...4) Progress reports Yes 63.10(d)(5) Periodic and immediate startup, shutdown, and malfunction...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability...4) Progress reports Yes 63.10(d)(5) Periodic and immediate startup, shutdown, and malfunction...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability...4) Progress reports Yes 63.10(d)(5) Periodic and immediate startup, shutdown, and malfunction...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability...4) Progress reports Yes 63.10(d)(5) Periodic and immediate startup, shutdown, and malfunction...

  12. Evaluation techniques for 300-mm equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautz, Karl E.; Morgenstern, Thomas; Schuster, Ralf

    2000-08-01

    As the semiconductor industry begins its transition to its next wafer size threshold of 300mm, several key factors are becoming significant. Solving the problems surrounding these factors is critical to achieving a 30-40 percent cost savings over 200mm wafer integrated circuit manufacturing. These problematic areas involve automation, equipment readiness, and process performance. 300mm factories will differ from 200mm versions due to the automation level, lot size choices, and factory sizing targets in terms of wafer starts. This paper discusses these areas from data acquired at SEMICONDUCTOR300 in processing a 0.25 micrometers 64Mb DRAM device. Current performance is discussed for each semiconductor manufacturing tool functional group. These data include performance cost of ownership, on automation and computer integrated manufacturing, and process capability.

  13. Dark filaments observed at 8.3mm and 3.1mm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiel, E.; Ishiguro, M.; Kosugi, T.; Shibasaki, K.

    1986-01-01

    Mapping of the sun was made at 3.1mm (98 GHz) and 8.3mm (36 GHz) wavelengths with a 45m dish radio telescope at the Nobeyama Cosmic Radio Observatory. The depressions associated with large H alpha filaments are derived to be -0.2 at 8.3mm and -0.05 at 3.1mm, which are darker than the values inferred by Raoult et al. (1979)

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  16. Size-Consistent Multipartitioning QM/MM: A Stable and Efficient Adaptive QM/MM Method.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi C; Kuba?, Tomáš; Elstner, Marcus

    2014-10-14

    We propose a new adaptive QM/MM method, the size-consistent multipartitioning (SCMP) QM/MM scheme, which enables stable and computationally efficient QM/MM simulations. A number of partitionings with identical size of the QM and the MM regions are considered with a new adaptive scheme in order to (1) realize smooth QM/MM switching, (2) introduce a conserved quantity (total energy, Hamiltonian), (3) avoid spurious artificial forces on the QM/MM border, and (4) allow for an efficient parallel implementation. Benchmark simulations performed for "QM water in MM water" show that energy conservation can be significantly improved and the computational efficiency allows treating also larger QM regions, for which previous methods had to face an intractable increase in computer time. PMID:26588122

  17. Mercury Pollution from Small-Scale Gold Mining Can Be Stopped by Implementing the Gravity-Borax Method - A Two-Year Follow-Up Study from Two Mining Communities in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Křster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Westergaard, Maria L; Brasholt, Marie; Gutierrez, Richard; Jřrs, Erik; Thomsen, Jane F

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is used globally to extract gold in artisanal and small-scale gold mining. The mercury-free gravity-borax method for gold extraction was introduced in two mining communities using mercury in the provinces Kalinga and Camarines Norte. This article describes project activities and quantitative changes in mercury consumption and analyzes the implementation with diffusion of innovations theory. Activities included miner-to-miner training; seminars for health-care workers, school teachers, and children; and involvement of community leaders. Baseline (2011) and follow-up (2013) data were gathered on mining practices and knowledge about mercury toxicology. Most miners in Kalinga converted to the gravity-borax method, whereas only a few did so in Camarines Norte. Differences in the nature of the social systems impacted the success of the implementation, and involvement of the tribal organization facilitated the shift in Kalinga. In conclusion, the gravity-borax method is a doable alternative to mercury use in artisanal and small-scale gold mining, but support from the civil society is needed. PMID:26463257

  18. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Peng, Z; Kronberger, L; Pfeifer, J; Salehi, B

    1998-10-01

    Today, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the method of choice for treatment of symptomatic gallbladder disorders. It minimizes effects of the operation that are independent of the gallbladder, such as trauma to the abdominal wall and other soft tissue. The surgical wounds were even smaller when 2-mm trocars were used. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments was performed in a consecutive series of 14 patients with symptomatic gallstones. The procedure was completed in 12 cases, with conversion to open surgery in two cases. Intraoperative cholangiography was always performed. The postoperative course was always uneventful. The cosmetic effect was highly satisfactory. The procedure using 2-mm instruments could be indicated in selected patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease. PMID:9820716

  19. Microeconomics of 300-mm process module control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chatterjee, Arun K.; Falessi, Georges; Levy, Ady; Stoller, Meryl D.

    2001-08-01

    Simple microeconomic models that directly link metrology, yield, and profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we validate and apply such a model. Using a small number of input parameters, we explain current yield management practices in 200 mm factories. The model is then used to extrapolate requirements for 300 mm factories, including the impact of simultaneous technology transitions to 130nm lithography and integrated metrology. To support our conclusions, we use examples relevant to factory-wide photo module control.

  20. p'/raws SOCETICS mm 'FEB 241987

    E-print Network

    McLeod, Ian

    : Arizona's Groundwater Management Ap- proach. Jacaue L. Emel and Muluneh Yitayew 82 Quality and Uncertaintyp'/raws SOCETICS mm 'FEB 241987 Water Resources Planning and Management Volume 113 Number 1 January Simulation in Complex Systems. Joaquin Andreu and Andres Sahuquillo 110 Reservoir Management in Texas. Ralph

  1. MM-122: High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarest, Bill; Anders, Kurt; Manchec, John; Yang, Eric; Overgaard, Dan; Kalkwarf, Mike

    1992-01-01

    The rapidly expanding Pacific Rim market along with other growing markets indicates that the future market potential for a high speed civil transport is great indeed. The MM-122 is the answer to the international market desire for a state of the art, long range, high speed civil transport. It will carry 250 passengers a distance of 5200 nm at over twice the speed of sound. The MM-122 is designed to incorporate the latest technologies in the areas of control systems, propulsions, aerodynamics, and materials. The MM-122 will accomplish these goals using the following design parameters. First, a double delta wing planform with highly swept canards and an appropriately area ruled fuselage will be incorporated to accomplish desired aerodynamic characteristics. Propulsion will be provided by four low bypass variable cycle turbofan engines. A quad-redundant fly-by-wire flight control system will be incorporated to provide appropriate static stability and level 1 handling qualities. Finally, the latest in conventional metallic and modern composite materials will be used to provide desired weight and performance characteristics. The MM-122 incorporates the latest in technology and cost minimization techniques to provide a viable solution to this future market potential.

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National...

  3. Development of mini-tablets with 1mm and 2mm diameter.

    PubMed

    Tissen, Corinna; Woertz, Katharina; Breitkreutz, Joerg; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2011-09-15

    The feasibility of formulating mini-tablets with 1mm diameter on a rotary-die press in comparison to mini-tablets of 2mm was investigated. To gain insight into the production of 1mm mini-tablets, three model drugs of different compression characteristics were chosen, namely quinine hydrochloride, ibuprofen and spray-dried gentian extract. A high drug load in combination with robust and reproducible mechanical properties was requested. Depending on the individual drug substance, mini-tablets were produced by direct compression or after roll-compaction/dry granulation. The tensile strength, mass, and their variation coefficients were determined to assess the mechanical properties of the tablets. The content uniformity and the dissolution behavior of selected batches were analyzed. For the first time 1mm mini-tablets could be successfully produced by direct compression (90% quinine hydrochloride; 90% dried gentian extract) and after roll compaction (70% ibuprofen). Depending on the applied compression pressure, 1mm mini-tablets with quinine hydrochloride exhibited robust mechanical properties (e.g. median tensile strength of 2.02N/mm(2)) with equal or lower variance of distribution compared to the 2mm compacts. With respect to content uniformity of dosage forms, 1mm mini-tablets containing 80% quinine hydrochloride met the requirements of the European Pharmacopeia (AV=6.8). PMID:21726616

  4. Low-Friction Minilaparoscopy Outperforms Regular 5-mm and 3-mm Instruments for Precise Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Firme, Wood A.; Lima, Diego L.; de Paula Lopes, Vladmir Goldstein; Montandon, Isabelle D.; Filho, Flavio Santos; Shadduck, Phillip P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Therapeutic laparoscopy was incorporated into surgical practice more than 25 y ago. Several modifications have since been developed to further minimize surgical trauma and improve results. Minilaparoscopy, performed with 2- to 3-mm instruments was introduced in the mid 1990s but failed to attain mainstream use, mostly because of the limitations of the early devices. Buoyed by a renewed interest, new generations of mini instruments are being developed with improved functionality and durability. This study is an objective evaluation of a new set of mini instruments with a novel low-friction design. Method: Twenty-two medical students and 22 surgical residents served as study participants. Three designs of laparoscopic instruments were evaluated: conventional 5 mm, traditional 3 mm, and low-friction 3 mm. The instruments were evaluated with a standard surgical simulator, emulating 4 exercises of various complexities, testing grasping, precise 2-handed movements, and suturing. The metric measured was time to task completion, with 5 replicates for every combination of instrument–exercise–participant. Results: For all 4 tasks, the instrument design that performed the best was the same in both the medical student and surgical resident groups. For the gross-grasping task, the 5-mm conventional instruments performed best, followed by the low-friction mini instruments. For the 3 more complex and precise tasks, the low-friction mini instruments outperformed both of the other instrument designs. Conclusion: In standard surgical simulator exercises, low-friction minilaparoscopic instruments outperformed both conventional 3- and 5-mm laparoscopic instruments for precise tasks. PMID:26390530

  5. Cold-electron bolometers for future mm and sub-mm sky surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salatino, Maria; de Bernardis, Paolo; Mahashabde, Sumedh; Kuzmin, Leonid S.; Masi, Silvia

    2014-07-01

    Future sky surveys in the mm/sub-mm range, like the forthcoming balloon-borne missions LSPE, OLIMPO, SPIDER etc., will need detectors insensitive to cosmic rays (CRs) and with a NEP of the order of 10-17 Ą 10-18 W/sqrt(Hz). The Cold-Electron Bolometers (CEBs) technology is promising, having the required proper- ties, since the absorber volume is extremely small and the electron system of the absorber is thermally insulated from the phonon system. We have developed an experimental setup to test the optical performance and the CRs insensitivity of CEBs, with the target of integrating them in the OLIMPO and LSPE focal planes.

  6. Sub-mm-Wave Technologies: Systems, ICs, THz Transistors

    E-print Network

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    & Propagation Mar 1978 Liebe, Manabe, Hufford, IEEE Trans Antennas and Propagation, Dec. 1989 50-500 GHz links mobile user spatially-multiplexed mm-wave base stations #12;mm-Waves for Terabit Mobile Communications Goal: 1Gb/s per mobile user spatially-multiplexed mm-wave base stations or optical backhaul mm

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... nonopacity emissions standards Yes 63.6(h) Compliance with opacity and visible emissions (VE) standards Yes Subpart MM does not contain any opacity or VE standards; however, § 63.864 specifies opacity...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... nonopacity emissions standards Yes 63.6(h) Compliance with opacity and visible emissions (VE) standards Yes Subpart MM does not contain any opacity or VE standards; however, § 63.864 specifies opacity...

  9. Observing with the 4mm Rx Frayer (2)

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    ://www.gb.nrao.edu/4mm/ 4mm Wiki: https://safe.nrao.edu/wiki/bin/view/GB/Gbt4mmRx č4mm Commissioning Wiki (latest status and information on performance): https://safe.nrao.edu/wiki/bin/view/GB/Gbt4mmRxCommissioning #12) #12;Frayer (7) Get Latest Info from the Wiki Status Page User and Operator info/instructions #12

  10. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products... Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table MM-1 Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric...

  11. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products... Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table MM-1 Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric...

  12. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products... Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table MM-1 Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric...

  13. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products... Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table MM-1 Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric...

  14. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 ...to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based...

  15. Effect of the borax mass and pre-spray medium temperature on droplet size and velocity vector distributions of intermittently sprayed starchy solutions.

    PubMed

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ariwahjoedi, Bambang

    2015-02-01

    Spray coating technology has demonstrated great potential in the slow release fertilizers industry. The better understanding of the key spray parameters benefits both the environment and low cost coating processes. The use of starch based materials to coat the slow release fertilizers is a new development. However, the hydraulic spray jet breakup of the non-Newtonian starchy solutions is a complex phenomenon and very little known. The aim of this research was to study the axial and radial distributions of the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) and velocity vectors in pulsing spray patterns of native and modified tapioca starch solutions. To meet the objective, high speed imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) techniques were employed to characterize the four compositions of the starch-urea-borax complex namely S0, S1, S2 and S3. The unheated solutions exhibited very high viscosities ranging from 2035 to 3030 cP. No jet breakup was seen at any stage of the nozzle operation at an injection pressure of 1-5 bar. However, at 80 °C temperature and 5 bar pressure, the viscosity was reduced to 455 to 638 cP and dense spray patterns emerged from the nozzle obscuring the PDA signals. The axial size distribution revealed a significant decrease in SMD along the spray centreline. The smallest axial SMD (51 to 79 ?m) was noticed in S0 spray followed by S1, S2 and S3. Unlikely, the radial SMD in S0 spray did not vary significantly at any stage of the spray injection. This trend was attributed to the continuous growth of the surface wave instabilities on the native starch sheet. However, SMD obtained with S1, S2 and S3 varied appreciably along the radial direction. The mean velocity vector profiles followed the non-Gaussian distribution. The constant vector distributions were seen in the near nozzle regions, where the spray was in the phase of development. In far regions, the velocity vectors were poly-dispersed and a series of ups and downs were seen in the respective radial distributions. PMID:25557285

  16. DOCTORAL FACULTY EMERITUS (as of July 2014) Acrivos, Andreas (Ph.D., University of Minnesota). Albert Einstein Chair in Science Emeritus. Distinguished

    E-print Network

    Artemov, Sergei N.

    -D.M.A. Bearison, David J. (Ph.D., Clark University). Professor Emeritus, Graduate Center. Psychology. Bendix. Blum, Antoinette (Ph.D., Yale University). Professor Emerita, Lehman. French. Boothroyd, Arthur (Ph, Charles (M.M., Yale University). Professor Emeritus, Queens. Music. C Cairns, Charles E. (Ph.D., Columbia

  17. Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Genetic Drift and M&M's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Nancy L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity that teaches the mechanism of genetic drift to undergraduates. Illustrates a number of concepts that are critical in developing evolution literacy by sampling M&M milk chocolate candies. (MM)

  18. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your Disease Exercise and PH Traveling with PH Climate and PH Ask a PHriend Connect with Other ... your Disease Exercise and PH Traveling with PH Climate and PH Ask a PHriend Connect with Other ...

  19. The LLAMA 12 m mm/sub-mm radiotelescope in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepine, Jacques; Edemundo Arnal, Marcelo; de Graauw, Thijs; Abraham, Zulema; Gimenez de Castro, Guillermo; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Morras, Ricardo; Larrarte, Juan; Viramontes, José; Finger, Ricardo; Kooi, Jacob; Reeves, Rodrigo; Beaklini, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    LLAMA (Large Latin American Millimetric Array) is a joint Argentinean-Brazilian project of a 12m mm/sub-mm radio telescope similar to the APEX antenna, to be installed at a site at 4800 m altitude near San Antonio de Los Cobres in the Salta Province in Argentine, at 150 km from ALMA. The scientific cases for single dish and VLBI observations include black holes and accretion disks, the molecular evolution of interstellar clouds, the structure of the Galaxy, the formation of galaxies, and much more. The antenna was ordered to the company Vertex Antennentechnik in June 2014, and the construction is progressing quickly; it will be installed at the site in 2016. The radio telescope will be equipped with up to six receivers covering bands similar to those of ALMA. Cryostats with room for 3 cartridges, constructed by NAOJ (Tokyo,Japan), will be installed in each of the two Nasmyth cabins. Among the first receivers we will have an ALMA band 9 provided by NOVA (Groningen, Holland) and a band 5 from the Chalmers University (Sweden). Other receivers are still being discussed at the time of submission of this abstract,At high frequencies, VLBI observations at high frequencies could be made with ALMA, APEX and ASTE, and Northern radiotelescopes. In this way, LLAMA will be a seed for a Latin-American VLBI network.

  20. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  1. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  2. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  3. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  4. Role of decorin in multiple myeloma (MM) bone marrow microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Nemani, Neeharika; Santo, Loredana; Eda, Homare; Cirstea, Diana; Mishima, Yuko; Patel, Chirayu; O'Donnell, Elizabeth; Yee, Andrew; Raje, Noopur

    2015-03-01

    Decorin is a small, leucine-rich proteoglycan found in the extracellular matrix of various connective tissues with potential effective tumor suppressive properties. Recent data suggest low levels of decorin in multiple myeloma (MM) patients compared to healthy volunteers, as well as in patients with osteolytic bone lesions compared to non-osteolytic lesions. In the present report, we investigated the role of decorin in the MM microenvironment or niche. Our data suggests that decorin is produced by osteoblasts (OBs) but not by MM cells. Furthermore, MM cells decrease OB-induced decorin secretion and this effect is mediated by CCL3. Importantly, neutralizing CCL3 from MM cells restores decorin levels in OBs as does proteasome inhibitors such as carfilzomib. These findings indicate that decorin may indirectly act as an antagonist to MM cell survival and that the interplay between MM and decorin may be an important target to explore in manipulating the tumor niche to inhibit tumorigenesis. PMID:25407518

  5. In vitro growth of immature peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] embryos as related to carbohydrate source and pH 

    E-print Network

    Sinclair, Jonathan Walker

    2000-01-01

    and combinations on the germination and survival of peach embryos in-vitro, 2) determine the effect of MES buyer at three concentrations (0.0 mM, 4.5 mM, and 9.0 mM) and two pH levels (5.7 and 6.0) on peach embryo germination and survival in vitro. Use...

  6. pH Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  7. pH optrode

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Langry, Kevin C. (Tracy, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for forming a long-lasting, stable, pH-sensitive dye-acrylamide copolymer useful as a pH-sensitive material for use in an optrode or other device sensitive to pH. An optrode may be made by mechanically attaching the copolymer to a sensing device such as an optical fiber.

  8. 17-4 PH and 15-5 PH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Howard T.

    1995-01-01

    17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

  9. Is smaller better? Comparison of 3-mm and 5-mm leaf size for stereotactic radiosurgery: A dosimetric study

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, Shyh-shi . E-mail: Richard.Chern@hci.utah.edu; Leavitt, Dennis D.; Jensen, Randy L.; Shrieve, Dennis C.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To perform a dosimetric comparison of a minimal 3-mm leaf width multileaf collimator (MLC) and a minimal 5-mm MLC in dynamic conformal arc stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of intracranial lesions. Methods and Materials: The treatment plans of 23 patients previously treated for intracranial lesions in our institution were redone using the BrainSCAN, version 5.3, stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning system (BrainLAB). For each case, two dynamic conformal arc plans were generated: one using a minimal 3-mm micro-MLC (BrainLAB, Novalis) and one using a minimal 5-mm MLC (Varian Millennium). All arc parameters were the same in each of the two plans, except for the collimator angle settings. The collimator angle settings were optimized for each arc in each plan. A peritumoral rind structure (1 cm) was created to evaluate normal tissue sparing immediately adjacent to the target volume. Conformity indexes (CIs) were calculated for each plan. The dependence of normal tissue sparing and target conformity on target volume (TV) was determined. Results: The TV was 0.14-36.32 cm{sup 3} (median, 5.90). The CI was 1.22-2.60 (median, 1.51) for the 3-mm micro-MLC and 1.23-2.69 (median, 1.60) for the 5-mm MLC. Despite this small difference, it was a statistically significant increase (p < 0.0001) for the 5-mm MLC compared with the 3-mm micro-MLC. Improved normal tissue sparing was demonstrated using the 3-mm micro-MLC compared with the 5-mm MLC by examining the peritumoral rind volumes (PRVs) receiving 50% (PRV{sub 5}), 80% (PRV{sub 8}), and 90% (PRV{sub 9}) of the prescription dose. The reduction in the PRV{sub 5}, PRV{sub 8}, and PRV{sub 9} for the 3-mm micro-MLC compared with the 5-mm MLC was 13.5%, 12.9%, and 11.5%, respectively. The CI decreased with a larger TV, as did the difference in the CIs between the 3-mm micro-MLC and 5-mm MLC. A reduction in the PRV increased with larger TVs. Conclusion: The 3-mm micro-MLC provided better target conformity and greater normal tissue sparing than the 5-mm MLC in stereotactic radiosurgery using dynamic conformal arcs. These differences were small but consistent in the patients examined. Future research is needed to determine whether this small improvement can yield a clinical impact on patient care.

  10. Japanese Science Films; a Descriptive and Evaluative Catalog of: 16mm Motion Pictures, 8mm Cartridges, and Video Tapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newren, Edward F., Ed.

    One hundred and eighty Japanese 16mm motion pictures, 8mm cartridges, and video tapes produced and judged appropriate for a variety of audience levels are listed in alphabetical order by title with descriptive and evaluative information. A subject heading list and a subject index to the film titles are included, as well as a sample of the…

  11. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

  12. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

  13. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

  14. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

  15. Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Migdalia Denis PH Association Leaders' Corner Email Group Seed Grant Program Seed Grant Application Form Become an MOU-holding PHA ... Migdalia Denis PH Association Leaders' Corner Email Group Seed Grant Program Seed Grant Application Form Become an ...

  16. Esophageal pH monitoring

    MedlinePLUS

    pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... Esophageal pH monitoring is used to check how much stomach acid is entering the esophagus. It also checks how well the acid is cleared downward into the ...

  17. The 19 mm data recorders similarities and differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Confusion over the use of non-video 19 mm data recorders is becoming more pronounced as we enter the world of high performance computing. This paper addresses the following: the differences between ID-1, ID-2, MIL-STD-2179 and DD-2; what the proper machine is for various applications; how the machine can be integrated into an environment; and any misconceptions there might be about 19 mm tape recorders. DD-2 and 19 mm instrumentation recorders have missions for which each is well designed. While the differences may appear subtle, understanding the difference between the two is the key to picking the right recorder for a particular application.

  18. Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  19. Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  20. Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  1. Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens Travis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  2. Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building 908 at extreme right for context. - Travis Air Force Base, Handling Crew Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  3. Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  4. Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  5. Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  6. BD MaloneMM 2014 A neural network representation of

    E-print Network

    /or improving the transferability Torch7 machine learning library #12;BD MaloneMM 2014 A neural network phenomena can be studied through the knowledge of the static energy of a system given its atomic

  7. INTRODUCTION Pipunculidae are small (2-12 mm), inconspicuous

    E-print Network

    Cotton, Sam

    INTRODUCTION Pipunculidae are small (2-12 mm), inconspicuous dark flies belonging. Humeri yellowish brown, mesonotum black with predominantly brown pollinosity. Femora yellow with dark, Hungary (foldvari@gmx.net) Keywords: faunistics, Tomosvaryella, Eudorylas #12;Eudorylas sp. Material

  8. Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building 933-935 at extreme left. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 5, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  9. Development of a 75 mm photon event counting image intensifier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airey, R. W.; Morgan, B. L.; Norton, T. J.

    The new generation of 8-metre telescopes for optical astronomy will require imaging detectors of a size comparable with their extended fields. The authors report the early stages of a development programme which will provide a 75 mm photon event counting image intensifier for astronomy. This project was undertaken following successful trials of 40 mm microchannel plate image intensifier at the La Palma and Anglo-Australian Observatories.

  10. QM/MM investigations of organic chemistry oriented questions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas C; Paasche, Alexander; Grebner, Christoph; Ansorg, Kay; Becker, Johannes; Lee, Wook; Engels, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    About 35 years after its first suggestion, QM/MM became the standard theoretical approach to investigate enzymatic structures and processes. The success is due to the ability of QM/MM to provide an accurate atomistic picture of enzymes and related processes. This picture can even be turned into a movie if nuclei-dynamics is taken into account to describe enzymatic processes. In the field of organic chemistry, QM/MM methods are used to a much lesser extent although almost all relevant processes happen in condensed matter or are influenced by complicated interactions between substrate and catalyst. There is less importance for theoretical organic chemistry since the influence of nonpolar solvents is rather weak and the effect of polar solvents can often be accurately described by continuum approaches. Catalytic processes (homogeneous and heterogeneous) can often be reduced to truncated model systems, which are so small that pure quantum-mechanical approaches can be employed. However, since QM/MM becomes more and more efficient due to the success in software and hardware developments, it is more and more used in theoretical organic chemistry to study effects which result from the molecular nature of the environment. It is shown by many examples discussed in this review that the influence can be tremendous, even for nonpolar reactions. The importance of environmental effects in theoretical spectroscopy was already known. Due to its benefits, QM/MM can be expected to experience ongoing growth for the next decade.In the present chapter we give an overview of QM/MM developments and their importance in theoretical organic chemistry, and review applications which give impressions of the possibilities and the importance of the relevant effects. Since there is already a bunch of excellent reviews dealing with QM/MM, we will discuss fundamental ingredients and developments of QM/MM very briefly with a focus on very recent progress. For the applications we follow a similar strategy. PMID:22392477

  11. (ISLiM) 2011 (2011.12.21-22) Platypus MM/CG

    E-print Network

    Fukai, Tomoki

    /MM QM/MM-FE MM MD MM MM QM MM QM MM - #12;17 (ISLiM) 2011 (2011.12.21-22) 2 2.3 Marble MM PME 8000 MD. ProteinDF Platypus-QM / Platypus-QM/MM 10 Platypus-QM/MM-FE MARBLE Platypus-REIN Platypus-MM/CG MSES CafeMol DNA #12;18 (ISLiM) 2011 (2011.12.21-22) ISLiM20111 ProteinDF QM Marble MM CafeMolCG Platypus 3

  12. GBT 3mm Observations in the ALMA-Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frayer, David T.; Mason, B. S.; Maddalena, R. J.

    2013-06-01

    We discuss the current capabilities and instrumentation under development covering the 3mm atmospheric window from 67--115.3 GHz for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The current GBT 4mm receiver operates from 67 GHz to 93 GHz and has comparable sensitivity to ALMA Cycle-1 at 84-90 GHz. Within the 3mm window below 84 GHz (ALMA has no frequency coverage below 84 GHz), no facility in the world comes close to matching the GBT sensitivity. The development of 3mm multi-pixel cameras such as Argus and Mustang will greatly improve the spectral-line and continuum mapping capabilities of the GBT. Although ALMA will provide excellent sensitivity at sub-arcsec resolution over small areas, multi-pixel cameras on the GBT will greatly improve the available mapping speeds for large areas at 3mm. The GBT surveys will provide targets for detailed follow-up ALMA studies, and the GBT could provide sensitive short-spacing data for GBT+ALMA imaging. The GBT is operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and is currently a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  13. Author s note: Marie F. Smith, CRA;Valerie T. Eviner, PhD; Kathie Weathers, PhD; Maria Uriarte, PhD; Holly Ewing, PhD; Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD; Peter Groffman, PhD; Clive G. Jones, PhD; Institute of Ecosystem Studies, 65 Sharon Turnpike (PO

    E-print Network

    Eviner, Valerie

    Uriarte, PhD; Holly Ewing, PhD; Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD; Peter Groffman, PhD; Clive G. Jones, Ph. Eviner, PhD Kathie C. Weathers, PhD Maria Uriarte, PhD Holly A. Ewing, PhD Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD Peter

  14. 450mm wafer patterning with jet and flash imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Ecron; Hellebrekers, Paul; Hofemann, Paul; LaBrake, Dwayne L.; Resnick, Douglas J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    The next step in the evolution of wafer size is 450mm. Any transition in sizing is an enormous task that must account for fabrication space, environmental health and safety concerns, wafer standards, metrology capability, individual process module development and device integration. For 450mm, an aggressive goal of 2018 has been set, with pilot line operation as early as 2016. To address these goals, consortiums have been formed to establish the infrastructure necessary to the transition, with a focus on the development of both process and metrology tools. Central to any process module development, which includes deposition, etch and chemical mechanical polishing is the lithography tool. In order to address the need for early learning and advance process module development, Molecular Imprints Inc. has provided the industry with the first advanced lithography platform, the Imprio® 450, capable of patterning a full 450mm wafer. The Imprio 450 was accepted by Intel at the end of 2012 and is now being used to support the 450mm wafer process development demands as part of a multi-year wafer services contract to facilitate the semiconductor industry's transition to lower cost 450mm wafer production. The Imprio 450 uses a Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FILTM) process that employs drop dispensing of UV curable resists to assist high resolution patterning for subsequent dry etch pattern transfer. The technology is actively being used to develop solutions for markets including NAND Flash memory, patterned media for hard disk drives and displays. This paper reviews the recent performance of the J-FIL technology (including overlay, throughput and defectivity), mask development improvements provided by Dai Nippon Printing, and the application of the technology to a 450mm lithography platform.

  15. Peacemaker: Fracture assessment of a 155mm cannon barrel

    SciTech Connect

    Zywicz, E.

    1993-10-07

    A single crack 30 mm or deeper which is 75 mm long is sufficient to fracture a typical 155 mm cannon barrel with a pressure at or above two-thirds (206 MPa -- 30 ksi) of the maximum operating pressure (310 MPa -- 45 ksi). Longer and deeper flaws reduce the critical pressure required to initiate fracture. For the monolithic barrel design considered in this work, the postulated 30 mm deep by 75 mm long crack should propagate through the entire wall and, depending upon the new ``fractured`` geometry, may propagate axially down the cannon barrel. Numerical analyses conducted with straight through-thickness crack fronts propagated axially at pressures below the maximum operating pressure while those with curved crack fronts required pressures in excess of the working pressures to extend axially. (Experiments on actual 155 mm barrels with flaws similar to the one generated by the tested shape charge show appreciable axial crack extension at approximately equivalent pressures.) In either case, a through-thickness ``hole`` will be formed in the barrel`s side and a reduction in firing pressure should result. Finally, debris deposited within the barrel can greatly assist the fracture process, especially at lower operating pressures. Overall, a single deep and long interior crack appears the most effective way to fracture a cannon barrel. Unless clustered very closely together, multiple ``shallow`` cracks require higher pressures to fracture than does a single deep crack. Flaws introduced on the barrel`s exterior are less efficient since no crack-face pressures exist and the overall stresses on the barrel`s exterior are much lower than on its interior. Thus, very deep exterior cracks would be required to fail the barrel from internal pressure.

  16. Computational Modeling in Plasma Processing for 300 mm Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Migration toward 300 mm wafer size has been initiated recently due to process economics and to meet future demands for integrated circuits. A major issue facing the semiconductor community at this juncture is development of suitable processing equipment, for example, plasma processing reactors that can accomodate 300 mm wafers. In this Invited Talk, scaling of reactors will be discussed with the aid of computational fluid dynamics results. We have undertaken reactor simulations using CFD with reactor geometry, pressure, and precursor flow rates as parameters in a systematic investigation. These simulations provide guidelines for scaling up in reactor design.

  17. [Effect of pH adjustment in deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Becker, H; Vinten-Johansen, J; Maloney, J V; Buckberg, G D

    1980-01-01

    In 14 puppies, body temperature was lowered to 22 degrees C with surface hypothermia, then to 16 degrees C with textracorporeal circulation. During 60 min of circulatory arrest all hearts were protected with the same multidose blood cardioplegic solution. In seven dogs pH was kept at 7.4 and in seven others pH was varied as in poikilotherms (i.e. 7.95 at 16 degrees C) principally by adjusting pCO2 during cooling and rewarming. Appropriate pH adjustment allowed higher cardiac output with normal systemic lactate metabolism. Raising pH by lowering pCO2 to 10 mm Hg allowed twice as much cerebral blood flow. Postischemic myocardial performance was depressed by 50% by retaining pH 7.4 and was normal when pH was varied appropriately. These findings have major implications for the routine management of hypothermia during cardiac operations. PMID:7389468

  18. Guide to Films (16 mm) About Ecology, Adaptation and Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Synopses of 350 films (16 mm.) on ecology, adaptation of plants and animals to their environment, and environmental pollution are listed alphabetically by title in this guide. It specifies whether the film is black-and-white or color, its running time, and its source. An abbreviated subject index and a directory of sources are also provided. The…

  19. The Macromolecular Crystallographic Information File (mmCIF)

    E-print Network

    Bourne, Philip E.

    The Macromolecular Crystallographic Information File (mmCIF) Philip E. Bourne*1, Helen M. Berman2 Information File (CIF) data representation used for describing small molecule structures and associated. The format of the small molecule CIF dictionary and the data files based upon that dictionary conform

  20. 0. 4 mm interferometer system using dielectric waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Ma, C.H.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    A 0.4 mm submillimeter-wave, phase-modulated polarimeter/interferometer is used for simultaneous time-dependent measurement of line-averaged electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation along chords of the plasma column in ISX-B tokamak. Heterodyna detection and hollow dielectric waveguide are utilized to achieve the high sensitivity required for the multichord equipment.

  1. Coherent laser spectroscopy of rubidium atoms , M.M. Hossaina

    E-print Network

    Coherent laser spectroscopy of rubidium atoms S. Mitraa , M.M. Hossaina , B. Raya , P.N. Ghosh of Electronics, BAS, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria ABSTRACT Laser spectroscopy experiments are reported on rubidium atoms pumping, rubidium, - and V-type systems. 1. INTRODUCTION Atomic rubidium has played a pivotal role

  2. First name Last name Birth date (MM/DD/YYYY)

    E-print Network

    /DD/YYYY) Doctor's last name 1st initial Doctor's phone number M F Sex Self Spouse Patient's relationship to member number M F Sex Self Spouse Patient's relationship to member Dependent First name Last name Birth date (MM. Patient/doctor information: Complete one section for each person with a prescription. If a person has

  3. 26. Photocopy of 35 mm. color slide (City of New ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of 35 mm. color slide (City of New York Department of Ports, International Trade, and Commerce), May 1985, Norman Berger AERIAL VIEW NORTHEAST OF PIERS 95, 96, AND 97 - West 55th Street & West 56th Street Piers, Hudson River at West Fifty-fifth & West Fifty-sixth Streets, Manhattan, New York, New York County, NY

  4. Advisory List of Instructional Media--16MM Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Educational Media.

    These two advisory lists include information on 16mm films appropriate for the K-12 instructional program. In both bibliographies films are listed in the following categories: communication skills; guidance; health, physical education, safety, and sports; science; and social studies. The list for the 1982-1983 school year also includes categories…

  5. Progress on 300-mm wafer lithography equipment and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautz, Karl E.; Maltabes, John G.

    2001-09-01

    SEMICONDUCTOR300 was the first pilot-production facility for 300mm wafers in the world. The company, a joint venture between Motorola, Inc. and Infineon Technologies started in early 1998 to test and compare process, metrology and probe equipment, develop robust processes, and manufacture products using a 300mm wafer tool set. The lithography tools included I-line steppers, an I-line scanner, a DUV stepper, and DUV scanners. All of these exposure tools were running in-line with various photoresist coat and develop tracks. The lithography tools were used to build both 64M and 256M DRAM devices and aggressive test vehicles. The process capability of the initial 0.25 micrometers reference process was done and compared to the 200mm data set of the sister factory. Automation issues for lithography tools were addressed and the cost metrics were calculated. SC300 demonstrated that a manufacturable 300mm lithography tool set and process for various ground rule devices was possible with the required performance in image transfer, CD control, and overlay. Further testing on 0.18micrometers and 0.15micrometers ground rule features indicated a sufficient process window for potential manufacturing. Additionally, it was demonstrated that non-concentric subfield stepping was feasible.

  6. An active solar prominence in 1.3 MM radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. A.; Carter, M. K.; Clark, T. A.; Lindsey, C.; Jefferies, J. T.; Sime, D. G.; Watt, G.; Roellig, T. L.; Becklin, E. E.; Naylor, D. A.; Tompkins, G. J.; Braun, D.

    1993-07-01

    We present new millimetre-wavelength observations of an active solar prominence. Observations made over a two-day period with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Manna Kea, Hawaii, give a unique view in 1.3 mm radiation of the spectacular prominence that appeared on the west solar limb in the total solar eclipse of 11 July 1991.

  7. largest larvae are 30 mm SVL (Rose and Bush, 1963).

    E-print Network

    Sever, David M.

    largest larvae are 30 mm SVL (Rose and Bush, 1963). ii. Larval requirements. a. Food. Larvae were found hidden on the bottom of the spring among aquatic vegetation (Rose and Bush, 1963). iii collected from this same region. All these larvae also had adult pigmentation pat- terns (Rose and Bush

  8. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN URBAN CANOPY PARAMETERIZATION IN MM5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) (Grell et al. 1994) has been modified to include an urban canopy parameterization (UCP) for fine-scale urban simulations (~1-km horizontal grid spacing). The UCP accounts for drag ...

  9. Security architecture of the M&M mobile agent framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Paulo J.; Santos, Nuno F.; Silva, Luis; Silva, Joao G.

    2001-07-01

    In the Mobile Agent programming model, small threads of execution migrate from machine to machine, performing their operations locally. For being able to deploy such a model into real world applications, security is a vital concern. In the M&M project we have developed a system that departures from the traditional platform-based execution model for mobile agents. In M&M there are no agent platforms. Instead there is a component framework that allows the applications to become able of sending and receiving agents by themselves in a straightforward manner. In this paper we examine the security mechanisms available in M&M, and how integration with existing applications is done. One difficult aspect of this work is that all the features must work with the security mechanisms that already exist on the applications. This is so because the components are integrated from within into the applications, which already have security mechanisms in place. Currently, M&M provides features like fine-grain security permissions, encryption of agents and data, certificate distribution using LDAP and cryptographic primitives for agents. For validating the approach and solutions found, we have integrated the framework into several off-the-shelf web servers, having the security mechanisms running, with no problems.

  10. Effects of acetic acid and arginine on pH elevation and growth of Bacillus licheniformis in an acidified cucumber juice medium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenquan; Meng, Xia; Breidt, Frederick; Dean, Lisa L; Arritt, Fletcher M

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus licheniformis has been shown to cause pH elevation in tomato products having an initial pH below 4.6 and metabiotic effects that can lead to the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Because of this, the organism poses a potential risk to acidified vegetable products; however, little is known about the growth and metabolism of this organism in these products. To clarify the mechanisms of pH change and growth of B. licheniformis in vegetable broth under acidic conditions, a cucumber juice medium representative of a noninhibitory vegetable broth was used to monitor changes in pH, cell growth, and catabolism of sugars and amino acids. For initial pH values between pH 4.1 to 6.0, pH changes resulted from both fermentation of sugar (lowering pH) and ammonia production (raising pH). An initial pH elevation occurred, with starting pH values of pH 4.1 to 4.9 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and was apparently mediated by the arginine deiminase reaction of B. licheniformis. This initial pH elevation was prevented if 5 mM or greater acetic acid was present in the brine at the same pH. In laboratory media, under favorable conditions for growth, data indicated that growth of the organism was inhibited at pH 4.6 with protonated acetic acid concentrations of 10 to 20 mM, corresponding to 25 to 50 mM total acetic acid; however, growth inhibition required greater than 300 mM citric acid (10-fold excess of the amount in processed tomato products) products under similar conditions. The data indicate that growth and pH increase by B. licheniformis may be inhibited by the acetic acid present in most commercial acidified vegetable products but not by the citric acid in many tomato products. PMID:25836398

  11. OCTAN-1-OL/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENTS OF P-BENZO- AND P-NAPHTHOQUINONES CORRECTED FOR PH EFFECT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of pH of the aqueous phase on the octan-1-ol / water partition coefficients (kow) of quinones was demontrated. The kow of a series of p-benzo- and p-naphthoquinones were determined using a mildly buffered aqueous phase (1 mM Hepes, pH 7.0) to correct for the pH effects on the lipophilicit...

  12. Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Analysis Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. Lum

    2002-02-12

    The purpose of this report is to document the Mineralogic Model (MM), Version 3.0 (MM3.0) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.0 and previous versions. A three-dimensional (3-D) Mineralogic Model was developed for Yucca Mountain to support the analyses of hydrologic properties, radionuclide transport, mineral health hazards, repository performance, and repository design. Version 3.0 of the MM was developed from mineralogic data obtained from borehole samples. It consists of matrix mineral abundances as a function of x (easting), y (northing), and z (elevation), referenced to the stratigraphic framework defined in Version 3.1 of the Geologic Framework Model (GFM). The MM was developed specifically for incorporation into the 3-D Integrated Site Model (ISM). The MM enables project personnel to obtain calculated mineral abundances at any position, within any region, or within any stratigraphic unit in the model area. The significance of the MM for key aspects of site characterization and performance assessment is explained in the following subsections. This work was conducted in accordance with the Development Plan for the MM (CRWMS M&O 2000). The planning document for this Rev. 00, ICN 02 of this AMR is Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The purpose of this ICN is to record changes in the classification of input status by the resolution of the use of TBV software and data in this report. Constraints and limitations of the MM are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow. The MM is one component of the ISM, which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed stratigraphy and structural features of the site into a 3-D model that will be useful in primary downstream models and repository design. These downstream models include the hydrologic flow models and the radionuclide transport models. All the models and the repository design, in turn, will be incorporated into the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of the potential nuclear waste repository block and vicinity to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a host for a repository. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 1. The lateral boundaries of the ISM and its three component models are shown in Figure 2.

  13. Charpy impact test results on five materials and NIST verification specimens using instrumented 2-mm and 8-mm strikers

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is involved in two cooperative projects, with international participants, both of which involve Charpy V-notch impact tests with instrumented strikers of 2mm and 8mm radii. Two heats of A 533 grade B class I pressure vessel steel and a low upper-shelf (LUS) submerged-arc (SA) weld were tested on the same Charpy machine, while one heat of a Russian Cr-Mo-V forging steel and a high upper-shelf (HUS) SA weld were tested on two different machines. The number of replicate tests at any one temperature ranged from 2 to 46 specimens. Prior to testing with each striker, verification specimens at the low, high, and super high energy levels from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were tested. In the two series of verification tests, the tests with the 2mm striker met the requirements at the low and high energy levels but not at the super high energy. For one plate, the 2mm striker showed somewhat higher average absorbed energies than those for the 8-mm striker at all three test temperatures. For the second plate and the LUS weld, however, the 2mm striker showed somewhat lower energies at both test temperatures. For the Russian forging steel and the HUS weld, tests were conducted over a range of temperatures with tests at one laboratory using the 8mm striker and tests at a second laboratory using the 2mm striker. Lateral expansion was measured for all specimens and the results are compared with the absorbed energy results. The overall results showed generally good agreement (within one standard deviation) in energy measurements by the two strikers. Load-time traces from the instrumented strikers were also compared and used to estimate shear fracture percentage. Four different formulas from the European Structural Integrity Society draft standard for instrumented Charpy test are compared and a new formula is proposed for estimation of percent shear from the force-time trace.

  14. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of 300-mm bake station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanan, Natarajan; Liang, Frank F.; Sims, James B.

    1999-06-01

    An exhaustive heat-transfer analysis of 200-mm and 300-mm bake equipment has been conducted to infer the temperature uniformity on the wafer from the time it is set on the plate until the end of the bake process. The objective of the analysis was to gain insight into the heat transport to the wafer and improve the thermal uniformity of the wafer. During the soft, hard and post-exposure bake processes, the temperatures to which the wafer is heated can range from 50 degrees to 250 degrees C. The influence of the variables that contribute to the temperature nonuniformity, namely the height of the proximity pins, wafer warp and bow, heater thickness, insulation of the bake plate, and lid material, have been analyzed. The analysis has been carried out using computational fluid dynamics packages, FLUENT/UNS and FIDAP. The accuracy of the numerical simulations has been verified through analytical solution is presented which provides a closed-form expression for the temperature of the wafer in terms of Biot number, a dimensionless parameter. The temperature rise of the wafer based on this simple expression compares very favorably with the detailed axisymmetric numerical solution that was carried out using variable material properties and the complex boundary conditions for the geometry of a 200-mm bake plate. The radial temperature variation on the wafer after 100 seconds on the bake plate also matches very well with the measurements. Based on the success of the modeling results with the 200-mm bake plates, a 300-mm bake plate analysis was conducted to determine if the temperature uniformity would be within specifications. The analysis revealed some key factors that caused temperature nonuniformity and the design was then altered to improve the temperature uniformity. Subsequent measurements confirmed the improvement of the temperature uniformity.

  15. The pH Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  16. Influence of calcium, iron and pH on phosphate availability for microbial mineralization of organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, B.K.; Alexander, M. )

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine some of the factors affecting the P requirement for the biodegradation of p-nitrophenol, phenol, and glucose by Pseudomonas and Corynebacterium strains. Mineralization of glucose was rapid and the Pseudomonas sp. grew extensively in solutions with 5 and 10 mM phosphate, but the rate and extent of degradation were low and the bacterial population never became abundant in media with 0.2 mM phosphate. Similar results were obtained with the Corynebacterium sp. growing in media containing p-nitrophenol or phenol and in solutions with a purified phosphate salt. The extent of growth of the Corynebacterium sp. was reduced with 2 or 10 mM phosphate in media containing high Fe concentrations. Ca at 5 mM but not 0.5 mM inhibited p-nitrophenol mineralization by the Corynebacterium sp. with phosphate concentrations from 0.2 to 5.0 mM. Phenol mineralization by the Pseudomonas sp. in medium with 0.2 mM phosphate was rapid at pH 5.2, but the bacteria had little or no activity at pH 8.0. In contrast, the activity was greater at pH 8.0 than at pH 5.2 when the culture contained 10 mM phosphate. These effects of pH were similar in media with 5 mM Ca or no added Ca. The authors conclude that the effect of P on bacterial degradation can be influenced by the pH and the concentrations of Fe and Ca.

  17. Photoionization study of PH: PH/sub 2/ revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Cho, H.

    1989-01-01

    The photoion yield curve of PH/sup +/ (PH) is presented, from threshold to 1040 A. The adiabatic ionization potential of PH is 10.149 +- 0.008 eV. Extensive autoionization structure is observed and analyzed. It is attributed to several Rydberg series, whose mutual convergence limit is 11.852 +- 0.002 eV, and corresponds to the onset of PH/sup +/ (a /sup 4/..sigma../sup -/). The photoion yield curve of AsH/sup +/ (AsH) is juxtaposed, and shown to have a similar pattern. A new photoion yield curve of PH/sup +//sub 2/ (PH/sub 2/) is shown, where the source of PH/sub 2/ is the H+PH/sub 3/ reaction. The new results corroborate the earlier data (based on the pyrolysis of benzylphosphine) regarding the adiabatic ionization potential of PH/sub 2/ to form X /sup 1/A/sub 1/, and the presence of broad autoionizing structure. They also display less scatter, and enable one to estimate the onset for a-italic-tilde /sup 3/B/sub 1/ to be about 0.70 eV above X /sup 1/A/sub 1/. From the analogous behavior of the AsH/sup +//sub 2/ (AsH/sub 2/) curve, the a /sup 3/B/sub 1/--X /sup 1/A/sub 1/ splitting in AsH/sup +//sub 2/ is estimated to be 0.58--0.68 eV.

  18. A 10-mm MR-Conditional Unidirectional Pneumatic Stepper Motor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Mershon, Christopher D.; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) conditional robotic devices facilitate accurate interventional procedures under MR imaging (MRI) guidance. For this purpose, a compact (10-mm diameter) MR-conditional stepper motor is presented. The device features seven key components, which contribute to a dense and easy to fabricate design. Alternating bursts of pressurized air and vacuum can drive the motor in 60° per step to achieve a maximum torque of 2.4 mNm. The relationship between torque and angular speed was investigated to demonstrate motor performance under different loading conditions. The stepper motor was tested in a GE 3T MRI scanner to verify its MR-compatibility. A maximum artifact width of 3 mm was measured in MRI images and a maximum signal-to-noise ratio reduction of 2.49% was recorded. PMID:25419104

  19. A 10-mm MR-Conditional Unidirectional Pneumatic Stepper Motor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Mershon, Christopher D; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) conditional robotic devices facilitate accurate interventional procedures under MR imaging (MRI) guidance. For this purpose, a compact (10-mm diameter) MR-conditional stepper motor is presented. The device features seven key components, which contribute to a dense and easy to fabricate design. Alternating bursts of pressurized air and vacuum can drive the motor in 60° per step to achieve a maximum torque of 2.4 mNm. The relationship between torque and angular speed was investigated to demonstrate motor performance under different loading conditions. The stepper motor was tested in a GE 3T MRI scanner to verify its MR-compatibility. A maximum artifact width of 3 mm was measured in MRI images and a maximum signal-to-noise ratio reduction of 2.49% was recorded. PMID:25419104

  20. Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.; Chau, H.H.

    1993-06-14

    A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250ns, with a time-to-burst jitter under 10ns. Both the slapper impact and the detonation breakout of the pellet have been measured to be flat to within 10ns over a 6-mm diameter. Fabry-Perot velocimetry of impacts with LiF crystals were used to characterize shock pressures and durations. Attenuator plates and flyers driven by the HE were also measured, which provided a variety of available pulse shapes and data for modeling efforts.

  1. Taiwan geology Plate collision at 80 mm/yr

    E-print Network

    Gung, Yuancheng

    4 #12;Meander #12;#12;#12;=/ #12;: () () () () () : : 2.0 1.51.75 1.25 1.0 #12/yr (Ratio: 1.9%, Area: 0.024%) Average sediment discharge to ocean: 384 Mt/yr --- 160 Mt/yr (544 Mt.m.s) = Sediments (ton.s-1) Sediments (ton.s-1) ÷ Density (t/m3) ÷ Area (m2) = Erosion (mm.s-1) Calculation: Stream

  2. Projected Hybrid Orbitals: A General QM/MM Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A projected hybrid orbital (PHO) method was described to model the covalent boundary in a hybrid quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) system. The PHO approach can be used in ab initio wave function theory and in density functional theory with any basis set without introducing system-dependent parameters. In this method, a secondary basis set on the boundary atom is introduced to formulate a set of hybrid atomic orbtials. The primary basis set on the boundary atom used for the QM subsystem is projected onto the secondary basis to yield a representation that provides a good approximation to the electron-withdrawing power of the primary basis set to balance electronic interactions between QM and MM subsystems. The PHO method has been tested on a range of molecules and properties. Comparison with results obtained from QM calculations on the entire system shows that the present PHO method is a robust and balanced QM/MM scheme that preserves the structural and electronic properties of the QM region. PMID:25317748

  3. The LLNL 150-mm equation-of-state gun system

    SciTech Connect

    Rienecker, F.; Honodel, C.; Waldron, R.; Moor, E.; Perfect, S.; Bast, R.

    1987-09-22

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently designing a large gun system for expanded studies of a wide range of materials, including samples of high explosives weighing up to 10 kg. In its initial configuration, the system will have a 150-mm bore, 20-m-long, single-stage gun that can fire a 10-kg projectile at velocities of 2.2 km/s. Future plans include conversion either to a two-stage gun, or to a single-stage 100-mm gun, and conversion to a ballistic range. The high-explosive samples will be contained in a stainless steel tank that is 3.8 m in diameter, 12.5-m long, and 89-mm thick. This paper emphasizes improvements in the gun design, including tube couplings that use large coupling nuts and elastic interference fits to achieve precise alignment, a rail support system that allows rapid changes of configuration without need for re-alignment, and a barrel venting experiment designed to reduce projectile tilt in free flight. In addition, the authors discuss a computer modeling experiment in which they examined the effects of stress and strain on one part of the gun, the breech. Results showed that peak stresses would cause the breech to deform, producing autofrettaged conditions.

  4. Low pH affects survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of the postlarvae and early juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Gunzo; Bagarinao, Teodora; Yong, Annita Seok Kian; Chen, Chiau Yu; Noor, Siti Norasidah Mat; Lim, Leong Seng

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of rain water caused by air pollutants is now recognized as a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We examined the effects of low pH (control pH 7.5, pH 6, pH 5, pH 4) on the survival, growth, and shell quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles in the laboratory. Hatcheryproduced postlarvae (PL 5) were stocked at 250 PL per aquarium, acclimated over 7 d to experimental pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid, and reared for 30 d. Dead specimens were removed and counted twice a day. After 27 d rearing, all specimens were measured for total length and body weight. Carapace quality was assessed by spectrophotometry. Survival of juveniles was highest at pH 6 (binomial 95% confidence interval 79 - 89%) followed by control pH 7.5 (56 - 68%) and pH 5 (50 - 60%) and was lowest for unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles at pH 4 (43 - 49%). The final median total length and body weight of juveniles were similar at control pH 7.5 (18.2 TL, 50.2 mg BW) and pH 6 (17.7 mm TL, 45.0 mg BW) but significantly less at pH 5 (16.7 mm TL, 38.2 mg BW); at pH 4, the postlarvae did not metamorphose and measured only 9.8 mm TL, 29.3 mg BW. Length frequency distribution showed homogeneous growth at pH 6, positive skew at control pH 7.5 and pH 5, and extreme heterogeneity at pH 4. The carapace showed different transmittance spectra and lower total transmittance (i.e. thicker carapace) in juveniles at pH 7.5, pH 6, and pH 5 than in unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles with thinner carapace at pH 4. Thus, survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of M. rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles were negatively affected by pH 5 and especially pH 4. The thinner carapace of the survivors at pH 4 was mostly due to their small size and failure to metamorphose. Natural waters affected by acid rain could decimate M. rosenbergii populations in the wild.

  5. Jacob Bernoulli, Ph.D. Erhard Weigel, Ph.D. Universitt Leipzig 1650

    E-print Network

    Matta, Abraham "Ibrahim"

    , Ph.D. University of California, Los Angeles 1974 Leonard Kleinrock, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg 1713 Johann Christoph Wichmannshausen, Ph.D. Universität Leipzig 1685 Otto Mencke, Ph

  6. 3.0 SOP 6b pH 2007 10 12 pH pH total hydrogen

    E-print Network

    3.0 SOP 6b pH 2007 10 12 1 / 7 SOP 6b m- pH 1. pH pH total hydrogen ion concentration scale pH [H+ ] 1 kg 2. (1) ]HSO[]H[ )/1(]H[]H[ 4F STF -+ ++ + += KS (1) [H+ ]F ST [HSO4 - ]+[SO4 2- ] KS HSO4 - pH (2) 10 -= - + 110 soln-kgmol ][H logpH . (2) 3. pH m- pH (aq

  7. Name: _______________________________ Ph.D: MUSIC

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Name: _______________________________ Ph.D: MUSIC INTEGRATED COMPOSITION, IMPROVISATION, AND TECHNOLOGY (ICIT) Degree Requirements (2015-2016) Music 200 (Bibliography and Research): ______ 4 units Music 215A (Computer Music Composition and Production): ______ 4 units Music 215B (Computer Music

  8. Formation of asteroids from mm-cm sized grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, D.; Johansen, A.; Davies, M. B.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Asteroids and comets are intricately connected to life in the universe. Asteroids are the building blocks of terrestrial planets; water-rich asteroids and comets are likely to be the primary source of water for Earth's oceans and other volatiles (Morbidelli et al. 2000; Hartogh et al. 2011); and they may play role in mass extinctions. Yet, the formation of these objects is poorly understood. There is mounting evidence that the traditional picture of the formation of asteroids must be revised. The size distribution of asteroids is hard to reconcile with a traditional bottomup formation scenario. Instead, asteroids may form top-down, with large 100 - 1000 km sized objects forming first by the gravitational collapse of dense clumps of small particles. Experiments and simulations suggest that dust grains cannot grow to sizes larger than mm-cm in protoplanetary disks (Zsom et al. 2010). Also, primitive meteorites from the asteroid belt contain a large mass fraction in chondrules of sizes from 0.1 mm to a few mm. Hence, it is desirable to find a model for asteroid formation from mm-sized particles. Aims. In this work, we model the dynamics of mm-cm sized grains in dust-enriched inner regions of protoplanetary disks. We model the dust-gas interaction to determine whether dust grains of this size can form dense, self-gravitating clouds that can collapse to form asteroids. Methods. We perform shearing box simulations of the inner disk using the Pencil Code (Brandenburg & Dobler 2002). The simulations start with a Solar-type solids-to-gas ratio of 0.01 and we gradually increase the particle concentration. In a real protoplanetary disk, solid particles are expected to migrate from the outer regions and concentrate in the inner disk. Results. Our simulations show that mm-sized particles can form very dense clumps, driven by a run-away convergence in the radial-drift flow of these particles - this dynamic is known as the streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005; Johansen et al. 2007). We show that the streaming instability can also occur for small grains, strongly coupled to the surouning gas. We further show that the resulting particle clumps can reach the density where gravitational collapse is expected to take place, giving rise to planetesimals and asteroids. This process requires either a very high solids-to-gas ratio, or a reduced background pressure gradient, such as that produced by large-scale pressure bumps in the disk. Interpretation. This result offers a promising avenue to the formation of asteroids and comets. Additional work with this model may provide insight on the initial distribution of the masses and orbits of asteroids and comets. This information is important because these are the initial conditions for the formation of terrestrial planets, and for the delivery of water and other volatiles to rocky planets in the habitable zone.

  9. PhEDEx Data Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Wildish, Tony; Huang, Chih-Hao

    2010-04-01

    The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the "SiteDB" service for fine-grained access control, providing a safe and secure environment for operations. A plug-in architecture allows server-side modules to be developed rapidly and easily by anyone familiar with the schema, and can automatically return the data in a variety of formats for use by different client technologies. Using HTTP access via the Data Service instead of direct database connections makes it possible to build monitoring web-pages with complex drill-down operations, suitable for debugging or presentation from many aspects. This will form the basis of the new PhEDEx website in the near future, as well as providing access to PhEDEx information and certificate-authenticated services for other CMS dataflow and workflow management tools such as CRAB, WMCore, DBS and the dashboard. A PhEDEx command-line client tool provides one-stop access to all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service interactively, for use in simple scripts that do not access the service directly. The client tool provides certificate-authenticated access to managerial functions, so all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service are available to it. The tool can be expanded by plug-ins which can combine or extend the client-side manipulation of data from the Data Service, providing a powerful environment for manipulating data within PhEDEx.

  10. The temperature and pH dependence of conformational transitions of the chromatin subunit.

    PubMed

    Gordon, V C; Schumaker, V N; Olins, D E; Knobler, C M; Horwitz, J

    1979-08-24

    Hydrodynamic, spectroscopic, and chemical crosslinking studies on monomer chromatin subnits are reported as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. In earlier studies, two salt-dependent conformational transitions were described (Gordon et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 75, 660, 1978). Transition one occurred between 0.7 and 2.0 mM ionic strength and transition two occurred between 5.0 and 11.0 mM ionic strength. Crosslinking at 11 mM ionic strength with formaldehyde suppressed both transitions. In this communication we report that the second transition was characterized by changes in the circular dichroism spectra in the 260--320 nm region as well as by changes in the hydrodynamic properties. As the ionic strength was increased from 5.0 to 11.0 mM, [theta]282 decreased from 2000 TO 1500 DEG CM2/DMOLE AND [THETA]295 decreased from 0 to -400 deg cm2/dmole. Both transitions occurred in the pH range from pH 6.0 to 9.2. At pH 5.0, the two ionic strength-dependent transitions were no longer observed and the characteristic changes in the circular dichroism spectra were suppressed. The spectra of the monomer subunits at pH 5.0 showed only small changes with ionic strength and resembled the spectra of the subunits at 11 mM ionic strength above pH 6.0. In order to characterize the transitions in thermodynamic terms an ionic strength near the midpoint of each transition was selected. Then, changes in s20,w and D20,w were measured as a function of temperature. These data allow an estimation to be made of the enthalpies and entropies of the transitions. PMID:40207

  11. Planetary observations at a wavelength of 1. 32 mm

    SciTech Connect

    Ulich, B.L.; Dickel, J.R.; De Pater, I.

    1984-12-01

    Observations at a wavelength of 1.32 mm have been made of the Jovian planets, Ceres, the satellites Callisto and Ganymede, and the HII region DR 21. The observed brightness temperatures are presented. Those of the Jovian planets agree with the values expected from model atmosphere calculations, except that of Jupiter, which is lower than expected. Ceres and the satellites do not have atmospheres so their emission arised in their subsurface layers. The observed brightness temperatures are intermediate between those measured at infrared and centimeter wavelengths. 30 references.

  12. Living with Omniback and the 8mm drive

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Apollo's OmniBack backup system provides a convenient and effective way of storing network backup information on 8mm tape. In addition it has a journaling facility to write extensive log files, recording the backup process in almost any degree of detail desired. The directory structure and file names used are logical and well-defined. Summary files announce the degree of success of the backup as specified in the work file. The system will run unattended under the UNIX cron command, allowing the backup to be performed during the night when user demands on the network are small and most user files are free.

  13. Voltammetric pH Nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Magdalena; Kurel, Malgorzata; Jedraszko, Justyna; Toczydlowska, Diana; Wittstock, Gunther; Opallo, Marcin; Nogala, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscale pH evaluation is a prerequisite for understanding the processes and phenomena occurring at solid-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-gas interfaces, e.g., heterogeneous catalysis, extraction, partitioning, and corrosion. Research on the homogeneous processes within small volumes such as intracellular fluids, microdroplets, and microfluidic chips also requires nanometer scale pH assessment. Due to the opacity of numerous systems, optical methods are useless and, if applicable, require addition of a pH-sensitive dye. Potentiometric probes suffer from many drawbacks such as potential drift and lack of selectivity. Here, we present a voltammetric nanosensor for reliable pH assessment between pH 2 and 12 with high spatial resolution. It consists of a pyrolytic carbon nanoelectrode obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) inside a quartz nanopipette. The carbon is modified by adsorption of syringaldazine from its ethanolic solution. It exhibits a stable quasi-reversible cyclic voltammogram with nearly Nernstian dependency of midpeak potentials (-54 mV/pH). This sensor was applied as a probe for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in order to map pH over a platinum ultramicroelectrode (UME), generating hydroxide ions (OH(-)) by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at a diffusion-controlled rate in aerated phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results reveal the alkalization of the electrolyte close to the oxygen reducing electrode, showing the insufficient buffer capacity of PBS to maintain a stable pH at the given conditions. PMID:26516786

  14. QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Studies of Metal Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vidossich, Pietro; Magistrato, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Mixed quantum-classical (quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM)) simulations have strongly contributed to providing insights into the understanding of several structural and mechanistic aspects of biological molecules. They played a particularly important role in metal binding proteins, where the electronic effects of transition metals have to be explicitly taken into account for the correct representation of the underlying biochemical process. In this review, after a brief description of the basic concepts of the QM/MM method, we provide an overview of its capabilities using selected examples taken from our work. Specifically, we will focus on heme peroxidases, metallo-?-lactamases, ?-synuclein and ligase ribozymes to show how this approach is capable of describing the catalytic and/or structural role played by transition (Fe, Zn or Cu) and main group (Mg) metals. Applications will reveal how metal ions influence the formation and reduction of high redox intermediates in catalytic cycles and enhance drug metabolism, amyloidogenic aggregate formation and nucleic acid synthesis. In turn, it will become manifest that the protein frame directs and modulates the properties and reactivity of the metal ions. PMID:25006697

  15. Phosphocreatine kinetics at the onset of contractions in skeletal muscle of MM creatine kinase knockout mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Brian B.; Meyer, Ronald A.; Wiseman, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion during isometric twitch stimulation at 5 Hz was measured by (31)P-NMR spectroscopy in gastrocnemius muscles of pentobarbital-anesthetized MM creatine kinase knockout (MMKO) vs. wild-type C57B (WT) mice. PCr depletion after 2 s of stimulation, estimated from the difference between spectra gated to times 200 ms and 140 s after 2-s bursts of contractions, was 2.2 +/- 0.6% of initial PCr in MMKO muscle vs. 9.7 +/- 1.6% in WT muscles (mean +/- SE, n = 7, P < 0.001). Initial PCr/ATP ratio and intracellular pH were not significantly different between groups, and there was no detectable change in intracellular pH or ATP in either group after 2 s. The initial difference in net PCr depletion was maintained during the first minute of continuous 5-Hz stimulation. However, there was no significant difference in the quasi-steady-state PCr level approached after 80 s (MMKO 36.1 +/- 3.5 vs. WT 35.5 +/- 4.4% of initial PCr; n = 5-6). A kinetic model of ATPase, creatine kinase, and adenylate kinase fluxes during stimulation was consistent with the observed PCr depletion in MMKO muscle after 2 s only if ADP-stimulated oxidative phosphorylation was included in the model. Taken together, the results suggest that cytoplasmic ADP more rapidly increases and oxidative phosphorylation is more rapidly activated at the onset of contractions in MMKO compared with WT muscles.

  16. Development of in situ CO2 and pH sensor for AUVs and ROVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Kimoto, Hideshi; Miwa, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has been developing two-type autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs): a cruising AUV and a working AUV, since October 2010. These vehicles will perform carbon dioxide (CO2) and pH observations to explore hydrothermal plume on seabed mineral resources and to monitor a leak of CO2 in carbon capture and storage (CCS) up to depth of 3,000 meters. We here have been developing the compact in situ CO2 and pH sensor (Hybrid CO2-pH sensor: HCS) for the AUVs to obtain vertical and horizontal distributions of CO2 and pH. The HCS consists of an aluminum pressure housing (diameter 84 mm, length 570 mm, weight 4 kg) and an acrylic silicon-oil filled, pressure-compensated vessel (diameter 90 mm, length 355 mm, weight 2 kg) containing valves and pump unit. The HCS is also useful for the observation by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The measured data were transmitted to the AUVs or ROVs by serial communications. We can monitor the data of in situ pCO2, pH and so on in real time on board. The measurement principle for the CO2 sensor is based on spectrophotometry. The pCO2 is calculated from the optical absorbance of the pH indicator solution equilibrated with CO2 in seawater through a gas permeable membrane. On the other hand, we adopt potentiometric analysis using original glass and reference electrodes as a pH sensor because of the most commonly used technique for sea water pH measurements and high-speed response (within 20 seconds). From simultaneously measured data of in situ pCO2 and pH, we can also calculate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) as other carbonate species in the ocean. The resolutions of HCS are 1 ?atm for pCO2 and 0.001 pH. In the laboratory experiment, the HCS obtained precisions within 3 ?atm and within 0.01 pH, respectively. Our first in situ observational test of the HSC with cruising AUV was made in the coast of the Japan Sea last August. And also first in situ test of the HCS with ROV was performed at Okinawa Trough last September. The data obtained from each tests are consistent with predictions based on past studies.

  17. EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CERN-PH-EP/2013-XXX

    E-print Network

    EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CERN-PH-EP/2013-XXX arXiv:13MM.txyz [hep-ex] February 14 Group1 Submitted to PHYSICS REPORTS February 14, 2013 1 Web access at http://www.cern.ch/LEPEWWG #12;Abstract Electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the electron-positron collider LEP at CERN

  18. Divergent regulation of aflatoxin production at acidic pH by two Aspergillus strains

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    with 50 mM sodium citrate at either pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 or 5.5. Aflatoxin yields, dry weights of mycelia calculations were performed using Fisher's protected LSD test in the program Statistica version 4.5 (Statsoft

  19. Control of protozoa contamination and lipid accumulation in Neochloris oleoabundans culture: Effects of pH and dissolved inorganic carbon.

    PubMed

    Peng, Licheng; Lan, Christopher Q; Zhang, Zisheng; Sarch, Cody; Laporte, Matt

    2015-12-01

    Combined effects of pH (i.e., 7.5, 8.5, and 9.5) and bicarbonate (i.e., 0, 80 and 160mM NaHCO3) on lipid accumulation and on biological contaminant viability in a protozoa-contaminated culture of the freshwater microalga Neochloris oleoabundans were studied. Cultures grown in the media containing 160mM NaHCO3 at pH 9.5 obtained the highest biomass concentration (DCWmax=1.32g/L), lipid content (LC=327mg/g), which corresponded to a lipid productivity of 56mg/(L·d), and the culture was protozoa free one day after inoculation. Other cultures, 160mM NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 (DCWmax=1.32g/L, LC=223mg/g), and 80mM NaHCO3 at pH 9.5 (DCWmax=1.25g/L, LC=264mg/g) could delay protozoan growth, but not inhibit it completely. These results suggest 160mM NaHCO3 or slightly above at pH levels of 8.5-9.5 may be used in outdoor cultivation processes of freshwater N. oleoabundans to control protozoa contamination while maintain a high lipid content. PMID:26320019

  20. Modelling and performance of Nb SIS mixers in the 1.3 mm and 0.8 mm bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpov, A.; Carter, M.; Lazareff, B.; Billon-Pierron, D.; Gundlach, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the modeling and subsequent improvements of SIS waveguide mixers for the 200-270 and 330-370 GHz bands (Blundell, Carter, and Gundlach 1988, Carter et al 1991). These mixers are constructed for use in receivers on IRAM radiotelescopes on Pico Veleta (Spain, Sierra Nevada) and Plateau de Bure (French Alps), and must meet specific requirements. The standard reduced height waveguide structure with suspended stripline is first analyzed and a model is validated through comparison with scale model and working scale measurements. In the first step, the intrinsic limitations of the standard mixer structure are identified, and the parameters are optimized bearing in mind the radioastronomical applications. In the second step, inductive tuning of the junctions is introduced and optimized for minimum noise and maximum bandwidth. In the 1.3 mm band, a DSB receiver temperature of less than 110 K (minimum 80 K) is measured from 180 through 260 GHz. In the 0.8 mm band, a DSB receiver temperature of less than 250 K (minimum 175 K) is obtained between 325 and 355 GHz. All these results are obtained with room-temperature optics and a 4 GHz IF chain having a 500 MHz bandwidth and a noise temperature of 14 K.

  1. The Apollo 15 coarse fines (4-10 mm)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Sherman, Sarah Bean

    1989-01-01

    A new catalog of the Apollo 15 coarse fines particles is presented. Powell's macroscopic descriptions, resulting from his 1972 particle by particle binocular examination of all of the Apollo 15 4 to 10 mm fines samples, are retained. His groupings are also retained, but petrographic, chemical, and other data from later analyses are incorporated into this catalog to better characterize individual particles and describe the groups. A large number of particles have no characterization beyond that done by Powell. Complete descriptions of the particles and all known references are provided. The catalog is intended for anyone interested in the rock types collected by Dave Scott and Jim Irwin in the Hadley-Appenine region, and particularly for researchers requiring sample allocations.

  2. 120-mm supercondcting quadrupole for interaction regions of hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, A.V.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Mokhov, N.V.; Novitski, I.

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic and mechanical designs of a Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnet with 120-mm aperture suitable for interaction regions of hadron colliders are presented. The magnet is based on a two-layer shell-type coil and a cold iron yoke. Special spacers made of a low-Z material are implemented in the coil mid-planes to reduce the level of radiation heat deposition and radiation dose in the coil. The quadrupole mechanical structure is based on aluminum collars supported by an iron yoke and a stainless steel skin. Magnet parameters including maximum field gradient and field harmonics, Nb3Sn coil pre-stress and protection at the operating temperatures of 4.5 and 1.9 K are reported. The level and distribution of radiation heat deposition in the coil and other magnet components are discussed.

  3. 40 mm bore Nb-Ti model dipole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.; Gilbert, W.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meuser, R.; Peters, C.; Rechen, J.; Scanlan, R.

    1984-09-10

    Preliminary R and D has been started on magnets for a next-generation high-energy-physics accelerator, the 20 TeV Superconducting Supercollider (SSC). One design now being developed at LBL is described in this paper. The design is based on two layers of flattened Nb-Ti cable, a 40 mm ID winding with flared ends, and an operating field of 6.5 T. Experimental results are presented on several one-meter-long models tested at both He I and He II temperature. Measurement of field, residual magnetization, quench propagation velocity, and winding prestress are presented. (A 2-in-1 magnet based on this coil design is being jointly developed by LBL and Brookhaven National Laboratory, and 15 ft. long models are being constructed at BNL).

  4. A densitometric analysis of commercial 35mm films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Ruffin, Christopher, III

    1989-01-01

    IIaO films have been subjected to various sensitometric tests. The have included thermal and aging effects and reciprocity failure studies. In order to compare the special IIaO film with popular brands of 35 mm films and their possible use in astrophotography, Agfa, Fuji and Kodak print and slide formats, as well as black and white and color formats, were subjected to sensitometric, as well as densitometric analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to analyze grain structure size, and shape as a function of both speed and brand. Preliminary analysis of the grain structure using an ISI-SS40 scanning electron microscope indicates that the grain sizes for darker densities are much larger than the grain size for lighter densities. Researchers analyze the scanning electron microscope findings of the various grains versus densities as well as enhancement of the grains, using the IP-8500 Digital Image Processor.

  5. Calibration of a HTS Based LOX 400 mm Level Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunanithi, R.; Jacob, S.; Nadig, D. S.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Gour, Abhay S.; Pankaj, S.; Gowthaman, M.; Sudharshan, H.

    The measurement of the cryogen level in a cryostage of space crafts is crucial. At the same time the weight of the sensor should be small as it affects the payload fraction of the space craft. An attempt to develop a HTS based level sensor of 400 mm for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) measurement was made. In the initial phase of testing, loss of superconductivity of HTS wire in LOX inside a cryostat was noticed. Thus, a new four wall cryostat was designed to have a stable LOX level to provide thermal stability to the HTS based LOX sensor. The calibration of the developed sensor was carried out against capacitance level sensor which was pre calibrated using diode array to verify its linearity and performance for different current excitation levels. The calibrations were carried out without heater wires. The automatic data logging was accomplished using a program developed in LabVIEW 11.0.

  6. QM/MM method for metal - organic interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sushko, Maria L.; Sushko, Petr V.; Abarenkov, Igor V.; Shluger, Alexander L.

    2010-07-19

    Organic/inorganic interfaces are ubiquitous in organic electronics and energy materials. These interfaces often have defects, such as grain and domain boundaries, which influence their electronic properties. Fundamental studies of such extended defects, understanding of their effect on the performance of the interfaces in practical applications, and, ultimately, design of new interfaces requires theoretical modeling of their structure and properties. However, due to the large size of these systems, their accurate quantum mechanical description is often unfeasible. Here we present a QM/MM method for modeling metal/organic interfaces, which incorporates contributions from long-range electron correlation, characteristic to metals and non-bonded interactions in organic systems. This method can be used to study structurally irregular systems. We apply the method to model finite size domains of self-assembled monolayers on gold (111) surface and discuss the influence of boundary effects on the electrostatic and electronic properties of these systems.

  7. Supersonic Love waves in strong piezoelectrics of symmetry mm2

    SciTech Connect

    Darinskii, A. N.; Weihnacht, M.

    2001-07-01

    A study has been made of the Love wave propagation on piezoelectric substrates of symmetry mm2. It has been shown that under certain conditions the velocity of the Love wave exceeds that of shear horizontal (SH) bulk waves in the substrate. This occurs when the slowness curve of SH bulk waves in the substrate either has a concavity or is convex with nearly zero curvature. For such {open_quotes}supersonic{close_quotes} Love waves to appear, it is also required that the substrate as well as the layer be specially oriented and that their material constants fulfill a number of inequalities. Numerical computations have been carried out for a number of structures. The results of numerical computations have been compared with approximate analytical estimations. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Coupling MM5 with ISOLSM: Development, testing, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.J.; Cooley, H.S.; He, Y.; Torn, M.S.

    2003-06-10

    Surface water and energy fluxes are tightly coupled with CO2 exchanges between the ecosystem and atmosphere. Other surface-to-atmosphere trace-gas exchanges of interest in climate change research (e.g., N2O, CH4, C18OO, and H218O) are also strongly impacted by surface energy exchanges. Further, land-use change has large effects on the surface energy balance and therefore the exchanges of these trace gases. To investigate these issues at the regional scale we have coupled MM5 (Grell et al. 1995) with ISOLSM (Riley et al. 2002, Riley et al. 2003), a land-surface model based on LSM1 (Bonan 1995).

  9. 1.25-mm observations of luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carico, David P.; Keene, Jocelyn; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements at a wavelength of 1.25 mm have been obtained for 17 IRAS galaxies selected on the basis of high far-infrared luminosity. These measurements are used to estimate the lower and upper limits to the mass of cold dust in infrared galaxies. As a lower limit on dust mass, all of the galaxies can be successfully modeled without invoking any dust colder than the dust responsible for the 60 and 100 micron emission that was detected by IRAS. As an upper limit, it is possible that the dust mass in a number of the galaxies may actually be dominated by cold dust. This large difference between the lower and upper limits is due primarily to uncertainty in the long-wavelength absorption efficiency of the astrophysical dust grains.

  10. The influence of calcium and pH on growth in primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of Ca2+ and pH on root elongation in Zea mays L. cv. B73 x Missouri 17 and cv. Merit. Seedlings were raised to contain high levels of Ca2+ (HC, imbibed and raised in 10 mM CaCl2) or low levels of Ca2+ (LC, imbibed and raised in distilled water). In HC roots, lowering the pH (5 mM MES/Tris) from 6.5 to 4.5 resulted in strong, long-lasting growth promotion. Surprisingly, increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 also resulted in strong growth promotion. In LC roots acidification of the medium (pH 6.5 to 4.5) resulted in transient growth stimulation followed by a gradual decline in the growth rate toward zero. Exposure of LC roots to high pH (pH shift from 6.5 to 8.5) also promoted growth. Addition of EGTA resulted in strong growth promotion in both LC and HC roots. The ability of EGTA to stimulate growth appeared not to be related to H+ release from EGTA upon Ca2+ chelation since, 1) LC roots showed a strong and prolonged response to EGTA, but only a transient response to acid pH, and 2) promotion of growth by EGTA was observed in strongly buffered solutions. We also examined the pH dependence of the release of 45Ca2+ from roots of 3-day-old seedlings grown from grains imbibed in 45Ca2+. Release of 45Ca2+ from the root into agar blocks placed on the root surface was greater the more acidic the pH of the blocks. The results indicate that Ca2+ may be necessary for the acid growth response in roots.

  11. Effects of amiloride on thermosensitivity of Chinese hamster cells under neutral and acidic pH

    SciTech Connect

    Miyakoshi, J.; Oda, W.; Hirata, M.; Fukuhori, N.; Inagaki, C.

    1986-04-01

    The modifying effects of amiloride on the thermosensitivity of Chinese hamster V-79 cells were examined under both neutral (pH 7.3) and acidic (pH 6.6) conditions. Amiloride, a diuretic drug, is known to inhibit the Na+/H+ exchange activity. Under the extracellular pH of 7.3, amiloride (0.1-0.5 mM) enhanced the thermal cell killing powers of 42/sup 0/C hyperthermia with increasing concentration and exposure time of the drug. The age response of cells to 42/sup 0/C hyperthermia in the presence or absence of amiloride (0.5 mM) showed that amiloride sensitized cells to heat, especially those at G1-S boundary through middle S phases. On the other hand, the lowering of extracellular pH to 6.6 enhanced cell killing by 42/sup 0/C hyperthermia. When cells were exposed to 42/sup 0/C hyperthermia in the presence of amiloride at pH 6.6, cell survival decreased still more. The thermosensitizing effects of the lowered pH at 6.6 and amiloride appeared to be additive. From these results, it is suggested that the thermosensitization by amiloride is probably due, in part, to the inhibition of cellular Na+/H+ exchange activity. The present study proposes the possibility that amiloride may be useful as a hyperthermic sensitizer in a clinical treatment of cancer.

  12. Stabilization of pH in solid-matrix hydroponic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frick, J.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer or Amberlite DP-1 (cation-exchange resin beads) were used to stabilize substrate pH of passive-wicking, solid-matrix hydroponic systems in which small canopies of Brassica napus L. (CrGC 5-2, genome : ACaacc) were grown to maturity. Two concentrations of MES (5 or 10 mM) were included in Hoagland 1 nutrient solution. Alternatively, resin beads were incorporated into the 2 vermiculite : 1 perlite (v/v) growth medium at 6% or 12% of total substrate volume. Both strategies stabilized pH without toxic side effects on plants. Average seed yield rates for all four pH stabilization treatments (13.3 to 16.9 g m-2 day-1) were about double that of the control (8.2 g m-2 day-1), for which there was no attempt to buffer substrate pH. Both the highest canopy seed yield rate (16.9 g m-2 day-1) and the highest shoot harvest index (19.5%) occurred with the 6% resin bead treatment, even though the 10 mM MES and 12% bead treatments maintained pH within the narrowest limits. The pH stabilization methods tested did not significantly affect seed oil and protein contents.

  13. GDx-MM: An imaging Mueller matrix retinal polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twietmeyer, Karen Marie

    2007-12-01

    Retinal diseases are a major cause of blindness worldwide. Although widely studied, disease mechanisms are not completely understood, and diagnostic tests may not detect disease early enough for timely intervention. The goal of this research is to contribute to research for more sensitive diagnostic tests that might use the interaction of polarized light with retinal tissue to detect subtle changes in the microstructure. This dissertation describes the GDx-MM, a scanning laser polarimeter which measures a complete 16-element Mueller matrix image of the retina. This full polarization signature may provide new comparative information on the structure of healthy and diseased retinal tissue by highlighting depolarizing structures as well as structures with varying magnitudes and orientations of retardance and diattenuation. The three major components of this dissertation are: (1) Development of methods for polarimeter optimization and error analysis; (2) Design, optimization, assembly, calibration, and validation of the GDx-MM polarimeter; and (3) Analysis of data for several human subjects. Development involved modifications to a Laser Diagnostics GDx, a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope with incomplete polarization capability. Modifications included installation of polarization components, development of a data acquisition system, and implementation of algorithms to convert raw data into polarization parameter images. Optimization involved visualization of polarimeter state trajectories on the Poincare sphere and a condition number analysis of the instrument matrix. Retinal images are collected non-invasively at 20 mum resolution over a 15° visual field in four seconds. Validation of the polarimeter demonstrates a polarimetric measurement accuracy of approximately +/- 5%. Retinal polarization data was collected on normal human subjects at the University of Arizona and at Indiana University School of Optometry. Calculated polarization parameter images reveal properties of the tissue microstructure. For example, retardance images indicate nerve fiber layer thickness and orientation, and depolarization images (uniform for these normal subjects), are predicted to indicate regions of disease-related tissue disruption. This research demonstrates a method for obtaining a full polarization signature of the retina in one measurement using a polarimetrically optimized instrument, and provides a step toward the use of complete retinal imaging polarimetry in the diagnosis and monitoring of retinal disease.

  14. Cari Kitahara, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Kitahara earned her Ph.D. in cancer epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She joined the Radiation Epidemiology Branch in 2008 as a predoctoral fellow and became a research fellow in 2011. In 2015, she was appointed to the position of tenure-track investigator.

  15. Manufacturing and performance test of an 800-mm space optic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krödel, Matthias R.; Ozaki, Tsuyoshi; Kume, Masami; Furuya, Akira; Yui, Yukari Y.; Imai, Hiroko; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Tange, Yoshio; Nakagawa, Takao; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2008-07-01

    Next generation space telescopes, which are currently being developed in the US and Europe, require large-scale light-weight reflectors with high specific strength, high specific stiffness, low CTE, and high thermal conductivity. To meet budget constraints, they also require materials that produce surfaces suitable for polishing without expensive over-coatings. HB-Cesic - a European and Japanese trademark of ECM - is a Hybrid Carbon-Fiber Reinforced SiC composite developed jointly by ECM and MELCO to meet these challenges. The material's mechanical performance, such as stiffness, bending strength, and fracture toughness are significantly improved compared to the classic ECM Cesic material (type MF). Thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of HB-Cesic at cryogenic temperatures are now partly established; and excellent performance for large future space mirrors and structures are expected. This paper presents the design and manufacturing of an 800-mm mirror for space application, starting with the C/C raw material preparation to the finishing of the components, including the polishing of the mirror. The letters "HB" in HB-Cesic stand for "hybrid" to indicate that the C/C raw material is composed of a mixture of different types of chopped, short carbon-fibers.

  16. COSMOG: Cosmology Oriented Sub-mm Modeling of Galactic Foregrounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Leisawitz, D.

    2004-01-01

    With upcoming missions in mid- and far-Infrared there is a need for software packages to reliably simulate the planned observations. This would help in both planning the observation and scanning strategy and in developing the concepts of the far-off missions. As this workshop demonstrated, many of the new missions are to be in the far-IR range of the electromagnetic spectrum and at the same time will map the sky with a sub-arcsec angular resolution. We present here a computer package for simulating foreground maps for the planned sub-mm and far-IR missions. such as SPECS. The package allows to study confusion limits and simulate cosmological observations for specified sky location interactively and in real time. Most of the emission at wavelengths long-ward of approximately 50 microns is dominated by Galactic cirrus and Zodiacal dust emission. Stellar emission at these wavelengths is weak and is for now neglected. Cosmological sources (distant and not-so-distant) galaxies for specified cosmologies will be added. Briefly, the steps that the algorithm goes through is described.

  17. Digital Frequency Domain Multiplexer for mm-Wavelength Telescopes

    E-print Network

    Dobbs, Matt; Spieler, Helmuth

    2007-01-01

    An FPGA based digital signal processing (DSP) system for biasing and reading out multiplexed bolometric detectors for mm-wavelength telescopes is presented. This readout system is being deployed for balloon-borne and ground based cosmology experiments with the primary goal of measuring the signature of inflation with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The system consists of analog superconducting electronics running at 250mK and 4K, coupled to digital room temperature backend electronics described here. The digital electronics perform the real time functionality with DSP algorithms implemented in firmware. A soft embedded processor provides all of the slow housekeeping control and communications. Each board in the system synthesizes multi-frequency combs of 8 to 32 carriers in the MHz band to bias the detectors. After the carriers have been modulated with the sky-signal by the detectors, the same boards digitize the comb directly. The carriers are mixed down to base-band and low pass filtered. The sig...

  18. SSC 50 mm dipole magnet cryostat thermal measurement results

    SciTech Connect

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1993-05-01

    A prototype Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) 50 mm dipole magnet cryostat, DCA323, was instrumented at Fermilab and delivered to the SSC Laboratory for installation into the accelerator systems string test facility. In series with other magnets, the instrumented cryostat will be used to quantify and verify cryostat thermal performance with respect to design requirements. Prior to leaving Fermilab, DCA323 was subjected to magnetic testing at the Magnet Test Facility (MTF). This presented an opportunity to obtain preliminary thermal performance data under simulated operating conditions. It should be noted that measurements of overall cryostat thermal performance were not possible during the MTF measurements as the magnet test stands are designed for magnetic rather than thermal testing. They are not designed to limit heat inleak to the ends of the cryostat, which has been shown to have a significant effect on overall measured thermal performance. Nonetheless, these measurements do offer insight into the performance of several of the cryostat components and sub-systems.

  19. mm-wave filter design with suspended stripline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, R. M.

    1986-07-01

    In treating the subject of planar filter design using suspended stripline architectures, it is noted that the prime objective in any filter design is to achieve low insertion loss within the prescribed bandwidth while attaining the required out-of-band signal rejection. When operating in the mm-wave region, mode propagation within the enclosed structure is an additional concern. In the particular design case considered, the objectives were: center frequency 45 GHz, bandwidth 3.6 GHz, percentage bandwidth 8 percent, 3 poles, 0.2 dB ripple. To obtain the required values of gap capacitance for the suspended stripline network, one must know the odd and even mode fringing capacitance for coupled line structures. The work of Smith (1971) was adapted and used to develop a FORTRAN computer program for determining the gap-capacitances along with even and odd mode impedances and capacitances as a function of the ratio of gap spacing to dielectric thickness. The program inputs line width, gap spacing, dielectric constant and upper and low ground plane spacing and material thickness. A listing of the program is provided along with a sample run. The final printed circuit layout including probe transition is illustrated, and a photograph of the filter is included.

  20. Mapping wetlands on beaver flowages with 35-mm photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Beaver flowages and associated wetlands on the Chippewa National Forest, north-central Minnesota, were photographed from the ground and from the open side window of a small high-wing monoplane. The 35-mm High Speed Ektachrome transparencies obtained were used to map the cover-type associations visible on the aerial photographs. Nearly vertical aerial photos were rectified by projecting the slides onto a base map consisting ofcontrol points located by plane-table survey. Maps were prepared by tracing the recognizable stands of vegetation in the rectified projection at the desired map scale. Final map scales ranging from 1:260 to 1:571 permitted identification and mapping of 26 cover-type associations on 10 study flowages in 1971. This cover-mapping technique was economical and substituted for detailed ground surveys. Comparative data from 10 flowages were collected serially throughout the entire open-water season. Although developed for analysis of waterfowl habitat, the technique has application to other areas of wildlife management and ecological investigation.

  1. Kinetic Inductance Detectors development for mm-wave Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfardini, A.; Swenson, L. J.; Benoit, A.; Bideau, A.; Bres, G.; Camus, P.; Garde, G.; Hoffmann, C.; Minet, J.; Rodenas, H.; Nika Collaboration

    Throughout the last decades, development of low-temperat- ure detectors focused mainly on the design of high-sensitivity, single-pixel devices. This includes such devices as semiconductor-based photodetectors and bolometers, Magnetic Metallic Calorimeters (MMC), Superconducting Tunnel Junctions (STJ), and Transition Edge Sensors (TES). However, these devices have had limited success in achieving the simultaneous large-scale array sizes and large-bandwidth operation necessary for high-speed, high-resolution detection. To overcome this performance limitation, it is advisable to focus on low-temperature detectors which are intrinsically adapted to giant-array multiplexing and ultra-fast readout. To adopt large scale frequency-domain multiplexing for low-temperature detectors, it is necessary to find detectors which"broadcast" at microwave frequencies. Superconducting microwave resonators naturally lend themselves to this task. One recent demonstration is an implementation known as Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs). This detection mechanism can be adopted for low-energy EM radiation (radio, mm, THz) in continuous mode, or in pulsed mode for higher energy radiation and particles. We present an ongoing development for a KIDs instrument dedicated to millimetric ground-based observations at the 30m IRAM telescope at Pico Veleta. The Neel IRAM KIDs Array (NIKA) project is coordinated in Grenoble and involves groups in Holland (SRON), UK (Cardiff) and Italy (Roma).

  2. Digital Frequency Domain Multiplexer for mm-Wavelength Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, Helmuth G; Dobbs, Matt; Bissonnette, Eric; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-07-23

    An FPGA based digital signal processing (DSP) system for biasing and reading out multiplexed bolometric detectors for mm-wavelength telescopes is presented. This readout system is being deployed for balloon-borne and ground based cosmology experiments with the primary goal of measuring the signature of inflation with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The system consists of analog superconducting electronics running at 250 mK and 4 K, coupled to digital room temperature backend electronics described here. The digital electronics perform the real time functionality with DSP algorithms implemented in firmware. A soft embedded processor provides all of the slow housekeeping control and communications. Each board in the system synthesizes multi-frequency combs of 8 to 32 carriers in the MHz band to bias the detectors. After the carriers have been modulated with the sky-signal by the detectors, the same boards digitize the comb directly. The carriers are mixed down to base-band and low pass filtered. The signal bandwidth of 0.050Hz-100 Hz places extreme requirements on stability and requires powerful filtering techniques to recover the sky-signal from the MHz carriers.

  3. Photophysical properties of MM quadruply bonded complexes supported by carboxylate ligands, MM = Mo2, MoW, or W2.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Malcolm H; Gustafson, Terry L; Turro, Claudia

    2013-02-19

    While chemists have extensively studied the photophysical properties of d(6), d(8), and d(10) transition metal complexes, their early transition metal counterparts have received less attention. Quadruply bonded complexes of molybdenum and tungsten supported by carboxylate ligands have intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) absorptions that arise from the electronic coupling of the metal-metal (MM) ? orbital with the CO(2) ?-system. This coupling may in turn be linked to an extended ?-conjugated organic functional group. The major interaction is akin to the so-called back-bonding in metal carbonyl complexes. By the appropriate selection of MM, its attendant ligands, and the organic group, this absorption can be tuned to span the visible and near IR range, from 400 to 1000 nm. Consequently, these complexes offer potential as photon harvesters for photovoltaic devices and photocatalysis. In this Account, we describe recent studies of dinuclear M(II) containing complexes, where M = Mo or W, and show that there are both parallels and disparities to the monomeric transition metal complexes. These early transition metal complexes have relatively long lived excited state singlets when compared to other transition metal complexes. They also often show unusual dual emission (fluorescence and phosphorescence), with singlet (S(1)) lifetimes that range from 1 to 20 ps, and triplet (T(1)) lifetimes from 3 ns to 200 ?s. The fluorescent S(1) states are typically (1)MLCT for both M = Mo and W. These extended singlet lifetimes are uncommon for mononuclear transition metal complexes, which typically have very short lived (1)MLCT states due to rapid femto-second intersystem crossing rates. However, the T(1) states differ. This phosphorescence is MLCT in nature when M = W, while this emission comes from the ??* state for M = Mo. Through time-resolved femtosecond infrared spectroscopy, we can detect the asymmetric stretch of the CO(2) ligand in both the singlet and triplet ??* states. Through these analytical methods, we can study how the charge distribution in the singlet and triplet excited states changes over time. In addition, we can detect delocalized or localized examples of MLCT states, which represent class III and I excited state mixed valence in the Robin and Day scheme. PMID:23145921

  4. Noninvasive in vivo fluorescence measurement of airway-surface liquid depth, salt concentration, and pH

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Sujatha; Song, Yuanlin; Vetrivel, L.; Shankar, Leena; Verkman, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of salt in the thin layer of fluid at the surface of large airways, the airway-surface liquid (ASL), is believed to be of central importance in airway physiology and in the pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis. Invasive sampling methods have yielded a wide range of ASL [NaCl] from 40 to 180 mM. We have developed novel fluorescent probes and microscopy methods to measure ASL thickness, salt concentration, and pH quantitatively in cell-culture models and in the trachea in vivo. By rapid z-scanning confocal microscopy, ASL thickness was 21 ± 4 ?m in well-differentiated cultures of bovine tracheal epithelial cells grown on porous supports at an air-liquid interface. By ratio imaging fluorescence microscopy using sodium, chloride, and pH-sensitive fluorescent indicators, ASL [Na+] was 97 ± 5 mM, [Cl–] was 118 ± 3 mM, and pH was 6.94 ± 0.03. In anesthetized mice in which a transparent window was created in the trachea, ASL thickness was 45 ± 5 ?m, [Na+] was 115 ± 4 mM, [Cl–] was 140 ± 5 mM, and pH was 6.95 ± 0.05. Similar ASL tonicity and pH were found in cystic fibrosis (CFTR-null) mice. In freshly harvested human bronchi, ASL thickness was 55 ± 5 ?m, [Na+] was 103 ± 3 mM, [Cl–] was 92 ± 4 mM, and pH was 6.78 ± 0.2. These results establish by a noninvasive approach the key properties of the ASL and provide direct evidence that the ASL is approximately isotonic and not saltier in cystic fibrosis. PMID:11160155

  5. Stress Analysis on Single Cobalt/Chrome Prosthesis With a 15-mm Cantilever Placed Over 10/13/15-mm-length Implants: A Simulated Photoelastic Model Study.

    PubMed

    Gastaldo, José Fábio Guastelli; Pimentel, Angélica Castro; Gomes, Maria Helena; Sendyk, Wilson Roberto; Laganá, Dalva Cruz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of study was to assess the stress around 10/13/15-mm implants in the mandibular area with a 15-mm cantilevered acrylic-resin-coated prostheses following the application force, using the photoelasticity method. Three photoelastic mandibular models were created containing 10-, 13-, and 15-mm implants in length and 3.75 mm in diameter. The implants had bore internal hex connections and were placed parallel to the intermental region. Abutments with 1-mm high cuffs were placed over the implants, and a single cobalt/chrome metallic prosthesis with a 15-mm cantilever, coated with thermoplastic acrylic resin, was placed on top. Loads of 1.0 and 3.0 bars were applied, and the images were photographed and assessed by photoelasticity method. The greatest stress levels were observed for the 10-mm implants. The stress pattern was the same regardless of implant length; only the magnitude of the stress along the implant body revealed changes. Increased implant length played a role in reducing stress on the investigated area of the model, and the 15-mm implants exhibited the best performance in regard to stress distribution. The highest stress levels were found in the implants closest to the cantilever and the central implant. The longest implants were more favorable in regard to the stress distribution on the peri-implant support structures in the 15-mm cantilevered prosthesis under loads. PMID:24914673

  6. Stella Koutros, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Koutros received her M.P.H. and Ph.D. in epidemiology from Yale University. She completed her doctoral work through the Yale-NCI partnership training program in cancer epidemiology, conducting research in the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch (OEEB). In 2008, upon completion of her doctorate she became a fellow in OEEB; she was appointed to the position of tenure-track investigator in 2015.

  7. Mark Purdue, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Purdue received a Ph.D. in epidemiology from the University of Toronto, Canada. He joined DCEG in 2004 as a postdoctoral fellow within the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, and was appointed to the position of tenure-track investigator in 2009. He has received several awards for his research in molecular epidemiology, including DCEG and NIH Fellowship Achievement awards and a DCEG Intramural Research Award.

  8. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de

    2004-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with {sup 125}I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained.

  9. The Methods Behind PH WINS.

    PubMed

    Leider, Jonathon P; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily from existing and validated items and focuses on 4 main areas: workforce perceptions about training needs, workplace environment and job satisfaction, perceptions about national trends, and demographics. This article outlines the conceptualization, development, and implementation of PH WINS, as well as considerations and limitations. It also describes the creation of 2 new data sets that will be available in public use for public health officials and researchers-a nationally representative data set for permanently employed state health agency central office employees comprising over 10 000 responses, and a pilot data set with approximately 12 000 local and regional health department staff responses. PMID:26422490

  10. The Methods Behind PH WINS

    PubMed Central

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily from existing and validated items and focuses on 4 main areas: workforce perceptions about training needs, workplace environment and job satisfaction, perceptions about national trends, and demographics. This article outlines the conceptualization, development, and implementation of PH WINS, as well as considerations and limitations. It also describes the creation of 2 new data sets that will be available in public use for public health officials and researchers—a nationally representative data set for permanently employed state health agency central office employees comprising over 10 000 responses, and a pilot data set with approximately 12 000 local and regional health department staff responses. PMID:26422490

  11. Washout/rainout contribution in wet deposition estimated by 0.5 mm precipitation sampling/analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Masahide; Hiraki, Takatoshi

    A precipitation dataset collected on a 0.5 mm precipitation basis was studied. The parameters analyzed in this study were the pH (i.e., H + concentration), electric conductivity (EC), and SO42- and NO3- concentrations. The NO3- concentration clearly decayed with an increase of the precipitation amount, while a larger variation was observed in the SO42- concentration even when the precipitation amount increased. Assuming that the decaying NO3- concentration (0.70 ?g ml -1) was the result of the rainout process, the estimates were: annual total deposition, 3252 mg m -2 yr -1; rainout process, 1092 mg m -2 yr -1; and rainout/total, 34%. The estimates for SO42- were: annual total deposition, 4687 mg m -2 yr -1; rainout process, 2096 mg m -2 yr -1; and rainout/total, 45%.

  12. (October 22, 2015) Neuroscience Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    HANDBOOK (October 22, 2015) Neuroscience Ph.D. Program Daniel Tranel, PhD Program Director Michael ...................................................................................................4 B. Neuroscience Program Graduate Research Assistantships .................................5 C ......................................................................................................................7 A. Required Core Neuroscience Courses

  13. Mechanisms of Intragastric pH Sensing

    E-print Network

    Goo, Tyralee; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    food in the stomach increases intragastric pH, which isof the stomach respond to changes in luminal pH and acidpH, and then enabling gastric acid secretion to continue. Finally, the intestinal phase occurs when stomach

  14. Abstract--In this paper we present the design of a swallowable (11mm diameter by 25mm long), 12-legged

    E-print Network

    Abstract--In this paper we present the design of a swallowable (11mm diameter by 25mm long), 12 peristalsis, and since they are not swallowable, cannot eliminate the hospital visit associated with standard-cameras (being small enough to swallow and moving in the direction of natural peristalsis), as well as actively

  15. Feasibility of converting hi-speed processor for processing Kodak film types 7381/7271 (16mm) and 5381/5271 (35mm) using Kodak ECP chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    Testing conducted to determine the feasibility of converting the 16/35/70 hi-speed processor to process Kodak film types 7381/7271 (16mm) and 5381/5271 (35mm) color negative films using Kodak ECP chemistry is described.

  16. Heat Transfer -2 A pure platinum wire with diameter D = 3 mm and length L = 20 mm is placed outside on a day when air temperature

    E-print Network

    Battaglia, Francine

    Heat Transfer - 2 A pure platinum wire with diameter D = 3 mm and length L = 20 mm is placed. Assume a transient lumped capacitance analysis is valid. Wire resistance R = 0.01, platinum density = 2145 kg/m3 , and platinum specific heat C = 0.1326 kJ/kgK. (a) (10 pts) Draw diagrams showing

  17. Andrew Terranova, Ph.D. Curriculum Vitae

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    Orleans, supervised by Timothy Stickle, Ph.D. and Amanda Morris, Ph.D. 2003 ­ 2004 Project Director, Bully, stability, and correlates to bullying roles in middle school children. Behavioral Sciences and the Law-based Sample of Boys and Girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. #12;CV ­ Andrew Terranova, Ph.D. Page 3

  18. My PhD Plan Completed Work

    E-print Network

    Ruina, Andy L.

    Background My PhD Plan Completed Work Planned Work Hierarchical Biped Control A Exam Matthew Kelly August 4, 2014 Matthew Kelly Hierarchical Biped Control 1 / 34 #12;Background My PhD Plan Completed Work Planned Work Table of Contents 1 Background 2 My PhD Plan 3 Completed Work 4 Planned Work Push Hold Free

  19. Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH

  20. The pH Base Saturation Relationships

    E-print Network

    dePamphilis, Claude

    The pH Base Saturation Relationships of Pennsylvania Subsoils by Edward J. Ciolkosz Agronomy Series Number 149 November 2001 #12;The pH Base Saturation Relationships of Pennsylvania Subsoils by Edward J, soil scientists commonly use soil pH to estimate the percent base saturation. Predictions have not been

  1. A Polarizable QM/MM Explicit Solvent Model for Computational Electrochemistry in Water

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lee-Ping

    We present a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) explicit solvent model for the computation of standard reduction potentials E[subscript 0]. The QM/MM model uses density functional theory (DFT) to model the ...

  2. Sub-mm Jet Properties of the X-Ray Binary Swift J1745-26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetarenko, A. J.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Curran, P. A.; Russell, T. D.; Coulson, I. M.; Heinz, S.; Maitra, D.; Markoff, S. B.; Migliari, S.; Petitpas, G. R.; Rupen, M. P.; Rushton, A. P.; Russell, D. M.; Sarazin, C. L.

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of our observations of the early stages of the 2012-2013 outburst of the transient black hole X-ray binary (BHXRB), Swift J1745-26, with the Very Large Array, Submillimeter Array, and James Clerk Maxwell telescope (SCUBA-2). Our data mark the first multiple-band mm and sub-mm observations of a BHXRB. During our observations the system was in the hard accretion state producing a steady, compact jet. The unique combination of radio and mm/sub-mm data allows us to directly measure the spectral indices in and between the radio and mm/sub-mm regimes, including the first mm/sub-mm spectral index measured for a BHXRB. Spectral fitting revealed that both the mm (230 GHz) and sub-mm (350 GHz) measurements are consistent with extrapolations of an inverted power law from contemporaneous radio data (1-30 GHz). This indicates that, as standard jet models predict, a power law extending up to mm/sub-mm frequencies can adequately describe the spectrum, and suggests that the mechanism driving spectral inversion could be responsible for the high mm/sub-mm fluxes (compared to radio fluxes) observed in outbursting BHXRBs. While this power law is also consistent with contemporaneous optical data, the optical data could arise from either jet emission with a jet spectral break frequency of {{? }break}? 1× {{10}14} Hz or the combination of jet emission with a lower jet spectral break frequency of {{? }break}? 2× {{10}11} Hz and accretion disk emission. Our analysis solidifies the importance of the mm/sub-mm regime in bridging the crucial gap between radio and IR frequencies in the jet spectrum, and justifies the need to explore this regime further.

  3. Detection of the 267 GHz J = 1-0 rotational transition of PH3 in Saturn with a new Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisstein, Eric W.; Serabyn, E.

    1994-01-01

    In recent observations at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, the highly pressure-broadened (FWHM = 11.2 GHz) J = 1-0 rotational transition of PH3 (phosphine) was detected on Saturn. By modeling the Saturnian atmosphere with a radiative transfer code, the observed line profile was consistent with a constant PH3 mole fraction of 3.0 plus or minus 1.0 ppm in the upper troposphere. A best-fit to the depth of the line implies a cutoff at high altitudes, with no PH3 present at pressures approximately less than 100 mbar. The observed line depth, combined with the lack of a detectable emission core, implies that a cutoff in the PH3 abundance occurs at a pressure between 13 and 140 mbar. PH3 in Jupiter was not detected, nor any other molecular lines between 195 and 295 GHz (1.54 mm and 1.02 mm, respectively) in either Jupiter or Saturn.

  4. Short communication The effect of pH on gel structures produced using proteinepolysaccharide phase

    E-print Network

    Khan, Saad A.

    ; 5%, w/v, 100 mM NaCl) by pH change (5.5, 6.0, and 6.5), and addition of k-carrageenan (0e0.3%, w/ w-phase separated at pH 5.5. Addition of 0.075% k-carrageenan to WPI solutions caused the microstructure of the gel to inversion of the continuous network from protein to k-carrageenan. Protein solutions containing 0.075% (w

  5. A simple model for assessing ammonia emission from ammoniacal fertilisers as affected by pH and injection into soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyord, T.; Schelde, K. M.; Sřgaard, H. T.; Jensen, L. S.; Sommer, S. G.

    Ammonia (NH 3) volatilisation following the application of ammoniacal fertilisers and liquid manure to agricultural land is a significant source of atmospheric NH 3, which not only poses a risk to the environment, but may also result in a loss of plant available nitrogen (N). This study examined the potential for reducing NH 3 emission through acidifying an ammoniacal solution and by injecting the solution. The combination of the two technologies was studied and a model for predicting the most optimal treatment was developed. In the laboratory, ammonium (NH 4+) hydroxide (aqueous NH 3) was dissolved in water (pH 11) and injected into a loamy sand soil. The NH 3 emission was measured with a dynamic chamber technology. Injecting the solution to 10 mm below the soil surface reduced NH 3 emission by 10% compared to surface application, and injection to 30 mm reduced emission by 20% compared to surface application. Acidifying the ammoniacal solution by adding sulphuric acid and reducing pH to 10 reduced the emission by 60% at a 10 mm injection depth and 90% at 30 mm compared with non-acidified and surface-spread ammoniacal solution. The results show that there is an important interaction of pH and injection depth and that there is a need for models predicting a combined effect. This type of model could contribute to reduce cost and energy (traction force) by providing the optimal combination of acidifying and injection depth that gives a specific reduction in NH 3 emission, which in this study was reducing pH to 10 and inject the fertiliser to 30 mm below surface. This study showed that relatively simple models can predict the NH 3 emission from injected ammoniacal fertilisers, but that there is still a need for developing algorithms that predict the effect of pH, including the pH buffering capacity of the fertiliser and the soil.

  6. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: effects of pH and mixed nitrogen sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D. Jr; Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.; Chaillou, S.

    1991-01-01

    To determine if the daily pattern of NO3- and NH4+ uptake is affected by acidity or NO3- : NH4+ ratio of the nutrient solution, non-nodulated soybean plants (Glycine max) were exposed for 21 days to replenished, complete nutrient solutions at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5 which contained either 1.0 mM NH4+, 1.0 mM NO3- [correction of NO3+], 0.67 mM NH4+ plus 0.33 mM NO3- (2:1 NH4+ : NO3-) [correction of (2:1 NH3+ : NO4-)], or 0.33 mM NH4+ plus 0.67 mM NO3- (1:2 NH4+ : NO3-). Net uptake rates of NH4+ and NO3- were measured daily by ion chromatography as depletion from the replenished solutions. When NH4+ and NO3- were supplied together, cumulative uptake of total nitrogen was not affected by pH or solution NH4+ : NO3- ratio. The cumulative proportion of nitrogen absorbed as NH4+ decreased with increasing acidity; however, the proportional uptake of NH4+ and NO3- was not constant, but varied day-to-day. This day-to-day variation in relative proportions of NH4+ and NO3- absorbed when NH4+ : NO3- ratio and pH of solution were constant indicates that the regulatory mechanism is not directly competitive. Regardless of the effect of pH on cumulative uptake of NH4+, the specific nitrogen uptake rates from mixed and from individual NH4+ and NO3- sources oscillated between maxima and minima at each pH with average periodicities similar to the expected interval of leaf emergence.

  7. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING CORE MM1 OF W75N

    SciTech Connect

    Minh, Y. C.; Su, Y.-N.; Liu, S.-Y.; Yan, C.-H.; Chen, H.-R.; Kim, S.-J.

    2010-11-10

    The massive star-forming core MM1 of W75N was observed using the Submillimeter Array with {approx}1'' and 2'' spatial resolutions at 217 and 347 GHz, respectively. From the 217 GHz continuum we found that the MM1 core consists of two sources, separated by about 1'': MM1a ({approx}0.6 M{sub sun}) and MM1b ({approx}1.4 M{sub sun}), located near the radio continuum sources VLA 2/VLA 3 and VLA 1, respectively. Within MM1b, two gas clumps were found to be expanding away from VLA 1 at about {+-}3 km s{sup -1}, as a result of the most recent star formation activity in the region. Observed molecular lines show emission peaks at two positions, MM1a and MM1b: sulfur-bearing species have emission peaks toward MM1a, but methanol and saturated species at MM1b. We identified high-temperature ({approx}200 K) gas toward MM1a and the hot core in MM1b. This segregation may result from the evolution of the massive star-forming core. In the very early phase of star formation, the hot core is seen through the evaporation of dust ice-mantle species. As the mantle species are consumed via evaporation the high-temperature gas species (such as the sulfur-bearing molecules) become bright. The SiO molecule is unique in having an emission peak exactly at the VLA 2 position, probably tracing a shock powered by VLA 2. The observed sulfur-bearing species show similar abundances both in MM1a and MM1b, whereas the methanol and saturated species show significant abundance enhancement toward MM1b, by about an order of magnitude, compared to MM1a.

  8. Sampling and storage of blood for pH and blood gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Haskins, S C

    1977-02-15

    Techniques used in sampling and storage of a blood sample for pH and gas measurements can have an important effect on the measured values. Observation of these techniques and principles will minimize in vitro alteration of the pH and blood gas values. To consider that a significant change has occurred in a pH or blood gas measurement from previous values, the change must exceed 0.015 for pH, 3 mm Hg for PCO2, 5 mm Hg for PO2, and 2 mEq/L for [HCO-3] or base excess/deficit. In vitro dilution of the blood sample with anticoagulant should be avoided because it will alter the measured PCO2 and base excess/deficit values. Arterial samples should be collected for meaningful pH and blood gas values. Central venous and free-flowing capillary blood can be used for screening procedures in normal patients but are subject to considerable error. A blood sample can be stored for up to 30 minutes at room temperature without significant change in acid-base values but only up to 12 minutes before significant changes occur in PO2. A blood sample can be stored for up to 3.5 hours in an ice-water bath without significant change in pH and for 6 hours without significant change in PCO2 or PO2. Variations of body temperatures from normal will cause a measurable change in pH and blood gas values when the blood is exposed to the normal water bath temperatures of the analyzer. PMID:14093

  9. In Vivo Model to Test Implanted Biosensors for Blood pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Somps, Chris J.; Madou, Marc; Hines, John; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Biosensors for monitoring physiologic data continuously through telemetry are available for heart rate, respiration, and temperature but not for blood pH or ions affected by hydrogen ion concentration. A telemetric biosensor for monitoring blood pH on-line could be used to identify and manage problems in fluid and electrolyte metabolism, cardiac and respiratory function during space flight and the acid-base status of patients without the need for venipuncture in patients on Earth. Critical to the development of biosensors is a method for evaluating their performance after implantation. Mature rats, prepared with jugular, cannulas for repeated blood samples, were exposed to a gas mixture containing high levels of carbon dioxide (7%) in a closed environment to induce mild respiratory acidosis. Serial blood gas and pH measurements in venous blood were compared with electrical responses from sensors implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals became slightly tachypneic after exposure to excess CO2, but remained alert and active. After 5 minutes, basal blood pH decreased from 7.404 +/- 0.013 to 7.289 +/- 0.010 (p less than 0.001)and PC02 increased from 45 +/- 6 to 65 +/- 4 mm. Hg (p les than 0.001). Thereafter pH and blood gas parameters remained stable. Implanted sensors showed a decrease in millivolts (mV) which paralleled the change in pH and averaged 5-6 mV per 0.1 unit pH. Implanted sensors remained sensitive to modest changes in tissue pH for one week. A system for inducing acidosis in rats was developed to test the in vivo performance of pH biosensors. The system provides a method which is sensitive, rapid and reproducible in the same and different animals with full recovery, for testing the performance of sensors implanted in subcutaneous tissues.

  10. Tomato responses to ammonium and nitrate nutrition under controlled root-zone pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peet, M. M.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Tolley, L. C.; Robarge, W. P.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. 'Vendor') plants were grown for 21 days in flowing solution culture with N supplied as either 1.0 mM NO3- or 1.0 mM NH4+. Acidity in the solutions was automatically maintained at pH 6.0. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter and total N and net photosynthetic rate were not affected by source of N. Thus, when rhizosphere acidity was controlled at pH 6.0 during uptake, either NO3- or NH4+ can be used efficiently by tomato. Uptake of K+ and Ca2+ were not altered by N source, but uptake of Mg2+ was reduced in NH4(+)-fed plants. This indicates that uptake of Mg2+ was regulated at least partially by ionic balance within the plant.

  11. The effect of pH and various cations on the GTP hydrolysis of rice heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunit expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hak Soo; Jeong, Jin Yong; Nahm, Min Yeop; Kim, Sam Woong; Lee, Sang Yeol; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2003-03-31

    Previously, we reported the biochemical properties of RGA1 that is expressed in Escherichia coli (Seo et al., 1997). The activities of RGA1 that hydrolyzes and binds guanine nucleotide were dependent on the MgCl(2) concentration. The steady state rate constant (k(cat) ) for GTP hydrolysis of RGA1 at 2 mM MgCl(2) was 0.0075 +/- 0.0001 min(-1). Here, we examined the effects of pH and cations on the GTPase activity. The optimum pH at 2 mM MgCl(2) was approximately 6.0; whereas, the pH at 2 mM NH(4)Cl was approximately 4.0. The result from the cation dependence on the GTPase (guanosine 5'-triphosphatase) activity of RGA1 under the same condition showed that the GTP hydrolysis rate (k(cat)= 0.0353 min(-1)) under the condition of 2 mM NH(4)Cl at pH 4.0 was the highest. It corresponded to about 3.24-fold of the k(cat) value of 0.0109 min(-1) in the presence of 2 mM MgCl(2) at pH 6.0. PMID:12689519

  12. volume 6 Number 121979 Nucleic Acids Research The temperature and pH dependence of confonnational transitions of the chronutin subunit

    E-print Network

    Olins, Ada L.

    -soluble fraction of v, was dialyzed extensively against 0.2 mM EDTA (pH 7.0). These particles contain no HI or H5H range of 6.5 to 7.5 was 0.2 mM EDTA. The changes 1n ionic strength were made by additions of 0.25 M KC1 or 2.5 M KC1 1n 0.2 mM EDTA to the solution of nucleosomes 1n 0.2 mM EDTA. To lower the ionic strength

  13. Assessing the performance of the MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods. 1. The accuracy of binding free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tingjun; Wang, Junmei; Li, Youyong; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-24

    The Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA) and the Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA) methods calculate binding free energies for macromolecules by combining molecular mechanics calculations and continuum solvation models. To systematically evaluate the performance of these methods, we report here an extensive study of 59 ligands interacting with six different proteins. First, we explored the effects of the length of the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, ranging from 400 to 4800 ps, and the solute dielectric constant (1, 2, or 4) on the binding free energies predicted by MM/PBSA. The following three important conclusions could be observed: (1) MD simulation length has an obvious impact on the predictions, and longer MD simulation is not always necessary to achieve better predictions. (2) The predictions are quite sensitive to the solute dielectric constant, and this parameter should be carefully determined according to the characteristics of the protein/ligand binding interface. (3) Conformational entropy often show large fluctuations in MD trajectories, and a large number of snapshots are necessary to achieve stable predictions. Next, we evaluated the accuracy of the binding free energies calculated by three Generalized Born (GB) models. We found that the GB model developed by Onufriev and Case was the most successful model in ranking the binding affinities of the studied inhibitors. Finally, we evaluated the performance of MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA in predicting binding free energies. Our results showed that MM/PBSA performed better in calculating absolute, but not necessarily relative, binding free energies than MM/GBSA. Considering its computational efficiency, MM/GBSA can serve as a powerful tool in drug design, where correct ranking of inhibitors is often emphasized. PMID:21117705

  14. Quantification of iopamidol multi-site chemical exchange properties for ratiometric chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging of pH

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Phillip Zhe; Longo, Dario Livio; Hu, Wei; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua

    2014-01-01

    pH-sensitive chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI holds great promise for in vivo applications. However, CEST effect depends on not only exchange rate and hence pH, but also on the contrast agent concentration, which must be determined independently for pH quantification. Ratiometric CEST MRI normalizes the concentration effect by comparing CEST measurements of multiple labile protons to simplify pH determination. Iopamidol, a commonly used X-Ray contrast agent, has been explored as a ratiometric CEST agent for imaging pH. However, iopamidol CEST properties have not been solved, determination of which is important for optimization and quantification of iopamidol pH imaging. Our study numerically solved iopamidol multi-site pH-dependent chemical exchange properties. We found that iopamidol CEST MRI is suitable for measuring pH between 6 and 7.5 despite that T1 and T2 measurements varied substantially with pH and concentration. The pH MRI precision decreased with pH and concentration. The standard deviation of pH determined from MRI was 0.2 and 0.4 pH unit for 40 and 20 mM iopamidol solution of pH 6, and it improved to be less than 0.1 unit for pH above 7. Moreover, we determined base-catalyzed chemical exchange for 2-hydrooxypropanamido (ksw=1.2*10pH?4.1) and amide (ksw=1.2*10pH?4.6) protons that are statistically different from each other (P<0.01, ANCOVA), understanding of which should help guide in vivo translation of iopamidol pH imaging. PMID:25054859

  15. Quantification of iopamidol multi-site chemical exchange properties for ratiometric chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhe Sun, Phillip; Livio Longo, Dario; Hu, Wei; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua

    2014-08-01

    pH-sensitive chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI holds great promise for in vivo applications. However, the CEST effect depends on not only exchange rate and hence pH, but also on the contrast agent concentration, which must be determined independently for pH quantification. Ratiometric CEST MRI normalizes the concentration effect by comparing CEST measurements of multiple labile protons to simplify pH determination. Iopamidol, a commonly used x-ray contrast agent, has been explored as a ratiometric CEST agent for imaging pH. However, iopamidol CEST properties have not been solved, determination of which is important for optimization and quantification of iopamidol pH imaging. Our study numerically solved iopamidol multi-site pH-dependent chemical exchange properties. We found that iopamidol CEST MRI is suitable for measuring pH between 6 and 7.5 despite that T1 and T2 measurements varied substantially with pH and concentration. The pH MRI precision decreased with pH and concentration. The standard deviation of pH determined from MRI was 0.2 and 0.4 pH unit for 40 and 20?mM iopamidol solution of pH 6, and it improved to be less than 0.1 unit for pH above 7. Moreover, we determined base-catalyzed chemical exchange for 2-hydrooxypropanamido (ksw = 1.2*10pH-4.1) and amide (ksw = 1.2*10pH-4.6) protons that are statistically different from each other (P < 0.01, ANCOVA), understanding of which should help guide in vivo translation of iopamidol pH imaging.

  16. ?-Galactoside-binding activity of human galectin-1 at basic pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Hirotsugu; Takeuchi, Katsuyuki; Fukuda, Koki; Nishino, Tomohide

    2013-06-01

    ?-Galactoside-binding activity of human galectin-1 (hGal-1) was evaluated at pH 7-9.5 by fluorescence spectroscopy from the fraction bound to lactose gel (Y) and the lactose binding constant (Kb). Y decreases at pH > 8.2 ± 0.1 in the absence of NaCl, while it is constant in the presence of 150 mM NaCl. On the other hand, Kb is independent of pH and the NaCl concentration at basic pH. Analysis of Raman spectrum has shown that the pKa of Cys residues of hGal-1 is 8.5 ± 0.1 on average, indicating that about 40% of the six Cys residues of hGal-1 would be deprotonated at pH 8.2. The pH dependence of Y is explained by an increase of Coulombic repulsion among negatively charged hGal-1 on the lactose gel surface. This result suggests that Y is not always a good indicator of the ?-galactoside-binding activity of galectins, which contain many Cys residues.

  17. Kinetic equivalence of transmembrane pH and electrical potential differences in ATP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Soga, Naoki; Kinosita, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Masasuke; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2012-03-16

    ATP synthase is the key player of Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory, converting the energy of transmembrane proton flow into the high energy bond between ADP and phosphate. The proton motive force that drives this reaction consists of two components, the pH difference (?pH) across the membrane and transmembrane electrical potential (??). The two are considered thermodynamically equivalent, but kinetic equivalence in the actual ATP synthesis is not warranted, and previous experimental results vary. Here, we show that with the thermophilic Bacillus PS3 ATP synthase that lacks an inhibitory domain of the ? subunit, ?pH imposed by acid-base transition and ?? produced by valinomycin-mediated K(+) diffusion potential contribute equally to the rate of ATP synthesis within the experimental range examined (?pH -0.3 to 2.2, ?? -30 to 140 mV, pH around the catalytic domain 8.0). Either ?pH or ?? alone can drive synthesis, even when the other slightly opposes. ?? was estimated from the Nernst equation, which appeared valid down to 1 mm K(+) inside the proteoliposomes, due to careful removal of K(+) from the lipid. PMID:22253434

  18. Kinetic Equivalence of Transmembrane pH and Electrical Potential Differences in ATP Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Naoki; Kinosita, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Masasuke; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2012-01-01

    ATP synthase is the key player of Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory, converting the energy of transmembrane proton flow into the high energy bond between ADP and phosphate. The proton motive force that drives this reaction consists of two components, the pH difference (?pH) across the membrane and transmembrane electrical potential (??). The two are considered thermodynamically equivalent, but kinetic equivalence in the actual ATP synthesis is not warranted, and previous experimental results vary. Here, we show that with the thermophilic Bacillus PS3 ATP synthase that lacks an inhibitory domain of the ? subunit, ?pH imposed by acid-base transition and ?? produced by valinomycin-mediated K+ diffusion potential contribute equally to the rate of ATP synthesis within the experimental range examined (?pH ?0.3 to 2.2, ?? ?30 to 140 mV, pH around the catalytic domain 8.0). Either ?pH or ?? alone can drive synthesis, even when the other slightly opposes. ?? was estimated from the Nernst equation, which appeared valid down to 1 mm K+ inside the proteoliposomes, due to careful removal of K+ from the lipid. PMID:22253434

  19. The Cytosolic pH of Individual Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells Is a Key Factor in Acetic Acid Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Nińo, Miguel; Marquina, Maribel; Swinnen, Steve; Rodríguez-Porrata, Boris; Nevoigt, Elke; Arińo, Joaquín

    2015-11-15

    It was shown recently that individual cells of an isogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae population show variability in acetic acid tolerance, and this variability affects the quantitative manifestation of the trait at the population level. In the current study, we investigated whether cell-to-cell variability in acetic acid tolerance could be explained by the observed differences in the cytosolic pHs of individual cells immediately before exposure to the acid. Results obtained with cells of the strain CEN.PK113-7D in synthetic medium containing 96 mM acetic acid (pH 4.5) showed a direct correlation between the initial cytosolic pH and the cytosolic pH drop after exposure to the acid. Moreover, only cells with a low initial cytosolic pH, which experienced a less severe drop in cytosolic pH, were able to proliferate. A similar correlation between initial cytosolic pH and cytosolic pH drop was also observed in the more acid-tolerant strain MUCL 11987-9. Interestingly, a fraction of cells in the MUCL 11987-9 population showed initial cytosolic pH values below the minimal cytosolic pH detected in cells of the strain CEN.PK113-7D; consequently, these cells experienced less severe drops in cytosolic pH. Although this might explain in part the difference between the two strains with regard to the number of cells that resumed proliferation, it was observed that all cells from strain MUCL 11987-9 were able to proliferate, independently of their initial cytosolic pH. Therefore, other factors must also be involved in the greater ability of MUCL 11987-9 cells to endure strong drops in cytosolic pH. PMID:26341199

  20. Recovery of macroinvertebrates by screening in the field: a comparison between coarse (1.18 mm) and fine (0.60 mm) mesh sieves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dukerschein, J.T.; Gent, R.; Sauer, J.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the potential loss of target benthic macroinvertebrates from coarse-mesh field wash down of samples through a 1.18-mm mesh sieve nested on a 0.60-mm mesh sieve. Visible target organisms (midges, mayflies, and fingernail clams) in the 1.18-mm mesh sieve were removed from the sample and enumerated in the field. The entire contents of both sieves were preserved for subsequent laboratory enumeration under 4X magnification. Percent recoveries from each treatment were based on total intact organisms found in all sieves. Percent recovery for fingernail clams found in the field (31%) was lower than for mayflies (79%) and midges (88%). Laboratory enumeration of organisms retained by the 1.18-mm sieve yielded additional fingernail clams (to total 74% recovered in the field and lab), mayflies (to total 89%), and midges (to total 91%). If the 1.18-mm sieve is used alone in the field, it is adequate to monitor mayflies, midges >1 cm, and adult fingernail clams greater than or equal to 5.0 mm shell length.

  1. Comparison of radii sets, entropy, QM methods, and sampling on MM-PBSA, MM-GBSA, and QM/MM-GBSA ligand binding energies of F. tularensis enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI).

    PubMed

    Su, Pin-Chih; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Mehboob, Shahila; Hevener, Kirk E; Johnson, Michael E

    2015-09-30

    To validate a method for predicting the binding affinities of FabI inhibitors, three implicit solvent methods, MM-PBSA, MM-GBSA, and QM/MM-GBSA were carefully compared using 16 benzimidazole inhibitors in complex with Francisella tularensis FabI. The data suggests that the prediction results are sensitive to radii sets, GB methods, QM Hamiltonians, sampling protocols, and simulation length, if only one simulation trajectory is used for each ligand. In this case, QM/MM-GBSA using 6 ns MD simulation trajectories together with GB(neck2) , PM3, and the mbondi2 radii set, generate the closest agreement with experimental values (r(2) ?=?0.88). However, if the three implicit solvent methods are averaged from six 1 ns MD simulations for each ligand (called "multiple independent sampling"), the prediction results are relatively insensitive to all the tested parameters. Moreover, MM/GBSA together with GB(HCT) and mbondi, using 600 frames extracted evenly from six 0.25 ns MD simulations, can also provide accurate prediction to experimental values (r(2) ?=?0.84). Therefore, the multiple independent sampling method can be more efficient than a single, long simulation method. Since future scaffold expansions may significantly change the benzimidazole's physiochemical properties (charges, etc.) and possibly binding modes, which may affect the sensitivities of various parameters, the relatively insensitive "multiple independent sampling method" may avoid the need of an entirely new validation study. Moreover, due to large fluctuating entropy values, (QM/)MM-P(G)BSA were limited to inhibitors' relative affinity prediction, but not the absolute affinity. The developed protocol will support an ongoing benzimidazole lead optimization program. PMID:26216222

  2. Experimental characterization and system simulations of depth of interaction PET detectors using 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm LSO arrays.

    PubMed

    James, Sara St; Yang, Yongfeng; Wu, Yibao; Farrell, Richard; Dokhale, Purushottam; Shah, Kanai S; Cherry, Simon R

    2009-07-21

    Small animal PET scanners may be improved by increasing the sensitivity, improving the spatial resolution and improving the uniformity of the spatial resolution across the field of view. This may be achieved by using PET detectors based on crystal elements that are thin in the axial and transaxial directions and long in the radial direction, and by employing depth of interaction (DOI) encoding to minimize the parallax error. With DOI detectors, the diameter of the ring of the PET scanner may also be decreased. This minimizes the number of detectors required to achieve the same solid angle coverage as a scanner with a larger ring diameter and minimizes errors due to non-collinearity of the annihilation photons. In this study, we characterize prototype PET detectors that are finely pixelated with individual LSO crystal element sizes of 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 20 mm and 0.7 mm x 0.7 mm x 20 mm, read out at both ends by position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). Both a specular reflector and a diffuse reflector were evaluated. The detectors were characterized based on the ability to clearly resolve the individual crystal elements, the DOI resolution and the energy resolution. Our results indicate that a scanner based on any of the four detector designs would offer improved spatial resolution and more uniform spatial resolution compared to present day small animal PET scanners. The greatest improvements to spatial resolution will be achieved when the detectors employing the 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 20 mm crystals are used. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to demonstrate that 2 mm DOI resolution is adequate to ensure uniform spatial resolution for a small animal PET scanner geometry using these detectors. The sensitivity of such a scanner was also simulated using Monte Carlo simulations and was shown to be greater than 10% for a four ring scanner with an inner diameter of 6 cm, employing 20 detectors per scanner ring. PMID:19567945

  3. Production of microbial rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 for ex situ enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Amani, Hossein; Müller, Markus Michael; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Recently, several investigations have been carried out on the in situ bacteria flooding, but the ex situ biosurfactant production and addition to the sand pack as agents for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has little been studied. In order to develop suitable technology for ex situ MEOR processes, it is essential to carry out tests about it. Therefore, this work tries to fill the gap. The intention of this study was to investigate whether the rhamnolipid mix could be produced in high enough quantities for enhanced oil recovery in the laboratory scale and prove its potential use as an effective material for field application. In this work, the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 to grow and produce rhamnolipid on sunflower as sole carbon source under nitrogen limitation was shown. The production of Rha-C10-C10 and Rha2-C10-C10 was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The rhamnolipid mixture obtained was able to reduce the surface and interfacial tension of water to 26 and 2 mN/m, respectively. The critical micelle concentration was 120 mg/L. Maximum rhamnolipid production reached to about 0.7 g/L in a shake flask. The yield of rhamnolipid per biomass (Y RL/x ), rhamnolipid per sunflower oil (Y RL/s ), and the biomass per sunflower oil (Y x/s ) for shake flask were obtained about 0.01, 0.0035, and 0.035 g g(-1), respectively. The stability of the rhamnolipid at different salinities, pH and temperature, and also, its emulsifying activity has been investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pHs, and salt concentrations, and it also has the ability to emulsify oil, which is essential for enhanced oil recovery. With 120 mg/L rhamnolipid, 27 % of original oil in place was recovered after water flooding from a sand pack. This result not only suggests rhamnolipids as appropriate model biosurfactants for MEOR, but it even shows the potential as a biosurfactant of choice for actual MEOR applications. PMID:23640261

  4. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, C.J.

    1983-11-15

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe. 1 fig.

  5. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Charles J. (San Jose, CA)

    1983-01-01

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe.

  6. Conventional metrizamide myelography (MM) and computed tomographic metrizamide myelography (CTMM) in scoliosis: a comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, H.; Harwood-Nash, D.C.; Fitz, C.R.; Chuang, H.S.; Armstrong, E.

    1982-01-01

    A retrospective examination was performed to assess the accuracy of metrizamide myelography (MM) and computed tomographic metrizamide myelography (CTMM) in scoliosis. Of 81 consecutive scoliotic children studied by myelography, 30 had only MM while the remaining 51 had CTMM immediately afterward. CTMM added esential diagnostic information in 13 cases of dysraphism and 4 cases, both methods gave the same imformation. The outhors conclude that in patients with severe scoliosis, dysraphism, and scoliosis with localized neurological disturbances, CTMM should always be added to MM or be the only examination; while in idiopathic scoliosis with vague neurological disturbances a survey of the entire spine is essential, preferably with MM.

  7. Seed coordinates of a new COMS-like 24 mm plaque verified using the FARO Edge.

    PubMed

    McCauley Cutsinger, Sarah E; Furutani, Keith M; Forsman, Renae M; Corner, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    A 24 mm COMS-like eye plaque was developed to meet the treatment needs of our eye plaque brachytherapy practice. As part of commissioning, it was necessary to determine the new plaque's seed coordinates. The FARO Edge, a commercially available measurement arm, was chosen for this purpose. In order to validate the FARO Edge method, it was first used to measure the seed marker coordinates in the silastic molds for the standard 10, 18, and 20 mm COMS plaques, and the results were compared with the standard published Task Group 129 coordinates by a nonlinear least squares match in MATLAB version R2013a. All measured coordinates were within 0.60 mm, and root mean square deviation was 0.12, 0.23, and 0.35 mm for the 10, 18, and 20 mm molds, respectively. The FARO Edge was then used to measure the seed marker locations in the new 24 mm silastic mold. Those values were compared to the manufacturing specification coordinates and were found to demonstrate good agreement, with a maximum deviation of 0.56mm and a root mean square deviation of 0.37 mm. The FARO Edge is deemed to be a reliable method for determining seed coordinates for COMS silastics, and the seed coordinates for the new 24 mm plaque are presented. PMID:26699584

  8. A practical large scale/high speed data distribution system using 8 mm libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Eight mm tape libraries are known primarily for their small size, large storage capacity, and low cost. However, many applications require an additional attribute which, heretofore, has been lacking -- high transfer rate. Transfer rate is particularly important in a large scale data distribution environment -- an environment in which 8 mm tape should play a very important role. Data distribution is a natural application for 8 mm for several reasons: most large laboratories have access to 8 mm tape drives, 8 mm tapes are upwardly compatible, 8 mm media are very inexpensive, 8 mm media are light weight (important for shipping purposes), and 8 mm media densely pack data (5 gigabytes now and 15 gigabytes on the horizon). If the transfer rate issue were resolved, 8 mm could offer a good solution to the data distribution problem. To that end Exabyte has analyzed four ways to increase its transfer rate: native drive transfer rate increases, data compression at the drive level, tape striping, and homogeneous drive utilization. Exabyte is actively pursuing native drive transfer rate increases and drive level data compression. However, for non-transmitted bulk data applications (which include data distribution) the other two methods (tape striping and homogeneous drive utilization) hold promise.

  9. ADIFOR working note No. 11: ADIFOR strategies related to POINTER usage in MM5

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Khademi, P.; Knauff, T.

    1994-03-01

    POINTERs are nonstandard Fortran statements which cannot be processed by ADIFOR. We are interested in generating derivative code for MM5, a mesoscale model code which uses POINTERs extensively and in a particular structured manner. We briefly report on POINTERs and their role in MM5 and, for their particular usage in MM5, describe the three-step code transformation scheme consisting of pre-ADIFOR, ADIFOR, and post-ADIFOR transformations that result in the generation of correct derivative code for MM5.

  10. A positron tomograph with 600 BGO (bismuth germanate) crystals and 2. 6 mm resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.; Cahoon, J.L.; Geyer, A.B.; Moses, W.W.; Uber, D.C.; Vuletich, T.; Budinger, T.F.

    1987-10-01

    We describe the imaging performance of the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph, a single 600 cm diam ring of 3 mm wide bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals coupled individually to 14 mm phototubes. With a pulse height threshold of 200 keV and a slice thickness of 5 mm, the sensitivity is 7024 eventssec per ..mu..Ciml in a 20 cm cyliner of water. The measured rates for 18 ..mu..Ciml are 95,000 truessec plus 20,000 randomsec. A 0.3 mm diam /sup 22/Na line source near the center of the tomograph has a circular point spread function (PSF) with a full-width at half-maximum (fwhm) of 2.6 mm. At 5 cm from the center the PSF is elliptical with a fwhm of 2.7 mm tangential )times) 3.2 mm radial. At 10 cm the PSF has a fwhm of 2.8 mm tangential )times) 4.8 mm radial. Attenuation data are accumulated with a 20 mCi /sup 68/Ge orbiting transmission source and 100 million coincident events are collected in 200 sec. 20 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Acidification due to microbial dechlorination near a trichloroethene DNAPL is overcome with pH buffer or formate as electron donor: experimental demonstration in diffusion-cells.

    PubMed

    Philips, Jo; Maes, Nele; Springael, Dirk; Smolders, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Acidification due to microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) can limit the bio-enhanced dissolution of TCE dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). This study related the dissolution enhancement of a TCE DNAPL to the pH buffer capacity of the medium and the type of electron donor used. In batch systems, dechlorination was optimal at pH7.1-7.5, but was completely inhibited below pH6.2. In addition, dechlorination in batch systems led to a smaller pH decrease at an increasing pH buffer capacity or with the use of formate instead of lactate as electron donor. Subsequently, bio-enhanced TCE DNAPL dissolution was quantified in diffusion-cells with a 5.5 cm central sand layer, separating a TCE DNAPL layer from an aqueous top layer. Three different pH buffer capacities (2.9 mM-17.9 mM MOPS) and lactate or formate as electron donor were applied. In the lactate fed diffusion-cells, the DNAPL dissolution enhancement factor increased from 1.5 to 2.2 with an increase of the pH buffer capacity. In contrast, in the formate fed diffusion-cells, the DNAPL dissolution enhancement factor (2.4±0.3) was unaffected by the pH buffer capacity. Measurement of the pore water pH confirmed that the pH decreased less with an increased pH buffer capacity or with formate instead of lactate as electron donor. These results suggest that the significant impact of acidification on bio-enhanced DNAPL dissolution can be overcome by the amendment of a pH buffer or by applying a non acidifying electron donor like formate. PMID:23500838

  12. Acidification due to microbial dechlorination near a trichloroethene DNAPL is overcome with pH buffer or formate as electron donor: Experimental demonstration in diffusion-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Jo; Maes, Nele; Springael, Dirk; Smolders, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Acidification due to microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) can limit the bio-enhanced dissolution of TCE dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). This study related the dissolution enhancement of a TCE DNAPL to the pH buffer capacity of the medium and the type of electron donor used. In batch systems, dechlorination was optimal at pH 7.1-7.5, but was completely inhibited below pH 6.2. In addition, dechlorination in batch systems led to a smaller pH decrease at an increasing pH buffer capacity or with the use of formate instead of lactate as electron donor. Subsequently, bio-enhanced TCE DNAPL dissolution was quantified in diffusion-cells with a 5.5 cm central sand layer, separating a TCE DNAPL layer from an aqueous top layer. Three different pH buffer capacities (2.9 mM-17.9 mM MOPS) and lactate or formate as electron donor were applied. In the lactate fed diffusion-cells, the DNAPL dissolution enhancement factor increased from 1.5 to 2.2 with an increase of the pH buffer capacity. In contrast, in the formate fed diffusion-cells, the DNAPL dissolution enhancement factor (2.4 ± 0.3) was unaffected by the pH buffer capacity. Measurement of the pore water pH confirmed that the pH decreased less with an increased pH buffer capacity or with formate instead of lactate as electron donor. These results suggest that the significant impact of acidification on bio-enhanced DNAPL dissolution can be overcome by the amendment of a pH buffer or by applying a non acidifying electron donor like formate.

  13. Ventilatory regulation of arterial H(+) (pH) during exercise.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Karlman; Cox, Timothy A; Sietsema, Kathy E

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that exercise ventilation and arterial H(+) ([H(+)]a) are mutually interactive, [H(+)]a stimulating V(E) and V(E) regulating [H(+)]a increase. Fifty-five patients were studied, 10 normal and 45 with cardio-respiratory disorders. Each patient underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with simultaneous serial arterial blood gas and pH measurements. Subsequently, they were classified into one of 7 clinical groups: (1) normal, (2) exercise-induced hypoxemia (PaO2<50mmHg), (3) exercise-induced myocardial ischemia, (4) heart failure, (5) COPD, (6) interstitial lung disease, and (7) pulmonary vasculopathy. The average resting pHa was 7.42 or 7.43 for each group. At anaerobic (lactic acidosis) threshold (AT), [H(+)]a increased due to PaCO2 increase (+2mmHg), primarily. At peak exercise, [H(+)]a increased further due to arterial HCO3(-) decrease. In summary, [H(+)]a appears to be closely regulated at rest to AT and further to peak exercise by CO2 elimination from the venous return. No evidence was observed for over-ventilation of CO2, causing the arterial blood to become more alkaline during exercise in the patient groups studied. PMID:24369924

  14. Electronic Absorption Spectra from MM and ab initio QM/MM Molecular Dynamics: Environmental Effects on the Absorption Spectrum of Photoactive Yellow Protein

    PubMed Central

    Isborn, Christine M.; Götz, Andreas W.; Clark, Matthew A.; Walker, Ross C.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new interface of the GPU parallelized TeraChem electronic structure package and the Amber molecular dynamics package for quantum mechanical (QM) and mixed QM and molecular mechanical (MM) molecular dynamics simulations. This QM/MM interface is used for computation of the absorption spectra of the photoactive yellow protein (PYP) chromophore in vacuum, aqueous solution, and protein environments. The computed excitation energies of PYP require a very large QM region (hundreds of atoms) covalently bonded to the chromophore in order to achieve agreement with calculations that treat the entire protein quantum mechanically. We also show that 40 or more surrounding water molecules must be included in the QM region in order to obtain converged excitation energies of the solvated PYP chromophore. These results indicate that large QM regions (with hundreds of atoms) are a necessity in QM/MM calculations. PMID:23476156

  15. James H. Clarke, Ph.D. JAMES HAROLD CLARKE, Ph.D., BCES, F. AAFS

    E-print Network

    James H. Clarke, Ph.D. Page 1 JAMES HAROLD CLARKE, Ph.D., BCES, F. AAFS Department of Civil 6152 (cell) james.h.clarke@vanderbilt.edu EDUCATION: The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland on Reactor Safeguards, consultant #12;James H. Clarke, Ph.D. Page 2 2005-2008 Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  16. Middle School and pH?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herricks, Susan

    2007-01-01

    A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. After sorting through a multitude of information about pH, a…

  17. Fetal scalp pH testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Normal pH: 7.25 to 7.35 Borderline pH: 7.20 to 7.25 The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some ...

  18. Industrial Engineering Ph.D. Graduate Handbook

    E-print Network

    Industrial Engineering Ph.D. Graduate Handbook 2012 - 2013 #12;MANUAL OF THE PH.D. DEGREE IN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY 2012 - 2013 IE graduate degrees please contact: Office of Graduate Programs Of Industrial Engineering Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering Arizona State University PO

  19. Industrial Engineering Ph.D. Graduate Handbook

    E-print Network

    Industrial Engineering Ph.D. Graduate Handbook 2013 - 2014 #12;MANUAL OF THE PH.D. DEGREE IN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY 2013 - 2014 IE graduate degrees please contact: Office of Graduate Programs Of Industrial Engineering Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering Arizona State University PO

  20. Industrial Engineering Ph.D. Graduate Handbook

    E-print Network

    Industrial Engineering Ph.D. Graduate Handbook 2014 - 2015 #12;#12;MANUAL OF THE PH.D. DEGREE IN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY 2014 - 2015 IE graduate degrees please contact: Office of Graduate Programs Of Industrial Engineering Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering Arizona State University PO

  1. Psychologist M. Kirk Dougher, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Practicum Trainee Hortencia Rivera Program Assistant Jennifer Elgert Program Assistant Sara Denis Student Assistant Victoria Dodman, Psy.D. Asst Dir Broward Amber Lyda, Psy.D. Asst Dir./Training Dir Tiffany Albury Seiman, Ph.D. Suicide Prevention Coord Adam Iglesias, Ph.D. Psychologist Candiest Pinchem-Henry Program

  2. pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the…

  3. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePLUS

    The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the kidneys to send acid to the urine when there is too much acid in the ... Urine with a pH less than 5.3 is normal. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different ...

  4. CALCULATING THE PH OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SATURATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two new expressions for the pH of saturation (pH subs) were derived. One is a simplified equation developed from an aqueous carbonate equilibrium system in which correction for ionic strength was considered. The other is a more accurate quadratic formula that involves computerize...

  5. Anna Margaret Davidson Ph.D. Candidate

    E-print Network

    DeJong, Theodore

    Anna Margaret Davidson Ph.D. Candidate Department of Plant Sciences University of California Davis 2007 Wickson Hall One Shields Ave. Davis, CA 95616. (815) 212-4409. adavidson@ucdavis.edu EDUCATION Ph Assistantship, UC Davis Winter, 2011, 2012 TA for PLS 113, Biological Applications in Fruit Tree Management

  6. 3.0 SOP 6a pH 2007 10 12 pH (total hydrogen

    E-print Network

    3.0 SOP 6a pH 2007 10 12 1 / 8 SOP 6a / pH 1. pH (total hydrogen ion concentration scale HSO4 - pH (2) 10 -= - + 110 soln-kgmol ][H logpH . (2) 3. pH pH (S)(X) [] (E) KCl [H+ ] #12;3.0 SOP 6a pH 2007 10 12 2 / 8 (3) pH FRT EE /10ln )S(pHpH(X) XS - += . (3) pH pH(S) pH

  7. Intracellular pH modulates quinary structure.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Rachel D; Guseman, Alex J; Pielak, Gary J

    2015-11-01

    NMR spectroscopy can provide information about proteins in living cells. pH is an important characteristic of the intracellular environment because it modulates key protein properties such as net charge and stability. Here, we show that pH modulates quinary interactions, the weak, ubiquitous interactions between proteins and other cellular macromolecules. We use the K10H variant of the B domain of protein G (GB1, 6.2 kDa) as a pH reporter in Escherichia coli cells. By controlling the intracellular pH, we show that quinary interactions influence the quality of in-cell (15) N-(1) H HSQC NMR spectra. At low pH, the quality is degraded because the increase in attractive interactions between E. coli proteins and GB1 slows GB1 tumbling and broadens its crosspeaks. The results demonstrate the importance of quinary interactions for furthering our understanding of protein chemistry in living cells. PMID:26257390

  8. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    DOEpatents

    Maynard, John D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hendee, Shonn P. (Albuquerque, NM); Rohrscheib, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Nunez, David (Albuquerque, NM); Alam, M. Kathleen (Cedar Crest, NM); Franke, James E. (Franklin, TN); Kemeny, Gabor J. (Madison, WI)

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  9. Evaluation of Offshore Wind Simulations with MM5 in the Japanese and Danish Coastal Waters

    E-print Network

    Heinemann, Detlev

    , with the increase of interests in renewable energy and of knowledge that offshore winds can be a promising energyEvaluation of Offshore Wind Simulations with MM5 in the Japanese and Danish Coastal Waters Teruo to evaluate the accuracy of offshore wind simulation with the mesoscale model MM5, long-term simulations

  10. Mountain Lion 'MmJUN7-r946 WQDOS HOLE, MASS

    E-print Network

    mm ^m' ''AzM. Mountain Lion 'MmJUN7-r946 WQDOS HOLE, MASS CIRCULAR 6 FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE U. S For sale by the Superintendent of Documents Washinston 25, D. C. : Price 5 cents #12;MOUNTAIN LION TRAPPING Service nPHE AMERICAN MOUNTAIN LION (Felis concolor) is one of J- the largest predatory animals

  11. The Development and Demise of 8 MM Film Loops in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Rebecca P.

    Educators in the late 1960s and early 1970s found that 8 mm film loop cartridges encouraged learning techniques such as self-tutorials, individualized instruction, and small-group participation. The single concept approach used in the production of most 8 mm cartridges contributed to alternative learning strategies in these settings. The…

  12. Young’s modulus calculations for cellulose Iß by MM3 and quantum mechanics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics (MM) calculations were performed to elucidate Young’s moduli for a series of cellulose Iß models. Computations using the second generation empirical force field MM3 with a disaccharide cellulose model, 1,4'-O-dimethyl-ß-cellobioside (DMCB), and an analo...

  13. Estimation of the Young’s modulus of cellulose Iß by MM3 and quantum mechanics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young’s modulus provides a measure of the resistance to deformation of an elastic material. In this study, modulus estimations for models of cellulose Iß relied on calculations performed with molecular mechanics (MM) and quantum mechanics (QM) programs. MM computations used the second generation emp...

  14. The M/M Center: Meeting the Demand for Multicultural, Multilingual Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Pia Lindquist; Murai, Harold; Berta-Avila, Margarita; William-White, Lisa; Baker, Susan; Arellano, Adele; Echandia, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    The Multilingual/Multicultural Teacher Preparation Center (M/M Center), a teacher preparation program offered by the Bilingual/Multicultural Education Department (BMED) at California State University, Sacramento, is entering its third decade of operation. The M/M Center was established by a group of progressive teacher educators, most with a…

  15. Hybrid QM/MM Car-Parrinello Simulations of Catalytic and Enzymatic Reactions

    E-print Network

    Guidoni, Leonardo

    1 Hybrid QM/MM Car-Parrinello Simulations of Catalytic and Enzymatic Reactions MariaCarola Colombo, we review some recent applications of hybrid Car-Parrinello simulations of chemical and biological recently developed a combination of these two techniques into a hybrid QM/MM Car-Parrinello scheme [4

  16. Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of 5 mm Hexagonal Single-Crystal Graphene from Ethanol

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of 5 mm Hexagonal Single-Crystal Graphene from Ethanol Xiao Chen1 as large as 5 mm can be synthesized from ethanol via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Key conditions for the successful reduction in nucleation density are extremely low partial pressure of ethanol vapor and pre

  17. Use of a Genetically Enhanced, Pediocin-Producing Starter Culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM217, To Control Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Buyong, Nurliza; Kok, Jan; Luchansky, John B.

    1998-01-01

    Cheddar cheese was prepared with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM217, a starter culture which contains pMC117 coding for pediocin PA-1. About 75 liters of pasteurized milk (containing ca. 3.6% fat) was inoculated with strain MM217 (ca. 106 CFU per ml) and a mixture of three Listeria monocytogenes strains (ca. 103 CFU per ml). The viability of the pathogen and the activity of pediocin in the cheese were monitored at appropriate intervals throughout the manufacturing process and during ripening at 8°C for 6 months. In control cheese made with the isogenic, non-pediocin-producing starter culture L. lactis subsp. lactis MM210, the counts of the pathogen increased to about 107 CFU per g after 2 weeks of ripening and then gradually decreased to about 103 CFU per g after 6 months. In the experimental cheese made with strain MM217, the counts of L. monocytogenes decreased to 102 CFU per g within 1 week of ripening and then decreased to about 10 CFU per g within 3 months. The average titer of pediocin in the experimental cheese decreased from approximately 64,000 arbitrary units (AU) per g after 1 day to 2,000 AU per g after 6 months. No pediocin activity (<200 AU per g) was detected in the control cheese. Also, the presence of pMC117 in strain MM217 did not alter the cheese-making quality of the starter culture, as the rates of acid production, the pH values, and the levels of moisture, NaCl, and fat of the control cheese and the experimental cheese were similar. Our data revealed that pediocin-producing starter cultures have significant potential for protecting natural cheese against L. monocytogenes. PMID:9835572

  18. Barium recovery by crystallization in a fluidized-bed reactor: effects of pH, Ba/P molar ratio and seed.

    PubMed

    Su, Chia-Chi; Reano, Resmond L; Dalida, Maria Lourdes P; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of process conditions, including upward velocity inside the column, the amount of added seed and seed size, the pH value of the precipitant or the phosphate stream and the Ba/P molar ratio in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) were studied with a view to producing BaHPO? crystals of significant size and maximize the removal of barium. XRD were used to identify the products that were collected from the FBR. Experimental results show that an upward velocity of 48 cmmin(-1) produced the largest BaHPO? crystals with a size of around 0.84-1.0mm. The addition of seed crystals has no effect on barium removal. The use of a seed of a size in the ranges unseeded<0.149-0.29 mm<0.149 mm<0.29-0.42 mm produced increasing amounts of increasingly large crystals. The largest BaHPO? crystals were obtained at pH 8.4-8.8 with a Ba/P molar ratio of 1.0. In the homogeneous and heterogeneous processes, around 98% of barium was removed at pH 8.4-8.6 and [Ba]/[P]=1.0. The XRD results show that a significant amount of barium phosphate (Ba?(PO?)?) was obtained at pH 11. The compounds BaHPO? and BaO were present at a pH of below 10. PMID:24462085

  19. [Sequence-specific interaction of pyrimidine oligonucleotides with double-stranded DNA at acidic pH complexes of different types].

    PubMed

    Brossalina, E B; Demchenko, E N; Demchenko, Iu N; Vlassov, V V

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of pyrimidine oligonucleotides (OLN(15) and OLN(6)) and their alkylating derivatives bearing 4-(3-amino)-N-methyl and N-2-chloroethyl (RCl) aniline residues at the 5'-phosphate with a fragment of the human gamma-interferon gene was studied. In the presence of 150 mM NaCl at pH 5.4, the yield of dsDNA alkylation was 60% for RCl-OLN(15) and 10% for RCl-OLN(6); at pH 4.0 in the presence of 150 mM NaCl and 10 mM MgCl2, the yield of the dsDNA modification product was 100% for RCl-OLN(6) and 50% for RCl-OLN(15). It was shown by native electrophoresis that OLN(15) could form with the target dsDNA complexes of two types in the presence of magnesium ions at pH 4.0. One of the complexes was stable at pH 5.4 in the presence of magnesium ions, whereas the other was not. We found that only the complex stable in 10 mM Mg(OAc)2, pH 5.4, was effectively alkylated. PMID:19915644

  20. Is cholecystectomy a reasonable treatment option for simple gallbladder polyps larger than 10 mm?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Yon; Oh, Se Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Kyu Taek

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the relevance of the 10-mm size criterion of the generally accepted surgical indication for gallbladder polyps (GBPs). METHODS: We collected data of patients who were confirmed to have GBPs through cholecystectomy at Samsung Medical Center between January 1997 and December 2012. Among the patients who underwent cholecystectomy for GBP, those with a definite evidence for malignancy such as adjacent organ invasion, metastasis on preoperative imaging studies, polyp larger than 20 mm, absence of preoperative imaging study results, and patients having gallstones were excluded. We retrospectively collected and analyzed information on patient’s clinical characteristics, symptoms, ultrasonographic findings, and blood laboratory tests. RESULTS: A total of 836 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy were retrospectively analyzed. Seven hundred eighty patients (93%) had benign polyps, whereas 56 patients (7%) had malignant polyps. Of the 56 patients with malignancy, 4 patients (7%) had borderline GBP (10-12 mm) and a patient had small GBP (< 10 mm) with T2 stage. We conducted an ROC curve analysis to verify the 10-mm size criteria (AUC = 0.887, SD = 0.21, P < 0.001). In the ROC curve for polyp size and malignancy, sensitivity and specificity of the 10-mm size criterion was 98.2% and 19.6%, respectively. The specificity of the 11-mm and 12-mm size criteria was 44.6% and 56%, respectively, whereas the sensitivity of these two size criteria was similar. We defined the GBPs of 10 to 12 mm as a borderline-sized GBP, which were found in 411 patients (49%). In this group, there was a significant difference in age between patients with benign and malignant GBPs (47 years vs 60 years, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: GBPs larger than 13 mm need immediate excision whereas for borderline-sized GBPs detected in young patients, careful medical observation can be a rational decision. PMID:25892875

  1. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a sub-Arctic fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause-Jensen, D.; Duarte, C. M.; Hendriks, I. E.; Meire, L.; Blicher, M. E.; Marbŕ, N.; Sejr, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification (OA) and large-scale assessments of pH and the saturation state for aragonite (?arag) indicate that it is already close to corrosive states (?arag < 1). In high-latitude coastal waters the regulation of pH and ?arag is far more complex than offshore because increased biological activity and input of glacial meltwater affect pH. As most calcifiers occupy coastal habitats, the assessment of risks from OA to these vulnerable organisms cannot be derived from extrapolation of current and forecasted offshore conditions, but requires an understanding of the regimes of pH and ?arag in their coastal habitats. To increase knowledge of the natural variability of pH in the Arctic coastal zone and specifically to test the influence of benthic vegetated habitats, we quantified pH-variability in a Greenland fjord in a nested scale approach. A sensor array logging pH, O2, PAR, temperature and salinity was applied on spatial scales ranging from km-scale across the horizontal extension of the fjord, over 100 m scale vertically in the fjord, 10-100 m scale between subtidal habitats with and without kelp forests and between vegetated tidal pools and adjacent vegetated shores, to cm-m scale within kelp forests and mm-scale across boundary layers of macrophyte tissue. In addition, we assessed the temporal variability in pH on diurnal and seasonal scales. Based on pH-measurements combined with relationships between salinity, total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon we also estimated variability of ?arag. Results show variability in pH and ?arag of up to 0.2-0.3 units at several scales, i.e. along the horizontal and vertical extension of the fjord, between seasons and on a diel basis in benthic habitats and within 1 m3 of kelp forest. Vegetated intertidal pools exhibited extreme diel pH variability of > 1.5 units and macrophyte boundary layers a pH-range of up to 0.8 units. Overall, ?arag was favorable to calcification, and pelagic and benthic metabolism was an important driver of pH and ?arag producing mosaics of variability from low levels in the dark to peak levels at high irradiance. We suggest that productive coastal environments may form niches of high pH in a future acidified Arctic Ocean.

  2. Algal and bacterial activities in acidic (pH 3) strip mine lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Gyure, R.A.; Konopka, A.; Brooks, A.; Doemel, W.

    1987-09-01

    Reservoir 29 and Lake B are extremely acid lakes (epilimnion pHs of 2.7 and 3.2, respectively), because they receive acidic discharges from coal refuse piles. They differ in that the pH of profundal sediments in Reservoir 29 increased from 2.7 to 3.8 during the period of thermal stratification, whereas permanently anoxic sediments in Lake B had a pH of 6.2. The pH rise in Reservoir 29 sediments was correlated with a temporal increase in H/sub 2/S concentration in the anaerobic hypolimnion from 0 to >1 mM. The chlorophyll a levels in the epilimnion of Reservoir 29 were low, and the rate of primary production was typical of an oligotrophic system. However, there was a dense 10-cm layer of algal biomass at the bottom of the metalimnion. Production by this layer was low owing to light limitation and possibly H/sub 2/S toxicity. The specific photosynthetic rates of epilimnetic algae were low, which suggests that nutrient availability is more important than pH in limiting production. The highest photosynthetic rates were obtained in water samples incubated at pH 2.7 to 4. Heterotrophic bacterial activity (measured by (/sup 14/C)glucose metabolism) was greatest at the sediment/water interface. Bacterial production (assayed by thymidine incorporation) was as high in Reservoir 29 as in a nonacid mesotrophic Indiana lake.

  3. Evolution of pH during in-situ leaching in small concrete cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Saguees, A.A.; Moreno, E.I.; Andrade, C.

    1997-11-01

    Small amounts (0.4 cc) of neutral water placed in small cylindrical cavities (5 mm diameter) in concrete exposed to 100% relative humidity first developed a pH comparable to that of a saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution. The pH then increased over a period of days-weeks toward a higher terminal value. A micro pH electrode arrangement was used. This behavior was observed in samples of 12 different concrete mix designs, including some with pozzolanic additions. The average terminal cavity pH closely approached that of expressed pore water from the same concretes. A simplified mathematical model reproduced the experimentally observed behavior. The model assumed inward diffusional transport of the pH-determining species in the surrounding concrete pore solution. The experimental results were consistent with the model predictions when using diffusion parameters on the order of those previously reported for alkali cations in concrete. The cavity size, cavity water content, and exposure to atmospheric CO{sub 2} should be minimized when attempting to obtain cavity pH values approaching those of the surrounding pore water.

  4. Algal and Bacterial Activities in Acidic (pH 3) Strip Mine Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Gyure, Ruth A.; Konopka, Allan; Brooks, Austin; Doemel, William

    1987-01-01

    Reservoir 29 and Lake B are extremely acid lakes (epilimnion pHs of 2.7 and 3.2, respectively), because they receive acidic discharges from coal refuse piles. They differ in that the pH of profundal sediments in Reservoir 29 increased from 2.7 to 3.8 during the period of thermal stratification, whereas permanently anoxic sediments in Lake B had a pH of 6.2. The pH rise in Reservoir 29 sediments was correlated with a temporal increase in H2S concentration in the anaerobic hypolimnion from 0 to >1 mM. The chlorophyll a levels in the epilimnion of Reservoir 29 were low, and the rate of primary production was typical of an oligotrophic system. However, there was a dense 10-cm layer of algal biomass at the bottom of the metalimnion. Production by this layer was low owing to light limitation and possibly H2S toxicity. The specific photosynthetic rates of epilimnetic algae were low, which suggests that nutrient availability is more important than pH in limiting production. The highest photosynthetic rates were obtained in water samples incubated at pH 2.7 to 4. Heterotrophic bacterial activity (measured by [14C]glucose metabolism) was greatest at the sediment/water interface. Bacterial production (assayed by thymidine incorporation) was as high in Reservoir 29 as in a nonacid mesotrophic Indiana lake. PMID:16347430

  5. Influence of Acidic pH on Hydrogen and Acetate Production by an Electrosynthetic Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.

    2014-01-01

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (?5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at ?600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ?5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ?6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at ?765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at ?800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying ?800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (?2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate (?=?4.7 kg CO2 captured). PMID:25333313

  6. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    DOE PAGESBeta

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.; Battista, John R.

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominatedmore »community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (?2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).« less

  7. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.; Battista, John R.

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (?2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).

  8. 77 FR 75850 - Regulated Navigation Area; Upper Mississippi River MM 0.0 to MM 185.0; Cairo, IL to St. Louis, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Automatic Identification System COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal....0 to MM 185.0; Cairo, IL to St. Louis, MO AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... Mississippi River (UMR), in St. Louis, MO. During this meeting the USACE noted that approximately...

  9. Effectiveness of 2.0 mm Standard and 2.0 mm Locking Miniplates in Management of Mandibular Fractures: A Clinical Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Mahaboob; Subba Raju, T; Rao, N Koteswara; Reddy, Chandra Kiran

    2014-03-01

    To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of 2.0 mm locking miniplates versus 2.0 mm standard miniplates in treatment of mandible fractures. Sixty randomly selected patients who sustained mandibular fractures were selected for this study. The fractured fragments were stabilized using 2.0 mm locking miniplates in 30 cases and in the remaining 30 cases the fractured fragments were fixed with conventional 2.0 mm miniplates. Post-operative stability was assessed with radiographs at 7th day, 1st, and 3rd months. The stability of the reduced fracture was assessed clinically and both the types of plates were assessed with an OPG or conventional radiographs. This study shows favorable results on use of locking miniplates in mandibular fractures. The results show that there were no significant differences in the post-operative complications between the conventional and the locking plate/screw mandibular systems. The locking plate/screw system was more rigid than conventional plate/screw system, thereby reducing the need and duration of intermaxillary fixation (IMF). PMID:24644396

  10. Assessing the Performance of the MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA Methods. 1. The Accuracy of Binding Free Energy Calculations Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei

    constant (1, 2, or 4) on the binding free energies predicted by MM/PBSA. The following three important Energy Calculations Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulations Tingjun Hou,*, Junmei Wang, Youyong Li for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, P. R. China, Department

  11. Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu.; Gao, Yifeng; Deng, Bin

    2010-10-15

    Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes were investigated experimentally. The experimental condensing temperature is 40 C, and nominal oil concentration range is from 0% to 5%. The test results indicate that the presence of oil deteriorates the heat transfer. The deterioration effect is negligible at nominal oil concentration of 1%, and becomes obvious with the increase of nominal oil concentration. At 5% nominal oil concentration, the heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture is found to have a maximum reduction of 25.1% and 23.8% for 5 mm and 4 mm tubes, respectively. The predictabilities of the existing condensation heat transfer correlations were verified with the experimental data, and Yu and Koyama correlation shows the best predictability. By replacing the pure refrigerant properties with the mixture's properties, Yu and Koyama correlation has a deviation of -15% to + 20% in predicting the local condensation heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture. (author)

  12. Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate and pH Among Areca Nut Chewers and Oral Submucous Fibrosis Subjects: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Khader, Nishat Fatima; Dyasanoor, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH among areca nut chewers, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and apparently healthy individuals. Methods: A comparative study was conducted to assess and compare the SFR and pH among 135 outpatients (45 areca nut chewers + 45 OSMF + 45 control) at The Oxford Dental College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, India. Subjects were interviewed using structural proforma and Modified Schirmer strips and pH paper were implemented for assessing SFR and pH respectively. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 software. Results: A statistically significant increase in SFR (35.7 mm at 3rd minutes) among areca nut group and a decrease in SFR among OSMF group (23.4 mm at 3rd minutes) when compared to apparently healthy subjects (30.7 mm at 3rd minutes). The mean pH among areca nut, OSMF and control groups was 6.76, 6.82, and 6.74 respectively with no statistical significance. Conclusions: The observation and findings of the study clearly showed hypersalivation among areca nut group and hyposalivation among OSMF group, with no significant change in salivary pH when compared to healthy subjects. PMID:26473160

  13. pH. Training Module 5.305.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with pH, measurement of pH with a pH meter and maintenance of pH meter electrodes. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers the definition of pH, types of electrodes and…

  14. Geometry optimization with QM/MM methods II: Explicit quadratic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreven, T.; Frisch, M. J.; Kudin, K. N.; Schlegel, H. B.; Morokuma, K.

    2006-03-01

    Geometry optimization of large QM/MM systems is usually carried out by alternating a second-order optimization of the QM region using internal coordinates ('macro-iterations'), and a first-order optimization of the MM region using Cartesian coordinates ('micro-iterations'), until self-consistency. However, the neglect of explicit coupling between the two regions (the Hessian elements that couple the QM coordinates with the MM coordinates) often interferes with a smooth convergence, while the Hessian update procedure can be unstable due to the presence of multiple minima in the MM region. A new geometry optimization scheme for QM/MM methods is proposed that addresses these problems. This scheme explicitly includes the coupling between the two regions in the QM optimization step, which makes it quadratic in the full space of coordinates. Analytical second derivatives are used for the MM contributions, with O(N) memory and CPU requirements (where N is the total number of atoms) by employing direct and fast multipole methods. The explicit coupling improves the convergence behaviour, while the Hessian update is stable since it no longer involves MM contributions. Examples show that the new procedure performs significantly better than the standard methods.

  15. Shear bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives: pH influence

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of four one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values to enamel and dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 200 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were used. Four one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values were tested both on enamel and on dentin: Adper™ Easy Bond Self-Etch Adhesive (pH = 0.8-1), Futurabond NR (pH=2), G-aenial Bond (pH = 1.5), Clearfil S3 Bond (pH = 2.7). After adhesive systems application, a nanohybrid composite resin was inserted into the bonded surface. The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine. The shear bond strength was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min until the sample rupture. The shear bond strength values (MPa) of the different groups were compared with analysis of variance after that Kolmogorov and Smirnov tests were applied to assess normality of distributions. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In enamel shear bond strength, the highest shear bond strength values were reported with Futurabond NR (P < 0.01); however, no significant differences were found with Clearfil S3 Bond. The others adhesive systems showed lower shear bond strength values with significant differences between them (P < 0.05). When comparing the dentin shear bond strength, the lowest shear bond strength values were reported with Clearfil S3 Bond (P < 0.05), while there were no significant differences among the other three products (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The pH values of adhesive systems did not influence significantly their shear bond strength to enamel or dentin. PMID:26005459

  16. Regulation of intracellular pH in cnidarians: response to acidosis in Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Julien; Venn, Alexander; Tambutté, Éric; Ganot, Philippe; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2014-02-01

    The regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) is a fundamental aspect of cell physiology that has received little attention in studies of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes ecologically important sea anemones and reef-building corals. Like all organisms, cnidarians must maintain pH homeostasis to counterbalance reductions in pHi, which can arise because of changes in either intrinsic or extrinsic parameters. Corals and sea anemones face natural daily changes in internal fluids, where the extracellular pH can range from 8.9 during the day to 7.4 at night. Furthermore, cnidarians are likely to experience future CO?-driven declines in seawater pH, a process known as ocean acidification. Here, we carried out the first mechanistic investigation to determine how cnidarian pHi regulation responds to decreases in extracellular and intracellular pH. Using the anemone Anemonia viridis, we employed confocal live cell imaging and a pH-sensitive dye to track the dynamics of pHi after intracellular acidosis induced by acute exposure to decreases in seawater pH and NH?Cl prepulses. The investigation was conducted on cells that contained intracellular symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium sp.) and on symbiont-free endoderm cells. Experiments using inhibitors and Na?-free seawater indicate a potential role of Na?/H? plasma membrane exchangers (NHEs) in mediating pHi recovery following intracellular acidosis in both cell types. We also measured the buffering capacity of cells, and obtained values between 20.8 and 43.8 mM per pH unit, which are comparable to those in other invertebrates. Our findings provide the first steps towards a better understanding of acid-base regulation in these basal metazoans, for which information on cell physiology is extremely limited. PMID:24256552

  17. Effect of pH of amine fluoride containing toothpastes on enamel remineralization in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Wolfgang H; Haase, Anabel; Hacklaender, Julia; Gintner, Zeno; Bánóczy, Jolan; Gaengler, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background One of the important factors of the demineralization and remineralization equilibrium of enamel is the pH of the surrounding solutions. Effort has been laid in the formulation of different fluoride compounds and the fluoride content in toothpastes but much less is known about the influence of the pH of the toothpastes on their effectiveness. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the influence of different pH levels on enamel remineralization in an in vitro experiment using polarization light microscopy and EDX quantitative element analysis. Methods A 5 × 5 mm window on the enamel surface of 40 caries free extracted human premolars was demineralized in a hydroxyethylcellulose solution at pH 4.8. The teeth were divided into 8 groups and the lower half of the window was covered with varnish serving as control. Each group was then immersed in toothpaste slurry containing amine fluoride (1400 ppm) at pH 4.1, 4.5, 5.1 and 6.9 or control toothpaste slurry without fluoride at pH 4.3, 4.7, 5.3 and 7.0. Serial sections were cut through the lesions and investigated with polarization light microscopy and quantitative EDX element analysis. Results The PLM results showed a decreased porous volume of the body of the lesion after incubation with fluoridated toothpaste at pH 4.53 and 5.16. No differences between the experimental window and the control window were found in the other groups. The quantitative element analysis showed no differences in the element content of any of the groups. Conclusion From the results it can be concluded that slightly acidified fluoridated dentifrices may have a certain positive effect on enamel remineralization. PMID:17941981

  18. The Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey: SPIRE-mm Photometric Redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseboom, I. G.; Ivison, R. J.; Greve, T. R.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Auld, R.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Brisbin, D.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Cooray, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Dwek, E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the potential of submm-mm and submm-mm-radio photometric red-shifts using a sample of mm-selected sources as seen at 250, 350 and 500 micrometers by the SPIRE instrument on Herschel. From a sample of 63 previously identified mm-sources with reliable radio identifications in the GOODS-N and Lockman Hole North fields 46 (73 per cent) are found to have detections in at least one SPIRE band. We explore the observed submm/mm colour evolution with redshift, finding that the colours of mm-sources are adequately described by a modified blackbody with constant optical depth Tau = (nu/nu(0))beta where beta = +1.8 and nu(0) = c/100 micrometers. We find a tight correlation between dust temperature and IR luminosity. Using a single model of the dust temperature and IR luminosity relation we derive photometric redshift estimates for the 46 SPIRE detected mm-sources. Testing against the 22 sources with known spectroscopic, or good quality optical/near-IR photometric, redshifts we find submm/mm photometric redshifts offer a redshift accuracy of |delta z|/(1+z) = 0.16 (less than |delta z| greater than = 0.51). Including constraints from the radio-far IR correlation the accuracy is improved to |delta z|/(1 + z) = 0.15 (less than |delta z| greater than = 0.45). We estimate the redshift distribution of mm-selected sources finding a significant excess at z greater than 3 when compared to 850 micrometer selected samples.

  19. The Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey: SPIRE-mm Photometric Redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseboom, I. G.; Ivison, R. J.; Greve, T. R.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Auld, R.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; Block, J.; Boselli, A.; Brisbin, D.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodriquez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Dowell, C. D.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dwek, E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the potential of submm-mm and submm-mm-radio photometric redshifts using a sample of mm-selected sources as seen at 250, 350 and 500 micron by the SPIRE instrument on Herschel. From a sample of 63 previously identified mm sources with reliable radio identifications in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North and Lockman Hole North fields, 46 (73 per cent) are found to have detections in at least one SPIRE band. We explore the observed submm/mm color evolution with redshift, finding that the colors of mm sources are adequately described by a modified blackbody with constant optical depth Tau = (Nu/nu(sub 0))(exp Beta), where Beta = +1.8 and nu(sub 0) = c/100 micron. We find a tight correlation between dust temperature and IR luminosity. Using a single model of the dust temperature and IR luminosity relation, we derive photometric redshift estimates for the 46 SPIRE-detected mm sources. Testing against the 22 sources with known spectroscopic or good quality optical/near-IR photometric redshifts, we find submm/mm photometric redshifts offer a redshift accuracy of (absolute value of Delta sub (z))/(1 + z) = 0.16 (absolute value of Delta sub (z)) = 0.51). Including constraints from the radio-far-IR correlation, the accuracy is improved to (absolute value of Delta sub (z))/(1 + z) = 0.14 (((absolute value of Delta sub (z))) = 0.45). We estimate the redshift distribution of mm-selected sources finding a significant excess at Z > 3 when compared to approx 8S0 micron selected samples.

  20. Iridium oxide pH sensor for biomedical applications. Case urea-urease in real urine samples.

    PubMed

    Prats-Alfonso, Elisabet; Abad, Llibertat; Casań-Pastor, Nieves; Gonzalo-Ruiz, Javier; Baldrich, Eva

    2013-01-15

    This work demonstrates the implementation of iridium oxide films (IROF) grown on silicon-based thin-film platinum microelectrodes, their utilization as a pH sensor, and their successful formatting into a urea pH sensor. In this context, Pt electrodes were fabricated on Silicon by using standard photolithography and lift-off procedures and IROF thin films were growth by a dynamic oxidation electrodeposition method (AEIROF). The AEIROF pH sensor reported showed a super-Nerstian (72.9±0.9mV/pH) response between pH 3 and 11, with residual standard deviation of both repeatability and reproducibility below 5%, and resolution of 0.03 pH units. For their application as urea pH sensors, AEIROF electrodes were reversibly modified with urease-coated magnetic microparticles (MP) using a magnet. The urea pH sensor provided fast detection of urea between 78?M and 20mM in saline solution, in sample volumes of just 50?L. The applicability to urea determination in real urine samples is discussed. PMID:22857994

  1. Regulation of intracellular pH in sea urchin eggs by medium containing both weak acid and base.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, M S; Watanabe, K; Hamaguchi, Y

    1997-08-01

    To establish a method of pHi regulation and to understand the pH regulation mechanism in the cell, we investigated the pHi response of unfertilized or fertilized eggs of sea urchin, applying sea water containing both weak permeant acid, acetic acid and/or base, ammonia, to eggs. Pyranine was employed as a pH indicator to measure intracellular pH (pHi) by microfluorometry. The unfertilized/fertilized eggs had a pHi of 6.80/7.34 and 6.81/7.32 for Schaphechinus mirabilis and Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, respectively. With the addition of both acetic acid and ammonia to the media, pHi changed linearly against extracellular pH (pHo) between 6-8 and was almost equal to pHo at the concentration of 20 mM acetate and ammonia. This mixed application was proved to be available for regulating pHi at the desired value within a wide range involving the original pHi by a single solution system. pHi after the treatment was dependent on various factors, such as the concentration of the weak acid and base, the pHi before the treatment, and pH buffering power in the cytoplasm. The latter was estimated to be 43 mM and 58 mM in unfertilized and fertilized eggs, respectively, from the measurement of pHi change induced by microinjecting a HEPES solution, assuming that the pH buffering power is caused by phosphate. PMID:9368712

  2. Colorimetric Determination of pH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sheryl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which the pH of a solution can be quantitatively measured using a spectrophotometer. The theory, experimental details, sample preparation and selection, instrumentation, and results are discussed. (CW)

  3. Mary Fennell, PhD Chair

    Cancer.gov

    NCI Community Cancer Centers Program Evaluation Oversight Committee Roster CHAIR Mary Fennell, Ph.D. Chair, Department of Sociology and Community Health Brown University Box 1916, 211 Maxcy Hall 112 George Street Providence, RI 02912

  4. Curriculum Vitae Hyungjun Kim, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Napadow, Vitaly

    : Structural connectivity in Methamphetamine abusers using Diffusion tensor imaging, Amygdala shape alterations in Methamphetamine abusers (Advisor: In Kyoon Lyoo, M.D., Ph.D.) 2003 Korean Medical Doctor, College of Oriental

  5. Brenda K. Edwards, PhD

    Cancer.gov

    Brenda K. Edwards, PhD, has been with the Surveillance Research Program (SRP) and its predecessor organizations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) since 1989, serving as SRP’s Associate Director from 1990-2011.

  6. Effects of pH, Chloride, and Bicarbonate on Cu(I) Oxidation Kinetics at Circumneutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, X.; Pham, A.; Waite, T.; Xing, G.; Rose, A.

    2012-12-01

    The redox chemistry of copper species in the upper water column plays a significant role in its speciation, transport and bioavailability. Most previous studies have focused primarily on Cu(II), principally because Cu(I) is easily oxidized to Cu(II) by oxygen or other oxidants. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that a number of potentially important reactions may lead to Cu(I) formation and result in a significant steady-state concentration of Cu(I) in natural waters. Redox reactions of Cu(I) could result in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydroxyl radical, that may subsequently induce a cascade of radical-promoted reactions with other constituents in natural waters. As such, a better understanding of copper-catalysed processes that produce and consume O2- is important in furthering our insight into factors contributing to global biogeochemical cycles. In this study, the oxidation kinetics of nanomolar concentrations of Cu(I) in NaCl solutions have been investigated over the pH range 6.5-8.0.The overall apparent oxidation rate constant was strongly affected by chloride, moderately by bicarbonate and, and to a lesser extent, by pH. In the absence of bicarbonate, an equilibrium-based speciation model indicated that Cu+ and CuClOH- were the most kinetically reactive species, while the contribution of other Cu(I) species to the overall oxidation rate was minor. A kinetic model based on recognized key redox reactions for these two species further indicated that oxidation of Cu(I) by oxygen and superoxide were important reactions at all pH values and [Cl-] considered, but back reduction of Cu(II) by superoxide only became important at relatively low chloride concentrations. Bicarbonate concentrations from 2-5 mM substantially accelerated Cu(I) oxidation. Kinetic analysis over a range of bicarbonate concentrations revealed that this was due to the formation of CuCO3-, which reacts relatively rapidly with oxygen, and not due to inhibition of the back reduction of Cu(II) by formation of Cu(II)-carbonate complexes. We conclude that the simultaneous oxygenation of Cu+, CuClOH- and CuCO3- is the rate-limiting step in the overall oxidation of Cu(I) under these conditions. Determination of values for apparent and intrinsic rate constants for the oxidation of those critical Cu(I) species by O2 over the pH range 6.5-8.0 should greatly assist in understanding and predicting inorganic Cu(I) and Cu(II) transformations in natural waters.

  7. pH Regulation in Anoxic Plants

    PubMed Central

    FELLE, HUBERT H.

    2005-01-01

    • Background pH regulation is the result of a complex interaction of ion transport, H+ buffering, H+-consuming and H+-producing reactions. Cells under anoxia experience an energy crisis; an early response thereof (in most tissues) is a rapid cytoplasmic acidification of roughly half a pH unit. Depending on the degree of anoxia tolerance, this pH remains relatively stable for some time, but then drops further due to an energy shortage, which, in concert with a general breakdown of transmembrane gradients, finally leads to cell death unless the plant finds access to an energy source. • Scope In this review the much-debated origin of the initial pH change and its regulation under anoxia is discussed, as well as the problem of how tissues deal with the energy crisis and to what extent pH regulation and membrane transport from and into the vacuole and the apoplast is a part thereof. • Conclusions It is postulated that, because a foremost goal of cells under anoxia must be energy production (having an anaerobic machinery that produces insufficient amounts of ATP), a new pH is set to ensure a proper functioning of the involved enzymes. Thus, the anoxic pH is not experienced as an error signal and is therefore not reversed to the aerobic level. Although acclimated and anoxia-tolerant tissues may display higher cytoplasmic pH than non-acclimated or anoxia-intolerant tissues, evidence for an impeded pH-regulation is missing even in the anoxia-intolerant tissues. For sufficient energy production, residual H+ pumping is vital to cope with anoxia by importing energy-rich compounds; however it is not vital for pH-regulation. Whereas the initial acidification is not due to energy shortage, subsequent uncontrolled acidosis occurring in concert with a general gradient breakdown damages the cell but may not be the primary event. PMID:16024558

  8. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, Paola A; Morelatto, Rosana A; Benavidez, Tomás E; Baruzzi, Ana M; López de Blanc, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacter R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva. PMID:25523957

  9. Identifying nude pictures D.A. Forsyth M.M. Fleck

    E-print Network

    Fleck, Margaret M.

    Identifying nude pictures D.A. Forsyth M.M. Fleck Computer Science Division Department of Computer background (e.g. [?]); there is little work on segmentation. None of these systems is suitable for analyzing

  10. Power supply switching for a mm-wave asymmetric multilevel outphasing power amplifier system

    E-print Network

    Spaulding, Jonathon David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis demonstrates power switches to be used in our new Asymmetric Multilevel Outphasing (AMO) transmitter architecture at mm-wave frequencies. The AMO topology breaks the linearity vs. efficiency design objective ...

  11. Same-source parallel implementation of the PSU/NCAR MM5

    SciTech Connect

    Michalakes, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Pennsylvania State/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model is a limited-area model of atmospheric systems, now in its fifth generation, MM5. Designed and maintained for vector and shared-memory parallel architectures, the official version of MM5 does not run on message-passing distributed memory (DM) parallel computers. The authors describe a same-source parallel implementation of the PSU/NCAR MM5 using FLIC, the Fortran Loop and Index Converter. The resulting source is nearly line-for-line identical with the original source code. The result is an efficient distributed memory parallel option to MM5 that can be seamlessly integrated into the official version.

  12. Parameters of tensile strength, elongation, and tenacity of 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Peters, Kevin A.

    1989-01-01

    The 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film was tested to determine its tensile strength, elongation, and breaking strength, using an Instron (strength and compression) 4201 Test Instrument. These data provide information leading to the upper and lower limits of the above parameters for 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film. This film will be developed by a commercial developing machine after the Ultraviolet Telescope Space Shuttle Mission returns to the Earth in the early 1990's; thus, it is necessary to understand these force parameters. Several test strips of approximately 200mm in length were used. The results indicate that when a stress load of 100 kg was applied, the film elongated approximately 1.06mm and the break strength was 19.45 kilograms.

  13. 7. Detail, east portal of Tunnel 34/Snowshed 33, 135mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail, east portal of Tunnel 34/Snowshed 33, 135mm lens. Tall signal mast necessary in order to be seen above winter snows. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 41, Milepost 193.3, Donner, Placer County, CA

  14. 50. OVERALL VIEW OF LOWER MAIN STREET, WITH M.M. WALKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. OVERALL VIEW OF LOWER MAIN STREET, WITH M.M. WALKER COMPANY WAREHOUSE IN LEFT FOREGROUND AND THOMAS J. MULGREW COMPANY BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Dubuque Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  15. A 50mm Copper/Polymer Substrate HBT IC Technology for >100GHz MMICs

    E-print Network

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    A 50mm Copper/Polymer Substrate HBT IC Technology for >100GHz MMICs James Guthrie, D. Mensa, T of Entire 2" HBT MMIC Wafer #12;Cu Surrogate Substrate Cross sectional SEM of test wafer #12;Discrete HBT

  16. Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite with different solution concentration, pH and packing density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Li, Ming-Hsu; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2008-09-01

    In this work we used an "in-diffusion" method to study the effects of pH, solution concentration and packing density on Cs diffusion by packing local Taiwan laterite (LTL) into modified capillary columns with 5mm diameter. These packed columns were first pre-equilibrated with synthetic groundwater (GW) for 3 weeks. The diffusion experiments were then carried out at ambient condition for 2 weeks. Our experimental results showed that the Cs diffusion profile fits Fick's second law very well in given experimental conditions, indicating the validity of modified capillary column method. Generally speaking, Cs diffusion in LTL decreases as the pH increases and as Cs concentration decreases. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D(a)) increases from 5.52 x 10(-12) (10(-7)M) to 2.18 x 10(-11) (10(-3)M)m(2)/s, while the effective diffusion coefficient (D(e)) shows slight variation as the Cs concentration changes. Both the derived D(a) and D(e) values decrease as the pH increases, implying that the diffusion mechanisms of Cs nuclide in alkaline and acid environment are different. In addition, our results show that Cs diffusion is unaffected by the given packing density, indicating the interlaminary space is not the major determinant of Cs adsorption and diffusion in LTL. PMID:18321721

  17. Optical design and evaluation of a 4 mm cost-effective ultra-high-definition arthroscope

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Yu, Lu; Liu, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    High definition and magnification rigid endoscope plays an important role in modern minimally invasive medical surgery and diagnosis. In this paper, we present the design and evaluation methods of a high definition rigid endoscope, specifically an arthroscope, with a large depth of field (DOF). The incident heights and exit angles of the sampled rays on the relay lens are controlled during the optimization process to ensure an effective field view (70°) and a normal ray path within the limited lens diameter of 2.7 mm. The lens is set up as a multi-configuration system with two extreme and one middle object distances to cover a large DOF. As a result, an entrance pupil of 0.3 mm is achieved for the first time, to bring the theoretical resolution to 23.1 lps/mm in the object space at a working distance of 20 mm, with the wavelength of 0.532 um. The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves approach diffraction limit, and the values are all higher than 0.3 at 160 line pairs/mm (lps/mm) in the image space. Meanwhile, stray light caused by total internal reflection on the inner wall of the rod lenses and the objective lens is eliminated. The measured resolution in the object space at a 20 mm working distance is 22.3 lps/mm, and test results show that other performance characteristics also fulfill design requirements. The relay lenses are designed with only one type of the spacer and two types of lenses to greatly reduce the fabrication and assembly cost. The design method has important research and application values for lens systems used in modern minimally invasive medical surgery and industrial non-destructive testing area. PMID:25136495

  18. A new smoothing function to introduce long-range electrostatic effects in QM/MM calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Dong; Duke, Robert E.; Cisneros, G. Andrés

    2015-07-01

    A new method to account for long range electrostatic contributions is proposed and implemented for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics long range electrostatic correction (QM/MM-LREC) calculations. This method involves the use of the minimum image convention under periodic boundary conditions and a new smoothing function for energies and forces at the cutoff boundary for the Coulomb interactions. Compared to conventional QM/MM calculations without long-range electrostatic corrections, the new method effectively includes effects on the MM environment in the primary image from its replicas in the neighborhood. QM/MM-LREC offers three useful features including the avoidance of calculations in reciprocal space (k-space), with the concomitant avoidance of having to reproduce (analytically or approximately) the QM charge density in k-space, and the straightforward availability of analytical Hessians. The new method is tested and compared with results from smooth particle mesh Ewald (PME) for three systems including a box of neat water, a double proton transfer reaction, and the geometry optimization of the critical point structures for the rate limiting step of the DNA dealkylase AlkB. As with other smoothing or shifting functions, relatively large cutoffs are necessary to achieve comparable accuracy with PME. For the double-proton transfer reaction, the use of a 22 Ĺ cutoff shows a close reaction energy profile and geometries of stationary structures with QM/MM-LREC compared to conventional QM/MM with no truncation. Geometry optimization of stationary structures for the hydrogen abstraction step by AlkB shows some differences between QM/MM-LREC and the conventional QM/MM. These differences underscore the necessity of the inclusion of the long-range electrostatic contribution.

  19. A new smoothing function to introduce long-range electrostatic effects in QM/MM calculations.

    PubMed

    Fang, Dong; Duke, Robert E; Cisneros, G Andrés

    2015-07-28

    A new method to account for long range electrostatic contributions is proposed and implemented for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics long range electrostatic correction (QM/MM-LREC) calculations. This method involves the use of the minimum image convention under periodic boundary conditions and a new smoothing function for energies and forces at the cutoff boundary for the Coulomb interactions. Compared to conventional QM/MM calculations without long-range electrostatic corrections, the new method effectively includes effects on the MM environment in the primary image from its replicas in the neighborhood. QM/MM-LREC offers three useful features including the avoidance of calculations in reciprocal space (k-space), with the concomitant avoidance of having to reproduce (analytically or approximately) the QM charge density in k-space, and the straightforward availability of analytical Hessians. The new method is tested and compared with results from smooth particle mesh Ewald (PME) for three systems including a box of neat water, a double proton transfer reaction, and the geometry optimization of the critical point structures for the rate limiting step of the DNA dealkylase AlkB. As with other smoothing or shifting functions, relatively large cutoffs are necessary to achieve comparable accuracy with PME. For the double-proton transfer reaction, the use of a 22 Ĺ cutoff shows a close reaction energy profile and geometries of stationary structures with QM/MM-LREC compared to conventional QM/MM with no truncation. Geometry optimization of stationary structures for the hydrogen abstraction step by AlkB shows some differences between QM/MM-LREC and the conventional QM/MM. These differences underscore the necessity of the inclusion of the long-range electrostatic contribution. PMID:26233103

  20. QM/MM-PBSA method to estimate free energies for reactions in proteins.

    PubMed

    Kaukonen, Markus; Söderhjelm, Pär; Heimdal, Jimmy; Ryde, Ulf

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a method to estimate free energies of reactions in proteins, called QM/MM-PBSA. It estimates the internal energy of the reactive site by quantum mechanical (QM) calculations, whereas bonded, electrostatic, and van der Waals interactions with the surrounding protein are calculated at the molecular mechanics (MM) level. The electrostatic part of the solvation energy of the reactant and the product is estimated by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation, and the nonpolar part of the solvation energy is estimated from the change in solvent-accessible surface area (SA). Finally, the change in entropy is estimated from the vibrational frequencies. We test this method for five proton-transfer reactions in the active sites of [Ni,Fe] hydrogenase and copper nitrite reductase. We show that QM/MM-PBSA reproduces the results of a strict QM/MM free-energy perturbation method with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 8-10 kJ/mol if snapshots from molecular dynamics simulations are used and 4-14 kJ/mol if a single QM/MM structure is used. This is appreciably better than the original QM/MM results or if the QM energies are supplemented with a point-charge model, a self-consistent reaction field, or a PB model of the protein and the solvent, which give MADs of 22-36 kJ/mol for the same test set. PMID:18781715

  1. fireball/amber: An Efficient Local-Orbital DFT QM/MM Method for Biomolecular Systems.

    PubMed

    Mendieta-Moreno, Jesús I; Walker, Ross C; Lewis, James P; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Mendieta, Jesús; Ortega, José

    2014-05-13

    In recent years, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods have become an important computational tool for the study of chemical reactions and other processes in biomolecular systems. In the QM/MM technique, the active region is described by means of QM calculations, while the remainder of the system is described using a MM approach. Because of the complexity of biomolecules and the desire to achieve converged sampling, it is important that the QM method presents a good balance between accuracy and computational efficiency. Here, we report on the implementation of a QM/MM technique that combines a DFT approach specially designed for the study of complex systems using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations (fireball) with the amber force fields and simulation programs. We also present examples of the application of this QM/MM approach to three representative biomolecular systems: the analysis of the effect of electrostatic embedding in the behavior of a salt bridge between an aspartic acid and a lysine residue, a study of the intermediate states for the triosephosphate isomerase catalyzed conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, and the detailed description, using DFT QM/MM molecular dynamics, of the cleavage of a phosphodiester bond in RNA catalyzed by the enzyme RNase A. PMID:26580543

  2. Assimilation of GMS-5 satellite winds using nudging method with MM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shanhong; Wu, Zengmao; Yang, Bo

    2006-09-01

    With the aid of Meteorological Information Composite and Processing System (MICAPS), satellite wind vectors derived from the Geostationary Meteorological Statellite-5 (GMS-5) and retrieved by National Satellite Meteorology Center of China (NSMC) can be obtained. Based on the nudging method built in the fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) of Pennsylvania State University and National Center for Atmospheric Research, a data preprocessor is developed to convert these satellite wind vectors to those with specified format required in MM5. To examine the data preprocessor and evaluate the impact of satellite winds from GMS-5 on MM5 simulations, a series of numerical experimental forecasts consisting of four typhoon cases in 2002 are designed and implemented. The results show that the preprocessor can process satellite winds smoothly and MM5 model runs successfully with a little extra computational load during ingesting these winds, and that assimilation of satellite winds by MM5 nudging method can obviously improve typhoon track forecast but contributes a little to typhoon intensity forecast. The impact of the satellite winds depends heavily upon whether the typhoon bogussing scheme in MM5 was turned on or not. The data preprocessor developed in this paper not only can treat GMS-5 satellite winds but also has capability with little modification to process derived winds from other geostationary satellites.

  3. Accuracy of buffered-force QM/MM simulations of silica

    SciTech Connect

    Peguiron, Anke; Moras, Gianpietro; Colombi Ciacchi, Lucio; De Vita, Alessandro; Kermode, James R.

    2015-02-14

    We report comparisons between energy-based quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) and buffered force-based QM/MM simulations in silica. Local quantities—such as density of states, charges, forces, and geometries—calculated with both QM/MM approaches are compared to the results of full QM simulations. We find the length scale over which forces computed using a finite QM region converge to reference values obtained in full quantum-mechanical calculations is ?10 Ĺ rather than the ?5 Ĺ previously reported for covalent materials such as silicon. Electrostatic embedding of the QM region in the surrounding classical point charges gives only a minor contribution to the force convergence. While the energy-based approach provides accurate results in geometry optimizations of point defects, we find that the removal of large force errors at the QM/MM boundary provided by the buffered force-based scheme is necessary for accurate constrained geometry optimizations where Si–O bonds are elongated and for finite-temperature molecular dynamics simulations of crack propagation. Moreover, the buffered approach allows for more flexibility, since special-purpose QM/MM coupling terms that link QM and MM atoms are not required and the region that is treated at the QM level can be adaptively redefined during the course of a dynamical simulation.

  4. A novel optical mm-wave generation scheme based on three parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Wen, Aijun; Guo, Jingjing; Shang, Lei; Wang, Yong

    2011-03-01

    We propose a novel optical mm-wave generation scheme based on three parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) for the first time. First, the scheme is investigated theoretically, which suggests that it can be used for sextupling, 12-tupling, and 18-tupling mm-wave generation. Then simulation results are given, 60 GHz mm-wave is generated from 5 GHz, or 10 GHz RF oscillator based on frequency 12-tupling or sextupling, and 90 GHz mm-wave is generated from 5 GHz RF oscillator based on frequency 18-tupling. The optical sideband suppression ratio (OSSR) and the radio frequency spurious suppression ratio (RFSSR) are analyzed by simulation, in which several non-ideal factors are taken into consideration. Results indicate that all the three mm-wave generation methods are practical and very good performance can be obtained when the extinction ratio of the MZM is 30 dB, even if the extinction ratio of the MZM is 20 dB, the performance is still good, especially for the sextupling mm-wave generation method, whose performance is excellent and insensitive to the extinction ratio of MZM, the non-ideal RF driving voltage and the non-ideal DC bias. At last, we set up a RoF system by simulation to verify the transmission performance of the scheme. The BER performance and eye diagrams are given.

  5. Zooming towards the Event Horizon - mm-VLBI today and tomorrow

    E-print Network

    Krichbaum, T P; Wagner, J; Rottmann, H; Hodgson, J A; Bertarini, A; Alef, W; Zensus, J A; Marscher, A P; Jorstad, S G; Freund, R; Marrone, D; Strittmatter, P; Ziurys, L; Blundell, R; Weintroub, J; Young, K; Fish, V; Doeleman, S; Bremer, M; Sanchez, S; Fuhrmann, L; Angelakis, E; Karamanavis, V

    2013-01-01

    Global VLBI imaging at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength overcomes the opacity barrier of synchrotron self-absorption in AGN and opens the direct view into sub-pc scale regions not accessible before. Since AGN variability is more pronounced at short millimeter wavelength, mm-VLBI can reveal structural changes in very early stages after outbursts. When combined with observations at longer wavelength, global 3mm and 1mm VLBI adds very detailed information. This helps to determine fundamental physical properties at the jet base, and in the vicinity of super-massive black holes at the center of AGN. Here we present new results from multi-frequency mm-VLBI imaging of OJ287 during a major outburst. We also report on a successful 1.3mm VLBI experiment with the APEX telescope in Chile. This observation sets a new record in angular resolution. It also opens the path towards future mm-VLBI with ALMA, which aims at the mapping of the black hole event horizon in nearby galaxies, and the study of the roots of jets ...

  6. High Temperature Gas Reactors Andrew C. Kadak, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Silicon Carbite Barrier Coating Inner Pyrolytic Carbon Porous Carbon Buffer 40/1000mm 35/1000 40/1000mm 95. 0,92mm Dia.0,5mm 5mm Graphite layer Coated particles imbedded in Graphite Matrix Pyrolytic Carbon

  7. PP HH YY SS II CC AA LL PP RR OO PP EE RR TT YY MM EE AA SS UU RR EE MM EE NN TT SS YY SS TT EE MM Q u a n t u m D e s i g n

    E-print Network

    Liu, J. Ping

    PP HH YY SS II CC AA LL PP RR OO PP EE RR TT YY MM EE AA SS UU RR EE MM EE NN TT SS YY SS TT EE MM Sample puck "Keyed" bottom connector SS YY SS TT EE MM FF EE AA TT UU RR EE SS 1 Much of the versatility

  8. Version 3.0 SOP 6a --pH October 12, 2007 pH (total hydrogen

    E-print Network

    Version 3.0 SOP 6a -- pH October 12, 2007 117 SOP 6a pH - / 1. pH (total hydrogen ion concentration pH scale) . , [H+ ] 1 kg . 2. . F T S F 4 [H ] [H ] (1 / ) [H ] [HSO ] S K+ + + - = + + (1) [H+ ]F (free concentration), ST ([HSO4 - ]+[SO4 2- ]) KS [HSO4 - ] . pH . 10 1 [H ] pH

  9. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations. PMID:23335919

  10. The Effect of Crystallizing and Non-crystallizing Cosolutes on Succinate Buffer Crystallization and the Consequent pH Shift in Frozen Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaramurthi, Prakash; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2011-09-06

    To effectively inhibit succinate buffer crystallization and the consequent pH changes in frozen solutions. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), the crystallization behavior of succinate buffer in the presence of either (i) a crystallizing (glycine, mannitol, trehalose) or (ii) a non-crystallizing cosolute (sucrose) was evaluated. Aqueous succinate buffer solutions, 50 or 200 mM, at pH values 4.0 or 6.0 were cooled from room temperature to -25 C at 0.5 C/min. The pH of the solution was measured as a function of temperature using a probe designed to function at low temperatures. The final lyophiles prepared from these solutions were characterized using synchrotron radiation. When the succinic acid solution buffered to pH 4.0, in the absence of a cosolute, was cooled, there was a pronounced shift in the freeze-concentrate pH. Glycine and mannitol, which have a tendency to crystallize in frozen solutions, remained amorphous when the initial pH was 6.0. Under this condition, they also inhibited buffer crystallization and prevented pH change. At pH 4.0 (50 mM initial concentration), glycine and mannitol crystallized and did not prevent pH change in frozen solutions. While sucrose, a non-crystallizing cosolute, did not completely prevent buffer crystallization, the extent of crystallization was reduced. Sucrose decomposition, based on XRD peaks attributable to {beta}-D-glucose, was observed in frozen buffer solutions with an initial pH of 4.0. Trehalose completely inhibited crystallization of the buffer components when the initial pH was 6.0 but not at pH 4.0. At the lower pH, the crystallization of both trehalose dihydrate and buffer components was evident. When retained amorphous, sucrose and trehalose effectively inhibited succinate buffer component crystallization and the consequent pH shift. However, when trehalose crystallized or sucrose degraded to yield a crystalline decomposition product, crystallization of buffer was observed. Similarly, glycine and mannitol, two widely used bulking agents, inhibited buffer component crystallization only when retained amorphous. In addition to stabilizing the active pharmaceutical ingredient, lyoprotectants may prevent solution pH shift by inhibiting buffer crystallization.

  11. A Comparitive Evaluation of Sealing Ability, pH and Rheological Properties of Zinc Oxide Eugenol Sealer Combined with Different Antibiotics: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Girija S; Peddireddi, Suresh; Kumar, M. Sita Rama; Bhavana, V.; Raju, Sita Rama

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the sealing ability, pH & viscosity of Zinc oxide eugenol sealer mixed with different antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Clindamycin and Doxycycline). Materials and Methods: Ninety single rooted anterior teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups of 15 teeth each and 3 control groups of 10 each. Sealer-antibiotic combination was used as a sealer in experimental group. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally to assess linear dye penetration. pH and viscosity of the experimental groups were evaluated with Elico pH Meter and Brook Field Viscometer respectively. Results: (Amoxicillin+ ZOE) Group II and (Clindamycin + ZOE) Group IV have shown minimum linear dye leakage of 1.07mm & 1.22 mm respectively & (Ciprofloxacin + ZOE) Group III and (Doxycycline + ZOE) Group V 2.69 mm & 2.59 mm respectively. There was decrease in the viscosity of the experimental group. pH was found to be 8.55 for Group II sealer which was greater than control group. Conclusion: Amoxicillin and sealer combination can improve the success rate of endodontic therapy by enhancing the antimicrobial activity, alkaline environment and reducing apical microleakage. PMID:25584296

  12. Somatic embryogenesis of carrot in hormone-free medium: external pH control over morphogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Cultures of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs) were initiated from mechanically wounded mature zygotic embryos of carrot, Daucus carota, on a hormone-free, semisolid medium. These PGSPs have been maintained and multiplied for extended periods without their progression into later embryo stages on the same hormone-free medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Sustained maintenance of cultures comprised exclusively of PGSPs was dependent on medium pH throughout the culture period. Best growth and multiplication of PGSP cultures occurred when the pH of unbuffered, hormone-free medium fell from 4.5 to 4 over a 2-week period or when buffered medium was titrated to pH 4. If the hormone-free medium was buffered to sustain a pH at or above 4.5, PGSPs developed into later embryo stages. Maintenance with continuous multiplication of PGSPs occurred equally well on medium containing NH4+ or NH4+ and NO3-, but growth was poor with NO3- alone. Additional observations on the effects of medium components such as various nitrogen sources and levels, sucrose concentration, semisolid supports, type of buffer, borate concentration, activated charcoal, and initial pH that permit optimum maintenance of the PGSPs or foster their continued developmental progression into mature embryos and plantlets are reported. The influence of the pH of the hormone-free medium as a determinant in maintaining cultures as PGSPs or allowing their continued embryonic development are unequivocally demonstrated by gross morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and histological preparations.

  13. Toxicity evaluation of pH dependent stable Achyranthes aspera herbal gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Alok; Kumari, Sarika; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-02-01

    Nanoparticles have gained substantial attention for the control of various diseases. However, any adverse effect of herbal gold nanoparticles (HGNPs) on animals including human being has not been investigated in details. The objectives of current study are to assess the cytotoxicity of HGNPs synthesized by using leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera, and long epoch stability. The protocol deals with stability of HGNPs in pH dependent manner. Visually, HGNPs formation is characterized by colour change of extract from dark brown to dark purple after adding gold chloride solution (1 mM). The 100 ?g/ml HGNPs concentration has been found nontoxic to the cultured spleenocyte cells. Spectrophotometric analysis of nanoparticles solution gave a peak at 540 nm which corresponds to surface plasmon resonance absorption band. As per scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), size of HGNPs are in the range of 50-80 nm (average size 70 nm) with spherical morphology. TEM-selected area electron diffraction observation showed hexagonal texture. HGNPs showed substantial stability at higher temperature (85 °C), pH 10 and salt concentration (5 M). The zeta potential value of HGNPs is -35.9 mV at temperature 25 °C, pH 10 showing its good quality with better stability in comparison to pH 6 and pH 7. The findings advocate that the protocol for the synthesis of HGNPs is easy and quick with good quality and long epoch stability at pH 10. Moreover, non-toxic dose could be widely applicable for human health as a potential nano-medicine in the future to cure diseases.

  14. Exchangeable hydrogen explains the pH of spodosol Oa horizons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, D.S.; David, M.B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bartlett, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The chemistry of extremely acid Oa horizons does not conform to traditional pH, Al, and base saturation relationships. Results from two separate studies of northeastern U.S. forested soils were used to investigate relationships between pH in water or dilute salt solutions and other soil characteristics. In Oa horizons with pH below 4, soil pH in dilute CaCl2 solution was correlated with exchangeable H+ measured either by titration (r = -0.88, P = 0.0001, n = 142) or by electrode (r = -0.89, P = 0.0001, n = 45). Exchangeable H+ expressed as a percentage of the cation-exchange capacity (CEC) was linear with pH and showed similar slopes for data from both studies. For all samples, pHw = 4.21 - 1.80 x H+/CEC (R2 = 0.69, n = 194). The reciprocal of the H+/CEC ratio is base saturation with Al added to the bases. Because of the low pH, exchangeable Al does not appear to behave as an acid. Exchangeable H+ remains an operationally defined quantity because of the difficulty in separating exchange and hydrolysis reactions. In a variety of neutral-salt extractants, concentration of H+ were correlated with 0.1 M BaCl2-exchangeable H+ (r > 0.91, P = 0.0001, n = 26) regardless of the strength of the extract. Nine successive extractions with 0.33 mM CaCl2 removed more H+ than was removed by single batch extractions with either 1 M KCl or 0.1 M BaCl2 (average H+ of 70, 43, and 49 mmol kg-1, respectively for 26 samples). The data showed little difference in the chemical behavior of Oa horizons from a variety of geographical sites and vegetation types.

  15. Noninvasive NIR measurement of tissue pH to assess hemorrhagic shock in swine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soller, Babs R.; Zhang, Songbiao; Micheels, Ronald H.; Puyana, Juan C.

    1999-07-01

    Body-worn noninvasive physilogical sensors are needed to continuously monitor soldiers for hemorrhage and to provide real-time information for minimally skilled medics to treat the injured. In the hospital intramucosal pHi of the gut is used to monitor shock and its treatment. We hypothesize that abdominal wall muscle (AWM) pH can be measured noninvasively using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares analysis (PLS) and will correlate with pHi. METHODS: AWM pH was measured with microelectrodes and gastric pHi was measured with a tonometric catheter simultaneously while NIR spectra were collected using prototype LED spectrometers placed on the pig's flanks. Animals were subject to hemorrhagic shock at 45 mm Hg for 45 minutes, then resuscitated with blood and lactated ringers. Relationships between electrode pH, pHi and NIR spectra were developed using PLS with cross validation. RESULTS: NIR spectral changes noninvasively acquired through the skin were shown to be from the muscle, not from changes in skin blood flow. Trending ability (R2) model accuracy (RMSD), and relative error were calculated for individual pigs. Using electrode pH as the reference, average R2 was 0.88 with a predicted accuracy of 0.17 pH units, a 9.3% relative error. Slightly degraded results were observed when pHi was used as a reference. CONCLUSIONS: NIR measurement of tissue pH can be used to noninvasively monitor for shock and guide its treatment in a swine model. These measurements correlate with gastric pHi, a clinically accepted measure of shock, providing an approach to develop similar methodology for humans.

  16. Hybrid Laser-arc Welding of 17-4 PH Martensitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Ma, Junjie; Atabaki, Mehdi Mazar; Pillai, Raju; Kumar, Biju; Vasudevan, Unnikrishnan; Sreshta, Harold; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2015-06-01

    17-4 PH stainless steel has wide applications in severe working conditions due to its combination of good corrosion resistance and high strength. The weldability of 17-4 PH stainless steel is challenging. In this work, hybrid laser-arc welding was developed to weld 17-4 PH stainless steel. This method was chosen based on its advantages, such as deep weld penetration, less filler materials, and high welding speed. The 17-4 PH stainless steel plates with a thickness of 19 mm were successfully welded in a single pass. During the hybrid welding, the 17-4 PH stainless steel was immensely susceptible to porosity and solidification cracking. The porosity was avoided by using nitrogen as the shielding gas. The nitrogen stabilized the keyhole and inhibited the formation of bubbles during welding. Solidification cracking easily occurred along the weld centerline at the root of the hybrid laser-arc welds. The microstructural evolution and the cracking susceptibility of 17-4 PH stainless steel were investigated to remove these centerline cracks. The results showed that the solidification mode of the material changed due to high cooling rate at the root of the weld. The rapid cooling rate caused the transformation from ferrite to austenite during the solidification stage. The solidification cracking was likely formed as a result of this cracking-susceptible microstructure and a high depth/width ratio that led to a high tensile stress concentration. Furthermore, the solidification cracking was prevented by preheating the base metal. It was found that the preheating slowed the cooling rate at the root of the weld, and the ferrite-to-austenite transformation during the solidification stage was suppressed. Delta ferrite formation was observed in the weld bead as well no solidification cracking occurred by optimizing the preheating temperature.

  17. pH Dependent Transitions in Xanthorhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Imasheva, Eleonora S.; Balashov, Sergei P.; Wang, Jennifer M.; Lanyi, Janos K.

    2009-01-01

    Xanthorhodopsin (XR), the light-driven proton pump of the halophilic eubacterium Salinibacter ruber, exhibits substantial homology to bacteriorhodopsin (BR) of archaea and proteorhodopsin (PR) of marine bacteria, but unlike them contains a light-harvesting carotenoid antenna, salinixanthin, as well as retinal. We report here the pH dependent properties of XR. The pKa of the retinal Schiff base is as high as in BR, i.e., ? 12.4. Deprotonation of the Schiff base and the ensuing alkaline denaturation causes large changes in the absorption bands of the carotenoid antenna, which lose intensity and become broader making the spectrum similar to that of salinixanthin not bound to XR. A small red shift of the retinal chromophore band and increase of its extinction, as well as the pH dependent amplitude of the M intermediate indicate that in detergent-solubilized XR the pKa of the Schiff base counter-ion and proton acceptor is about 6 (compared to 2.6 in BR, and 7.5 in PR). The protonation of the counter-ion is accompanied by a small blue shift of the carotenoid absorption bands. The pigment is stable in the dark upon acidification to pH 2. At pH < 2 a transition to a blue shifted species absorbing around 440 nm occurs, accompanied by loss of resolution of the carotenoid absorption bands. At pH < 3 illumination of XR with continuous light causes accumulation of long-lived photoproducts(s) with an absorption maximum around 400 nm. The photocycle of XR was examined between pH 4 and 10 in solubilized samples. The pH dependence of recovery of the initial state slows at both acid and alkaline pH, with pKa’s of 6.0 and 9.3. The decrease in the rates with pKa 6.0 is apparently caused by protonation of the counter-ion and proton acceptor while that at high pH reflects the pKa of the internal proton donor, Glu94, at the times in the photocycle when this group equilibrates with the bulk. PMID:16649816

  18. QM/MM Minimum Free Energy Path: Methodology and Application to Triosephosphate Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Lu, Zhenyu; Yang, Weitao

    2007-03-01

    Structural and energetic changes are two important characteristic properties of a chemical reaction process. In the condensed phase, studying these two properties is very challenging because of the great computational cost associated with the quantum mechanical calculations and phase space sampling. Although the combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach significantly reduces the amount of the quantum mechanical calculations and facilitates the simulation of solution phase and enzyme catalyzed reactions, the required quantum mechanical calculations remain quite expensive and extensive sampling can be achieved routinely only with semiempirical quantum mechanical methods. QM/MM simulations with ab initio QM methods, therefore, are often restricted to narrow regions of the potential energy surface such as the reactant, product and transition state, or the minimum energy path. Such ab initio QM/MM calculations have previously been performed with the QM/MM-Free Energy (QM/MM-FE) method of Zhang et al.1 to generate the free energy profile along the reaction coordinate using free energy perturbation calculations at fixed structures of the QM subsystems. Results obtained with the QM/MM-FE method depend on the determination of the minimum energy reaction path, which is based on local conformations of the protein/solvent environment and can be difficult to obtain in practice. To overcome the difficulties associated with the QM/MM-FE method and to further enhance the sampling of the MM environment conformations, we develop here a new method to determine the QM/MM minimum free energy path (QM/MM-MFEP) for chemical reaction processes in solution and in enzymes. Within the QM/MM framework, we express the free energy of the system as a function of the QM conformation, thus leading to a simplified potential of mean force (PMF) description for the thermodynamics of the system. The free energy difference between two QM conformations is evaluated by the QM/MM free energy perturbation method. The free energy gradients with respect to the QM degrees of freedom are calculated from molecular dynamics simulations at given QM conformations. With the free energy and free energy gradients in hand, we further implement chain-of-conformation optimization algorithms in the search for the reaction path on the free energy surface without specifying a reaction coordinate. This method thus efficiently provides a unique minimum free energy path for solution and enzyme reactions, with structural and energetic properties being determined simultaneously. To further incorporate the dynamic contributions of the QM subsystem into the simulations, we develop the reaction path potential of Lu, et al.2 for the minimum free energy path. The combination of the methods developed here presents a comprehensive and accurate treatment for the simulation of reaction processes in solution and in enzymes with ab initio QM/MM methods. The method has been demonstrated on the first step of the reaction of the enzyme triosephosphate isomerase with good agreement with previous studies. PMID:19079734

  19. Mechanisms of Intragastric pH Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Tyralee; Akiba, Yasutada

    2010-01-01

    Luminal amino acids and lack of luminal acidity as a result of acid neutralization by intragastric foodstuffs are powerful signals for acid secretion. Although the hormonal and neural pathways underlying this regulatory mechanism are well understood, the nature of the gastric luminal pH sensor has been enigmatic. In clinical studies, high pH, tryptic peptides, and luminal divalent metals (Ca2+ and Mg2+) increase gastrin release and acid production. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), first described in the parathyroid gland but expressed on gastric G cells, is a logical candidate for the gastric acid sensor. Because CaSR ligands include amino acids and divalent metals, and because extracellular pH affects ligand binding in the pH range of the gastric content, its pH, metal, and nutrient-sensing functions are consistent with physiologic observations. The CaSR is thus an attractive candidate for the gastric luminal sensor that is part of the neuroendocrine negative regulatory loop for acid secretion. PMID:20938760

  20. Development and application of QM/MM methods to study the solvation effects and surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dibya, Pooja Arora

    2010-05-16

    Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations have the advantage of attaining high-level accuracy, however QM calculations become computationally inefficient as the size of the system grows. Solving complex molecular problems on large systems and ensembles by using quantum mechanics still poses a challenge in terms of the computational cost. Methods that are based on classical mechanics are an inexpensive alternative, but they lack accuracy. A good trade off between accuracy and efficiency is achieved by combining QM methods with molecular mechanics (MM) methods to use the robustness of the QM methods in terms of accuracy and the MM methods to minimize the computational cost. Two types of QM combined with MM (QM/MM) methods are the main focus of the present dissertation: the application and development of QM/MM methods for solvation studies and reactions on the Si(100) surface. The solvation studies were performed using a discreet solvation model that is largely based on first principles called the effective fragment potential method (EFP). The main idea of combining the EFP method with quantum mechanics is to accurately treat the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions, such as electrostatic, polarization, dispersion and charge transfer, that are important in correctly calculating solvent effects on systems of interest. A second QM/MM method called SIMOMM (surface integrated molecular orbital molecular mechanics) is a hybrid QM/MM embedded cluster model that mimics the real surface.3 This method was employed to calculate the potential energy surfaces for reactions of atomic O on the Si(100) surface. The hybrid QM/MM method is a computationally inexpensive approach for studying reactions on larger surfaces in a reasonably accurate and efficient manner. This thesis is comprised of four chapters: Chapter 1 describes the general overview and motivation of the dissertation and gives a broad background of the computational methods that have been employed in this work. Chapter 2 illustrates the methodology of the interface of the EFP method with the configuration interaction with single excitations (CIS) method to study solvent effects in excited states. Chapter 3 discusses the study of the adiabatic electron affinity of the hydroxyl radical in aqueous solution and in micro-solvated clusters using a QM/EFP method. Chapter 4 describes the study of etching and diffusion of oxygen atom on a reconstructed Si(100)-2 x 1 surface using a hybrid QM/MM embedded cluster model (SIMOMM). Chapter 4 elucidates the application of the EFP method towards the understanding of the aqueous ionization potential of Na atom. Finally, a general conclusion of this dissertation work and prospective future direction are presented in Chapter 6.

  1. The effects of lung recruitment maneuvers on exhaled breath condensate pH.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Brian K; Davis, Michael D; Hunt, John F; Kheir, John N; Smallwood, Craig D; Arnold, John H

    2015-09-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH serves as a surrogate marker of airway lining fluid (ALF) pH and can be used to evaluate airway acidification (AA). AA is known to be present in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and can be evaluated via continuous EBC pH measurement during mechanical ventilation. Lung recruitment maneuvers (LRMs) are utilized in the treatment of ARDS, however, their impact on EBC pH has never been explored. Here we described the acute effects of two commonly used LRMs on EBC pH. In a prospective, non-randomized, serial exposure study, 10 intubated pediatric subjects with acute respiratory distress syndrome sequentially underwent: a period of baseline ventilation, sustained inflation (SI) maneuver of 40?cm H2O for 40 s, open lung ventilation, staircase recruitment strategy (SRS) (which involves a systematic ramping of plateau pressures in 5?cm H2O increments, starting at 30?cm H2O), and PEEP titration. Maximum lung recruitment during the SRS is defined as a PaO2 + PaCO2 of??>400 mmHg. Following lung recruitment, PEEP titration was conducted from 20?cm H2O in 2?cm H2O decrements until a PaO2 + PaCO2 was??<380 and then increased by 2?cm H2O. EBC pH, arterial blood gases, lung mechanics, hemodynamics, and function residual capacity were obtained following each phase of the LRM and observational period. Seven out of 10 patients were able to reach maximum lung recruitment. Baseline EBC pH (6.38???±???0.37) did not correlate with disease severity defined by PaO2/FiO2 ratio or oxygenation index (OI). Average EBC pH differed between phases and decreased after LRM (p = 0.001). EBC pH is affected by LRMs. EBC acidification following LRMs may represent a washout effect of opening acidic lung units and ventilating them or acute AA resulting from LRM. PMID:26333431

  2. Ultra-Compact Multitip Scanning Probe Microscope with an Outer Diameter of 50 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanov, Vasily; Zubkov, Evgeny; Junker, Hubertus; Korte, Stefan; Blab, Marcus; Coenen, Peter; Voigtländer, Bert

    We present a multitip scanning tunneling microscope (STM) where four independent STM units are integrated on a diameter of 50 mm. The coarse positioning of the tips is done under the control of an optical microscope or an SEM in vacuum. The heart of this STM is a new type of piezoelectric coarse approach called Koala Drive which can have a diameter greater than 2.5 mm and a length smaller than 10 mm. Alternating movements of springs move a central tube which holds the STM tip or AFM sensor. This new operating principle provides a smooth travel sequence and avoids shaking which is intrinsically present for nanopositioners based on inertial motion with saw tooth driving signals. Inserting the Koala Drive in a piezo tube for xyz-scanning integrates a complete STM inside a 4 mm outer diameter piezo tube of <10 mm length. The use of the Koala Drive makes the scanning probe microscopy design ultra-compact and accordingly leads to a high mechanical stability. The drive is UHV, low temperature, and magnetic field compatible. The compactness of the Koala Drive allows building a four-tip STM as small as a single-tip STM with a drift of <0.2 nm/min and lowest resonance frequencies of 2.5 (xy) and 5.5 kHz (z). We present examples of the performance of the multitip STM designed using the Koala Drive.

  3. The local sub-mm luminosity functions and predictions from ASTRO-F/SIRTF to Herschel

    E-print Network

    Stephen Serjeant; Diana Harrison

    2003-09-23

    We present new determinations of the local sub-mm luminosity functions. We find the local sub-mm luminosity density converging to 7.3+/-0.2 x 10^19 W/Hz/Mpc^3 /h_65 at 850um solving the ``sub-mm Olbers' Paradox.'' Using the sub-mm colour temperature relations from the SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey, and the discovery of excess 450um excess emission in these galaxies, we interpolate and extrapolate the IRAS detections to make predictions of the SEDs of all 15411 PSC-z galaxies from 50-3000um. Despite the long extrapolations we find excellent agreement with (a) the 90um luminosity function of Serjeant et al. (2001), (b) the 850um luminosity function of Dunne et al. (2000), (c) the mm-wave photometry of Andreani & Franceschini (1996); (d) the asymptotic differential and integral source count predictions at 50-3000um by Rowan-Robinson (2001). Remarkably, the local luminosity density and the extragalactic background light together strongly constrain the cosmic star formation history for a wide class of evolutionary assumptions. We find that the extragalactic background light, the 850um 8mJy source counts, and the Omega_* constraints all independently point to a decline in the comoving star formation rate at z>1.

  4. Survival and growth of age-0 steelhead after surgical implantation of 23-mm passive integrated transponders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, D.S.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little information is available on the effects of implanting 23-mm passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in salmonids less than 90 mm fork length (FL). Using juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss (range, 73-97 mm FL), we compared instantaneous growth rates and survival among three experimental groups: control, surgery with no tag, and surgery with tag. Survival rate was lower for tagged fish (86%) than for control and surgery-no tag fish (virtually 100% in each group). Approximately 90% of the mortalities occurred during days 1-3. Growth rate for the tagged group was lower for the first two 10-d measurement intervals; however, during the third 10-d interval, growth rates for tagged fish equaled or exceeded values for the other groups. These results suggest that tagged fish recovered by day 20. Growth rates for the control and surgery-no tag groups did not differ from one another during any measurement interval. Tag retention rate was 97% over the 30-d period of the study. It appears that the combination of fish length and tag size in this study resulted in short-term negative effects on growth rate and survival; however, 23-mm PIT tags may still be useful for studies of salmonids 80-90 mm FL when survival is not the parameter of interest. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  5. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Laroche, G.; Vallade, J.; Bazinette, R.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F.; Nijnatten, P. van

    2012-10-15

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm Multiplication-Sign 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45 Degree-Sign beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  6. Fabrication of mm-wave undulator cavities using deep x-ray lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, J. J.; Feinerman, A. D.; Kang, Y. W.; Kustom, R. L.; Lai, B.; Nassiri, A.; White, V.; Well, G. M.

    1996-09-01

    The possibility of fabricating mm-wave radio frequency cavities (100-300 GHz) using deep x-ray lithography (DXRL) is being investigated. The fabrication process includes manufacture of precision x-ray masks, exposure of positive resist by x-ray through the mask, resist development, and electroforming of the final microstructure. Highly precise, two-dimensional features can be machined onto wafers using DXRL. Major challenges are: fabrication of the wafers into three-dimensional rf structures; alignment and overlay accuracy of structures; adhesion of the PMMA on the copper substrate; and selection of a developer to obtain high resolution. Rectangular cavity geometry is best suited to this fabrication technique. A 30- or 84-cell 108-GHz mm-wave structure can serve as an electromagnetic undulator. A mm-wave undulator, which will be discussed later, may have special features compared to the conventional undulator. First harmonic undulator radiation at 5.2 keV would be possible using the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac system, which provides a low-emittance electron beam by using an rf thermionic gun with an energy as high as 750 MeV. More detailed rf simulation, heat extraction analysis, beam dynamics using a mm-wave structure, and measurements on 10x larger scale models can be found in these proceedings [Y.W. Kang et al., ``Design and Construction of Planar mm-wave Accelerating Cavity Structures''

  7. Simulation of Adsorption Processes at Metallic Interfaces: An Image Charge Augmented QM/MM Approach.

    PubMed

    Golze, Dorothea; Iannuzzi, Marcella; Nguyen, Manh-Thuong; Passerone, Daniele; Hutter, Jürg

    2013-11-12

    A novel method for including polarization effects within hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations of adsorbate-metal systems is presented. The interactions between adsorbate (QM) and metallic substrate (MM) are described at the MM level of theory. Induction effects are additionally accounted for by applying the image charge formulation. The charge distribution induced within the metallic substrate is modeled by a set of Gaussian charges (image charges) centered at the metal atoms. The image charges and the electrostatic response of the QM potential are determined self-consistently by imposing the constant-potential condition within the metal. The implementation is embedded in a highly efficient Gaussian and plane wave framework and is naturally suited for periodic systems. Even though the electronic properties of the metallic substrate are not taken into account explicitly, the augmented QM/MM scheme can reproduce characteristic polarization effects of the adsorbate. The method is assessed through the investigation of structural and electronic properties of benzene, nitrobenzene, thymine, and guanine on Au(111). The study of small water clusters adsorbed on Pt(111) is also reported in order to demonstrate that the approach provides a sizable correction of the MM-based interactions between adsorbate and substrate. Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a water film in contact with a Pt(111) surface show that the method is suitable for simulations of liquid/metal interfaces at reduced computational cost. PMID:26583423

  8. Conformational states of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Helianthinin: effect of heat and pH.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Sergio; Vereijken, Johan M; Merck, Karin B; van Koningsveld, Gerrit A; Gruppen, Harry; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2004-11-01

    The structure and solubility of helianthinin, the most abundant protein of sunflower seeds, was investigated as a function of pH and temperature. Dissociation of the 11S form (hexamer) into the 7S form (trimer) gradually increased with increasing pH from 5.8 to 9.0. High ionic strength (I = 250 mM) stabilizes the 11S form at pH > 7.0. Heating and low pH resulted in dissociation into the monomeric constituents (2-3S). Next, the 7S and 11S forms of helianthinin were isolated and shown to differ in their secondary and tertiary structure, and to have denaturation temperatures (T(d)) of 65 and 90 degrees C, respectively. Furthermore, the existence of two populations of the monomeric form of helianthinin with denaturation temperatures of 65 and 90 degrees C was described. This leads to the hypothesis that helianthinin can adopt two different conformational states: one with T(d) = 65 degrees C and a second with T(d) = 90 degrees C. PMID:15506815

  9. Effect of pH on the accumulation kinetics of pentachlorophenol in goldfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, G.R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of accumulation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) at various pH values were investigated to explore how pH-dependent accumulation might influence PCP toxicity. Goldfish (Carassius auratus ) were exposed to 5 mu g PCP/L in a static system buffered with 7.5 mM bicine or N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (BES) at pH 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0. The amount of PCP in the fish, concentration of PCP in water, and the total amount of metabolites in the system were measured after exposure of fish from 1 to 96 hr. The distribution of PCP within the fish was altered by changes in the external pH. The pH-associated changes in distribution may have altered access of PCP to sites of metabolism, thereby altering the metabolic clearance. The pH-related changes in the pharmacokinetics of PCP resulted in a decrease in its bioconcentration factor with an increase in pH and account both for the decreased capacity of the fish to accumulated PCP and for its reduced LC50.

  10. Salivary Thiocyanate, Uric Acid and pH as Biomarkers of Periodontal Disease in Tobacco Users and Non-Users- An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Panchmal, Ganesh Shenoy; Siddique, Sabin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Biomarkers of tobacco exposure are used to confirm the absorption of specific smoke constituents in a quantitative manner. Materials and Methods: Periodontal status was measured by Community periodontal Index (WHO). Salivary thiocyanate was determined using spectrophotometric analysis, Salivary uric acid concentration was determined using the enzymatic uric acid assay reagent. pH was measured using pH strips. Results: Proportion of participants with periodontal pockets of 4-5mm was highest among tobacco smokers (80.0%) and periodontal pockets of 6mm or more were observed to be higher among tobacco chewers (26.67%). When LOA scores among tobacco chewers were recorded 26.7% of them presented with attachment loss of 0-3mm. 46.7% of them were affected with loss of attachment of 4-5mm and loss of attachment 6-8mm was found in 16.7%. 6.7% of them were found to be having loss of attachment of 9-11mm. 3.3% of them were found to be having loss of attachment of 12mm or more. The LOA scores in non- tobacco users showed 46.7% of 0-3mm, 50.0% of 4-5mm and 3.33% of 6-8mm attachment loss. The mean level of thiocyanate level detected in saliva of tobacco smokers was 172 ± 54.7 ?g/ml and 203.70± 45.7 ?g/ml in tobacco chewers. The mean uric acid levels was found to be 2.54 ±0.63 (?g/dl) in smokers and 2.65 ± 0.37(?g/dl) in chewers and in non tobacco users it was 2.33 ± 0.47 ?g/dl. Conclusion: Tobacco users had significantly higher concentration of SCN levels than non-users. PMID:26393205

  11. Vienna, Austria: PhD positions in Population Genetics PhD positions in Population Genetics

    E-print Network

    Leps, Jan "Suspa"

    Vienna, Austria: PhD positions in Population Genetics PhD positions in Population Genetics of the leading centres of population genetics. The Vienna Graduate School of Population Genetics has been founded disciplines: bioinformatics, statistics, evolutionary genetics, functional genetics, theoretical

  12. Andrew A. Shapiro, Ph.D. Ph.D. Materials Science and Engineering

    E-print Network

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Andrew A. Shapiro, Ph.D. EDUCATION Ph.D. Materials Science and Engineering University of California-SiO2." M.S. Materials Science and Engineering University of California, Los Angeles, 1989 Thesis Materials Science and Engineering 2000- 2005 Lecturer - Materials Science and Engineering 1998- 2000 Co

  13. Blind deconvolution of multivariate signals : a deflation approach Ph. Loubaton* ,Ph. A. Regalia**

    E-print Network

    Regalia, Phillip A.

    Blind deconvolution of multivariate signals : a deflation approach Ph. Loubaton* ,Ph. A. Regalia established (e.g. [6])that the blind deconvolution problem makes sense as soon as y (or equivalently w ) is non Gaussian. In this paper, we deal with the previously adaptive blind deconvolution problem

  14. Ioannis Pavlidis, Ph.D. Peter Symosek, Ph.D. Honeywell Technology Center Honeywell Technology Center

    E-print Network

    Ioannis Pavlidis, Ph.D. Peter Symosek, Ph.D. Honeywell Technology Center Honeywell Technology Center MN65-2500 MN65-2500 3660 Technology Drive 3660 Technology Drive Minneapolis, MN 55418 Minneapolis with theoretical and experimental arguments that a dual-band fusion system in the near infrared can segment human

  15. PhD Handbook PhD Handbook-Faculty of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Gerhardy, Philipp

    PhD Handbook June 2015 #12;PhD Handbook- Faculty of Medicine Last updated June 2015 Page | 1 Introduction Established in 1814, the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Oslo is the country's oldest faculty of medicine. The Faculty's teaching and research extends over a large area and has a clear

  16. Inactivation of adenovirus, reovirus and bacteriophages in fecal sludge by pH and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Magri, Maria Elisa; Fidjeland, Jřrgen; Jönsson, Hĺkan; Albihn, Ann; Vinnerĺs, Björn

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inactivation of adenovirus, reovirus and bacteriophages (MS2, ?X174, 28B) in a fecal sludge. We conducted two experiments. In the first, we tested different compositions of the fecal sludge by mixing different amounts of water, feces and urine, totaling nine combinations which were kept at temperatures between 10 and 28°C. In the second study, urea was added to the mixtures, which were kept at temperatures from 5 to 33°C. The inactivation was based on a combination of temperature, pH and uncharged ammonia concentration. The increase in pH and ammonia was provided mainly by urine content (Experiment 1) and by urine and added urea (Experiment 2). The inactivation of bacteriophages was slower than the AdV and ReV. At 23°C and 28°, reasonable treatment times were obtained when pH was higher than 8.9 and NH3 concentrations were higher than 35 and 55 mM respectively. With those conditions, the maximum time for a 3 log reduction in viruses, according to this study, would be 35 days (23°C) and 21 days (28°C). However, in most applications where helminth eggs are present, the treatment time and NH3 for sanitization will be the scaling criteria, as they are more persistent. Concerning the sanitization of effluents from latrines, vacuum toilets or dry toilets in developing countries with tropical and sub-tropical climates, the use of intrinsic ammonia combined with high pH can be effective in producing a safe and highly valuable liquid that can be used as a fertilizer. In the case of the fecal sludge with very intrinsic ammonia concentration (<20 mM), sanitization could still be achieved by the addition of urea. PMID:25817758

  17. A geochemical and petrographic study of 1-2-mm fines from Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. P.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Brannon, J. C.; Jacobs, J. W.; Brown, R. W.; Reid, A. M.; Donaldson, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    Samples of fines less than 1-mm and 155 1-2 mm particles from several Apollo 17 sites were analyzed for Na, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Hf, Ta, Th, and REE. Products of comminution and construction are present in the 1-2 mm particles, and the compositions of the rock fragments clearly indicate the general chemical characteristics of their parent rock types. The likely sources of materials for the glassy particles are considered. Glasses are enriched over their parent soils in Fe, Sc, Mn, and Cr, and are relatively enriched in light REE, so that some chemical fractionation accompanies glass-forming processes. Elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  18. Investigation of optical transmittance and light response uniformity of 600-mm-long BGO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhiming; Ni, Haihong; Yuan, Lanying; Chen, Junfeng; Wang, Shaohua

    2014-07-01

    Optical transmittance and light response uniformity were investigated for 25 mm×25 mm×600 mm BGO crystals, the longest BGO single crystals reported so far. The long BGO crystals exhibit good optical transmittance within the wavelength range concerned and an overall energy resolution of 19.68% for 0.662 MeV ?-rays. The light response uniformity of one long BGO, SIC-BGO-125, was measured in the single-end or dual-end readout mode combined with different reflecting materials. It was suggested that the light response uniformity of the long rectangular BGO is primarily affected by internal absorption, the reflectivity of reflecting materials and the readout mode. The best uniformity of -1.4±0.8% can be achieved when the crystal is measured only from the tail end and wrapped with ESR. Reflecting materials of high reflectivity can significantly improve the light response uniformity, but further improvement is limited by the internal absorption of the crystal.

  19. New Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Temperature at3.3 mm Wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Witebsky, C.; Smoot, G.; De Amici, G.; Friedman, S.D.

    1986-02-01

    We have measured the temperature of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at 3.3 mm wavelength in 1982, 1983, and 1984 as part of a larger project to determine the CBR temperature at five wavelengths from 12 cm to 3.3 mm (Smoot et al. 1985). The 3.3-mm measurements yield a brightness temperature of 2.57 K with a 1{sigma} uncertainty of 20.12 K. This paper describes the instrument, the measurement techniques, and the data-analysis procedures used. Our result is in good agreement with recent measurements at comparable wavelengths by Meyer and Jura (1985) and by Peterson, Richards, and Timusk (1985), but it disagrees with the temperatures reported by Woody and Richards (1981).

  20. A study on friction stir welding of 12mm thick aluminum alloy plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepati Anil; Biswas, Pankaj; Tikader, Sujoy; Mahapatra, M. M.; Mandal, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the investigations regarding friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloy plates have been limited to about 5 to 6 mm thick plates. In prior work conducted the various aspects concerning the process parameters and the FSW tool geometry were studied utilizing friction stir welding of 12 mm thick commercial grade aluminum alloy. Two different simple-to-manufacture tool geometries were used. The effect of varying welding parameters and dwell time of FSW tool on mechanical properties and weld quality was examined. It was observed that in order to achieve a defect free welding on such thick aluminum alloy plates, tool having trapezoidal pin geometry was suitable. Adequate tensile strength and ductility can be achieved utilizing a combination of high tool rotational speed of about 2000 r/min and low speed of welding around 28 mm/min. At very low and high dwell time the ductility of welded joints are reduced significantly.

  1. Recording and wear characteristics of 4 and 8 mm helical scan tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peter, Klaus J.; Speliotis, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    Performance data of media on helical scan tape systems (4 and 8 mm) is presented and various types of media are compared. All measurements were performed on a standard MediaLogic model ML4500 Tape Evaluator System with a Flash Converter option for time based measurements. The 8 mm tapes are tested on an Exabyte 8200 drive and 4 mm tapes on an Archive Python drive; in both cases, the head transformer is directly connected to a Media Logic Read/Write circuit and test electronics. The drive functions only as a tape transport and its data recover circuits are not used. Signal to Noise, PW 50, Peak Shift and Wear Test data is used to compare the performance of MP (metal particle), BaFe, and metal evaporate (ME). ME tape is the clear winner in magnetic performance but its susceptibility to wear and corrosion, make it less than ideal for data storage.

  2. Ultrastructural response of rat lung to 90 days' exposure to oxygen at 450 mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    Young Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 100% oxygen at 450 mm Hg in constant environment capsules for 90 days. Lung tissue examined by electron microscopy revealed a number of changes, many similar to those observed after exposure to oxygen at 760 mm Hg for shorter periods of time. Alterations in vesicle size and number and in mitochondrial matrix and cristae appear in both the endothelial and epithelial cells. Blebbing and rarefication of cytoplasm occur in both cell layers of the alveolo-capillary wall. Also seen are fluid in the basement membrane, platelets in the capillaries, and alveolar fluid and debris. All of these alterations occur at 1 atm exposure. However, after exposure to 450 mm Hg the changes are not as widespread nor as destructive as they are at the higher pressure.

  3. New QM/MM implementation of the DFTB3 method in the gromacs package.

    PubMed

    Kuba?, Tomáš; Welke, Kai; Groenhof, Gerrit

    2015-10-01

    The approximate density-functional tight-binding theory method DFTB3 has been implemented in the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) framework of the Gromacs molecular simulation package. We show that the efficient smooth particle-mesh Ewald implementation of Gromacs extends to the calculation of QM/MM electrostatic interactions. Further, we make use of the various free-energy functionalities provided by Gromacs and the PLUMED plugin. We exploit the versatility and performance of the current framework in three typical applications of QM/MM methods to solve biophysical problems: (i) ultrafast proton transfer in malonaldehyde, (ii) conformation of the alanine dipeptide, and (iii) electron-induced repair of a DNA lesion. Also discussed is the further development of the framework, regarding mostly the options for parallelization. PMID:26238364

  4. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  5. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  6. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  7. What Is a pH Probe Study?

    MedlinePLUS

    What is a pH Probe Study ? What is pH a probe study? M easuring the pH in the esophagus helps determine whether or not acid is coming up from the stomach. A pH probe study is usually done in patients where ...

  8. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  9. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  10. PH DEPENDENT TOXICITY OF FIVE METALS TO THREE MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pH of natural marine systems is relatively stable; this may explain why metal toxicity changes with pH have not been well documented. However, changes in metal toxicity with pH in marine waters are of concern in toxicity testing. During porewater toxicity testing pH can chang...

  11. RUG Philosophy PhD Regulations, page 1 Regulations

    E-print Network

    Zaroubi, Saleem

    RUG Philosophy PhD Regulations, page 1 Regulations PhD programmes in Philosophy Faculty of Philosophy Contents 1. General provisions 2. Structure of the PhD programme (training and research) 3D programme in Philosophy. 1.1.2. The PhD programmes are organized by the Philosophy Graduate School

  12. The Influence of pH on the Oxygen Isotope Composition of Calcium Carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. D.; Watkins, J. M.; Ryerson, F. J.; DePaolo, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Oxygen isotope fractionation between calcium carbonate and water is temperature-dependent and can therefore be used as a paleothermometer. Although oxygen isotope fractionation is expected from principles of equilibrium isotopic partitioning, the temperature-dependence remains uncertain because other factors, such as slow exchange between dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) species and water, can obscure the temperature signal. Oxygen isotopic equilibrium between aqueous solution and calcium carbonate includes two distinct equilibria: equilibrium of the DIC species in solution (i.e., CO2(aq), H2CO3, HCO3-, and CO32-) with water, and equilibrium between the dissolved inorganic carbon with the precipitated carbonate. To isolate kinetic isotope effects that arise at the mineral-solution interface, isotopic equilibrium among DIC species must be maintained. This can be accomplished by dissolving the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) into the solution, thereby reducing the time required for isotopic equilibration between DIC species by approximately two orders of magnitude between pH 7.7 and 9.3. We conduct calcite growth experiments aimed specifically at measuring the pH-dependence of kinetic oxygen isotope effects during precipitation of calcite. We precipitated calcite from aqueous solution at a constant pH and controlled supersaturation over the pH range 7.7-9.3. For each experiment, a gas mixture of N2 and CO2 is constantly bubbled through a beaker containing ~1300 mL of solution (30 mM CaCl2 + 5 mM NH4Cl + 0.1 mM SrCl2). As CO2 from the gas dissolves into solution, calcite crystals grow on the beaker walls. The pH of the solution is maintained by use of an autotitrator with NaOH as the titrant. We control the temperature, pH, the pCO2 of the gas inflow, and the gas inflow rate, and monitor the total alkalinity, the pCO2 of the gas outflow, and the amount of NaOH added. A constant crystal growth rate of ~1.6 mmol/m2/hr is maintained over all experiments. We will present results from this set of experiments and discuss kinetic oxygen isotope effects in the context of a recently-developed ion-by-ion growth model of calcite.

  13. The local sub-mm luminosity functions and predictions from Spitzer to Herschel

    E-print Network

    Stephen Serjeant; Diana Harrison

    2004-09-21

    We present new determinations of the local sub-mm luminosity functions, solving the ``sub-mm Olbers' Paradox.'' We also present predictions of source counts and luminosity functions in current and future far-infrared to sub-mm surveys. Using the sub-mm colour temperature relations from the SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey, and the discovery of excess 450 micron excess emission in these galaxies, we interpolate and extrapolate the IRAS detections to make predictions of the SEDs of all 15411 PSC-z galaxies from 50-1300 microns. Despite the long extrapolations we find excellent agreement with (a) the 90 micron luminosity function of Serjeant et al. (2001), (b) the 850 micron luminosity function of Dunne et al. (2000), (c) the mm-wave photometry of Andreani & Franceschini (1996); (d) the asymptotic differential and integral source count predictions at 50-1300 microns by Rowan-Robinson (2001). We find the local 850 micron sub-mm luminosity density converges to (7.3+/-0.2)x10^{19} h_{65} W/Hz/Mpc^3. Remarkably, the local spectral luminosity density and the extragalactic background light together strongly constrain the cosmic star formation history for a wide class of evolutionary assumptions. We find that the extragalactic background light, the 850 micron 8mJy source counts, and the Omega_* constraints all independently point to a decline in the comoving star formation rate at z>1. In order to reconcile this with direct determinations, we suggest either there is a top-heavy initial mass function at high redshifts, and/or there is stronger evolution in the more luminous far-infrared galaxies than seen in the population as a whole.

  14. Binding free energy calculation with QM/MM hybrid methods for Abl-Kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Kshatresh Dutta; Ojha, Rajendra Prasad

    2011-01-01

    We report a Quantum mechanics/Molecular Mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann/ Surface Area (QM/MM-PB/SA) method to calculate the binding free energy of c-Abl human tyrosine kinase by combining the QM and MM principles where the ligand is treated quantum mechanically and the rest of the receptor by classical molecular mechanics. To study the role of entropy and the flexibility of the protein ligand complex in a solvated environment, molecular dynamics calculations are performed using a hybrid QM/MM approach. This work shows that the results of the QM/MM approach are strongly correlated with the binding affinity. The QM/MM interaction energy in our reported study confirms the importance of electronic and polarization contributions, which are often neglected in classical MM-PB/SA calculations. Moreover, a comparison of semi-empirical methods like DFTB-SCC, PM3, MNDO, MNDO-PDDG, and PDDG-PM3 is also performed. The results of the study show that the implementation of a DFTB-SCC semi-empirical Hamiltonian that is derived from DFT gives better results than other methods. We have performed such studies using the AMBER molecular dynamic package for the first time. The calculated binding free energy is also in agreement with the experimentally determined binding affinity for c-Abl tyrosine kinase complex with Imatinib.Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10867-010-9199-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22210962

  15. A new 3 mm band receiver for the Onsala 20 m antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belitsky, V.; Lapkin, I.; Fredrixon, M.; Sundin, E.; Helldner, L.; Pettersson, L.; Ferm, S.-E.; Pantaleev, M.; Billade, B.; Bergman, P.; Olofsson, A. O. H.; Lerner, M. S.; Strandberg, M.; Whale, M.; Pavolotsky, A.; Flygare, J.; Olofsson, H.; Conway, J.

    2015-08-01

    A new receiver for the Onsala 20 m antenna with the possibility of being equipped with 3 mm and 4 mm bands has been built and the 3 mm channel has been commissioned during the Spring 2014. For single-dish operation, the receiver uses an innovative on-source/off-source optical switch. In combination with additional optical components and within the same optical layout, the switch provides two calibration loads (for the 3 mm and 4 mm channels), sideband rejection measurement, and tuning possibilities. The optical layout of the receiver employs all cold (4 K) offset elliptical mirrors for both channels, whereas the on-off switch employs flat mirrors only. The 3 mm channel employs a sideband separation (2SB) dual polarization receiver with orthomode transducer (OMT), 4-8 GHz intermediate frequency (IF), x 2pol x upper and lower sidebands (USB + LSB). The cryostat has four optical windows made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) with anti-reflection corrugations, two for the signal and two for each frequency band cold load. The cryostat uses a two-stage cryocooler produced by Sumitomo HI RDK 408D2 with anti-vibration suspension of the cold-head to minimize impact of the vibrations on the receiver stability. The local oscillator (LO) system is based on a Gunn oscillator with aphase lock loop (PLL) and four mechanical tuners for broadband operation, providing independently tunable LO power for each polarization. This paper provides a technical description of the receiver and its technology and could be useful for instrumentation engineers and observers using the Onsala 20 m telescope.

  16. Prediction of heavy rainfall events over Rangamati, Bangladesh using high-resolution MM5 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahasan, M. N.; Mannan Chowdhury, M. A.; Quadir, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, prediction of the heavy rainfall events over Rangamati, Bangladesh has been carried out using the Fifth-Generation PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) conducting two historical rainfall events. The model was run on two-way triple-nested domains at 45, 15, 5 km horizontal resolutions using Anthes-Kuo cumulus parameterization schemes (CPS) with MRF planetary boundary layer (PBL). Bangladesh is the main focus area in this study. Thus, Bangladesh is taken as inner most domain (D3) with 5 km horizontal resolution. The model-predicted rainfall was compared with TRMM 3B42V7 and BMD observed rainfall. Both subjective and objective evaluation methods have been followed. The MM5 model produces realistic prediction of heavy rainfall events in terms of intensity and structure. The results show that the model performed all the Day 1 (24 h), Day 2 (48 h) and Day 3 (72 h) predictions reasonably well. The predictions are more accurate for Day 2 (48 h) and worse for Day 4 (96 h) in both cases. The prediction deteriorates as the prediction time increases. Thus, the prediction may be updated in every 24 h which would provide more realistic prediction. The RMSE shows that the value for 24 h prediction lies within 10-20 mm range. The prediction error is minimal for 48 h prediction, the error ranging from 8 to 12 mm. The error increases thereafter for 72 and 96 h of predictions. The errors range from around 10-20 and 15-25 mm, respectively. The topography/terrain over the southeast hilly region of Bangladesh has not been resolved by USGS terrain data which was used in the MM5 model. Thus, accurate and high-resolution terrain data of this region is expected to improve the performance of the model over the southeast hilly regions of Bangladesh.

  17. The Galactic Centre Mini-Spiral in the MM-Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunneriath, D.; Eckart, A.; Vogel, S. N.; Teuben, P.; Muzic, I.; Schoedel, R.; Garcia-Marin, M.; Moultaka, J.; Staguhn, J.; Straubmeier, C.; Zensus, J. A.; Valencia-S., M.; Karas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The mini-spiral is a feature of the interstellar medium in the central approx.2 pc of the Galactic center. It is composed of several streamers of dust and ionised and atomic gas with temperatures between a few 100 K to 10(exp 4) K. There is evidence that these streamers are related to the so-called circumnuclear disk of molecular gas and are ionized by photons from massive, hot stars in the central parsec. Aims: We attempt to constrain the emission mechanisms and physical properties of the ionized gas and dust of the mini-spiral region with the help of our multiwavelength data sets. Methods: Our observations were carried out at 1.3 mm and 3 mm with the mm interferometric array CARMA in California in March and April 2009, with the MIR instrument VISIR at ESO's VLT in June 2006, and the NIR Bry with VLT NACO in August 2009. Results: We present high resolution maps of the mini-spiral, and obtain a spectral index of 0.5 +/- 0.25 for Sgr A *, indicating an inverted synchrotron spectrum. We find electron densities within the range 0.8-1.5 x 10(exp 4)/cu cm for the mini-spiral from the radio continuum maps, along with a dust mass contribution of approx. 0.25 Mo from the MIR dust continuum. and extinctions ranging from 1.8-3 at 2.16 microns in the Bry line. Conclusions: We observe a mixture of negative and positive spectral indices in our 1.3 mm and 3 mm observations of the extended emission of the mini-spiral, which we interpret as evidence that there are a range of contributions to the thermal free-free emission by the ionized gas emission and by dust at 1.3 mm.

  18. A molecular 3 and 12mm line survey of Cen A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Christian; Koribalski, Baerbel; Jones, Paul; Ott, Juergen; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Menten, Karl; Whiteoak, John; Wang, Min; Martin, Sergio

    2007-04-01

    The only unbiased molecular line survey of an extragalactic source published so far is the 2 mm survey toward NGC 253 (Martin et al. 2006). Here we propose to measure the nearby FR I radio galaxy Cen A with the MOPRA/MOPS system in the 3-4 mm wavelength range (79-115 GHz) and at K-band (20-28 GHz). This will elucidate chemistry, excitation and kinetic temperature of the nuclear gas seen in emission (broad line component) and will shed light onto the nature of the numerous narrow absorption lines that are detected along the line-of-sight toward the prominent nuclear radio continuum source.

  19. Ionization Measurements of SuperCDMS SNOLAB 100 mm Diameter Germanium Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chagani, H.; Bauer, D.A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Cherry, M.; Silva, E.Do Couto e; Godfrey, G.G.; Hall, J.; Hansen, S.; Hasi, J.; Kelsey, M.; Kenney, C.J.; Mandic, V.; Nagasawa, D.; Novak, L.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Partridge, R.; Radpour, R.; Resch, R.; Sadoulet, B.; /UC, Berkeley /Stanford U. /SLAC /Stanford U. /Santa Clara U. /Minnesota U.

    2012-06-12

    Scaling cryogenic Germanium-based dark matter detectors to probe smaller WIMP-nucleon cross-sections poses significant challenges in the forms of increased labor, cold hardware, warm electronics and heat load. The development of larger crystals alleviates these issues. The results of ionization tests with two 100 mm diameter, 33 mm thick cylindrical detector-grade Germanium crystals are presented here. Through these results the potential of using such crystals in the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) SNOLAB experiment is demonstrated.

  20. The Disk Structure of HL Tau from a 1.4MM Wavelength Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, William; Webster, Zodiac; Mundy, Lee; Volgenau, Nikolaus; Looney, Leslie

    The size and density structure of the disk of the TTauri star HL Tau is well resolved in a recent 1.4mm wavelength map made with the BIMA array. At a resolution of .25"" there are about 10 independent pixels across the disk showing that the edge is rather sharply defined. The central dust optical depth is close to unity and the power law radial density is close to 0.5. The spectral power law of the dust absorption based on a comparison with a 2.7mm map suggests that the dust particles may have evolved to sizes larger than typical of the low density interstellar medium.

  1. Expanding Endovascular Therapy of Very Small Ruptured Aneurysms with the 1.5-mm Coil

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thanh N.; Masoud, Hesham; Tarlov, Nicholas; Holsapple, James; Chin, Lawrence S.; Norbash, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Very small ruptured aneurysms (?3 mm) demonstrate a significant risk for procedural rupture with endovascular therapy. Since 2007, 1.5-mm-diameter coils have been available (Micrus, Microvention, and ev3), allowing neurointerventionalists the opportunity to offer patients with very small aneurysms endovascular treatment. In this study, we review the clinical and angiographic outcome of patients with very small ruptured aneurysms treated with the 1.5-mm coil. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study in which we examined consecutive ruptured very small aneurysms treated with coil embolization at a single institution. The longest linear aneurysm was recorded, even if the first coil was sized to a smaller transverse diameter. Very small aneurysms were defined as ?3 mm. Descriptive results are presented. Results From July 2007 to March 2015, 81 aneurysms were treated acutely with coils in 78 patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage. There were 5 patients with 3-mm aneurysms, of which the transverse diameter was ?2 mm in 3 patients. In all 5 patients, a balloon was placed for hemostatic prophylaxis in case of rupture, and a single 1.5-mm coil was inserted for aneurysm treatment without complication. Complete aneurysm occlusion was achieved in 1 patient, residual neck in 2, and residual aneurysm in 2 patients. Aneurysm recanalization was present in 2 patients with an anterior communicating artery aneurysm; a recoiling attempt was unsuccessful in 1 of these 2 patients due to inadvertent displacement and distal coil embolization, but subsequent surgical clipping was successful. Another patient was retreated by surgical clipping for a residual wide-neck carotid terminus aneurysm. One patient died of ventriculitis 3 weeks after presentation; all 4 other patients had an excellent outcome with no rebleed at follow-up (mean 21 months, range 1-62). Conclusion The advent of the 1.5-mm coil may be used in the endovascular treatment of patients with very small ruptured aneurysms, providing a temporary protection to the site of rupture in the acute phase. If necessary, bridging with elective clipping may provide definitive aneurysm treatment. PMID:26600799

  2. Tests of a 70 mm aperture quadrupole for the LHC low-$\\beta$ insertions

    E-print Network

    Lamm, M J; Ostojic, R; Rival, F; Rodríguez-Mateos, F; Siemko, A; Taylor, T M; Walckiers, L; Milward, S R; Treadgold, J R

    1999-01-01

    Three 70 mm aperture 1-meter superconducting quadrupole magnets for the LHC low- beta insertions have been designed and built in collaboration between CERN and Oxford Instruments. These magnets feature a four layer coil wound fromtwo 8.2 mm wide graded NbTi cables. In this paper, the authors present the results from the tests at 4.4 K and 1.9 K of the third quadrupole (Q3), with an emphasis on studies concerning quench protection. After a summary of Q3 training in three thermal cycles, quench velocities, peak temperatures in the two superconducting cables and the performance of the layer strip heaters are reported. (6 refs).

  3. Monitoring the Conjunctiva for Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Tensions and pH During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Irwin K.; Isenberg, Sherwin J.; McArthur, David L.; Del Signore, Madeline; McDonald, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to measure, for the first time, multiple physiologic parameters of perfusion (pH, PCO2, PO2, and temperature) from the conjunctiva of adult patients during cardiopulmonary bypass while undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. Ten patients who underwent either intracardiac valve repair, atrial septal defect repair, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery had placement of a sensor which directly measured pH, PCO2, PO2, and temperature from the conjunctiva. Data were stratified into seven phases (0–5 minutes prior to bypass; 0–5, 6–10, and 11–15 minutes after initiation of bypass; 0–5 minutes prior to conclusion of bypass; and 0–5 and 6–10 minutes after bypass) and analyzed using a mixed model analysis. The change in conjunctival pH over the course of measurement was not statistically significant (p = .56). The PCO2 level followed a quadratic pattern, decreasing from a mean pre-bypass level of 37.7 mmHg at baseline prior to the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass to a nadir of 33.2 mmHg, then increasing to a high of 39.4 mmHg at 6–10 minutes post bypass (p < .01). The PO2 declined from a mean pre-bypass level of 79.5 mmHg to 31.3 mmHg by 6–10 minutes post bypass and even post-bypass, it never returned to baseline values (p < .01). Temperature followed a pattern similar to PCO2 by returning to baseline levels as the patient was re-warmed following bypass (p < .01). There was no evidence of any eye injury or inflammation following the removal of the sensor. In the subjects studied, the conjunctival sensor yielded reproducible measurements during the various phases of cardiopulmonary bypass without ocular injury. Further study is necessary to determine the role of conjunctival measurements in critical settings. PMID:21449229

  4. Dear students, Applications for the MM in OR program at UBC's Centre for Operations

    E-print Network

    , or business. What You'll Learn: Data science, business intelligence, operations research, applied mathematics consultant, logistics analyst, business analyst, supply chain manager, researcher in a PhD program, and more of Business, the COE is being recognized for its capabilities in operations research and analytics expertise

  5. Stress corrosion study of PH13-8Mo stainless steel using the Slow Strain Rate Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Pablo D.

    1989-01-01

    The need for a fast and reliable method to study stress corrosion in metals has caused increased interest in the Slow Strain Rate Technique (SSRT) during the last few decades. PH13-8MoH950 and H1000 round tensile specimens were studied by this method. Percent reduction-in-area, time-to-failure, elongation at fracture, and fracture energy were used to express the loss in ductility, which has been used to indicate susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Results from a 3.5 percent salt solution (corrosive medium) were compared to those in air (inert medium). A tendency to early failure was found when testing in the vicinity of 1.0 x 10(-6) mm/mm/sec in the 3.5 percent salt solution. PH13-8Mo H1000 was found to be less likely to suffer SCC than PH13-8Mo H950. This program showed that the SSRT is promising for the SCC characterization of metals and results can be obtained in much shorter times (18 hr for PH steels) than those required using conventional techniques.

  6. The Added Value of a PhD in Medicine--PhD Students' Perceptions of Acquired Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anttila, Henrika; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari; Lonka, Kristi; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    PhD in the field of medicine is more common than in any other domain. Many medical doctors are driven towards PhD, but also students with other backgrounds (usually MSc) are conducting a PhD in medical schools. Higher education has invested a lot in developing generic and research competences. Still little is known about how PhD students…

  7. In Vivo Intracellular pH Measurements in Tobacco and Arabidopsis Reveal an Unexpected pH Gradient in the

    E-print Network

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    In Vivo Intracellular pH Measurements in Tobacco and Arabidopsis Reveal an Unexpected pH Gradient 866, Dynamique Musculaire et Métabolisme, 34060 Montpellier, France The pH homeostasis of endomembranes is essential for cellular functions. In order to provide direct pH measurements

  8. Curriculum Vitae Christopher Dehon, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    .P.H. Functioned as the sole therapist responsible for piloting a new treatment for PTSD in young children and their mothers following trauma. Treatment addressed both the classic symptoms of PTSD and parent training for externalizing problems that were comorbid with children's symptoms of PTSD. Analyzed the overall effectiveness

  9. Teaching Physics Using PhET Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, C. E.; Adams, W. K.; Loeblein, P.; Perkins, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    PhET Interactive Simulations (sims) are now being widely used in teaching physics and chemistry. Sims can be used in many different educational settings, including lecture, individual or small group inquiry activities, homework, and lab. Here we will highlight a few ways to use them in teaching, based on our research and experiences using them in…

  10. PhD course: Institutions for Democracy?

    E-print Network

    Břlviken, Erik

    PhD course: Institutions for Democracy? Parliaments, Parties and Interest groups in Comparative that these political institutions take in contemporary democracies, based on recent comparative research. The focus and the Humanities in Paris. Parliamentary Democracy: Inevitable, Sustainable, Impossible? 1015-1100 Perspectives

  11. Sawyer Fuller, PhD Postdoctoral Researcher

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xi

    at Insect Scale: What Flying Insects Can Tell Us About Robotics and Vice Versa 4 PM Wednesday, February 11th. Insects have overcome these challenges with scale-appropriate flight apparatuses that surpass anything man at insect-sized air vehicles and investigates the flight systems of aerial insects. He completed his Ph

  12. Curriculum Vitae Hailei Wang, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    for an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) study using microchannel heat exchangers to reduce plant size-effective and environment-sound alternative grid energy storage solution to pumped hydro, CAES and more expensive batteries1 Curriculum Vitae Hailei Wang, Ph.D. Senior Investigator, Advanced Energy Systems Microproducts

  13. Monitoring fetal pH by telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, A.; Donahoe, T.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Ryan, W.

    1980-01-01

    Telemetry unit has been developed for possible use in measuring scalp-tissue pH and heart rate of unborn infant. Unit radius data to receiver as much as 50 ft. away. Application exists during hours just prior to childbirth to give warning of problems that might require cesarean delivery.

  14. Observational Optical Astronomy Ph 344 Fall 2014

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    Observational Optical Astronomy Ph 344 Fall 2014 Instructors: Dr. Tad Pryor 302W Physics & Astronomy Building, Busch Campus 848-445-8873 pryor@physics.rutgers.edu Office Hour: Wednesday 3:00 - 4:30 PM (or make an appointment) Mr. Jean Walker 332W Physics & Astronomy Building, Busch Campus jpwalker

  15. James M. Cherry, Ph.D. (Video)

    Cancer.gov

    View this video on YouTube. James M. Cherry, Ph.D. details his educational journey from football player to biology major and, ultimately, a career in molecular biology. Dr. Cherry serves as scientific program director, Office of Scientific Operations,

  16. Ph.D.'s and the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, James

    Throughout the last decade, Ph.D. recipients were accustomed to a job market in which demand for their services far exceeded supply. During the same period, manpower experts predicted this situation would continue in the foreseeable future. However, when the 60's ended, the employment illusion had been rudely dispelled by frantic reports of a…

  17. Graduate Student MS and Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Salvaggio, Carl

    Graduate Student Handbook MS and Ph.D. Imaging Science 2015-2016 Academic Year Revision 23 Attendance 18 10.7 Cooperative Education/Internships 18 10.8 Course Exemption 18 10.9 Course Substitution 20 10.16 Imaging Science Seminar 20 10.17 Independent Study 20 10.18 Intersession and Summer Term

  18. LANCE FREEMAN, PH.D. DEMOGRAPHIC

    E-print Network

    LANCE FREEMAN, PH.D. JAPAN'S DEMOGRAPHIC DILEMMA: IMPLICATIONS FOR HOUSING #12;2 © 2015 industrialized countries, Japan is in the midst of several demographic shifts dramatically impacting to as the second demographic transition. This second demographic transition stems from a value orientation away

  19. Gunhee Kim, Ph.D. Assistant professor

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Robert F.

    Vision, Machine Learning, Optimization, Data Mining, and Robotics Education Ph.D. in Computer Science Storylines from Web Photo Collections Advisor: Prof. Eric P. Xing Committee: Prof. Takeo Kanade, Prof. Christos Faloutsos, Prof. Antonio Torralba (MIT) M.S. in Robotics, Carnegie Mellon University Aug 2006

  20. What My Ph.D. Taught Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The author started in the Ph.D. program in comparative literature at Princeton in 1992, a year after she graduated from college. She fell in love with mythology and the classical traditions and find herself teaching literature. In the remainder of her time at Princeton, she precepted for four or five more classes, got the chance to join the…

  1. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  2. The Ph.D. Value Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Atlanta University launched its doctor of arts in humanities (DAH) programs almost 40 years ago, and, since the 1988 merger with Clark College, Clark Atlanta University has continued to award the degrees. This fall, for the first time, its students will be able to earn Ph.D.s in humanities instead. In DAH programs around the country, there's been…

  3. Name: _______________________________ M.A./Ph.D: MUSIC

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Name: _______________________________ M.A./Ph.D: MUSIC INTEGRATED COMPOSITION, IMPROVISATION, AND TECHNOLOGY (ICIT) Degree Requirements (2015-2016) Required courses for the M.A.: Music 200 (Bibliography and Research): ______ 4 units Music 209 (Seminar in Creative Practices): ______ ______ 8 units Music 215A

  4. pH & Rate of Enzymatic Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative and inexpensive way to measure the rate of enzymatic reaction is provided. The effects of different pH levels on the reaction rate of an enzyme from yeast are investigated and the results graphed. Background information, a list of needed materials, directions for preparing solutions, procedure, and results and discussion are…

  5. Brains & Behavior Larry Young, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Frantz, Kyle J.

    such as autism. Young's new book, The Chemistry Between Us: Love, Sex, and the Science of Attraction (2012Brains & Behavior Retreat Larry Young, Ph.D. is Director of the Center for Translational Social Disorders at Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Dr. Young received his undergraduate degree

  6. QM/MM Calculations in Drug Discovery: A Useful Method for Studying Binding M. Paul Gleeson*,

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Steven O.

    QM/MM Calculations in Drug Discovery: A Useful Method for Studying Binding Phenomena? M. Paul subtle binding phenomena found within pharmaceutical drug discovery programs. The goal discovery process which sees the optimization of a lead molecule in a rational, structurally enabled manner

  7. Construction of exchange repulsion in terms of the wave functions at QM/MM boundary region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hideaki; Umino, Satoru; Morita, Akihiro

    2015-08-01

    We developed a simple method to calculate exchange repulsion between a quantum mechanical (QM) solute and a molecular mechanical (MM) molecule in the QM/MM approach. In our method, the size parameter in the Buckingham type potential for the QM solute is directly determined in terms of the one-electron wave functions of the solute. The point of the method lies in the introduction of the exchange core function (ECF) defined as a Slater function which mimics the behavior of the exterior electron density at the QM/MM boundary region. In the present paper, the ECF was constructed in terms of the Becke-Roussel (BR) exchange hole function. It was demonstrated that the ECF yielded by the BR procedure can faithfully reproduce the radial behavior of the electron density of a QM solute. The size parameter of the solute as well as the exchange repulsion are, then, obtained using the overlap model without any fitting procedure. To examine the efficiency of the method, it was applied to calculation of the exchange repulsions for minimal QM/MM systems, hydrogen-bonded water dimer, and H3O+-H2O. We found that our approach is able to reproduce the potential energy curves for these systems showing reasonable agreements with those given by accurate full quantum chemical calculations.

  8. Spatially resolved electron density measurements in a CCRF with an 1 mm microwave interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker; Lukas, Christoph; Spaan, Michael; Döbele, H. F.

    1998-10-01

    Three dimensional electron density profiles are measured with an 1 mm heterodyne microwave interferometer(N.Niemöller et al., Plasma Sources Sci.Technol., 6 (1997) 478) at a capacitively coupled rf discharge. The stainless steel electrode assembly (100 mm diameter and 25 or 40 mm separation) can be displaced in both directions transverse to the microwave beam. From a series of line-of-sight measurements a radial electron density profile can be calculated by Abel inversion. A complete 3 dimensional profile is obtained by repeating the measurements at different distances from the electrodes. The minimum distance to the electrodes is about 3 mm defined by the beam diameter. The detection limit is ~ 2\\cdot10^15 m-3. The gas pressure ranges from 10 to 100 Pa; the RF power at 13.56 MHz between 10 and 100 W. Density profiles are presented and discussed for measurements in Argon and Hydrogen. (Funded by the DFG in the frame of the SFB 191)

  9. 32. VERTICAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VERTICAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MM FILM SHOT PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  10. Polystyrene PS648 outlet optical birefringence pattern, piston speed 1.0mm/s

    E-print Network

    Hassell, David

    2008-08-27

    The optical birefringence pattern obtained from polystyrene PS648 flowing through a narrow slit. Experiment conducted on the Cambridge Multi Pass Rheometer (MPR4) at a piston speed of 1.0 mm/s at 170C. Video shows the outlet flow (from top to bottom)....

  11. UPDATES AND EVALUATION OF THE PX-LSM IN MM5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Starting with Version 3.4, there is a new land surface model known as the Pleim-Xiu LSM available in the MM5 system. Pleim and Xiu (1995) described the initial development and testing of this land surface and workshop proceedings provided a basic description of the model and s...

  12. USING MM5V3 WITH ETA ANALYSES FOR AIR-QUALITY MODELING AT THE EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts have been underway since MM5v3 was released in July 1999 to set up air-quality simulations using Eta analyses as background fields. Our previous simulations used a one-way quadruple-nested set of domains with horizontal grid spacing of 108, 36, 12 and 4 km. With Eta a...

  13. MAPPING GREEN MACROALGAE BLOOMS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY VIA 35-MM AERIAL PHOTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summer blooms of green macroalgae (mainly Ulva spp. and Enteromorpha spp.) on intertidal mudflats of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary were documented using oblique 35-mm color-infrared aerial photographs taken at low tide. Costs were controlled by use of a small airplane from a loc...

  14. 1. East portal of Tunnel 3, view to west, 135mm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East portal of Tunnel 3, view to west, 135mm lens. This tunnel was photographed to provide context, because even though somewhat enlarged, it illustrates the nature of the unlined hard rock tunnels typical of the original Central Pacific construction in 1868. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 3, Milepost 180.65, Cisco, Placer County, CA

  15. Press Advertising 39x3col (390mm x 3 cols)

    E-print Network

    Press Advertising 39x3col (390mm x 3 cols) Total cost of ad Canberra Times $1,682.49 HES $4. 200 words Canberra Times $1,037.29 HES $2,785.00 STANDALONE Press advertising describes job advertisements in a printed medium such as newspapers, magazines and journals. We currently primarily advertised

  16. A mm-wave planar microcavity structure for electron linear accelerator system

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.; Mills, F.; Mavrogenes, G.; Henke, H.

    1993-07-01

    The muffin-tin cavity structure is planar and well suited for mm-wave accelerator with silicon etching techniques. A constant impedance traveling-wave structure is considered for design simplicity. The RF parameters are calculated and the shunt impedance is compared with the shunt impedance of a disk loaded cylindrical structure.

  17. The three-dimensional structure of Saturn's E ring M.M. Hedman a,

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    The three-dimensional structure of Saturn's E ring M.M. Hedman a, , J.A. Burns a,b , D.P. Hamilton Accepted 2 November 2011 Available online 19 November 2011 Keywords: Planetary rings Saturn, Rings Disks a b s t r a c t Saturn's diffuse E ring consists of many tiny (micron and sub-micron) grains of water

  18. Guide to Foreign-Government Loan Film (16 mm). First Edition, 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    More than 3,000 films (16 mm.) available on loan in the United States under the auspices of 66 foreign governments are catalogued. About 1,800 of them may be borrowed at no charge, and the rest at a nominal fee. Many of the listings are simply tourist films, but others deal with the country's history, literature, culture, people, and politics. The…

  19. THE ENIGMATIC CORE L1451-mm: A FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE? OR A HIDDEN VeLLO?

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bourke, Tyler; Foster, Jonathan B.; Robitaille, Thomas; Kauffmann, Jens; Arce, Hector G.; Tanner, Joel; Schnee, Scott; Tafalla, Mario; Caselli, Paola; Anglada, Guillem

    2011-12-20

    We present the detection of a dust continuum source at 3 mm (CARMA) and 1.3 mm (Submillimeter Array, SMA), and {sup 12}CO (2-1) emission (SMA) toward the L1451-mm dense core. These detections suggest a compact object and an outflow where no point source at mid-infrared wavelengths is detected using Spitzer. An upper limit for the dense core bolometric luminosity of 0.05 L{sub Sun} is obtained. By modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution and the continuum interferometric visibilities simultaneously, we confirm that a central source of heating is needed to explain the observations. This modeling also shows that the data can be well fitted by a dense core with a young stellar object (YSO) and a disk, or by a dense core with a central first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Unfortunately, we are not able to decide between these two models, which produce similar fits. We also detect {sup 12}CO (2-1) emission with redshifted and blueshifted emission suggesting the presence of a slow and poorly collimated outflow, in opposition to what is usually found toward YSOs but in agreement with prediction from simulations of an FHSC. This presents the best candidate, so far, for an FHSC, an object that has been identified in simulations of collapsing dense cores. Whatever the true nature of the central object in L1451-mm, this core presents an excellent laboratory to study the earliest phases of low-mass star formation.

  20. The M&M Approach: Using Mental and Mechanical Strategies in Teaching and Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Chris K.; Wisdom, Stacey

    2007-01-01

    Mental and mechanical (M&M) techniques are very useful in teaching and coaching. Mental techniques are strategies that enhance movement through psychological preparation, such as using imagery to practice a skill. Mechanical techniques are strategies that enhance the physical side of the movement, such as correcting the biomechanics of a golf…

  1. Comments on the papers recently published by M.M. Khandpekar et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, A. M.; Ghazaryan, V. V.; Fleck, M.

    2011-09-01

    It is argued that the existence of the new compounds of glycine recently reported by M.M. Khandpekar et al. (Optics Commun. 284(2011) 1583 and Optics Commun. 284(2011) 1578) is dubious. We argue that these compounds are not what the authors propose. In addition, two more similar cases are indicated.

  2. File: PoS_Markov_22_MM.doc 100524 Poisson Simulation outperforms Markov Simulation

    E-print Network

    these states. This approach allows powerful analysis and makes Markov models a fundamental part of the theory: Markov Simulation, Poisson Simulation, state-based modelling, stochastic compartment modellingFile: PoS_Markov_22_MM.doc 100524 Poisson Simulation outperforms Markov Simulation Leif Gustafsson

  3. The Radio - 2 mm Spectral Index of the Crab Nebula Measured with GISMO

    E-print Network

    Arendt, R G; Staguhn, J G; Benford, D J; Devlin, M J; Dicker, S R; Fixsen, D J; Irwin, K D; Jhabvala, C A; Korngut, P M; Kovács, A; Maher, S F; Mason, B S; Miller, T M; Moseley, S H; Navarro, S; Sievers, A; Sievers, J L; Sharp, E; Wollack, E J

    2011-01-01

    We present results of 2 mm observations of the Crab Nebula, obtained using the Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer (GISMO) bolometer camera on the IRAM 30 m telescope. Additional 3.3 mm observations with the MUSTANG bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope are also presented. The integrated 2 mm flux density of the Crab Nebula provides no evidence for the emergence of a second synchrotron component that has been proposed. It is consistent with the radio power law spectrum, extrapolated up to a break frequency of log(nu_{b} [GHz]) = 2.84 +/- 0.29 or nu_{b} = 695^{+651}_{-336} GHz. The Crab Nebula is well-resolved by the ~16.7" beam (FWHM) of GISMO. Comparison to radio data at comparable spatial resolution enables us to confirm significant spatial variation of the spectral index between 21 cm and 2 mm. The main effect is a spectral flattening in the inner region of the Crab Nebula, correlated with the toroidal structure at the center of the nebula that is prominent in the near-IR through X-ray...

  4. THE RADIO-2 mm SPECTRAL INDEX OF THE CRAB NEBULA MEASURED WITH GISMO

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, R. G.; George, J. V.; Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Maher, S. F.; Moseley, S. H.; Sharp, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Korngut, P. M.; Irwin, K. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Miller, T. M.; Kovacs, A.; Mason, B. S.; Navarro, S.; Sievers, A.; Sievers, J. L.

    2011-06-10

    We present results of 2 mm observations of the Crab Nebula, obtained using the Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer (GISMO) bolometer camera on the IRAM 30 m telescope. Additional 3.3 mm observations with the MUSTANG bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope are also presented. The integrated 2 mm flux density of the Crab Nebula provides no evidence for the emergence of a second synchrotron component that has been proposed. It is consistent with the radio power-law spectrum, extrapolated up to a break frequency of log ({nu}{sub b}[GHz]) = 2.84 {+-} 0.29 or {nu}{sub b} = 695{sup +651}{sub -336} GHz. The Crab Nebula is well resolved by the {approx}16.''7 beam (FWHM) of GISMO. Comparison to radio data at comparable spatial resolution enables us to confirm significant spatial variation of the spectral index between 21 cm and 2 mm. The main effect is a spectral flattening in the inner region of the Crab Nebula, correlated with the toroidal structure at the center of the nebula that is prominent in the near-IR through X-ray regime.

  5. MM5 Contrail Forecasting in Alaska Martin Stuefer, Xiande Meng and Gerd Wendler

    E-print Network

    Stuefer, Martin

    in humidity measurements at low temperature levels due to temperature dependence errors of the humidity sensor air. Algorithm input data are MM5 forecasted temperature and humidity values at defined pressure polymer, which might also affect forecasts of humidity of the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere

  6. Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability (1988-2004) from calibrated Polar MM5 output*

    E-print Network

    Box, Jason E.

    1 Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability (1988-2004) from calibrated Polar MM5 output coherent regional patterns of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB) change over a 17-year period suggests the overall ice sheet mass balance has been increasingly negative, given observed melt water

  7. Technical Manual for Attitudes Towards Teaching All Students (ATTAS-mm) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Jess L.; Noto, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    The general education teacher has the greatest influence on a student's success in school, and a teacher's attitude towards inclusion is a major factor in determining whether inclusion will be successful. The ATTAS-mm is a 9-item scale with strong reliability and validity. The three subscales: believing all students can succeed in general…

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 4418 ALMA mm-wave spectral scan (Costagliola+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costagliola, F.; Sakamoto, K.; Muller, S.; Martin, S.; Aalto, S.; Harada, N.; van der Werf, P.; Viti, S.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Spaans, M.

    2015-07-01

    Wide-band mm-wave spectral scan of NGC4418, observed by ALMA in Cycle 0, between April 2012 and January 2013. The spectrum was extracted from the visibilities with the CASA routine UVMULTIFITS (Marti-Vidal et al., 2014A&A...563A.136M), assuming a point source. (1 data file).

  9. A shallow convection parameterization for the non-hydrostatic MM5 mesoscale model

    SciTech Connect

    Seaman, N.L.; Kain, J.S.; Deng, A.

    1996-04-01

    A shallow convection parameterization suitable for the Pennsylvannia State University (PSU)/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) is being developed at PSU. The parameterization is based on parcel perturbation theory developed in conjunction with a 1-D Mellor Yamada 1.5-order planetary boundary layer scheme and the Kain-Fritsch deep convection model.

  10. 2. West portal of Snowshed 29, view to east, 135mm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. West portal of Snowshed 29, view to east, 135mm lens. Note the heavy timber frame, with battered posts to carry the tremendous snow loads of winter. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 41, Milepost 193.3, Donner, Placer County, CA

  11. Building 810, oblique view to eastsoutheast, 90mm lens. Note buttressed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 810, oblique view to east-southeast, 90mm lens. Note buttressed end wall extensions into which main doors nest. - Travis Air Force Base, B-36 Hangar, Between Woodskill Avenue & Ellis, adjacent to Taxiway V & W, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  12. Ion solvation in water from molecular dynamics simulation with the ABEEM/MM force field.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Xin

    2005-04-28

    A systematic study on monovalent ions in water clusters and in aqueous solution is presented for providing insight into their solvation structures, charge distributions, binding energies, as well as dynamic and thermodynamic properties in terms of the atom-bond electronegativity equalization method fused into molecular mechanics (ABEEM/MM) that is to take ABEEM charges into the Coulomb term in MM. For hydrated systems of M+(H2O)n, M+ being Li+, Na+, and K+, as well as X-(H2O)n, X- being F-, Cl-, and Br-, with n = 1-6, parameters for the effective interaction between the ion and the water molecules were determined, so as to reproduce the experimental or ab initio results. The corresponding parameters were tested with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of these ions in liquid water and with solvation free energy calculations using the perturbation technique. The results of aqueous ionic solution simulations with the ABEEM/MM force field provide a reasonable description of many important properties, which are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. This work demonstrates that the combination of ABEEM/MM-MD provides a powerful tool in analyzing solvation processes of monovalent ions in water. PMID:16839014

  13. CVB: The Constrained Vapor Bubble 40 mm Capillary Experiment on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Kundan, Akshay; Plawsky, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Discuss the Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) 40mm Fin experiment on the ISS and how it aims to achieve a better understanding of the physics of evaporation and condensation and how they affect cooling processes in microgravity using a remotely controlled microscope and a small cooling device

  14. 5. East portal of Tunnel 28, view to southsouthwest, 135mm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East portal of Tunnel 28, view to south-southwest, 135mm lens. Shed above portal appears to have housed machinery connected with a counterweighted curtain mechanism used to help dissipate smoke from this 3,209-foot tunnel during the days of steam locomotive use - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  15. 10. Southeast end; view to northwest, 65mm lens. Note evidence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Southeast end; view to northwest, 65mm lens. Note evidence of extreme building failure caused by adjacent railroad cut, which necessitated building demolition. (Vignetting due to extreme use of camera swing necessitated by lack of space to position camera otherwise.) - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  16. 16mm Film and Videotape Lectures and Demonstrations. 1976/1977 Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Center for Advanced Engineering Study.

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology provides a catalog of 16mm filmed and videotaped lectures and demonstrations. Each listing includes title, short description, length of presentation, catalog number, purchase and rental prices, and indications as to whether the item is film or videotape and black-and-white or color. The catalog is divided…

  17. Local 1199, Local 32B-32J, Local 100, MEBA, and MM&P

    E-print Network

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    Local 1199, Local 32B-32J, Local 100, MEBA, and MM&P Effective January 1, 2015 2015 Benefits documents, the Plan documents will always govern. Columbia University reserves the right to change Making Changes to Your Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Flexible

  18. Proton and hydride transfers in solution: hybrid QMmm/MM free energy perturbation study

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, L. Lawrence |; Bash, P.A.; Kerell, A.D., Jr

    1996-03-01

    A hybrid quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free energy perturbation (FEP) method is implemented in the context of molecular dynamics (MD). The semiempirical quantum mechanical (QM) Hamiltonian (Austin Model 1) represents solute molecules, and the molecular mechanical (MM) CHARMM force field describes the water solvent. The QM/MM FEP method is used to calculate the free energy changes in aqueous solution for (1) a proton transfer from methanol to imidazole and (2) a hydride transfer from methoxide to nicotinamide. The QM/MM interaction energies between the solute and solvent arc calibrated to emulate the solute-solvent interaction energies determined at the Hartee-Fock 6-31G(d) level of ab initio theory. The free energy changes for the proton and hydride transfers are calculated to be 15.1 and {minus}6.3 kcal/mol, respectively, which compare favorably with the corresponding experimental values of 12.9 and {minus}7.4 kcal/mol. An estimate of the reliability of the calculations is obtained through the computation of the forward (15.1 and {minus}6.3 kcal/mol) and backward ({minus}14.1 and 9.1 kcal/mol)free energy changes. The reasonable correspondence between these two independent calculations suggests that adequate phase space sampling is obtained along the reaction pathways chosen to transform the proton and hydride systems between their respective reactant and product states.

  19. The Reaction Mechanism of Paraoxon Hydrolysis by Phosphotriesterase from Combined QM/MM Simulations

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    The Reaction Mechanism of Paraoxon Hydrolysis by Phosphotriesterase from Combined QM/MM Simulations Submitted to Biochemistry #12;1 The Reaction Mechanism of Paraoxon Hydrolysis by Phosphotriesterase from of Paraoxon Hydrolysis by Phosphotriesterase Page 1 of 57 ACS Paragon Plus Environment Submitted

  20. 14. Main room; view no southwest, 65mm lens with electronic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Main room; view no southwest, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. The mountain visible through the windows was a landmark for the camp population. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  1. Universit`a degli Studi di Padova Facolt`a di Scienze MM.FF.NN.

    E-print Network

    Universit`a degli Studi di Padova Facolt`a di Scienze MM.FF.NN. Corso di Laurea in Astronomia TESI: Prof. Dr. Piero Rafanelli Dipartimento di Astronomia di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio, 2 I-35122@aip.de Dipartimento di Astronomia di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio, 2 I-35122, Padova. Astrophysikalisches Institut

  2. Comparison of a QM/MM Force Field and Molecular Mechanics Force Fields in Simulations of Alanine and

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    Comparison of a QM/MM Force Field and Molecular Mechanics Force Fields in Simulations of Alanine Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Paderborn, Paderborn, Germany ABSTRACT We compare mechanics (MM) force fields and with a fast com- bined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) force

  3. An autopsy case of MM2-cortical?+?thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yufuko; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Aiba, Ikuko; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Hashizume, Yoshio

    2011-10-01

    A 59-year-old Japanese man presented with depressed mood, insomnia, abnormal behavior and dementia. Visual and gait disturbance with ataxia also developed. Diffusion-weighted MRI showed widespread regions of hyperintensity in the bilateral cerebral cortex. The patient died at 62 after a progressive clinical course of 32 months. Myoclonus, periodic sharp-wave complexes on EEG, and akinetic mutism state were not observed. Neuropathologic examination showed widespread cerebral neocortical involvement with both large confluent vacuole-type, alongside fine vacuole-type spongiform changes. Mild spongiform degeneration was observed in the striatum and lateral thalamus. Severe neuron loss with hypertrophic astrocytosis in the medial thalamus and inferior olivary nucleus was present. Cerebral white matter showed diffuse myelin pallor indicating panencephalopathic-type pathology. In the cerebellar cortex, severe Purkinje neuron loss was observed, but no spongiform degeneration in the molecular layer or neuron loss in the granular cell layer. PrP immunostaining showed widespread perivacuolar-type PrP, irregular plaque-like PrP, and synaptic-type PrP depositions in the cerebral neocortex. Mild PrP deposition was observed in the striatum, lateral thalamus and brainstem, whereas PrP deposition was not apparent in the medial thalamus and inferior olivary nucleus. PrP gene analysis showed no mutations, and methionine homozygosity was observed at codon 129. Western blot analysis of protease-resistant PrP showed type 2 PrP pattern. MRI and cerebral neocortical pathology suggested MM2-cortical-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), whereas the clinical course and pathology of the medial thalamus and inferior olivary nucleus suggested MM2-thalamic-type sCJD. We believe this was a combination of MM2-cortical-type and MM2-thalamic-type sCJD, which explains the broad spectrum of MM2-type sCJD findings and symptoms. PMID:21175861

  4. A QM/MM study of the binding of RAPTA ligands to cathepsin B.

    PubMed

    Ciancetta, Antonella; Genheden, Samuel; Ryde, Ulf

    2011-08-01

    We have carried out quantum mechanical (QM) and QM/MM (combined QM and molecular mechanics) calculations, as well as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the binding of a series of six RAPTA (Ru(II)-arene-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo-[3.3.1.1] decane) complexes with different arene substituents to cathepsin B. The recently developed QM/MM-PBSA approach (QM/MM combined with Poisson-Boltzmann solvent-accessible surface area solvation) has been used to estimate binding affinities. The QM calculations reproduce the antitumour activities of the complexes with a correlation coefficient (r (2)) of 0.35-0.86 after a conformational search. The QM/MM-PBSA method gave a better correlation (r (2) = 0.59) when the protein was fixed to the crystal structure, but more reasonable ligand structures and absolute binding energies were obtained if the protein was allowed to relax, indicating that the ligands are strained when the protein is kept fixed. In addition, the best correlation (r (2) = 0.80) was obtained when only the QM energies were used, which suggests that the MM and continuum solvation energies are not accurate enough to predict the binding of a charged metal complex to a charged protein. Taking into account the protein flexibility by means of MD simulations slightly improves the correlation (r (2) = 0.91), but the absolute energies are still too large and the results are sensitive to the details in the calculations, illustrating that it is hard to obtain stable predictions when full flexible protein is included in the calculations. PMID:21701919

  5. Sampling efficiency of modified 37-mm sampling cassettes using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Anthony, T Renée; Sleeth, Darrah; Volckens, John

    2016-02-01

    In the U.S., most industrial hygiene practitioners continue to rely on the closed-face cassette (CFC) to assess worker exposures to hazardous dusts, primarily because ease of use, cost, and familiarity. However, mass concentrations measured with this classic sampler underestimate exposures to larger particles throughout the inhalable particulate mass (IPM) size range (up to aerodynamic diameters of 100 ?m). To investigate whether the current 37-mm inlet cap can be redesigned to better meet the IPM sampling criterion, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were developed, and particle sampling efficiencies associated with various modifications to the CFC inlet cap were determined. Simulations of fluid flow (standard k-epsilon turbulent model) and particle transport (laminar trajectories, 1-116 ?m) were conducted using sampling flow rates of 10 L min(-1) in slow moving air (0.2 m s(-1)) in the facing-the-wind orientation. Combinations of seven inlet shapes and three inlet diameters were evaluated as candidates to replace the current 37-mm inlet cap. For a given inlet geometry, differences in sampler efficiency between inlet diameters averaged less than 1% for particles through 100 ?m, but the largest opening was found to increase the efficiency for the 116 ?m particles by 14% for the flat inlet cap. A substantial reduction in sampler efficiency was identified for sampler inlets with side walls extending beyond the dimension of the external lip of the current 37-mm CFC. The inlet cap based on the 37-mm CFC dimensions with an expanded 15-mm entry provided the best agreement with facing-the-wind human aspiration efficiency. The sampler efficiency was increased with a flat entry or with a thin central lip adjacent to the new enlarged entry. This work provides a substantial body of sampling efficiency estimates as a function of particle size and inlet geometry for personal aerosol samplers. PMID:26513395

  6. QM/MM linear response method distinguishes ligand affinities for closely related metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Akash; Balaz, Stefan

    2007-11-01

    Design of selective ligands for closely related targets is becoming one of the most important tasks in the drug development. New tools, more precise than fast scoring functions and less demanding than sophisticated Free Energy Perturbation methods, are necessary to help accomplish this goal. The methods of intermediate complexity, characterizing individual contributions to the binding energy, have been an area of intense research in the past few years. Our recently developed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) modification of the Linear Response (LR) method describes the binding free energies as the sum of empirically weighted contributions of the QM/MM interaction energies and solvent-accessible surface areas for the time-averaged structures of hydrated complexes, obtained by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The method was applied to published data on 27 inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3). The two descriptors explained 90% of variance in the inhibition constants with RMSE of 0.245 log units. The QM/MM treatment is indispensable for characterization of the systems lacking suitable force-field expressions. In this case, it provided characteristics of H-bonds of the inhibitors to Glu202, charges of binding site atoms, and accurate coordination geometries of the ligands to catalytic zinc. The geometries were constrained during the MD simulations, which characterized conformational flexibility of the complexes and helped in the elucidation of the binding differences for related compounds. A comparison of the presented QM/MM LR results with those previously published for inhibition of MMP-9 by the same set of ligands showed that the QM/MM LR approach was able to distinguish subtle differences in binding affinities for MMP-3 and MMP-9, which did not exceed one order of magnitude. This precision level makes the approach a useful tool for design of selective ligands to similar targets, because the results can be safely extrapolated to maximize selectivity. PMID:17607744

  7. Comparison of Interstitial Fluid pH, PCO2, PO2 with Venous Blood Values During Repetitive Handgrip Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagan, Ronald Donald; Soller, Babs R.; Shear, Michael; Walz, Matthias; Landry, Michelle; Heard, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the use of a small, fiber optic sensor to measure pH, PCO2 and PO2 from forearm muscle interstitial fluid (IF) during handgrip dynamometry. PURPOSE: Compare pH, PCO2 and PO2 values obtained from venous blood with those from the IF of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) during three levels of exercise intensity. METHODS: Six subjects (5M/1F), average age 29+/-5 yrs, participated in the study. A venous catheter was placed in the retrograde direction in the antecubital space and a fiber optic sensor (Paratrend, Diametrics Medical, Inc.) was placed through a 22 G catheter into the FDS muscle under ultrasound guidance. After a 45 min rest period, subjects performed three 5-min bouts of repetitive handgrip exercise (2s contraction/1 s relaxation) at attempted levels of 15%, 30% and 45% of maximal voluntary contraction. The order of the exercise bouts was random with the second and third bouts started after blood lactate had returned to baseline. Venous blood was sampled every minute during exercise and analyzed with an I-Stat CG-4+ cartridge, while IF fiber optic sensor measurements were obtained every 2 s. Change from pre-exercise baseline to end of exercise was computed for pH, PCO2 and PO2. Blood and IF values were compared with a paired t-test. RESULTS: Baseline values for pH, PCO2 and PO2 were 7.37+/-0.02, 46+/-4 mm Hg, and 36+/-6 mm Hg respectively in blood and 7.39+/-0.02, 44+/-6 mm Hg, and 35+/-14 mm Hg in IF. Average changes over all exercise levels are noted in the Table below. For each parameter the exercise-induced change was at least twice as great in IF as in blood. In blood and IF, pH and PCO2 increases were directly related to exercise intensity. Change in venous PO2 was unrelated to exercise intensity, while IF PO2 decreased with increases in exercise intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of IF pH, PCO2 and PO2 is more sensitive to exercise intensity than measurement of the same parameters in venous blood and provides continuous assessment during and after exercise.

  8. Mechanism of action of GABA on intracellular pH and on surface pH in crayfish muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Kaila, K; Saarikoski, J; Voipio, J

    1990-01-01

    1. The mode of action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on intracellular pH (pHi) and surface pH (pHs) was studied in crayfish muscle fibres using H(+)-selective microelectrodes. The extracellular HCO3- concentration was varied (0-30 mM) at constant pH (7.4). 2. GABA (5 x 10(-6)-10(-3) M) produced a reversible fall in pHi which showed a dependence on the concentrations of both GABA and HCO3-. The fall in pHi was associated with a transient increase in pHs and it was inhibited by a K(+)-induced depolarization. 3. In the presence of 30 mM-HCO3-, a near-saturating concentration of GABA (0.5 mM) produced a mean fall in pHi of 0.43 units. This change in pHi accounted for about two-thirds of the GABA-induced decrease (from -66 to -29 mV) in the sarcolemmal H+ driving force, while the rest was due to the simultaneous depolarization. 4. The apparent net efflux of HCO3- (JHCO3e) produced by a given concentration of GABA was estimated on the basis of the instantaneous rate of change of pHi. In the presence of 30 mM-HCO3-, JHCO3e following exposure to 0.5 mM-GABA had a mean value of 8.0 mmol l-1 min-1. Under steady-state conditions (at plateau acidosis), the intracellular acid load produced by 0.5 mM-GABA was about 25% of that seen at the onset of the application. 5. The GABA-induced HCO3- permeability, calculated on the basis of the flux data, showed a concentration dependence similar to that of the GABA-activated conductance described in previous work. 6. The GABA-induced increase in pHs was immediately blocked by both a membrane-permeant inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase (acetazolamide, 10(-6) M) and by a poorly permeant inhibitor (benzolamide, 10(-6) M). 7. Application of acetazolamide (10(-4) M) for 5 min or more produced a decrease of up to 60% in the maximum rate of fall of pHi at GABA concentrations higher than 20 microM. 8. The recovery of the GABA-induced acidosis was associated with a fall in pHs. The recovery was completely blocked in solutions devoid of Na+ or of Cl-, as well as by DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid, 10(-5) M). This indicates that the maintenance of a non-equilibrium H+ gradient at plateau acidosis and the recovery of pHi are attributable to Na(+)-dependent Cl(-)-HCO3- exchange. 9. We conclude that the effects of GABA on pHi and pHs are due to electrodiffusion of HCO3- across postsynaptic anion channels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1698980

  9. The panacea toolbox of a PhD biomedical student.

    PubMed

    Skaik, Younis

    2014-01-01

    Doing a PhD (doctor of philosophy) for the sake of contribution to knowledge should give the student an immense enthusiasm through the PhD period. It is the time in one's life that one spends to "hit the nail on the head" in a specific area and topic of interest. A PhD consists mostly of hard work and tenacity; however, luck and genius might also play a little role. You can pass all PhD phases without having both luck and genius. The PhD student should have pre-PhD and PhD toolboxes, which are "sine quibus non" for getting successfully a PhD degree. In this manuscript, the toolboxes of the PhD student are discussed. PMID:25674150

  10. DoctorofPhilosophyinPublicPolicy(PhD) About the PhD Program

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    and management research for government, business, think tanks and other research organizations. The PhD program involves a combination of course work (culminating in a comprehensive exam) and proposing, writing

  11. Specimen: pH180 (from main paper) Kaczmarek Treatment pH8.1160

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    0 10 20 0 10 20 30 y(µm) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 OD Specimen: pH180 (from main paper) Kaczmarek Treatment pH8.1160 Bulk B/Ca: 5.23 mmol/mol x (µm) 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 10 20 30 40 x (µm) y(µm) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 OD Specimen: pH380 Kaczmarek Treatment pH8.1260 BulkB/Ca: 2.95 mmol/mol 0 5 10 15 20 0 10 20 30

  12. Persistence and recovery of regressing 3-mm ovarian follicles in heifers.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M; Wolf, C A

    2015-12-01

    The persistence and outcome of 3-mm follicles before the emergence of follicular wave 1 were studied every 6 hours in 15 heifers beginning on Day 14 (Day 0 = ovulation). A mean of 9.1 ± 1.3 persistent 3-mm follicles (P3Fs) per heifer was detected with persistence for 3.5 ± 0.1 days. The P3Fs either regressed continuously and remained in the 3-mm range (3.0-3.9 mm) or regressed but with a transient increase in diameter during regression. Some (43%) P3Fs were rescued to become growing follicles in wave 1. The number of follicles that became part of wave 1 was less (P < 0.0001) for follicles that originated from a P3F (4.2 ± 1.0 P3Fs) than for follicles that did not originate from a P3F (11.9 ± 1.6 follicles). The day of rescue of wave 1 follicles from a P3F (Day -1.1 ± 0.6) was earlier (P < 0.001) than for emergence of follicles at 3 mm that did not originate from a P3F (Day -0.5 ± 0.5). A cluster of 5.1 ± 0.6 P3Fs was identified in 10 of 15 heifers by the synchronized peaks of transient diameter increases at the 6-hour interval corresponding to Day -4.0 ± 0.3. Concentrations of FSH oscillated at 12-hour intervals with a peak (P < 0.05) 6 hours before and 6 hours after the beginning of a transient diameter increase during a P3F. Concentration of FSH was greater (P < 0.02) in heifers with a high number (11-18) of P3Fs per heifer (0.27 ± 0.02 ng/mL) than with a low number (2-9) per heifer (0.17 ± 0.008 ng/mL). Results supported the novel hypothesis that 3-mm follicles may persist for two or more days and may be rescued to become growing follicles of wave 1. PMID:26384766

  13. The pH of Enceladus' ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glein, Christopher R.; Baross, John A.; Waite, J. Hunter

    2015-08-01

    Saturn's moon, Enceladus, is a geologically active waterworld. The prevailing paradigm is that there is a subsurface ocean that erupts to the surface, which leads to the formation of a plume of vapor and ice above the south polar region. The chemistry of the ocean is just beginning to be understood, but is of profound geochemical and astrobiological interest. Here, we determine the pH of the ocean using a thermodynamic model of carbonate speciation. Observational data from the Cassini spacecraft are used to make a chemical model of ocean water on Enceladus. The model suggests that Enceladus' ocean is a Na-Cl-CO3 solution with an alkaline pH of ?11-12. The dominance of aqueous NaCl is a feature that Enceladus' ocean shares with terrestrial seawater, but the ubiquity of dissolved Na2CO3 suggests that soda lakes are more analogous to the Enceladus ocean. The high pH implies that the hydroxide ion should be relatively abundant, while divalent metals should be present at low concentrations owing to buffering by carbonates and phyllosilicates on the ocean floor. Carboxyl groups in dissolved organic species would be negatively charged, while amino groups would exist predominately in the neutral form. Knowledge of the pH improves our understanding of geochemical processes in Enceladus' ocean. The high pH is interpreted to be a key consequence of serpentinization of chondritic rock, as predicted by prior geochemical reaction path models; although degassing of CO2 from the ocean may also play a role depending on the efficiency of mixing processes in the ocean. Serpentinization leads to the generation of H2, a geochemical fuel that can support both abiotic and biological synthesis of organic molecules such as those that have been detected in Enceladus' plume. Serpentinization and H2 generation should have occurred on Enceladus, like on the parent bodies of aqueously altered meteorites; but it is unknown whether these critical processes are still taking place, or if Enceladus' rocky core has been completely altered by past hydrothermal activity. The presence of native H2 in the plume would provide strong evidence for contemporary aqueous alteration that replenishes this source of energy for possible life. The high pH also suggests that the delivery of strong oxidants from the surface to the ocean has not been significant (otherwise, sulfuric acid would be produced), which would be consistent with geophysical models of episodic resurfacing activity on Enceladus. This paper represents an expansion of chemical oceanography to an "ocean planet" beyond Earth.

  14. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural modified rhodamine B dual-function derivative: Highly sensitive and selective optical detection of pH and Cu2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Enze; Zhou, Yanmei; Huang, Qi; Pang, Lanfang; Qiao, Han; Yu, Fang; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Junli; Min, Yinghao; Ma, Tongsen

    2016-01-01

    A dual-function optical chemosensor (RBF) was designed and easily synthesized by condensation reaction of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and rhodamine B hydrazide. RBF exhibited highly sensitive, highly selective and quick response to acidic pH. The fluorescence intensity of RBF exhibited a more than 41-fold increase within the pH range from 7.50 to 3.73 with a pKa value of 5.02, which could be successfully applied to monitor intracellular pH in living PC12 cells and HeLa cells. Additionally, the spectroscopy of UV-Vis and EDTA-adding experiments indicated that RBF was a highly selective and reversible colorimetric chemosensor for Cu2+ in Tris-HCl (10 mM, pH = 7.2) aqueous buffer solution as well as other metal ions had no obvious interference. Moreover, RBF has been successfully applied to detect Cu2+ in real water samples.

  15. An evaluation of MES (2(N-Morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid) and Amberlite IRC-50 as pH buffers for nutrient solution studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B. G.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    All buffering agents used to stabilize pH in hydroponic research have disadvantages. Inorganic buffers are absorbed and may become phytotoxic. Solid carbonate salts temporarily mitigate decreasing pH but provide almost no protection against increasing pH, and they alter nutrient absorption. Exchange resins are more effective, but we find that they remove magnesium and manganese from solution. We have tested 2(N-Morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) as a buffering agent at concentrations of 1 and 10 mol m-3 (1 and 10 mM) with beans, corn, lettuce, tomatoes, and wheat. MES appears to be biologically inert and does not interact significantly with other solution ions. Relative growth rates among controls and MES treatments were nearly identical for each species during the trial period. The pH was stabilized by 1 mol m-3 MES. This buffer warrants further consideration in nutrient research.

  16. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural modified rhodamine B dual-function derivative: Highly sensitive and selective optical detection of pH and Cu(2.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Enze; Zhou, Yanmei; Huang, Qi; Pang, Lanfang; Qiao, Han; Yu, Fang; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Junli; Min, Yinghao; Ma, Tongsen

    2016-01-01

    A dual-function optical chemosensor (RBF) was designed and easily synthesized by condensation reaction of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and rhodamine B hydrazide. RBF exhibited highly sensitive, highly selective and quick response to acidic pH. The fluorescence intensity of RBF exhibited a more than 41-fold increase within the pH range from 7.50 to 3.73 with a pKa value of 5.02, which could be successfully applied to monitor intracellular pH in living PC12 cells and HeLa cells. Additionally, the spectroscopy of UV-Vis and EDTA-adding experiments indicated that RBF was a highly selective and reversible colorimetric chemosensor for Cu(2+) in Tris-HCl (10mM, pH=7.2) aqueous buffer solution as well as other metal ions had no obvious interference. Moreover, RBF has been successfully applied to detect Cu(2+) in real water samples. PMID:26232576

  17. Acceleration of Ab Initio QM/MM Calculations under Periodic Boundary Conditions by Multiscale and Multiple Time Step Approaches.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kwangho

    2014-10-14

    Development of multiscale ab initio quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (AI-QM/MM) method for periodic boundary molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and their acceleration by multiple time step approach are described. The developed method achieves accuracy and efficiency by integrating the AI-QM/MM level of theory and the previously developed semiempirical (SE) QM/MM-Ewald sum method [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2005, 1, 2] extended to the smooth particle-mesh Ewald (PME) summation method. In the developed methods, the total energy of the simulated system is evaluated at the SE-QM/MM-PME level of theory to include long-range QM/MM electrostatic interactions, which is then corrected on the fly using the AI-QM/MM level of theory within the real space cutoff. The resulting energy expression enables decomposition of total forces applied to each atom into forces determined at the low-level SE-QM/MM method and correction forces at the AI-QM/MM level, to integrate the system using the reversible reference system propagator algorithm. The resulting method achieves a substantial speed-up of the entire calculation by minimizing the number of time-consuming energy and gradient evaluations at the AI-QM/MM level. Test calculations show that the developed multiple time step AI-QM/MM method yields MD trajectories and potential of mean force profiles comparable to single time step QM/MM results. The developed method, together with message passing interface (MPI) parallelization, accelerates the present AI-QM/MM MD simulations about 30-fold relative to the speed of single-core AI-QM/MM simulations for the molecular systems tested in the present work, making the method less than one order slower than the SE-QM/MM methods under periodic boundary conditions. PMID:26588116

  18. A 3mm band SIS receiver for the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladu, A.; Pisanu, T.; Navarrini, A.; Marongiu, P.; Valente, G.

    2014-07-01

    We present the optical and mechanical design of a 3mm band SIS receiver for the Gregorian focus of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). The receiver, was designed and built at IRAM and deployed on the IRAM for the Plateau de Bure Interferometer antennas until 2006. Following its decommissioning the receiver was purchased by the INAFAstronomical Observatory of Cagliari with the aim to adapt its optics for test of the performance of the new 64-m diameter Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) in the 3 mm band (84 - 116 GHz). The instrument will be installed in the rotating turret inside of the Gregorian focal room of SRT. The dimensions of the focal room, the horn position in the lower side of the cryostat and the vessel for the liquid helium impose very hard constraints to the optical and mechanical mounting structure of the receiver inside the cabin. We present the receiver configuration and how we plan to install it on SRT.

  19. Survival and photoreactivability of ultraviolet-irradiated cultured fish cells (CAF-MM1)

    SciTech Connect

    Mano, Y.; Mitani, H.; Etoh, H.; Egami, N.

    1980-12-01

    The sensitivity to ultraviolet light (uv) and photoreactivating ability of cultured fish clone cells (CAF-MM1) were investigated. Dose-survival relationship curves were obtained using the colony-forming technique at various postirradiation temperatures (33, 26, and 20/sup 0/C). At 26/sup 0/C the values of D/sub 0/, D/sub q/, and the extrapolation number (n) were 1.74 J/m/sup 2/, 2.62 J/m/sup 2/, and 4.5, respectively; no marked differences in these values were found among different temperatures. Visible light illumination after uv irradiation produced a marked increase in survival. No photoreactivation effects were observed beyond about 30 h. Caffeine increased uv sensitivity of the CAF-MM1 cells, and from the results it is suggested that the cells have some caffeine-sensitive dark repair mechanisms.

  20. GTKDynamo: a PyMOL plug-in for QC/MM hybrid potential simulations.

    PubMed

    Bachega, José Fernando R; Timmers, Luís Fernando S M; Assirati, Lucas; Bachega, Leonardo R; Field, Martin J; Wymore, Troy

    2013-09-30

    Hybrid quantum chemical/molecular mechanical (QCMM) potentials are very powerful tools for molecular simulation. They are especially useful for studying processes in condensed phase systems, such as chemical reactions that involve a relatively localized change in electronic structure and where the surrounding environment contributes to these changes but can be represented with more computationally efficient functional forms. Despite their utility, however, these potentials are not always straightforward to apply since the extent of significant electronic structure changes occurring in the condensed phase process may not be intuitively obvious. To facilitate their use, we have developed an open-source graphical plug-in, GTKDynamo that links the PyMOL visualization program and the pDynamo QC/MM simulation library. This article describes the implementation of GTKDynamo and its capabilities and illustrates its application to QC/MM simulations. PMID:24137667

  1. Creation of persistent, straight, 2 mm long laser driven channels in underdense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarri, G.; Lancaster, K. L.; Trines, R.; Clark, E. L.; Hassan, S.; Jiang, J.; Kageiwa, N.; Lopes, N.; Ramis, R.; Rehman, A.; Ribeyre, X.; Russo, C.; Scott, R. H. H.; Tanimoto, T.; Temporal, M.; Borghesi, M.; Davies, J. R.; Najmudin, Z.; Tanaka, K. A.; Tatarakis, M.; Norreys, P. A.

    2010-11-01

    The experimental study of the behavior of deuterium plasma with densities between 2×1018 and 2×1020 cm-3, subjected to a 6 TW, 30 ps, 3×1018 W cm-2 laser pulse, is presented. Conclusive experimental proof that a single straight channel is generated when the laser pulse interacts with the lowest densities is provided. This channel shows no small-scale longitudinal density modulations, extends up to 2 mm in length and persists for up to 150 ps after the peak of the interaction. Bifurcation of the channel after 1 mm propagation distance is observed for the first time. For higher density interactions, above the relativistic self-focusing threshold, bubblelike structures are observed to form at late times. These observations have implications for both laser wakefield accelerators and fast ignition inertial fusion studies.

  2. A 2.5-mm diameter probe for photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Chen, Ruimin; Favazza, Christopher; Yao, Junjie; Li, Chiye; Hu, Zhilin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-01-01

    We have created a 2.5-mm outer diameter integrated photo-acoustic and ultrasonic mini-probe which can be inserted into a standard video endoscope’s instrument channel. A small-diameter focused ultrasonic transducer made of PMN-PT provides adequate signal sensitivity, and enables miniaturization of the probe. Additionally, this new endoscopic probe utilizes the same scanning mirror and micromotor-based built-in actuator described in our previous reports; however, the length of the rigid distal section of the new probe has been further reduced to ~35 mm. This paper describes the technical details of the mini-probe and presents experimental results that both quantify the imaging performance and demonstrate its in vivo imaging capability, which suggests that it could work as a mini-probe for certain clinical applications. PMID:23188360

  3. Estimating the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum bullet via ballistic experiment.

    PubMed

    Bresson, F; Franck, O

    2009-11-20

    We demonstrate here how the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum FMJ bullet (115gr) has been estimated via shooting experiments. Such a bullet was found by investigators near a concrete wall, fairly distorted at its tip. The bullet carries no evidence of multiple impact and no evidence of ballistic impact on the wall has been reported. We estimated the impact velocity by comparing the questioned bullet with a set of comparison bullets hitting a wall (rigid target) with different velocities. The shooting distance was recovered from the impact velocity by studying the typical behavior of a manufactured 9 mm bullet weighting 115g (7.45g), shot in pistol or a sub-machine gun. The results demonstrated that the questioned bullet was a lost bullet. The shooting distance also helped the investigators, narrowing the range of the estimated positions of the shooter. PMID:19733457

  4. Use of 35-mm color aerial photography to acquire mallard sex ratio data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, E.L.; Jorde, D.G.; Sease, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A conventional 35-mm camera equipped with an f2.8 135-mm lens and ASA 64 color film was used to acquire sex ratio data on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering in the Platte River Valley of south-central Nebraska. Prelight focusing for a distance of 30.5 metres and setting of shutter speed at 1/2000 of a second eliminated focusing and reduced image motion problems and resulted in high-resolution, large-scale aerial photography of small targets. This technique has broad application to the problem of determining sex ratios of various species of waterfowl concentrated on wintering and staging areas. The aerial photographic method was cheaper than the ground ocular method when costs were compared on a per-100 bird basis.

  5. Pencil-like mm-size electron beams produced with linear inductive voltage adders (LIVA)

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Rovang, D.C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents design, analysis, and first results of the high brightness electron beam experiments currently under investigation at Sandia. Anticipated beam parameters are: energy 12 MeV, current 35-40 kA, rms radius 0.5 mm, pulse duration 40 ns FWHM. The accelerator is SABRE, a pulsed LIVA modified to higher impedance, and the electron source is a magnetically immersed foilless electron diode. 20 to 30 Tesla solenoidal magnets are required to insulate the diode and contain the beam to its extremely small sized (1 mm) envelope. These experiments are designed to push the technology to produce the highest possible electron current in a submillimeter radius beam. Design, numercial simulations, and first experimental results are presented.

  6. An 8-mm diameter fibre robot positioner for massive spectroscopy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahim, N.; Prada, F.; Kneib, J. P.; Glez-de-Rivera, G.; Hörler, P.; Sánchez, J.; Azzaro, M.; Becerril, S.; Bleuler, H.; Bouri, M.; Castańo, J.; Garrido, J.; Gillet, D.; Gómez, C.; Gómez, M. A.; González-Arroyo, A.; Jenni, L.; Makarem, L.; Yepes, G.; Arrillaga, X.; Carrera, M. A.; Diego, R.; Charif, M.; Hug, M.; Lachat, C.

    2015-06-01

    Massive spectroscopic survey are becoming trendy in astrophysics and cosmology, as they can address new fundamental knowledge such as understanding the formation of the Milky Way and probing the nature of the mysterious dark energy. To enable massive spectroscopic surveys, new technology has been developed to place thousands of optical fibres at a given position on a focal plane. This technology needs to be: (1) accurate, with micrometer positional accuracy; (2) fast to minimize overhead; (3) robust to minimize failure; and (4) low cost. In this paper, we present the development, properties, and performance of a new single 8-mm in diameter fibre positioner robot, using two 4-mm DC-brushless gearmotors, that allows us to achieve accuracies up to 0.07 arcsec (5 ?m). This device has been developed in the context of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument.1

  7. 650 mm long liquid hydrogen target for use in a high intensity electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.

    1984-02-01

    This paper describes a 650 mm long liquid hydrogen targetr constructed for use in the high intensity electron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The main design problem was to construct a target that would permit the heat deposited by the electron beam to be removed rapidly without boiling the hydrogen so as to maintain constant target density for optimum data taking. Design requirements, cosntruction details and operating experience are discussed.

  8. The Catalytic Activity of Proline Racemase: a QM/MM Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenta, Marco; Calvaresi, Matteo; Altoč, Piero; Spinelli, Domenico; Garavelli, Marco; Bottoni, Andrea

    2007-12-01

    The catalytic activity of an interesting enzyme (involved in the life cycle of the Trypanosoma Cruzi eucariotic parasite) has been elucidated by mean of a QM/MM study. The reaction mechanism of the stereo-inversion of the substrate has been studied by characterizing the associated PES. The nature of the found critical point has been checked by means of numerical frequencies calculations. The role of the various residues in the catalysis has been pointed out.

  9. Magnetic field measurements of full length 50 mm aperture SSC dipole magnets at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, J.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Delchamps, S.W.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koska, W.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.J.; Mazur, P.O.; Mokhtarani, A.; Orris, D.; Ozelis, J.; Wake, M. ); Devred, A.; DiMarco, J.; Kuzminski, J.; Puglisi, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H. ); Ogitsu, T. (Supe

    1992-09-01

    Thirteen 16 m long, 50 mm aperture SSC dipole magnets, designed jointly by Fermilab, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the SSC Laboratory, have been built at Fermilab. The first nine magnets have been fully tested to date. The allowed harmonics are systematically shifted from zero by amounts larger than the specification. The unallowed harmonics, with the exception of the skew sextupole, are consistent with zero. The magnet-to-magnet RMS variation of all harmonics is much smaller than the specification.

  10. Relative output factor measurements of a 5 mm diameter radiosurgical photon beam using polymer gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, E.; Petrokokkinos, L.; Angelopoulos, A.; Maris, T.G.; Kozicki, M.; Dalezios, I.; Kouloulias, V.

    2005-06-15

    Besides the fine spatial resolution inherent in polymer gel-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dosimetry, the method also features the potential for multiple measurements of varying sensitive volume in a single experiment by integrating results in MRI voxels of finite dimensions (i.e., in plane resolution by slice thickness). This work exploits this feature of polymer gel dosimetry to propose an experimental technique for relative output factor (OF) measurements of small radiosurgical beams. Two gel vials were irradiated with a 5 and 30 mm diameter 6 MV radiosurgery beam and MR scanned with the same slice thickness and three different in plane resolutions. Using this experimental data set, 5 mm OF measurements with the PinPoint ion chamber are simulated by integrating results over a sensitive volume equal to that of the chamber. Results are found in agreement within experimental uncertainties with actual PinPoint measurements verifying the validity of the proposed experimental procedure. The polymer gel data set is subsequently utilized for OF measurements of the 5 mm beam with varying sensitive volume to discuss the magnitude of detector volume averaging effects. Seeking to correct for volume averaging, results are extrapolated to zero sensitive volume yielding a 5 mm OF measurement of (0.66{+-}5%). This result compares reasonably with corresponding ionometric and radiographic film measurements of this work and corresponding, limited, data in the literature. Overall, results suggest that polymer gel dosimetry coupled with the proposed experimental procedure helps overcome not only tissue-equivalence and beam perturbation implications but also volume averaging and positioning uncertainties which constitute the main drawback in small radiosurgical beam dosimetry.

  11. Charge-dependent many-body exchange and dispersion interactions in combined QM/MM simulations.

    PubMed

    Kuechler, Erich R; Giese, Timothy J; York, Darrin M

    2015-12-21

    Accurate modeling of the molecular environment is critical in condensed phase simulations of chemical reactions. Conventional quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations traditionally model non-electrostatic non-bonded interactions through an empirical Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential which, in violation of intuitive chemical principles, is bereft of any explicit coupling to an atom's local electronic structure. This oversight results in a model whereby short-ranged exchange-repulsion and long-ranged dispersion interactions are invariant to changes in the local atomic charge, leading to accuracy limitations for chemical reactions where significant atomic charge transfer can occur along the reaction coordinate. The present work presents a variational, charge-dependent exchange-repulsion and dispersion model, referred to as the charge-dependent exchange and dispersion (QXD) model, for hybrid QM/MM simulations. Analytic expressions for the energy and gradients are provided, as well as a description of the integration of the model into existing QM/MM frameworks, allowing QXD to replace traditional LJ interactions in simulations of reactive condensed phase systems. After initial validation against QM data, the method is demonstrated by capturing the solvation free energies of a series of small, chlorine-containing compounds that have varying charge on the chlorine atom. The model is further tested on the SN2 attack of a chloride anion on methylchloride. Results suggest that the QXD model, unlike the traditional LJ model, is able to simultaneously obtain accurate solvation free energies for a range of compounds while at the same time closely reproducing the experimental reaction free energy barrier. The QXD interaction model allows explicit coupling of atomic charge with many-body exchange and dispersion interactions that are related to atomic size and provides a more accurate and robust representation of non-electrostatic non-bonded QM/MM interactions. PMID:26696050

  12. Deep 2mm Surveys with GISMO : Searching for submillimeter galaxies at the highest redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staguhn, Johannes Gunter; Kovacs, Attila; Karim, Alexander; Arendt, Richard; Benford, Dominic J.; Decarli, Roberto; Dwek, Eli; Fixsen, Dale; Gene, Hilton; Irwin, Kent; Moseley, S. Harvey; Sharp, Elmer; Walter, Fabian; Edward, Wollack

    2015-08-01

    The GISMO 2 mm camera at the IRAM 30m telescope has been available to the astronomical community for years through the semi-annual IRAM call for proposals. The 2 mm band is in particular well suited to trace the first dusty galaxies in the universe, since their redshifted SEDs peak close to GISMO's observing frequency, whereas the medium redshift galaxy foreground is almost invisible in this band. This effect makes GISMO's deep field observations a valuable complement, rather than a redundancy, to the HERSCHEL far-infrared and sub-mm surveys. Two survey projects aiming at obtaining 2mm galaxy number counts are at the core of GISMO’s science. Simple models predict an appreciable number of galaxies detected in these surveys to be be at very high redshifts (z~5-6 and above) with intrinsic luminosities of a few 10^12 L_sol.The first of these projects is the GISMO Deep Field (GDF) survey, which is centered on the Hubble Deep Field North. This survey by now has reached the confusion limit (we measure a confusion noise of 60 microJy). Our detailed statistical analysis of the GDF data provides a solid estimate of the expected rate of false detections among those source identifications. Furthermore, numerical simulations were used, to estimate the "completeness" of our set of extracted sources. A comparison of our observations with model predictions shows that our results are in good agreement with galaxy count models.The second survey covers a ~ 1/4 square degree region in the COSMOS field, in which by now we have obtained sufficient sensitivity to extract statistically relevant galaxy number counts, and by using auxiliary data, redshift distributions. We will present first results that complement those obtained in the deeper GDF.

  13. AzTEC 1.1 mm OBSERVATIONS OF THE MBM12 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M. J.; Kim, S.; Youn, S.; Kang, Y.-W.; Yun, M. S.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D. H.; Humphrey, A.; Williams, J. P.; Austermann, J. E.; Perera, T. A.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Magnani, L.

    2012-02-10

    We present 1.1 mm observations of the dust continuum emission from the MBM12 high-latitude molecular cloud observed with the Astronomical Thermal Emission Camera (AzTEC) mounted on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We surveyed 6.34 deg{sup 2} centered on MBM12, making this the largest area that has ever been surveyed in this region with submillimeter and millimeter telescopes. Eight secure individual sources were detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of over 4.4. These eight AzTEC sources can be considered to be real astronomical objects compared to the other candidates based on calculations of the false detection rate. The distribution of the detected 1.1 mm sources or compact 1.1 mm peaks is spatially anti-correlated with that of the 100 {mu}m emission and the {sup 12}CO emission. We detected the 1.1 mm dust continuum emitting sources associated with two classical T Tauri stars, LkH{alpha}262 and LkH{alpha}264. Observations of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) indicate that LkH{alpha}262 is likely to be Class II (pre-main-sequence star), but there are also indications that it could be a late Class I (protostar). A flared disk and a bipolar cavity in the models of Class I sources lead to more complicated SEDs. From the present AzTEC observations of the MBM12 region, it appears that other sources detected with AzTEC are likely to be extragalactic and located behind MBM12. Some of these have radio counterparts and their star formation rates are derived from a fit of the SEDs to the photometric evolution of galaxies in which the effects of a dusty interstellar medium have been included.

  14. Predicting hydration free energies with a hybrid QM/MM approach

    PubMed Central

    König, Gerhard; Pickard, Frank C.; Mei, Ye; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    The correct representation of solute-water interactions is essential for the accurate simulation of most biological phenomena. Several highly accurate quantum methods are available to deal with solvation by using both implicit and explicit solvents. So far, however, most evaluations of those methods were based on a single conformation, which neglects solute entropy. Here, we present the first test of a novel approach to determine hydration free energies that uses molecular mechanics (MM) to sample phase space and quantum mechanics (QM) to evaluate the potential energies. Free energies are determined by using re-weighting with the Non-Boltzmann Bennett (NBB) method. In this context, the method is referred to as QM-NBB. Based on snapshots from MM sampling and accounting for their correct Boltzmann weight, it is possible to obtain hydration free energies that incorporate the effect of solute entropy. We evaluate the performance of several QM implicit solvent models, as well as explicit solvent QM/MM for the blind subset of the SAMPL4 hydration free energy challenge. While classical free energy simulations with molecular dynamics give root mean square deviations (RMSD) of 2.8 and 2.3 kcal/mol, the hybrid approach yields an improved RMSD of 1.6 kcal/mol. By selecting an appropriate functional and basis set, the RMSD can be reduced to 1 kcal/mol for calculations based on a single conformation. Results for a selected set of challenging molecules imply that this RMSD can be further reduced by using NBB to reweight MM trajectories with the SMD implicit solvent model. PMID:24504703

  15. Calculated and experimental data for a 118-mm bore roller bearing to 3 million DN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, H. H.; Schuller, F. T.

    1980-01-01

    The operating characteristics for 118 mm bore cylindrical roller bearing are examined using the computer program CYBEAN. The predicted results of inner and outer-race temperatures and heat transferred to the lubricant generally compared well with experimental data for shaft speeds to 3 million DN (25,000 rpm), radial loads to 8900 N (2000 lb), and total lubricant flow rates to 0.0102 cu m/min (2.7 gal/min).

  16. Performance of HQ02, an optimized version of the 120 mm $Nb_3Sn$ LARP quadrupole

    E-print Network

    Chlachidze, G; Anerella, M; Borgnolutti, F; Bossert, R; Caspi, S; Cheng, D W; Dietderich, D; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Godeke, A; Hafalia A R; Marchevsky, M; Orris, D; Roy, P K; Sabbi, G L; Salmi, T; Schmalzle, J; Sylvester, C; Tartaglia, M; Tompkins, J; Wanderer, P; Wang, X R; Zlobin, A V

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for the high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is developing a new generation of large aperture high-field quadrupoles based on Nb3Sn technology. One meter long and 120 mm diameter HQ quadrupoles are currently produced as a step toward the eventual aperture of 150 mm. Tests of the first series of HQ coils revealed the necessity for further optimization of the coil design and fabrication process. A new model (HQ02) has been fabricated with several design modifications, including a reduction of the cable size and an improved insulation scheme. Coils in this magnet are made of a cored cable using 0.778 mm diameter Nb3Sn strands of RRP 108/127 sub-element design. The HQ02 magnet has been fabricated at LBNL and BNL, and then tested at Fermilab. This paper summarizes the performance of HQ02 at 4.5 K and 1.9 K temperatures.

  17. Resistance of a cultured fish cell line (CAF-MM1) to. gamma. irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mitani, H.; Etoh, H.; Egami, N.

    1982-02-01

    Fish are generally more resistant to whole-body ionizing radiation than mammals. To study the radiosensitivity of fish in vitro, CAF-MM1 cells derived from the fin of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, were used. The survival parameters of CAF-MM1 obtained after ..gamma.. irradiation at 26/sup 0/C were 325 rad for D/sub o/, 975 rad for Dq, and 15 for n. No mammalian cell line with such a low sensitivity in the presence of O/sub 2/ has been reported. It was found that the large initial shoulder of the survival curve was paralleled by substantial repair of sublethal damage as evidenced by split-dose experiments. This low sensitivity to ..gamma.. irradiation did not change upon the administration of caffeine or postirradiation illumination, although these treatments were effective after uv irradiation. The decrease in the mitotic index in CAF-MM1 occurred immediately after irradiation, and it recovered within a very short time. This indicated that the duration of G2 arrest was shorter than that observed in mammalian cells. The data also suggest that the resistance of fish to whole-body irradiation is attributable to resistance at the cellular level.

  18. One-dimensional neutron focusing with large beam divergence by 400mm-long elliptical supermirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, M.; Yamaga, F.; Yamazaki, D.; Maruyama, R.; Hayashida, H.; Soyama, K.; Yamamura, K.

    2012-02-01

    Reflective optics is one of the most useful techniques for focusing a neutron beam with a wide wavelength range since there is no chromatic aberration. Neutrons can be focused within a small area of less than 1 mm2 by high-performance aspherical supermirrors with high figure accuracy and a low smooth substrate surface and a multilayer interface. Increasing the mirror size is essential for increasing the focusing gain. We have developed a fabrication process that combines conventional precision grinding, HF dip etching, numerically controlled local wet etching (NC-LWE) figuring, low-pressure polishing and ion beam sputtering deposition of the supermirror coating to fabricate a large aspherical supermirror. We designed and fabricated an piano-elliptical mirror with large clear aperture size using the developed fabrication process. We obtained a figure error of 0.43 ?m p-v and an rms roughness of less than 0.2 nm within an effective reflective length of 370 mm. A NiC/Ti supermirror with m = 4 was deposited on the substrate using ion beam sputtering equipment. The results of focusing experiments show that a focusing gain of 52 at the peak intensity was achieved compared with the case without focusing. Furthermore, the result of imaging plate measurements indicated that the FWHM focusing width of the fabricated mirror is 0.128 mm.

  19. Quantum supercharger library: hyper-parallel integral derivatives algorithms for ab initio QM/MM dynamics.

    PubMed

    Renison, C Alicia; Fernandes, Kyle D; Naidoo, Kevin J

    2015-07-01

    This article describes an extension of the quantum supercharger library (QSL) to perform quantum mechanical (QM) gradient and optimization calculations as well as hybrid QM and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulations. The integral derivatives are, after the two-electron integrals, the most computationally expensive part of the aforementioned calculations/simulations. Algorithms are presented for accelerating the one- and two-electron integral derivatives on a graphical processing unit (GPU). It is shown that a Hartree-Fock ab initio gradient calculation is up to 9.3X faster on a single GPU compared with a single central processing unit running an optimized serial version of GAMESS-UK, which uses the efficient Schlegel method for s- and l-orbitals. Benchmark QM and QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations are performed on cellobiose in vacuo and in a 39 Ĺ water sphere (45 QM atoms and 24843 point charges, respectively) using the 6-31G basis set. The QSL can perform 9.7 ps/day of ab initio QM dynamics and 6.4 ps/day of QM/MM dynamics on a single GPU in full double precision. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25975864

  20. Performance of 0. 75 mm pitch MWPC'S operating at high rate

    SciTech Connect

    Conetti, S.; Kuzminski, J.; Marchionni, A.; Stairs, D.; Arenton, M.; Chen, T.Y.; Cox, B.; Delchamps, S.; Etemadi, B.; Fortney, L.

    1989-01-01

    Three Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) with high rate capability have been constructed for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory experiment 705 (Charmonium and Direct Photon production by ..pi../sup +-/, p and /bar p/ at 300 GeV/c). Each chamber, with a sensitive area of 308 cm/sup 2/, consists of three anode planes, wound with 12.5 ..mu..m diameter gold-plated tungsten/rhenium wire, facing 25 ..mu..m graphite-coated kapton cathode planes at a distance of 3 mm. Wire spacing in two of the MWPC (PC-B1 and PC-B2) is 0.75 mm and 1.00 mm in the third one (PC-B3). After a few weeks of running on ''Magic Gas'' with a beam flux of up to /approximately/10/sup 7/ particles/cm/sup 2/sec, severe damage occurred to the graphite coating. All cathode planes were replaced by aluminized kapton, and the chambers worked successfully for the next 3 months until the end of the run, when a 10% efficiency drop was observed after a total accumulated charge of /approximately/1 C/cm of sense wire. After the end of the run the chambers were disassembled and inspected. A white deposit with a characteristic ''wire pattern'' etched away from the Al coating was observed in the region of the beam spot. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A Fluctuation Analysis of the Bolocam 1.1mm Lockman Hole Survey

    E-print Network

    Philip R. Maloney; Jason Glenn; James E. Aguirre; Sunil R. Golwala; G. T. Laurent; P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; S. F. Edgington; A. Goldin; D. Haig; A. E. Lange; P. D. Mauskopf; H. Nguyen; P. Rossinot; J. Sayers; P. Stover

    2005-08-25

    We perform a fluctuation analysis of the 1.1mm Bolocam Lockman Hole Survey, which covers 324 square arcmin to a very uniform point source-filtered RMS noise level of 1.4 mJy/beam. The fluctuation analysis has the significant advantage of utilizing all of the available data. We constrain the number counts in the 1-10 mJy range, and derive significantly tighter constraints than in previous work: the power-law index is 2.7 (+0.18, -0.15), while the amplitude is equal to 1595 (+85,-238) sources per mJy per square degree, or N(>1 mJy) = 940 (+50,-140) sources/square degree (95% confidence). Our results agree extremely well with those derived from the extracted source number counts by Laurent et al (2005). Our derived normalization is about 2.5 times smaller than determined by MAMBO at 1.2mm by Greve et al (2004). However, the uncertainty in the normalization for both data sets is dominated by the systematic (i.e., absolute flux calibration) rather than statistical errors; within these uncertainties, our results are in agreement. We estimate that about 7% of the 1.1mm background has been resolved at 1 mJy.

  2. Imaging the HL Tau Disk at lambda =2.7 MM with the BIMA Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundy, Lee G.; Looney, Leslie W.; Erickson, W.; Grossman, A.; Welch, W. J.; Forster, J. R.; Wright, M. C. H.; Plambeck, R. L.; Lugten, J.; Thornton, D. D.

    1995-12-01

    We have obtained a sub-arc-second image of the disk associated with the TTauri star HL Tau at a wavelength of 2.7mm using the new high resolution capability of the BIMA array. The disk is elongated with a deconvolved Gaussian source size of 1.0+/-0.2'' x 0.5+/-0.2\\arcsec, implying semimajor and semiminor axes of 70+/-15 AU and 35+/-15 AU, respectively, for a distance of 140 pc. The position angle of the major axis (125°+/-10°) is orthogonal to the axis of the optical jet, and the aspect ratio of the axes suggests an inclination angle between 25°\\ and 75°\\ for a thin disk. The disk centroid is coincident with the VLA lambda =3.6cm source position and nearly coincident with recent measurements of the near-infrared emission peak. The lambda =2.7mm images, along with previous interferometric measurements at lambda =0.87mm and flux measurements from 10 microns to 1.3cm, are well fitted by a simple power-law disk model with a shallow radial dependence to the surface density (Sigma (r) ~ r(0) to r(-1) ), an outer radius between 90 and 160 AU, and a dust opacity law proportional to nu (1) .

  3. Toward 1-mm depth precision with a solid state full-field range imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrington, Adrian A.; Carnegie, Dale A.; Cree, Michael J.

    2006-02-01

    Previously, we demonstrated a novel heterodyne based solid-state full-field range-finding imaging system. This system is comprised of modulated LED illumination, a modulated image intensifier, and a digital video camera. A 10 MHz drive is provided with 1 Hz difference between the LEDs and image intensifier. A sequence of images of the resulting beating intensifier output are captured and processed to determine phase and hence distance to the object for each pixel. In a previous publication, we detailed results showing a one-sigma precision of 15 mm to 30 mm (depending on signal strength). Furthermore, we identified the limitations of the system and potential improvements that were expected to result in a range precision in the order of 1 mm. These primarily include increasing the operating frequency and improving optical coupling and sensitivity. In this paper, we report on the implementation of these improvements and the new system characteristics. We also comment on the factors that are important for high precision image ranging and present configuration strategies for best performance. Ranging with sub-millimeter precision is demonstrated by imaging a planar surface and calculating the deviations from a planar fit. The results are also illustrated graphically by imaging a garden gnome.

  4. Evaluation of the Gfs and MM5 Meteorological Models for Paranal, Macon and Pachon Astronomical Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón, A.; Cuevas, O.; Curé, M.

    2009-09-01

    Paranal is located in the north zone of Chile, which is considered a privileged zones for astronomical observation for his desert conditions, not much cloudiness and low light contamination. These same condition are present in the Pachón summit where is located the Gemini South observatory. Similar features have the zone of Macón in Salta region in Argentina. This place is one of the sites pre-selected for the construction of the E-ELT. The behavior of the atmospheric conditions is important within the astronomical observation because knowing his future state it would be possible program the instruments for the night of observation. To do this we use meteorological forecasts models to simulate the behavior of the atmosphere. The period in study was year 2005, where the atmosphere conditions were simulated with GFS and MM5 models. In order to perform the analysis of the simulation in those three sites, the meteorological variables data was interpolated using geographic coordinates of each weather station and compare them with the measured meteorological variables. In this report we evaluate the temperature and in the future we will evaluate: the relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, direction and intensity of the wind. In the first part of the analysis we found that the forecast of MM5 is better than GFS model, as expected. In the second part of the analysis a Kalman filter has been implemented to minimize the systematic errors of the simulation of GFS and MM5.

  5. QuanPol: a full spectrum and seamless QM/MM program.

    PubMed

    Thellamurege, Nandun M; Si, Dejun; Cui, Fengchao; Zhu, Hongbo; Lai, Rui; Li, Hui

    2013-12-15

    The quantum chemistry polarizable force field program (QuanPol) is implemented to perform combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations with induced dipole polarizable force fields and induced surface charge continuum solvation models. The QM methods include Hartree-Fock method, density functional theory method (DFT), generalized valence bond theory method, multiconfiguration self-consistent field method, Mřller-Plesset perturbation theory method, and time-dependent DFT method. The induced dipoles of the MM atoms and the induced surface charges of the continuum solvation model are self-consistently and variationally determined together with the QM wavefunction. The MM force field methods can be user specified, or a standard force field such as MMFF94, Chemistry at Harvard Molecular Mechanics (CHARMM), Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement (AMBER), and Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations-All Atom (OPLS-AA). Analytic gradients for all of these methods are implemented so geometry optimization and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation can be performed. MD free energy perturbation and umbrella sampling methods are also implemented. PMID:24122765

  6. Fast polarization changes in mm microwave emission of weak multistructured solar bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Strauss, F. M.; Costa, J. E. R.; Dennis, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    Circular polarization of weak multistructured solar bursts was measured at mm microwaves with unprecedented sensitivity (0.03 sfu rms) and high time resolution (1ms). It was shown that sudden changes occur in the degree of polarization with time scales of 0.04 to 0.3 s. In most cases the degree of polarization attained maximum values before the maximum flux in both mm microwaves and hard X-rays with time scales of 0.04 to 1.0 s. The timing accuracy in determining the degree of polarization was 40 ms. Physical phenomena are discussed invoking one or a combination of various possible causes for the observed effects. The bursts at mm microwaves were weak compared to the contribution of the preexisting active regions, and therefore the changes in magnetoionic propagation conditions for emerging radiation plays an important role in the observed effects. Composite effects due to more than one polarizing mechanism or more than one polarized spots within the antenna beam are discussed.

  7. New long-zoom lens for 4K super 35mm digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Laurence J.; Usui, Fumiaki; Kamata, Ryuhei

    2015-05-01

    The world of television production is beginning to adopt 4K Super 35 mm (S35) image capture for a widening range of program genres that seek both the unique imaging properties of that large image format and the protection of their program assets in a world anticipating future 4K services. Documentary and natural history production in particular are transitioning to this form of production. The nature of their shooting demands long zoom lenses. In their traditional world of 2/3-inch digital HDTV cameras they have a broad choice in portable lenses - with zoom ranges as high as 40:1. In the world of Super 35mm the longest zoom lens is limited to 12:1 offering a telephoto of 400mm. Canon was requested to consider a significantly longer focal range lens while severely curtailing its size and weight. Extensive computer simulation explored countless combinations of optical and optomechanical systems in a quest to ensure that all operational requests and full 4K performance could be met. The final lens design is anticipated to have applications beyond entertainment production, including a variety of security systems.

  8. Management of sub-5?mm rectal carcinoids with lymph node metastases

    PubMed Central

    Toh, James Wei Tatt; Henderson, Christopher; Yabe, Takako Eva; Ong, Evonne; Chapuis, Pierre; Bokey, Les

    2015-01-01

    Minute (<5?mm) and small (5–10?mm) rectal carcinoids discovered during colonoscopy are generally considered to be non-aggressive, and the management and surveillance of patients with this entity are usually limited. We present the case of a 61-year-old Chinese female with multiple sub-5?mm carcinoid tumours in the rectum without any computed tomography (CT) evidence of lymph node or distant metastases. She underwent an ultra-low anterior resection for a sessile rectal polyp with the histological appearance of a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Seven foci of minute carcinoids in the rectum and perirectal lymph node metastastic spread from the carcinoid tumours were also discovered on histopathology. There were no lymph node metastases originating from adenocarcinoma. This case report and review of the literature suggests that minute rectal carcinoids are at risk of metastasizing and that these patients should be investigated for lymph node and distant metastatic spread with CT and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy or its equivalent, as this would influence prognosis and surgical management of these patients. Findings relating to lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, high Ki-67, mitotic rate, depth of tumour invasion, central ulceration, multifocal tumours and size are useful in predicting metastases and may be used in scoring tools. Size alone is not a good predictor of metastastic spread. PMID:25342710

  9. QM/MM Analysis of Cellulase Active Sites and Actions of the Enzymes on Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Saharay, Moumita; Guo, Hao-Bo; Smith, Jeremy C; Guo, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation of cellulosic biomass requires the actions of three types of secreted enzymes; endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4), cellobiohydrolase or exoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.91), and -glucosidase (EC 4.2.1.21). These enzymes act synergistically to hydrolyse the -1,4 bonds of cellulose and converts it into simple sugar. Hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond can occur either by net retention or by inversion of anomeric configuration at the anomeric center. QM/MM simulations are useful tools to study the energetics of the reactions and analyze the active-site structures at different states of the catalysis, including the formation of unstable transition states. Here, a brief description of previous work on glycoside hydrolases is first given. The results of the QM/MM potential energy and free energy simulations corresponding to glycosylation and deglycosylation processes are then provided for two retaining endoglucanases, Cel12A and Cel5A. The active-site structural features are analyzed based on the QM/MM results. The role of different residues and hydrogen bonding interactions during the catalysis and the importance of the sugar ring distortion are discussed for these two enzymes.

  10. Clinical evaluation of a high-resolution (2. 6-mm) positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Valk, P.E.; Jagust, W.J.; Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.; Geyer, A.B.; Budinger, T.F. )

    1990-09-01

    The intrinsic resolution of the Donner 600-crystal positron emission tomograph (PET 600) is 2.6 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) in-plane and 6 mm FWHM axially. More than 100 patients with glioma, radiation necrosis, Alzheimer disease, or epilepsy have been studied with this system. Approximately 1 million events are acquired in 15 minutes, starting 1 hour after injection of 10 mCi (370 MBq) of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose. Normal structures as small as the superior colliculi and the external capsule have been resolved. Improved separation of the cortical ribbon from adjacent white matter has allowed more accurate determination of cortical metabolic rate. In two of 15 patients undergoing evaluation for recurrent glioma, the PET 600 images showed tumor uptake that was not apparent on a lower-resolution study. A high-activity orbiting transmission source with electronic collimation allows accurate, short-duration transmission measurements to be made after radiopharmaceutical administration. The anatomic detail seen on the transmission images can be used for reproducible patient positioning with an accuracy of 1-2 mm perpendicular to the image plane. These findings demonstrate the practicality and clinical effectiveness of high-resolution positron emission tomography.

  11. The pH of Enceladus' ocean

    E-print Network

    Glein, Christopher; Waite, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    Observational data from the Cassini spacecraft are used to obtain a chemical model of ocean water on Enceladus. The model indicates that Enceladus' ocean is a Na-Cl-CO3 solution with an alkaline pH of ~11-12. The dominance of aqueous NaCl is a feature that Enceladus' ocean shares with terrestrial seawater, but the ubiquity of dissolved Na2CO3 suggests that soda lakes are more analogous to the Enceladus ocean. The high pH implies that the hydroxide ion should be relatively abundant, while divalent metals should be present at low concentrations owing to buffering by clays and carbonates on the ocean floor. The high pH is interpreted to be a key consequence of serpentinization of chondritic rock, as predicted by prior geochemical reaction path models; although degassing of CO2 from the ocean may also play a role depending on the efficiency of mixing processes in the ocean. Serpentinization leads to the generation of H2, a geochemical fuel that can support both abiotic and biological synthesis of organic molecule...

  12. Effect of pH on compressive strength of some modification of mineral trioxide aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Saghiri, Mohammad A.; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Asatourian, Armen; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Khezri-Boukani, Kaveh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Recently, it was shown that NanoMTA improved the setting time and promoted a better hydration process which prevents washout and the dislodgment of this novel biomaterial in comparison with WTMA. This study analyzed the compressive strength of ProRoot WMTA (Dentsply), a NanoWMTA (Kamal Asgar Research Center), and Bioaggregate (Innovative Bioceramix) after its exposure to a range of environmental pH conditions during hydration. Study Design: After mixing the cements under aseptic condition and based on the manufacturers` recommendations, the cements were condensed with moderate force using plugger into 9 × 6 mm split molds. Each type of cement was then randomly divided into three groups (n=10). Specimens were exposed to environments with pH values of 4.4, 7.4, or 10.4 for 3 days. Cement pellets were compressed by using an Instron testing machine. Values were recorded and compared. Data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey’s test. Results: After 3 days, the samples were solid when probed with an explorer before removing them from the molds. The greatest mean compressive strength 133.19±11.14 MPa was observed after exposure to a pH value of 10.4 for NanoWMTA. The values decreased to 111.41±8.26 MPa after exposure to a pH value of 4.4. Increasing of pH had a significant effect on the compressive strength of the groups (p<0.001). The mean compressive strength for the NanoWMTA was statistically higher than for ProRoot WMTA and Bioaggregate (p<0.001). Moreover, increasing of pH values had a significant effect on compressive strength of the experimental groups (p<0.001). Conclusion: The compressive strength of NanoWMTA was significantly higher than WMTA and Bioaggregate; the more acidic the environmental pH, the lower was the compressive strength. Key words:Compressive strength, mineral trioxide aggregate, Nano. PMID:23722137

  13. Adaptive-Partitioning QM/MM for Molecular Dynamics Simulations: 4. Proton Hopping in Bulk Water.

    PubMed

    Pezeshki, Soroosh; Lin, Hai

    2015-06-01

    By reclassifying atoms as QM or MM on-the-fly, adaptive QM/MM dynamics simulations can utilize small QM subsystems whose locations and contents are continuously and automatically updated. Although adaptive QM/MM has been applied in studies of a variety of ions, dynamics simulations of a hydrated proton in bulk water remain a challenge. The difficulty arises from the need to transfer structural features (the covalent and hydrogen bonding networks) via the Grotthuss mechanism instead of the given proton. One must therefore identify an appropriate reference point from which the QM subsystem can be positioned that continuously follows the structural variations as the proton hops. To solve this problem, we propose a proton indicator that serves as the needed reference point. The location of the proton indicator varies smoothly from the hydronium oxygen in the resting (Eigen) state to the shared proton in the transition (Zundel) state. The algorithm is implemented in the framework of a modified permuted adaptive-partitioning QM/MM. As a proof of concept, we simulate an excess proton solvated in bulk water, where the QM subsystem is defined as a sphere of 4.0 Ĺ radius centered at the proton indicator. We find that the use of the proton indicator prevents abrupt changes in the location and contents of the QM subsystem. The new method yields reasonably good agreement in the proton solvation structure and in the proton transfer dynamics with previously reported conventional QM/MM dynamics simulations that employed a much larger QM subsystem (a sphere of 12 Ĺ radius). Also, the results do not change significantly with respect to variations in the time step size (0.1 or 0.5 fs), truncation of the many-body expansion of the potential (from fifth to second order), and absence/presence of thermostat. The proton indicator combined with the modified permuted adaptive-partitioning scheme thus appears to be a useful tool for studying proton transfer in solution. PMID:26575540

  14. Fabrication of ? 160 mm convex hyperbolic mirror for remote sensing instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Zong-Ru; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Chen, Fong-Zhi

    2012-10-01

    In this study, efficient polishing processes with inspection procedures for a large convex hyperbolic mirror of Cassegrain optical system are presented. The polishing process combines the techniques of conventional lapping and CNC polishing. We apply the conventional spherical lapping process to quickly remove the sub-surface damage (SSD) layer caused by grinding process and to get the accurate radius of best-fit sphere (BFS) of aspheric surface with fine surface texture simultaneously. Thus the removed material for aspherization process can be minimized and the polishing time for SSD removal can also be reduced substantially. The inspection procedure was carried out by using phase shift interferometer with CGH and stitching technique. To acquire the real surface form error of each sub aperture, the wavefront errors of the reference flat and CGH flat due to gravity effect of the vertical setup are calibrated in advance. Subsequently, we stitch 10 calibrated sub-aperture surface form errors to establish the whole irregularity of the mirror in 160 mm diameter for correction polishing. The final result of the In this study, efficient polishing processes with inspection procedures for a large convex hyperbolic mirror of Cassegrain optical system are presented. The polishing process combines the techniques of conventional lapping and CNC polishing. We apply the conventional spherical lapping process to quickly remove the sub-surface damage (SSD) layer caused by grinding process and to get the accurate radius of best-fit sphere (BFS) of aspheric surface with fine surface texture simultaneously. Thus the removed material for aspherization process can be minimized and the polishing time for SSD removal can also be reduced substantially. The inspection procedure was carried out by using phase shift interferometer with CGH and stitching technique. To acquire the real surface form error of each sub aperture, the wavefront errors of the reference flat and CGH flat due to gravity effect of the vertical setup are calibrated in advance. Subsequently, we stitch 10 calibrated sub-aperture surface form errors to establish the whole irregularity of the mirror in 160 mm diameter for correction polishing. The final result of the Fabrication of ?160 mm Convex Hyperbolic Mirror for Remote Sensing Instrument160 mm convex hyperbolic mirror is 0.15 ?m PV and 17.9 nm RMS.160 mm convex hyperbolic mirror is 0.15 ?m PV and 17.9 nm RMS.

  15. Universit degli Studi di Padova PhD Courses List

    E-print Network

    Schenato, Luca

    Universitŕ degli Studi di Padova PhD Courses List PhD Course Page 1. ANIMAL AND FOOD SCIENCE......................................................................................................................................................4 3. BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES .....................................................................................................................................................8 5. BRAIN, MIND AND COMPUTER SCIENCE

  16. Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Migdalia Denis PH Association Leaders' Corner Email Group Seed Grant Program Seed Grant Application Form Become an MOU-holding PHA ... Migdalia Denis PH Association Leaders' Corner Email Group Seed Grant Program Seed Grant Application Form Become an ...

  17. Department of Bioengineering Ph.D. Graduate Student Handbook

    E-print Network

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    Department of Bioengineering Ph.D. Graduate Student Handbook Graduate Group in Bioengineering University of Pennsylvania #12;1 Fall 2012 Bioengineering Ph.D. Graduate Student Handbook INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 2 BIOENGINEERING OVERVIEW

  18. Montana State University 1 Ph.D. in Mathematics -

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Ph.D. in Mathematics - Education Specialization Education Specialization The Ph.D. in Mathematics with a specialization in mathematics education combines study in mathematics, mathematics education, and quantitative and qualitative research methods in education

  19. Variation in Biofilm Stability with Decreasing pH Affects Porous Medium Hydraulic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, M. F.; Santillan, E. F.; McGrath, L. K.; Altman, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    Changes to microbial communities caused by subsurface CO2 injection may have many consequences, including possible impacts to CO2 transport. We used column experiments to examine how decreasing pH, a geochemical change associated with CO2 injection, will affect biofilm stability and ultimately the hydraulic properties of porous media. Columns consisted of 1 mm2 square capillary tubes filled with 105-150 µm diameter glass beads. Artificial groundwater medium containing 1 mM glucose was pumped through the columns at a rate of 0.01 mL/min (q = 14.4 m/day; Re = 0.03). Columns were inoculated with 3 × 10^8 CFU (avg.) of Pseudomonas fluorescens, a model biofilm former, transformed with a green fluorescent protein. Biomass distribution and transport was examined using scanning laser confocal microscopy and effluent plating. Variation in the bulk hydraulic properties of the columns was measured using manometers. In an initial experiment, biofilm growth was allowed to occur for seven days in medium with pH 7.3. Within this period, cells uniformly coated bead surfaces, effluent cell numbers stabilized at 1 × 10^9 CFU/mL, and hydraulic conductivity (K) decreased 77%. Next, medium with pH 4 was introduced. As a result, biomass within the reactor redistributed from bead surfaces to pores, effluent cell numbers decreased to 3 × 10^5 CFU/mL, and K decreased even further (>94% reduction). This decreased K was maintained until the experiment was terminated, seven days after introducing low pH medium. These results suggest that changes in biomass distribution as a result of decreased pH may initially limit transport of solubility-trapped CO2 following CO2 injection. Experiments in progress and planned will test this result in more detail and over longer periods of time. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Role of ammonia secretion and pH modulation on pathogenicity of Colletotrichum coccodes on tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Alkan, N; Fluhr, R; Sherman, A; Prusky, D

    2008-08-01

    Colletotrichum coccodes was found to alkalinize the decaying tissue of tomato fruit via accumulation and secretion of ammonia. Alkalinization dynamics caused by ammonia secretion from growing hyphae was examined microscopically using the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. Values of pH of 7.9 observed in the host tissue close to the hyphal tips declined to pH 6.0 at 10 mm away from the hyphal tip, which was a value that was still higher than that detected in the healthy tissue, pH 4.2. Ammonia accumulation at the infection site depended on the initial environmental pH. Treatments with low (4.0) pH buffer at the infection site resulted in high levels of ammonia secretion and increased virulence of C. coccodes compared with similar treatments with buffer at pH 7.0. Significantly, mutants of C. coccodes defective in nitrogen utilization, nit-, and areA- were impaired in ammonia secretion and showed reduced decay development. The reduced infection rate of nit- mutants could be complemented by adding glutamine at the infection site. Thus, ammonia accumulation is a critical factor contributing to C. coccodes pathogenicity on tomato fruit. The results show that the initial acidic pH of the fruit is conducive to ammonia secretion and the subsequent alkalinization of the infection site, and facilitates fungal virulence and the transformation from the quiescent-biotrophic to active-necrotrophic state. PMID:18616402