Sample records for mm borax ph

  1. Borax Production from Borax Slime, an Industrial Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Recep Boncukcuo?lu; M. Muhtar Kocakkerim; Mahir Alkan

    1998-01-01

    Borax slime is formed during the production of borax from tincal, which is an important borate ore. It is a liquid containing the suspanded solid particles at high levels and is formed under the rich-in-borax solution in the reactor. This waste is discharged into the Marmara Sea and so causes environmental problems in Bandirma Golf. In this work, Borax production

  2. Molecular Structure of Borax

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-03-27

    Borax was discovered 4000 years ago. It was first brought to Europe from Kashmir and Tibet. It is deposited by the evaporation of alkaline lakes, and today is mined in California, Nevada, and Tibet. The hydrated mineral is colorless and becomes chalky white during dehydration. It is water soluble, has a sweet alkaline taste, and is brittle. Borax has no toxic fumes; it is environmentally safe and should not be ingested. This chemical is an important source of boron containing compounds such as tincalconite and kernite, and is industrially important in the manufacturing of ceramics, paint, glass, and coated paper. It is also utilized as a disinfectant, insect repellent, water softener, and a detergent. The most common detergent brand is 20 Mule Team Borax.

  3. Dry processing of borax by calcination as an alternative to wet methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Batar; B Kahraman; E Cirit; M. S Celik

    1998-01-01

    Beneficiation of borax in the Kirka concentrator, Turkey is presently accomplished by wet processing techniques involving scrubbing of the minus 6 mm borax to remove the undesirable clayey impurities followed by cyclone and spiral classification of the fine fraction. The fine borax tailings assaying as high as 20% B2O3 mostly below 0.2 mm is disposed into the environment. Over a

  4. Thermal decomposition of borax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Waclawska

    1995-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of borax has been researched by thermal, XRD and FTIR methods as well as SEM microscopy. Study have\\u000a revealed that it proceeds according to the mechanism of internal reactions in the structure of the precursor as a medium.\\u000a \\u000a The following stages of the process have been distinguished: (1) dehydration, (2) internal structure reconstitution—formation\\u000a of tincalconite, (3) amorphization of

  5. Respiratory effects of borax dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D H Garabrant; L Bernstein; J M Peters; T J Smith; W E Wright

    1985-01-01

    The relation of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and abnormalities of chest radiographs to estimated exposures of borax dust has been investigated in a cross sectional study of 629 actively employed borax workers. Ninety three per cent of the eligible workers participated in the study and exposures ranged from 1.1 mg\\/m3 to 14.6 mg\\/m3. Symptoms of acute respiratory irritation such as

  6. Dehydration Behaviour of Borax Pentahydrate to Anhydrous Borax by MultiStage Heating in a Fluidized

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omer S AH; A. Nusret BULUTCU

    In order to optimize the anhydrous borax process in a fluidized bed calcinator, it is absolutely necessary to study the dehydration behaviour of borax pentahydrate. It was found that the basic feature of the dehydration of borax pentahydrate to anhydrous borax is concerned with the conditions employed. The bulk density and sodium borate content of the end product were determined

  7. Desulphurization of coal using borax

    SciTech Connect

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1996-12-31

    In this study, a high sulphur Turkish lignite was mixed with various amounts of solid borax [Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}10H{sub 2}O] and then these mixtures were subjected to various oxydesulphurization processes. Effects of amount of borax, temperature and partial pressure of oxygen on sulphur removal and coal recovery were investigated in the ranges of 0.625--15.000 g for 5 g lignite, 423--498 K, 0.0--1.5 MPa, respectively.

  8. Thermoreversible konjac glucomannan gel crosslinked by borax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanjun Gao; Jinming Guo; Katsuyoshi Nishinari

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic viscoelastic measurements were carried out for novel konjac glucomannan\\/borax gels. Gel networks were formed through the crosslinking reaction between borate ions dissociated from borax and the cis-diol sites on the polysaccharide chains. At lower oscillation frequencies, the complex gels behave like a liquid, whereas at higher frequency they relax like true gel materials with a predominant elastic relaxation response.

  9. Ingredients: Borax (found in the laundry section of the store)

    E-print Network

    Ingredients: white glue Borax (found in the laundry section of the store) Water Food coloring (optional) Procedure: Add borax a teaspoon at a time to a cup of water, stirring briskly until no more borax will dissolve. Pour some glue into a clean cup (add color at this time). Add a small amount of borax solution

  10. [Infrared spectral analysis for calcined borax].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cui; Ren, Li-Li; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Bo-Tao

    2011-08-01

    To valuate the quality of calcined borax which is sold in the market, 18 samples of calcined borax were studied using the Fourier transform infrared, and samples with different water content were selected and analyzed. Then, the results of analysis were used to evaluate the quality of calcined borax. Results show that the infrared spectra of calcined borax include OH vibration, BO3(-3) vibration and BO4(5-) vibration absorption bands. The position and width of OH vibration absorption band depend on the level of water content, and the more the water content, the wider the absorption band. The number of BO3(3-) vibration and BO4(5-) vibration bands also depend on the level of water content, and the more the water content, and the stronger the hydrogen bond and the lower the symmetry of B atoms, the more the number of infrared absorption peaks. It was concluded that because the quality of calcined borax has direct correlation with water content, the infrared spectroscopy is an express and objective approach to quality analysis and evaluation of calcined borax. PMID:22007396

  11. Assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human developmental and reproductive toxicity of agents

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3BO3 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). The element, boron, does not exist naturally. In dilute aqueous solution and at physiological pH (7.4), the predominant species in undissociated boric acid (greater than 98%), irrespective of whether the initial material was boric acid of borax. Therefore, it is both useful and correct to compare exposures and dosages to boric acid and borax in terms of `boron equivalents`, since both materials form equivalent species in dilute aqueous solution with similar systemic effects. In order to be clear in this document, the term `boron` will refer to `boron equivalents` or percent boron in boric acid and borax.

  12. Dry borax applicator operator's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Karsky, Richard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting their roots and eventually killing the trees. The fungus Heterobasidion annosum causes annosum root rot. The fungus colonizes readily on freshly cut stumps. Partially cut stands have a high risk of infestation because the fungus can colonize on each of the stumps and potentially infect the neighboring trees. Wind and rain carry the annosum spores. Spores that land on freshly cut stumps grow down the stump's root system where they can infect living trees through root grafts or root contacts. Once annosum becomes established, it can remain active for many years in the Southern United States and for several decades in the north. About 7% of the trees that become infected die. When thinning, stumps can be treated successfully using a competing fungus, Phlebia gigantea, and with ''Tim-Bor'' in liquid formulations. These liquid products are no longer approved in the United States. Only the dry powder form is registered and approved by the EPA. Stumps can be treated with a dry formula of borax, (Sporax), significantly reducing one of the primary routes by which Heterobasidion annosum infects a stand of trees. Sporax is used by the USDA Forest Service to control annosum root rot. Sporax is now applied by hand, but once the felled trees are skidded it becomes very hard to locate the stumps. A stump applicator will reduce error, labor costs, and hazards to workers.

  13. Crystallization kinetics of the borax decahydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, A. A.; Sahin, Ö.; Bulutcu, A. N.

    2007-03-01

    The growth and dissolution rates of borax decahydrate have been measured as a function of supersaturation for various particle sizes at different temperature ranges of 13 and 50 °C in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed crystallizer. The values of mass transfer coefficient, K, reaction rate constant, kr and reaction rate order, r were determined. The relative importances of diffusion and integration resistance were described by new terms named integration and diffusion concentration fraction. It was found that the overall growth rate of borax decahydrate is mainly controlled by integration (reaction) steps. It was also estimated that the dissolution region of borax decahydrate, apart from other materials, is controlled by diffusion and surface reaction. Increasing the temperature and particle size cause an increase in the values of kinetic parameters ( Kg, kr and K). The activation energies of overall, reaction and mass transfer steps were determined as 18.07, 18.79 and 8.26 kJmol -1, respectively.

  14. Crystallization kinetics of the borax decahydrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Ceyhan; Ö. Sahin; A. N. Bulutcu

    2007-01-01

    The growth and dissolution rates of borax decahydrate have been measured as a function of supersaturation for various particle sizes at different temperature ranges of 13 and 50°C in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed crystallizer. The values of mass transfer coefficient, K, reaction rate constant, kr and reaction rate order, r were determined. The relative importances of diffusion and integration resistance

  15. Borax Lake, a thermal lake confined within a biomorphic mound, Pueblo Valley, Oregon, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Cummings; Sean D. Wilson; Anna M. St. John

    2010-01-01

    Relations among geothermal system dynamics, evolution of an 8-m thick biomorphic mound, and requirements to protect critical habitat of Gila boraxobius, a fish protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, were explored at Borax Lake, a shallow thermal lake in the tectonically active northwestern Basin-and-Range Province. Neutral pH, thermal water at ~105°C discharges within a carrot-shaped vent at a

  16. 40 CFR 436.130 - Applicability; description of the borax subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the borax subcategory. 436.130 Section 436...MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Subcategory § 436.130 Applicability; description of the borax subcategory. The provisions of...

  17. 40 CFR 436.130 - Applicability; description of the borax subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the borax subcategory. 436.130 Section 436...MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Subcategory § 436.130 Applicability; description of the borax subcategory. The provisions of...

  18. 40 CFR 436.130 - Applicability; description of the borax subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the borax subcategory. 436.130 Section 436...MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Subcategory § 436.130 Applicability; description of the borax subcategory. The provisions of...

  19. A new Tertiary borax deposit in the Andes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Alonso; C. Helvac?; R. J. Sureda; J. G. Viramonte

    1988-01-01

    The Loma Blanca borate deposit was formed in the muds of playa-lake environments during the Late Miocene and is the fourth Tertiary commercial borax deposit discovered within the borate districts of the world. It is the only South American deposit known to contain any of the minerals colemanite, inyoite, ulexite, borax, tincalconite and teruggite with a unique and characteristic mineral

  20. Assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human developmental and reproductive toxicity of agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3BO3 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). The element, boron, does not exist naturally. In dilute aqueous solution and at physiological pH (7.4), the predominant species in undissociated boric acid (greater than 98%), irrespective of whether the initial

  1. A study of the behavior of copper electrodes in buffered borax solutions containing BTA-type inhibitors by photoelectrochemical methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qun-jie Xu; Guo-ding Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide useful information pertaining to the corrosion inhibition mechanism of BTA and its derivatives on copper. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The photoelectrochemical behavior of copper electrodes in buffered borax solutions (pH 9.2) containing BTA and its derivatives was comparatively studied by using a photoelectrochemical technique. It was possible to analyze the inhibition mechanism

  2. Impurity adsorption mechanism of borax for a suspension growth condition: A comparison of models and experimental data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sattar Al-Jibbouri; Joachim Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    A fluidized bed crystallizer is employed to investigate the growth and dissolution rates of MgSO4?7H2O from aqueous solutions in the presence of borax as impurity at 25°C. By adding 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 wt % of impurity the pH value changes from 6.7 to 7.11, while the saturation temperature shifts to 24.8, 24.4, 24 and 23.1°C, respectively. The data

  3. Electrochemical and ellipsometric study of the oxide films formed on copper in borax solution: Part II: Effect of ozone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. L. DE MELE; M. R. VIERA; J. O. ZERBINO

    1997-01-01

    The influence of O3 on the passive behaviour of copper was analysed in the potential region -0.32 to 0.70V vs RHE in borax solutions (pH9.2) through voltammetric techniques and ellipsometry. Oxide formation can be explained as a sequence of Cu2O growth, Cu(ii) chemisorption, and dissolution precipitation steps similar to those corresponding to copper electrodes in deaerated solutions. The role of

  4. Intracrystalline site preference of hydrogen isotopes in borax

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhananga, T.M.; Matsuo, S.

    1985-01-03

    The total hydrogen involved in borax synthesized at 25/sup 0/C in aqueous solution is enriched in deuterium by 5.3% compared with the mother liquor. There is no change in the value of the D/H fractionation factor between the hydrogen in borax and those in the mother liquor with changes in the degree of supersaturation. The fractionation factor changes slightly with a change in the crystallization temperature of borax in the range from 5 to 25/sup 0/C. The D/H ratio in the different sites of borax was estimated by a fractional dehydration technique. The results show that hydrogen atoms of the polyanionic group (B/sub 4/O/sub 5/(OH)/sub 4/) are much more enriched in deuterium than those of the cationic group (Na/sub 2/ x 8H/sub 2/O). The delta D values, referred to the mother liquor from which the borax was crystallized, for the cationic group (site A) and the polyanionic group (site B) are -35 +/- 3 and 167 +/- 13%, respectively based on the fractional dehydration results obtained at -21/sup 0/C. At -21/sup 0/C, isotopic exchange between different sites during dehydration is assumed not to occur. The mechanism for dehydration of borax is discussed. 48 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  5. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate...Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate...pesticidal chemical boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate...Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate...pesticidal chemical boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate...Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate...pesticidal chemical boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate...Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate...pesticidal chemical boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...

  9. Borax spends $30M for cogeneration system. [US Borax and Chemical Corp

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.

    1982-09-20

    A $30 million natural-gas-fired turbine power plant will provide all the electricity and steam needed at the US Borax and Chemical Corp. plant in Los Angeles. The cogeneration facility will come on line in 1984, and will pay for itself in about five years. The plant will use only half the 46 megawatts produced, the 22 megawatt surplus being sold to Southern California Edison Co. on a 20-year contract at a price pegged to the utility's avoided costs. Natural gas consumption at the plant will remain about the same. (DCK)

  10. Production of high bulk density anhydrous borax in fluidized bed granulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omer Sahin; A. Nusret Bulutcu

    2002-01-01

    Production of anhydrous borax from borax pentahydrate was investigated in a fluidized bed calcinator. Single step calcination gives a puffed product with very low density. In order to obtain high bulk density product dehydration should be carried out at least in two stages. The most important step dominating the final bulk density is the first step. Dehydration of borax pentahydrate

  11. NUCLATION PAR LE BORAX DU SULFATE DE SODIUM DISPERS. APPLICATION POSSIBLE AU STOCKAGE THERMIQUE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-359 NUCLÉATION PAR LE BORAX DU SULFATE DE SODIUM DISPERSÉ. APPLICATION POSSIBLE AU STOCKAGE'absence de borax. Entre le premier et trentième cycle de refroidissement-réchauffement on observe une of crystallization are observed at + 7 °C and - 2.5 °C (without borax, the crystallization occurs around 2014 41 °C

  12. A new Tertiary borax deposit in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, R. N.; Helvac?, C.; Sureda, R. J.; Viramonte, J. G.

    1988-10-01

    The Loma Blanca borate deposit was formed in the muds of playa-lake environments during the Late Miocene and is the fourth Tertiary commercial borax deposit discovered within the borate districts of the world. It is the only South American deposit known to contain any of the minerals colemanite, inyoite, ulexite, borax, tincalconite and teruggite with a unique and characteristic mineral sequence among the other Argentinian borate deposits. The Loma Blanca deposit is characterized by abundant Ca, Na and B, very low Cl and relatively high As, S and Mg concentrations compared with other borate deposits. Thermal springs and hydrothermal solutions associated with local volcanic activity are thought to be the source of the borates. The early colemanite, inyoite, ulexite, borax and teruggite nodules and crystals appear to have been formed directly from brines penecontemporaneously within the unconsolidated sediments, and they continued to grow as the sediments were compacted. Later generations of borate minerals occur in vughs, veins and as thin layers. Diagenetic alterations include the partial replacement of borax by ulexite and tincalconite; when weathered, borates are often almost completely replaced by calcite.

  13. Investigation of borax waste behaviour in tile production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kurama; A. Kara; H. Kurama

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various studies published in the relevant literature on the use of borates in tile production, borax waste has been mainly used in place of feldspar and the results showed that borate migration to the surface was the commonly encountered problem. Previously, the same authors have investigated the possible use of dewatering sieve waste (TSW) of Etibor K?rka

  14. Effect of borax on the crystallization kinetics of boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ahin, Ömer

    2002-03-01

    The effect of different borax concentrations on the growth and dissolution rates of boric acid crystals were measured in a fluidized bed crystallizer under well-established conditions of supersaturation and undersaturation and fluidization. It was found that the presence of borax in boric-acid solution decreases the mass-transfer coefficient, kd, the surface-reaction constant, kr and reaction order r pertaining to growth and dissolution rates of boric acid crystals. The effectiveness factors were estimated from the growth rate data to evaluate the relative magnitudes of the two resistances in series, diffusion and integration. The controlling mechanism is mainly by integration for the crystal growth of boric acid in the pure state and in the presence of borax in solution. The kinetic parameters ( kr, kd, r) were determined by a new method which is called trial and error under no assumption. This method gives a high accuracy of determination of the mass-transfer coefficient, kd, the surface-reaction constant, kr and surface-reaction order, r. The relative standard deviation between the equation Rg= kr(( ??- ?eq)- Rg(1- w?)/ kd) r and those experimentally obtained and represented by the equation Rg= kg( ??- ?eq) g do not exceed 0.013 for both the growth and dissolution regions.

  15. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives. PMID:23923788

  16. Recovery of boron of the sieve reject in the production of borax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Recep Boncukcuo?lu; M. Muhtar Kocakerim; Erdem Kocada?istan; M. Tolga Yilmaz

    2003-01-01

    Boron ores are one of the most important underground richness of Turkey. Various boron compounds are produced from these ores. The most important one of them is borax. During the borax production process, a large quantity of the boron oxide (B2O3) is discharged by the trommel sieve waste (TSW). Also, this waste causes different environmental problems when it discharged directly

  17. Effects of rare earths in borax salt bath immersion vanadium carbide coating process on steel substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. J. Liu; H. C. Wang; Y. Y. Li

    2008-01-01

    Various amounts of FeSiRe23, which were used as reducing agents, were added into typical borax salt bath used in thermal diffusion (TD) process to explore the effects of rare earths on borax salt bath vanadizing process and microstructure and properties of vanadium carbide coating. The effect results of rare earths on coating thicknesses at different process conditions showed that the

  18. Dynamic light scattering of poly(vinyl alcohol)borax aqueous solution near overlap concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung Yuan Chen; Tzyy-Lung Yu

    1997-01-01

    The physical properties of PVA-borax aqueous solutions with a PVA concentration near the overlap concentration and various borax concentrations were observed using dynamic light scattering and dynamic viscoelastic measurements. It had been proposed by Leibler et al. that the structure of PVA-borate complex in dilute aqueous solution strongly depends on: (1) excluded volume effect of polymers; (2) the intra- and

  19. Experimental determination of the metastable zone width of borax decahydrate by ultrasonic velocity measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Gürbüz; B. Özdemir

    2003-01-01

    The metastable zone width of borax decahydrate (disodium tetraborate decahydrate), represented by the maximum undercooling ?Tmax, both in pure and impure aqueous solutions were determined according to polythermal method by using the ultrasonic technique. It is found that the metastable zone width of borax decahydrate in pure solutions determined by ultrasonic method fulfills well the linear relation between log?Tmax and

  20. Corrosion resistance of inconel 690 to borax, boric acid, and boron nitride at 1100°C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imrich

    2010-01-01

    Significant general and localized corrosion was observed on Inconel 690 coupons following exposure to borax, boric acid and boron nitride at 1100°C. Severe localized attack at and below the melt line was observed on coupons exposed to borax. An intergranular attack at and below the melt line was observed on coupons exposed to borax. An intergranular attack (IGA) of the

  1. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium...

  2. Borax Stump Treatment for Control of Annosus Root Disease in the Eastside Pine Type Forests of Northeastern California1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Borax Stump Treatment for Control of Annosus Root Disease in the Eastside Pine Type Forests studies on the use of borax to treat pine stumps against infection by Heterobasidion annosum in eastside pine stands of northeastern California are presented. The studies indicate that boraxing of pines

  3. Guar gum and scleroglucan interactions with borax: experimental and theoretical studies of an unexpected similarity.

    PubMed

    Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Mazzuca, Claudia; Sandolo, Chiara; Margheritelli, Silvia; Alhaique, Franco; Coviello, Tommasina; Palleschi, Antonio

    2010-10-21

    Guar gum is a galactomannan that assumes a very flexible conformation in solution, while Scleroglucan is a very rigid polysaccharide that dissolves in water as triple helices. Both polymers can form gels in the presence of borax. Despite their structural differences, the freeze-dried gel systems of both polymers, when compressed to form tablets, show a peculiar anisotropic swelling in water that reflects an amazing similarity in terms of their molecular properies. In this paper the behavior of the Guar/borax gel is compared with that of Scleroglucan/borax. The macroscopic properties of the two systems were characterized in terms of rheological measurements. Atomic force microscopy images and molecular dynamics simulation allowed to evaluate, at molecular level, the effect of borax addition to the Guar polymer. Both experiments show that an increasing of the polymer rigidity is produced by borax. The role played by galactose in the side chain was also discussed. PMID:20863102

  4. Decontamination and decommissioning of the BORAX-V leach pond. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the BORAX-V leach pond located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The leach pond became radioactively contaminated from the periodic discharge of low-level liquid waste during operation of the Boiling Water Reactor Experiments (BORAX) from 1954 to 1964. This report describes work performed to accomplish the D and D objectives of stabilizing the leach pond and preventing the spread of contamination. D and D of the BORAX-V leach pond consisted to backfilling the pond with clean soil, grading and seeding the area, and erecting a permanent marker to identify very low-level subsurface contamination.

  5. Hydrologic data and description of a hydrologic monitoring plan for the Borax Lake area, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, T.R.; McFarland, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Borax Lake is located in southeastern Oregon, within the Alvord Valley Known Geothermal Resource Area. Borax Lake is a large hot spring; there are more than 50 smaller hot springs within about one-half mile to the north of the lake. Several geothermal exploration wells have been drilled near Borax Lake, and there is concern that development of the geothermal resources could affect the lake and nearby hot springs. A factor to consider in developing the resource is that the Borax Lake chub is an endangered species of fish that is found exclusively in Borax Lake. This study was designed to collect basic hydrologic data to develop a long-term monitoring plan. Baseline data, collected before geothermal production wells are used extensively, will provide an understanding of natural trends and will help identify change caused by development. Basic data collected during reconnaissance field visits to the area included spring temperatures, specific conductances, and discharge; field measurements in wells included water-level measurements and temperature, specific conductance, and discharge measurements in flowing wells. The study of the Borax Lake area included depth and temperature measurements in the vent area of the lake, point velocity measurements, underwater video photography, and an evaluation of methods to measure discharge from the lake. Water-quality samples were collected at Borax Lake, one hot spring, and one flowing well. Information from field visits was used to develop a monitoring plan. The plan would include monitoring Borax Lake by measuring discharge, stage, evaporation, temperature, and specific conductance; water-quality sampling and analysis; and monitoring shallow ground-water levels near Borax Lake using shallow piezometers. Minimally, one hot spring in North Borax Lake Spring Group 1 would be monitored for temperature and specific conductance and sampled for water-quality analysis. In addition, two flowing wells would be monitored for water levels, temperature, specific conductance, and discharge and sampled for water-quality analysis. The construction characteristics of these wells must be verified before long-term data collection begins. In the future, it may be helpful to monitor shallow and (or) deep observation wells drilled into the thermal aquifer to understand the possible effects of geothermal development on Borax Lake and nearby springs.

  6. Geophysical Characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, Southeastern Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, S.; Paul, C.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Clement, W.; Liberty, L.; Myers, R.; Donaldson, P.

    2003-12-01

    We are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system as part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs, is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. As a result of Basin and Range extension, the Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We are using several geophysical techniques to generate both basin-wide and high-resolution local characterizations of the Alvord Basin and the BLHS. To date we have completed two scales of seismic reflection surveys: an east-west trending basin scale survey and a shallow (~10 - 300 m depth) 3D survey of the BLHS. The basin scale seismic survey consists of 11 km of 2D, 60 fold CMP data acquired with a 200 lb accelerated weight drop. We acquired the 3D survey of the BLHS using a 7.62x39 mm SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The 3D patch covers ~ 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. Additionally, we have completed a regional total-field magnetic survey for a large portion of the Alvord Basin and a 3D transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey of the BLHS. The 3D TEM survey covers the central portion of the 3D seismic survey. Initial results from the regional magnetic and seismic surveys indicate a mid-basin basement high. The basement high appears to correlate with the northeast trending BLHS. Additionally, the cross-basin seismic profile clearly shows that recent deformation has primarily been along an eastward dipping normal fault that bounds the basement high to the east. This suggests that both spatial and temporal characteristics of deformation control hydrothermal activity within the BLHS.

  7. Weak Gel Behaviour of Poly(vinyl alcohol)Borax Aqueous Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiu-Li Lin; Wen-Horng Liu; Kun-Sheng Shen; T. Leon Yu; Chien-Horng Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Thermal transition of PVA-borax aqueous gels with a PVA concentration of 60 g\\/L and a borax concentration of 0.28 M was investigated at temperatures ranging from 15 to 60??C using static light scattering (SLS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and dynamic viscoelasticity measurements. Three relaxation modes, i.e. two fast and one slow relaxation modes, were observed from DLS measurements. Two fast

  8. A new process for upgrading boron content and recovery of borax concentrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Acarkan; G. Bulut; O. Kangal; G. Önal

    2005-01-01

    K?rka borax deposit is the biggest boron deposit in the world. The extracted ores from this deposit have been beneficiated using stirring scrubbing and classification methods and borax concentrates have been obtained with 32–33% B2O3 content. In this study, a new process was developed to improve boron content. Two staged scrubbing (tumbling+stirring scrubbing) was applied as new method. The laboratory

  9. Carbide coating process by use of molten borax bath in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tohru Arai

    1979-01-01

    Pore-free and smooth surface carbide layers can be formed on metals and carbon immersed in a molten borax bath above 1073\\u000a K. The carbide layers, consisting of VC, NbC, TiC, or Cr7C3, are formed by the reaction between the carbon atoms in the substrate and the carbide forming element atoms dissolved into\\u000a the fused borax from additive powders such as

  10. Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) on the Growth Rate and Morphology of Borax Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharso; Parkinson, Gordon; Ogden, Mark

    An investigation of the effect of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on both growth rate and morphology of borax crystal has been carried out. This experiment was carried out at temperature of 25°C and relative supersaturation of 0.21 and 0.74 under in situ cell optical microscopy method. The result shows that CTAB inhibits the growth rate and changes the morphology of borax crystal.

  11. Upgrading of the reactor waste obtained during borax production from tincal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Boncukcuo?lu; H Er?ahan

    1999-01-01

    Boron ores are used in the production of various boron compounds. One of the most important of them is borax obtained from tincal. During borax production a large quantity of the boron oxide (B2O3) is lost with the reactor waste. Also, this waste causes different environmental problems when it discharged directly to the environment.In this study, the evaluation of the

  12. RNA Extraction and Labeling 1. To IP pellet (~ 25 l vol), add 175 l of: 10 mM HEPES-NaOH, pH 7.5

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    OAc. 1 hour at ­20°C. Spin 30 minutes at 4°C. 5. Wash with DEPC-treated 75% EtOH. 6. Dry in air or using85 RNA Extraction and Labeling 1. To IP pellet (~ 25 µl vol), add 175 µl of: 10 mM HEPES-NaOH, pH 7 of interface layer after extraction. 4. Ethanol precipitate with 3 volumes of 100% EtOH. No need to add 3 M Na

  13. Borax counteracts genotoxicity of aluminum in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyiko?lu, Fatime; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of borax (BX) on genotoxicity induced by aluminum (Al) in rat liver, using liver micronucleus assay as an indicator of genotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into six groups and each group had four animals. Aluminum chloride (AlCl?; 5 mg/kg b.w.) and BX (3.25 and 13 mg/kg b.w.) were injected intraperitoneally to rats. Besides, animals were also treated with Al for 4 consecutive days followed by BX for 10 days. Rats were anesthetized after Al and BX injections and the hepatocytes were isolated for counting the number of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs). AlCl? was found to significantly (p < 0.05) increase the number of MNHEPs. Rats treated with BX, however, showed no increase in MNHEPs. Moreover, simultaneous treatments with BX significantly modulated the genotoxic effects of AlCl? in rats. It can be concluded that BX has beneficial influences and has the ability to antagonize Al toxicity. PMID:22491726

  14. Experimental determination of the metastable zone width of borax decahydrate by ultrasonic velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürbüz, H.; Özdemir, B.

    2003-05-01

    The metastable zone width of borax decahydrate (disodium tetraborate decahydrate), represented by the maximum undercooling ? Tmax, both in pure and impure aqueous solutions were determined according to polythermal method by using the ultrasonic technique. It is found that the metastable zone width of borax decahydrate in pure solutions determined by ultrasonic method fulfills well the linear relation between log? Tmax and log(-d T/d t). However, the sensitivity of the method using the ultrasonic technique increases with increasing saturation temperature, probably due to the increase of temperature dependence of solubility with increasing saturation temperature. A comparison of the nucleation temperatures from ultrasonic measurements and from visual determination shows that both detection techniques give almost the same results for borax decahydrate. The results obtained from ultrasonic measurements show, that the presence of Ca 2+ as impurity has only a small effect on the metastable zone width of borax decahydrate as long as the impurity concentrations is in the range of 25-200 ppm. Similar to the effect of Ca 2+, Mg 2+ also has a small effect on the metastable zone width of borax up to the impurity concentration of 100 ppm. However, the presence of 200 ppm Mg 2+ results in a reasonable increase of the metastable zone width.

  15. 3D Seismic and Magnetic characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, southeastern Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hess; J. Bradford; M. Lyle; P. Routh; L. Liberty; P. Donaldson

    2004-01-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems, we are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs. BLHS is located near the center of the Alvord

  16. Effect of sodium nitrite–borax blend on the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in industrial water medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Mohana; A. M. Badiea

    2008-01-01

    Effects of sodium nitrite–borax blend on low carbon steel corrosion in industrial water medium at various temperatures, various inhibitors concentration of sodium nitrite and borax and at various rotational speeds of the specimens have been studied by gravimetric and polarization measurements. Optimization of the three variables was made and correlating the results obtained by using Box–Wilson statistical method. The process

  17. Prediction of Layer Thickness in Molten Borax Bath with Genetic Evolutionary Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan, Fatih

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the vanadium carbide coating in molten borax bath process is modeled by evolutionary genetic programming (GEP) with bath composition (borax percentage, ferro vanadium (Fe-V) percentage, boric acid percentage), bath temperature, immersion time, and layer thickness data. Five inputs and one output data exist in the model. The percentage of borax, Fe-V, and boric acid, temperature, and immersion time parameters are used as input data and the layer thickness value is used as output data. For selected bath components, immersion time, and temperature variables, the layer thicknesses are derived from the mathematical expression. The results of the mathematical expressions are compared to that of experimental data; it is determined that the derived mathematical expression has an accuracy of 89%.

  18. Effect of borax concentration on the structure of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.; Aswal, V. K.

    2012-06-01

    Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) hydrogels cross-linked with varying concentrations of borax have been studied using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and X-Ray Diffraction. The intensity of scattering increases with borax concentration from 1 mg/ml up to 2 mg/ml and falls thereafter for 4 mg/ml, increasing again for a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The mesoscopic structural changes that cause these trends in the SANS data are in keeping with the variations in the X-ray diffraction patterns pertaining to structures within the PVA chains.

  19. Light scattering and viscoelasticity study of poly(vinyl alcohol)–borax aqueous solutions and gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiu-Li Lin; Yuan-Feng Liu; T. Leon Yu; Wen-Horng Liu; Syang-Peng Rwei

    2005-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol)–borate (PVA–borate) aqueous solutions properties with PVA concentrations ranging from 2 to 60g\\/L and borax concentrations of 0.0 and 0.2M were investigated at room temperature using static and dynamic light scattering (SLS and DLS), and dynamic viscoelasticity measurements. Light scattering and viscoelasticity data revealed that all the PVA–borate aqueous systems, except those with [PVA]?40g\\/L and [borax]=0.2M, behaved as solutions.

  20. Sorption of boric acid and borax by activated carbon impregnated with various compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lj. V. Rajakovi?; M. Dj. Risti?

    1996-01-01

    The separation of boron compounds, boric acid and borax from aqueous solution by activated carbon before and after impregnation with various compounds was studied. A series of activated carbons was prepared from coconut shell impregnated with calcium and barium chlorides, citric and tartaric acids. The examined processes were performed in batch and continuous systems under equilibrium and dynamic conditions. Impregnation

  1. Population exposure owing to a borax accident in the Tammuz 2 nuclear reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baha A. Marouf; Thamir A. Al-Khayat; Ali K. Mehdi

    1995-01-01

    The radiological consequences on the population of a borax accident in 1994 in the Tammuz 2 nuclear reactor have been postulated. Dose equivalents resulting from the atmospheric release of radionuclides during the accident have been estimated for distances ranging from the exclusion zone to 100km from the reactor. Gamma submersion, beta submersion doses from the plume, inhalation doses and surface

  2. Dispersion of borax in plastic is excellent fire-retardant heat insulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, H.; Hughes, J.; Schmitz, F.

    1967-01-01

    A mix of borax powder and a chlorinated anhydrous polyester resin yields a plastic composition that is fire-retardant, yields a minimum of toxic gases when heated, and exhibits high thermal insulating properties. This composition can be used as a coating or can be converted into laminated or cast shapes.

  3. A Human Health Risk Assessment of Boron (Boric Acid and Borax) in Drinking Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Jay Murray

    1995-01-01

    A human health risk assessment was conducted to derive an appropriate safe exposure level in drinking water of inorganic boron-containing compounds (boric acid and borax). Several regulatory agencies have set or plan to set drinking water guidelines or standards for boron (B). Recent publication of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies by the National Toxicology Program prompted this risk assessment, along

  4. Morphology–rheology relationship in hyaluronate\\/poly(vinyl alcohol)\\/borax polymer blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sook Heun Kim; Kyu Hyun; Tae Seok Moon; Tetsu Mitsumata; Joung Sook Hong; Kyung Hyun Ahn; Seung Jong Lee

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we have prepared bioartificial polymer blends using hyaluronate (HA) as a biological component and poly(vinyl alcohol)–borax association (PVAs) as a synthetic component, and investigated the rheological properties as well as morphology of the blends. When plotted against the blend composition, the rheological properties showed both positive and negative deviation from the linear additive mixing rule depending on

  5. The effect of potassium carbonate, borax and wolmanit on the burning characteristics of oriented strandboard (OSB)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kadir Ozkaya; Abdullah Cemil Ilce; Erol Burdurlu; Salih Aslan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the determination of the burning characteristics of oriented strandboard (OSB) and the effect on the burning characteristics of OSB when three chemical substances, potassium carbonate, borax and wolmanit, which are used as a fire retardant, are applied with the methods of brushing or dipping, have been researched. A total of 56 each samples were prepared for this

  6. Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

    2011-03-01

    Ellagic acid (C(14)H(6)O(8)), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0×10(-10) to 4.0×10(-5) mol L(-1); and the detection limits are 3.2×10(-10) mol L(-1) and 5.9×10(-10) mol L(-1) excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex. PMID:21239219

  7. Combustibility of Loose Fiber Fill Cellulose Insulation: the Role of Borax and Boric Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Day; D. M. Wiles

    1978-01-01

    The influence of borax and boric acid on the resistance of cellulose insulation to smouldering and flaming combustion has been examined using material treated by a wet application process. Boric acid has been shown to be required at an add-on level of at least 11.6 parts to 100 parts (by weight) of cellulose if resistance to smouldering combustion by cigarette

  8. Scleroglucan\\/borax: characterization of a novel hydrogel system suitable for drug delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Coviello; M. Grassi; R. Lapasin; A. Marino; F. Alhaique

    2003-01-01

    A new hydrogel, with scleroglucan using borax as a crosslinker, has been prepared. The physical gel has been loaded with a model molecule (theophylline) and the release of the drug from the gel was evaluated. The same system was used to prepare tablets and the delivery of theophylline in different environmental conditions (HCl and SIF) was determined. A recent theoretical

  9. Impact of the propylene glycol-water-borax coolant on material recovery operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K. Duerksen; P. A. Taylor

    1983-01-01

    The reaction of the propylene glycol-water-borax coolant with nitric acid has now been studied in some detail. This document is intended to provide a summary of the results. Findings are summarized under nine headings. Tests have also been conducted to determine if the new coolant would have any adverse effects on the uranium recycle systems. Experiments were scientifically designed after

  10. Measurement and analysis of polar stratospheric ClO and N2O by ground-based mm-wave spectroscopy. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Emmons, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis and interpretation of measured spectra of spring-time stratospheric ClO and N2O in Antarctica and Greenland during three field campaigns are presented in this dissertation. Measurements were made at McMurdo Station, Antarctica during September and October in 1992, and at Thule Air Base, Greenland during February and March in 1992 and 1993, using a ground-based mm-wave receiver. Measurements of ClO, a direct product of ozone destruction, were made through the evolution of the Antarctic `ozone hole.` The emission spectrum of ClO at 278.632 GHz was observed and vertical profiles have been determined from measurements both inside and outside the polar vortex and a sharp difference is seen between them. Comparisons are made to coincident balloon and satellite measurements of ozone, and ground-based measurements of NO2. The Arctic polar vortex generally has warmer stratospheric temperatures and is more variable in its position over the pole, consequently no ozone hole has been observed there. However, these measurements, as well as others, show the presence of ClO indicating some ozone depletion has occurred by the same mechanisms at work in the Antarctic. Low altitude mixing ratios of ClO in 1992 were never above 0.2 ppbv, but in 1993 up to 0.5 ppbv was observed in late February. The diurnal variation of the low altitude layer of ClO present in the Antarctic ozone `hole` has also been measured. The mixing ratio increases after sunrise, from less than 0.1 ppbv just before sunrise to approximately 1.5 ppbv at midday, and decreases with increasing solar zenith angle after midday. This diurnal record is unique and is valuable for the validation of photochemical models of the polar stratosphere. N2O is a good tracer of stratospheric dynamics, having only ground sources and having a long chemical lifetime in the atmosphere. N2O spectra at 276.328 GHz were observed at Thule from late February to late March, 1992.

  11. Determination of kinetic parameters of crystal growth rate of borax in aqueous solution by using the rotating disc technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Omer; Aslan, Fevzi; Ozdemir, Mustafa; Durgun, Mustafa

    2004-10-01

    Growth rate of polycrystalline disc of borax compressed at different pressure and rotated at various speed has been measured in a rotating disc crystallizer under well-defined conditions of supersaturation. It was found that the mass transfer coefficient, K, increased while overall growth rate constant, Kg, and surface reaction constant, kr, decreased with increasing smoothness of the disc. It was also determined that kinetic parameters (kr,r,K,g) of crystal growth rate of borax decreased with increasing rotating speed of the polycrystalline disc. The effectiveness factor was calculated from the growth rate data to evaluate the relative magnitude of the steps in series bulk diffusion through the mass transfer boundary layer and the surface integration. At low rotating speed of disc, the crystal growth rate of borax is mainly controlled by integration. However, both diffusion and integration steps affect the growth rate of borax at higher rotating speed of polycrystalline disc.

  12. A novel fluorescence temperature sensor based on a surfactant-free PVA\\/borax\\/2-naphthol hydrogel network system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Min Lee; Woo Young Chung; Jong Kyu Kim; Dong Hack Suh

    2004-01-01

    This article is a report about the novel fluo- rescence temperature sensor based on a surfactant-free Poly (vinly alcohol)\\/borax\\/2-naphthol hydrogel system. The well-known fluorescence indicator, 2-naphthol, exhibits a change of fluorescence intensity when it is embedded in aqueous PVA\\/borax gel networks at various temperatures. The blue color emission intensity(PL:max 426 nm) of 2-naphthol in a basic hydrogel changed gradually to

  13. EXAMINATION OF DIFFERENT PRESERVATIVES FOR TODARODES PACIFICUS PARALARVAE FIXED WITH BORAX-BUFFERED FORMALIN-SEAWATER SOLUTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuneo Goto

    2005-01-01

    The effects of different preservatives on 36 Todarodes pacificus paralarvae were examined. After fixation in a solution of borax-buffered 2-4% formaldehyde in seawater, each dorsal mantle length was measured and dorsal chromatophores were photographed. The paralarvae were divided into the following six different preservatives; 1) 5% phosphate-buffered formalin, 2) 5% borax-buffered formalin, 3) 5% hexamine-buffered formalin, 4) 99% ethanol, 5)

  14. Permanence and Diffusion of Borax-Copper Hydroxide Remedial Preservative Applied to Unseasoned Pine Posts: 10 Year Update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Crawford; Stan Lebow; Mike West; Bill Abbott

    In 1993, unseasoned pine posts were treated with groundline remedial treatment containing 3.1% copper hydroxide and 40% sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax). The soundness of the posts was periodically evaluated using a push test. After 3.5, 6.5, and 10 years, sections were taken from two posts to determine retention of borax and copper hydroxide below ground to 36 cm (14 in.)

  15. Direct production of crystalline boric acid through heterogeneous reaction of solid borax with propionic acid: Operation and simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahman ZareNezhad

    2004-01-01

    The production of boric acid through reaction of borax crystals with propionic acid was investigated in batch mode. It was\\u000a found that the product boric acid precipitates on the solid borax reactant. An increase in the coefficient of variation of\\u000a feed crystals resulted in an increase in the time of completion of the reaction. A sharp interface model with variable

  16. Supplemental Data Molecular Cell, Volume 36

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Darren

    incubated at room temperature for 30 min with 5 µL 5x borate buffer (148 mM borax,148 mM boric acid, pH 8 vacuum dried and dissolved in 60 µL 1x borax buffer (30 mM borax, 30mM boric acid, 50 mM NaOH, pH 9

  17. Validation of MCNP: SPERT-D and BORAX-V fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Palmer, B.

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses critical experiments involving SPERT-D{sup 1,2} fuel elements and BORAX-V{sup 3-8} fuel which have been modeled and calculations performed with MCNP. MCNP is a Monte Carlo based transport code. For this study continuous-energy nuclear data from the ENDF/B-V cross section library was used. The SPERT-D experiments consisted of various arrays of fuel elements moderated and reflected with either water or a uranyl nitrate solution. Some SPERT-D experiments used cadmium as a fixed neutron poison, while others were poisoned with various concentrations of boron in the moderating/reflecting solution. ne BORAX-V experiments were arrays of either boiling fuel rod assemblies or superheater assemblies, both types of arrays were moderated and reflected with water. In one boiling fuel experiment, two fuel rods were replaced with borated stainless steel poison rods.

  18. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of the BORAX-V facility turbine building

    SciTech Connect

    Arave, A.E.; Rodman, G.R.

    1992-12-01

    The Boiling Water Reactor Experiment (BORAX)-V Facility Turbine Building Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Project is described in this report. The BORAX series of five National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS) reactors pioneered intensive work on boiling water reactor (BWR) experiments conducted between 1953 and 1964. Facility characterization, decision analyses, and D&D plans for the turbine building were prepared from 1979 through 1990. D&D activities of the turbine building systems were initiated in November of 1988 and completed with the demolition and backfill of the concrete foundation in March 1992. Due to the low levels of radioactivity and the absence of loose contamination, the D&D activities were completed with no radiation exposure to the workers. The D&D activities were performed in a manner that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) remain.

  19. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of the BORAX-V facility turbine building

    SciTech Connect

    Arave, A.E.; Rodman, G.R.

    1992-12-01

    The Boiling Water Reactor Experiment (BORAX)-V Facility Turbine Building Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Project is described in this report. The BORAX series of five National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS) reactors pioneered intensive work on boiling water reactor (BWR) experiments conducted between 1953 and 1964. Facility characterization, decision analyses, and D D plans for the turbine building were prepared from 1979 through 1990. D D activities of the turbine building systems were initiated in November of 1988 and completed with the demolition and backfill of the concrete foundation in March 1992. Due to the low levels of radioactivity and the absence of loose contamination, the D D activities were completed with no radiation exposure to the workers. The D D activities were performed in a manner that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) remain.

  20. Validation of MCNP: SPERT-D and BORAX-V fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Palmer, B.

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses critical experiments involving SPERT-D[sup 1,2] fuel elements and BORAX-V[sup 3-8] fuel which have been modeled and calculations performed with MCNP. MCNP is a Monte Carlo based transport code. For this study continuous-energy nuclear data from the ENDF/B-V cross section library was used. The SPERT-D experiments consisted of various arrays of fuel elements moderated and reflected with either water or a uranyl nitrate solution. Some SPERT-D experiments used cadmium as a fixed neutron poison, while others were poisoned with various concentrations of boron in the moderating/reflecting solution. ne BORAX-V experiments were arrays of either boiling fuel rod assemblies or superheater assemblies, both types of arrays were moderated and reflected with water. In one boiling fuel experiment, two fuel rods were replaced with borated stainless steel poison rods.

  1. A study of the copper electrode behavior in borax buffer solutions containing chloride ions and benzotriazole-type inhibitors by voltammetry and the photocurrent response method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo-Ding Zhou; Hua Shao; B. H. Loo

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of the Cu electrode in borax buffer solutions containing chloride ions and benzotriazole (BTA)-type inhibitors was studied by voltammetry and the photocurrent response method. A p-type photoresponse was observed from the Cu electrode in the pure borax buffer solutions. However, an n-type photoresponse was observed in chloride-containing borax buffer solutions if the Cl? concentration exceeded 0.08%. The

  2. In vivo percutaneous absorption of boron as boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald C. Wester; Xiaoying Hui; Howard I. Maibach; Kathleen Bell; Michael J. Schell; D. Jack Northington; Philip Strong; B. Dwight Culver

    1998-01-01

    Literature from the first half of this century reports concern for toxicity from topical use of boric acid, but assessment\\u000a of percutaneous absorption has been impaired by lack of analytical sensitivity. Analytical methods in this study included\\u000a inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, which now allows quantitation of percutaneous absorption of10B in10B-enriched boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in biological

  3. Vanadium carbide coating growth on die steel substrate in borax salt bath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongfu Wang; Huachang Wang; Chenggang Pan

    2010-01-01

    Vanadium pentoxide, borax, boron carbide and sodium fluoride were used to grow vanadium carbide coating on die steel(Cr12, Cr12MoV) surface at 950 °C by TD process, which extended the life period of Cr12 and Cr12MoV as punching die. Kinetics of vanadium carbide coating growth was brought forward and verified by comparison of the mathematical\\u000a model with the experimental results. The

  4. Structural and rheological characterization of Scleroglucan\\/borax hydrogel for drug delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tommasina Coviello; Gina Coluzzi; Antonio Palleschi; Mario Grassi; Eleonora Santucci; Franco Alhaique

    2003-01-01

    The polysaccharide Scleroglucan, one of the most rigid polymers found in nature, can form a chemical\\/physical gel, in the presence of borax. The obtained hydrogel was loaded with three different model molecules (Theophylline, Vitamin B12 and Myoglobin) and then, after freeze-drying, was used as a matrix for tablets. The release profiles of the substances from the dosage forms were evaluated;

  5. Potential dependence of the optical properties of the copper | aqueous borax interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Ceré; Susana R. de Sánchez; David J. Schiffrin

    1995-01-01

    The potential dependence of the optical properties of a copper surface at potentials where CuO and Cu2O are reduced has been studied by in situ ellipsometry in 0.1 M borax. It is shown that a thin layer of a copper(I) oxide remains on the surface even after extensive reduction. It is proposed that these oxide films play an important role

  6. Development of a cleaning process for uranium chips machined with a glycol-water-borax coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1984-12-01

    A chip-cleaning process has been developed to remove the new glycol-water-borax coolant from oralloy chips. The process involves storing the freshly cut chips in Freon-TDF until they are cleaned, washing with water, and displacing the water with Freon-TDF. The wash water can be reused many times and still yield clean chips and then be added to the coolant to make up for evaporative losses. The Freon-TDF will be cycled by evaporation. The cleaning facility is currently being designed and should be operational by April 1985.

  7. a Theoretical Analysis of Physical Properties of Aqueous Trehalose with Borax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahara; Aniya, Masaru

    2013-07-01

    The temperature and composition dependence of the viscosity of aqueous trehalose and aqueous trehalose-borax mixtures has been investigated by means of the Bond Strength-Coordination Number Fluctuation (BSCNF) model. The result indicates that the variation in the fragility of the system is very small in the composition range analyzed. The values of the materials parameters determined are consistent with those of the trehalose-water-lithium iodide system which were analyzed in a previous study. Based on the analysis of the obtained parameters of the BSCNF model, the physical interpretation of the WLF parameters reported in a previous study is reconfirmed.

  8. Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, N.W.; Taylor, R.S.

    1980-10-28

    A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  9. Precipitation method for barium metaborate (BaB2O4) synthesis from borax solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ak?ener, Eymen; Figen, Aysel Kantürk; Pi?kin, Sabriye

    2013-12-01

    In this study, barium metaborate (BaB2O4, BMB) synthesis from the borax solution was carried out. BMB currently is used in production of ceramic glazes, luminophors, oxide cathodes as well as additives to pigments for aqueous emulsion paints and also ?-BaB2O4 single crystals are the best candidate for fabrication of solid-state UV lasers operating at a wavelength of 200 nm due to excellent nonlinear optical properties. In the present study, synthesis was carried out from the borax solution (Na2B4O7?10H2O, BDH) and barium chloride (BaCI2?2H2O, Ba) in the glass-batch reactor with stirring. The effect of, times (5-15 min), molar ratio [stoich.ration (1.0:2.0), 1.25:2.0, 1.5:2.0, 2.5:2:0, 3.0:2.0, 3.5:2.0,4.0:2.0, 5.0:2.0] and also crystallization time (2-6 hour) on the BMB yield (%) was investigated at 80 °C reaction temperature. It is found that, BMB precipitation synthesis with 90 % yield can be performed from 0.50 molar ration (BDH:Ba), under 80 °C, 15 minute, and 6 hours crystallization time. The structural properties of BMB powders were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG instrumental analysis technique.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF BORIC ACID AND BORAX USING THE IEHR EVALUATIVE PROCESS FOR ASSESSING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3803 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decehydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). he element, boron, does not exist naturally. oron always exis...

  11. Growth and uptake of N, P, K and B by Pinus radiata D. Don in response to applications of borax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Hopmans; Simon Clerehan

    1991-01-01

    Leader dieback associated with B deficiency in P. radiata D. Don plantations was treated with borax applied at rates of 50, 100 and 150 kg ha?1. This initially increased B in foliage from 5 to 40, 80 and 110 ?g g?1 respectively, and was followed by a rapid decline and stabilisation at around 25 ?g g?1 for the duration of

  12. Experimenting with cameraless photography using turmeric and borax: an introduction to photophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    An alcoholic extract of the spice turmeric can be used to create a light-sensitive dye that can be used to stain paper. On exposure to sunlight, the dyed paper can be used to capture photographic images of flat objects or reproduce existing images through the preferential degradation of the dye in light-exposed areas over a time period of a few hours. The images can be developed and preserved by spraying the exposed paper with a dilute solution of borax, which forms coloured organo-boron complexes that limit further degradation of the dye and enhance the colour of the image. Similar photochemical reactions that lead to the degradation of the turmeric dye can also be used for reducing the organic pollution load in wastewater produced by many industrial processes and in dye-sensitized solar cells for producing electricity.

  13. Total cost of 46-Mw Borax cogen system put at $30M

    SciTech Connect

    de Biasi, V.

    1983-03-01

    The cogeneration system, designed around a W-251B gas turbine power plant exhausting into a Deltak waste heat boiler to produce ''free'' process steam from the gas turbine exhaust, is discussed. The design includes water injection for NO/sub x/ control, self-cleaning inlet air filters, evaporative coolers, supercharger, and supplementary firing of the waste heat boiler. Once the system is operational Borax will be able to generate all of the electricity needed for on-site operations and a large share of process steam needs--plus still have 22-23 Mw surplus electric power to sell, so that the installation should pay for itself in less than 5 years of service.

  14. Preparation and characterization of antimicrobial wound dressings based on silver, gellan, PVA and borax.

    PubMed

    Cencetti, C; Bellini, D; Pavesio, A; Senigaglia, D; Passariello, C; Virga, A; Matricardi, P

    2012-10-15

    Silver-loaded dressings are designed to provide the same antimicrobial activity of topical silver, with the advantages of a sustained silver release and a reduced number of dressing changes. Moreover, such type of dressing must provide a moist environment, avoiding fiber shedding, dehydration and adherence to the wound site. Here we describe the preparation of a novel silver-loaded dressing based on a Gellan/Hyaff(®) (Ge-H) non woven, treated with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/borax system capable to enhance the entrapment of silver in the dressing and to modulate its release. The new hydrophilic non woven dressings show enhanced water uptake capability and slow dehydration rates. A sustained silver release is also achieved. The antibacterial activity was confirmed on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:22939352

  15. In vitro percutaneous absorption of boron as boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in human skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald C. Wester; Tracy Hartway; Howard I. Maibach; Michael J. Schell; D. Jack Northington; B. Dwight Culver; Philip L. Strong

    1998-01-01

    Literature from the first half of this century reports concern for toxicity from topical use of boric acid, but assessment\\u000a of percutaneous absorption has been impaired by lack of analytical sensitivity. Analytical methods in this study included\\u000a inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry which now allows quantitation of percutaneous absorption of10B in10B-enriched boric acid, borax and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in biological

  16. Fiberboards treated with N'-N-(1, 8-Naphthalyl) hydroxylamine (NHA-Na), borax, and boric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Turgay Akbulut; S. Nami Kartal; Frederick Green III

    This paper reports on the physical and mechanical properties and decay and termite resistance of fiberboard panels made from pine and beech treated with N'-N-(1, 8-Naphthalyl) hydroxylamine sodium salt (NHA-Na), borax, and boric acid at varying loadings. The panels were manufactured using 10 percent urea-formaldehyde resin and 1percent NH4Cl. Mechanical and physical tests demon- strated no statistically significant reduction in

  17. Experimental and theoretical investigation of boric acid production through reactive dissolution of oxalic acid crystals in borax aqueous solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahman ZareNezhad

    2003-01-01

    Reaction of oxalic acid crystals with borax solution was experimentally investigated in a 1.5 L batch reactor at different\\u000a operating conditions. The reaction was fast and took place very near to the surface of solid reactant. The dissolution process\\u000a was found to be bulk diffusion controlled. A surface reaction model considering particle shrinkage was proposed for description\\u000a of the process.

  18. Ellipsometric and photocurrent characterization of oxide films formed on copper in borax solution with and without benzotriazol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Zerbino

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the addition of benzotriazol on the passive behaviour of copper in borax solutions was analyzed in the potential region ?0.32 to 0.71 V vs. RHE using voltammetric, photocurrent and ellipsometric techniques. Oxide formation can be explained as a sequence of Cu2O growth (inner layer ippl) and dissolution precipitation of Cu(II), (outer hydrated oxide layer (oppl)). The resulting

  19. In vitro studies on chemoprotective effect of borax against aflatoxin B1-induced genetic damage in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyiko?lu, Fatime; Dirican, Ebubekir; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2012-12-01

    A common dietary contaminant, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), has been shown to be a potent mutagen and carcinogen in humans and many animal species. Since the eradication of AFB1 contamination in agricultural products has been rare, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boron compounds like borax (BX) and boric acid are the major components of industry and their antioxidant role has recently been reported. In the present report, we evaluated the capability of BX to inhibit the rate of micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formations induced by AFB1. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in both SCE and MN frequencies of cultures treated with AFB1 (3.12 ppm) as compared to controls. However, co-application of BX (1, 2 and 5 ppm) and AFB1 resulted in decreases of SCE and MN rates as compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone. Borax gave 30-50 % protection against AFB1 induced SCEs and MNs. In conclusion, the support of borax was especially useful in aflatoxin-toxicated blood tissue. Thus, the risk on target tissues of AFB1 could be reduced and ensured early recovery from its toxicity. PMID:22526492

  20. Pulsed laser ablation of borax target in vacuum and hydrogen DC glow discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, A. N.; Miotello, A.; Mosaner, P.

    2006-09-01

    The aim of our experiment was to produce a material with B sbnd H bonds for applications in hydrogen storage and generation. By using KrF excimer laser ( ? = 248 nm) ablation of borax (Na 2B 4O 7) target, thin films were deposited on KBr and silicon substrates. Ablation was performed both in vacuum and in hydrogen atmosphere. DC glow discharge technique was utilized to enhance hydrogen gas ionization. Experiments were performed using laser fluence from 5 to 20 J/cm 2. Films were deposited under gas pressure of 1 × 10 -5 to 5 × 10 -2 mbar and substrate temperatures of 130-450 °C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of films showed presence of circular particulates. Film thickness, roughness and particulates number increased with increase in laser fluence. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis shows that sodium content in the particulates is higher than in the target. This effect is discussed in terms of atomic arrangements (both at surface and bulk) in systems where ionic and covalent bonds are present and by looking at the increased surface/bulk ratio of the particulates with respect to the deposited films. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements showed presence of B sbnd O stretching and B sbnd O sbnd B bending bonds. Possible reasons for absence of B sbnd H bonds are attributed to binding enthalpy of the competing molecules.

  1. Impact of the propylene glycol-water-borax coolant on material recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, W.K.; Taylor, P.A.

    1983-05-01

    The reaction of the propylene glycol-water-borax coolant with nitric acid has now been studied in some detail. This document is intended to provide a summary of the results. Findings are summarized under nine headings. Tests have also been conducted to determine if the new coolant would have any adverse effects on the uranium recycle systems. Experiments were scientifically designed after observation of the production operations so that accurate response to the immediate production concerns could be provided. Conclusions from these studies are: formation of glycol nitrates is very improbable; the reaction of concentrated (70%) nitric acid with pure propylene glycol is very violent and hazardous; dilution of the nitric acid-glycol mixture causes a drastic decrease in the rate and intensity of the reaction; the mechanism of the nitric acid propylene glycol reaction is autocatalytic in nitrous acid; no reaction is observed between coolant and 30% nitric acid unless the solution is heated; the coolant reacts fairly vigorously with 55% nitric acid after a concentration-dependent induction time; experiments showed that the dissolution of uranium chips that had been soaked in coolant proceeded at about the same rate as if the chips had not previously contacted glycol; thermodynamic calculations show that the enthalpy change (heat liberated) by the reaction of nitric acid (30%) with propylene glycol is smaller than if the same amount of nitric acid reacted with uranium. Each of these conclusions is briefly discussed. The effect of new coolant on uranium recycle operations is then briefly discussed.

  2. 8MM Film Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kone, Grace Ann, Comp.

    All 8mm films in general distribution in the United States, regardless of length or subject, are listed in this directory: Standard or Super 8, silent or sound, cartridge or reel-to-reel. Indexed alphabetically and by the Dewey Decimal System, films and film series are entered under the headings of Arts, Education, Fiction, Language, Recreation,…

  3. 1-mm catheterscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, Eric J.

    2008-02-01

    Flexible endoscopes use one sensor element per display pixel. When diameter is reduced to the size of a catheter, there is a significant reduction in the number of pixels within the image. By placing a sub-millimeter microscanner at the tip of a catheter, image quality can be significantly improved. The microscanner consists of a 0.4 mm diameter piezoelectric tube with quadrant electrodes, surrounding a cantilevered singlemode optical fiber. At the distal end, the fiber microscanner is sealed with a 0.9 mm diameter lens assembly, creating a rigid length less than 10 mm at the tip of a highly flexible shaft. The cantilevered fiber is vibrated at the first mode of resonance for bending to generate a circular scan pattern. A spiral scan pattern is generated that constitutes an image frame by modulating the piezoelectric drive signals. By using a custom optical fiber at 80 microns cladding diameter, >10 KHz resonant scanning is achieved, resulting in a 30 Hz frame rate. Red (635 nm), green (532 nm), and blue (442 nm) laser light is scanned by coupling to the fiber scanner. The scanned illumination is detected in a non-confocal arrangement by having one or more optical fibers collecting the backscattered light at MHz pixel rates. Current 1-mm diameter catheterscopes generate 500-line images at maximum fields of view of 100 degrees and spatial resolutions of <20 microns with image zooming. Shaft length of four meters have been fabricated with flexibility of <10 mm bending radius to image previously inaccessible regions of the body.

  4. High-compactness coating grown by plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 magnesium alloy in the solution of silicate-borax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, M. J.; Wang, X. J.; Zhang, M. F.

    2012-10-01

    A ceramic coating was formed on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in the silicate solution with and without borax doped. The composition, morphology, elements and roughness as well as mechanical property of the coating were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reciprocal-sliding tribometer. The results show that the PEO coating is mainly composed of magnesia. When using borax dope, boron element is permeating into the coating and the boron containing phase exist in the form of amorphous. In addition, the microhardness and compactness of the PEO coating are improved significantly due to doped borax.

  5. In vivo percutaneous absorption of boron as boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in humans: a summary.

    PubMed

    Wester, R C; Hui, X; Maibach, H I; Bell, K; Schell, M J; Northington, D J; Strong, P; Culver, B D

    1998-01-01

    Literature from the first half of this century reports concern for toxicity from topical use of boric acid, but assessment of percutaneous absorption has been impaired by lack of analytical sensitivity. Analytical methods in this study included inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, which now allows quantitation of percutaneous absorption of 10B in 10B-enriched boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in biological matrices. This made it possible, in the presence of comparatively large natural dietary boron intakes for the in vivo segment of this study, to quantify the boron passing through skin. Human volunteers were dosed with 10B-enriched boric acid, 5.0%, borax, 5.0%, or disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, 10% in aqueous solutions. Urinalysis, for boron and changes in boron isotope ratios, was used to measure absorption. Boric acid in vivo percutaneous absorption was 0.226 (SD = 0.125) mean percent dose, with flux and permeability constant (Kp) calculated at 0.009 microg/cm2/h and 1.9 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. Borax absorption was 0.210 (SD = 0.194) mean percent dose, with flux and Kp calculated at 0.009 microg/cm2/h and 1.8 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. DOT absorption was 0.122 (SD = 0.108) mean percent, with flux and Kp calculated at 0.01 microg/cm2/h and 1.0 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. Pretreatment with the potential skin irritant 2% sodium lauryl sulfate had no effect on boron skin absorption. These in vivo results show that percutaneous absorption of boron, as boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, through intact human skin is low and is significantly less than the average daily dietary intake. This very low boron skin absorption makes it apparent that, for the borates tested, the use of gloves to prevent systemic uptake is unnecessary. These findings do not apply to abraded or otherwise damaged skin. PMID:10050912

  6. Preparing high- and low-aspect ratio AlB 2 flakes from borax or boron oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Hall; J. Economy

    2000-01-01

    The commercial preparation of aluminum-diboride flakes in aluminum relies on relatively expensive starting materials. A new\\u000a synthesis has been developed that allows AlB2 to be prepared directly from the reaction of borax (Na2B4O710H2O) or boron oxide (B2O3) with aluminum. Aluminum metal at temperatures higher than 900C has been shown to reduce these boron-containing compounds,\\u000a producing an Al2O3-containing slag and AlB2.

  7. The effects of dietary boric acid and borax supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, and DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Cigerci, Ibrahim Hakki; Fatih Fidan, A; Eryavuz, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of high dietary supplementation with boric acid and borax, called boron (B) compounds, on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some vitamin levels, and DNA damage in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard rodent diet containing 6.4 mg B/kg, and the animals in the experimental group were fed with a standard rodent diet added with a supra-nutritional amount of boric acid and borax (100 mg B/kg) throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The B compounds decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA damage, the protein carbonyl content (PCO) level in blood, and glutathione (GSH) concentration in the liver, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity in the kidney. The B compounds increased GSH concentration in blood and the vitamin C level in plasma. Consequently, our results demonstrate that B supplementation (100 mg/kg) in diet decreases LPO, and enhances the antioxidant defense mechanism and vitamin status. There are no differences in oxidant/antioxidant balance and biochemical parameters except for serum vitamin A and liver GSH concentration, between the boron compounds used in this study. PMID:20569927

  8. Preparing high- and low-aspect ratio AlB2 flakes from borax or boron oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A. C.; Economy, J.

    2000-02-01

    The commercial preparation of aluminum-diboride flakes in aluminum relies on relatively expensive starting materials. A new synthesis has been developed that allows AlB2 to be prepared directly from the reaction of borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O) or boron oxide (B2O3) with aluminum. Aluminum metal at temperatures higher than 900°C has been shown to reduce these boron-containing compounds, producing an Al2O3-containing slag and AlB2. A natural separation occurs, leaving AlB2 in the molten aluminum and Al2O3 as part of a slag that forms at the melt surface. Samples containing up to 10 vol.% AlB2 in an aluminum matrix have been directly prepared using this method.

  9. Precipitation method for barium metaborate (BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}) synthesis from borax solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ak?ener, Eymen; Figen, Aysel Kantürk; Pi?kin, Sabriye [Yildiz Technical University, Chem. Eng. Dept., Davutpasa Campus, 34210, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-12-16

    In this study, barium metaborate (BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, BMB) synthesis from the borax solution was carried out. BMB currently is used in production of ceramic glazes, luminophors, oxide cathodes as well as additives to pigments for aqueous emulsion paints and also ??BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} single crystals are the best candidate for fabrication of solid-state UV lasers operating at a wavelength of 200 nm due to excellent nonlinear optical properties. In the present study, synthesis was carried out from the borax solution (Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7?}10H{sub 2}O, BDH) and barium chloride (BaCI{sub 2?}2H{sub 2}O, Ba) in the glass-batch reactor with stirring. The effect of, times (5-15 min), molar ratio [stoich.ration (1.0:2.0), 1.25:2.0, 1.5:2.0, 2.5:2:0, 3.0:2.0, 3.5:2.0,4.0:2.0, 5.0:2.0] and also crystallization time (2-6 hour) on the BMB yield (%) was investigated at 80 °C reaction temperature. It is found that, BMB precipitation synthesis with 90 % yield can be performed from 0.50 molar ration (BDH:Ba), under 80 °C, 15 minute, and 6 hours crystallization time. The structural properties of BMB powders were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG instrumental analysis technique.

  10. Primeval galaxies in the sub-mm and mm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, J. Richard; Myers, Steven T.

    1993-01-01

    Although the results of COBE's FIRAS experiment 1 constrain the deviation in energy from the CMB blackbody in the 500-5000 micron range to be delta E/E, sub cmb less than 0.005, primeval galaxies can still lead to a brilliant sub-mm sky of non-Gaussian sources that are detectable at 10 inch resolution from planned arrays such as SCUBA on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and, quite plausibly, at sub-arcsecond resolution in planned mm and sub-mm interferometers. Here, we apply our hierarchical peaks method to a CDM model to construct sub-mm and mm maps of bursting PG's appropriate for these instruments with minimum contours chosen to correspond to realistic observational parameters for them and which pass the FIRAS limits.

  11. Density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO 2 and of sodium metaborate-UO 2 solutions at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donne, M. Dalle; Dorner, S.; Roth, A.

    1983-10-01

    Measurements have been performed of the density, of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and of the viscosity of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO 2 dissolved in each. The viscosity measurements have been performed for the solution of sodium tetraborate with UO 2 and CeO 2, and with CeO 2 only as well. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The density measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 825°C to 1300°C, the viscosity measurements in the temperature range 700-1250°C with a modified Haake viscosity balance. The balance was previously calibrated at ambient temperature with a standard calibration liquid and at high temperatures with data for pure borax available from the literature.

  12. Accidental mold\\/termite testing of high density fiberboard (HDF) treated with boric acid, borax and N'-N-naphthoylhydroxylamine (NHA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nami Kartal; Harold S. Burdsall; Frederick Green Ill

    High density fibreboard (HDF) was made from beech and pine furnish (50:50) and treated with boric acid (0.1-3%), borax (0.1-3%) or N'-N-(1,8-naphthalyl) hydroxylamine (NHA) (0.1-1%) prior to gluing with urea formaldehyde (UF) resin in order to determine resistance to Eastern subterranean termites ( Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar), the most economically important termite species in North America. HDF and southern yellow pine

  13. DETERMINATION OF REFRACTORY METALS IN FERROUS ALLOYS AND HIGH-ALLOY STEEL BY THE BORAX DISK X-RAY SPECTROCHEMICAL METHOD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Luke

    1963-01-01

    X-ray spectrochemical methods were developed for the determination of ; Mo, W, Nb, and Ta in heat-resisting and corrosion-resisting alloys and of Mo and ; W in high-alloy steel. The refractory metals are separated from the bulk of the ; alloy matrix by convertional chemical separations, converted to oxides, fused in ; borax, and then determined by x-ray spectrochemical analysis.

  14. OpenMM accelerated MMTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kevin P.; Constable, Steve; Faruk, Nabil F.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we provide an interface developed to link the Molecular Modelling toolkit (MMTK) with OpenMM in order to take advantage of the fast evaluation techniques of OpenMM. This interface allows MMTK scripts using the Langevin dynamics integrator, for both classical and path integral simulations, to be executed on a variety of hardware including graphical processing units via OpenMM. The interface has been developed using Python and Cython to take advantage of the high level abstraction thanks to the MMTK and OpenMM software packages. We have tested the interface on a number of systems to observe which systems benefit most from the acceleration libraries of OpenMM.

  15. SSC 40 mm cable results and 50 mm design discussions

    SciTech Connect

    Christopherson, D.; Capone, D.; Hannaford, R.; Remsbottom, R.; Jayakumar, R.; Snitchler, G. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)); Scanlan, R.; Royet, J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1990-09-01

    A summary of the cable produced for the 1990 40 mm Dipole Program is presented. The cable design parameters for the 50 mm Dipole Program are discussed, as well as portions of the SSC specification draft. Considerations leading to the final cable configuration and the results of preliminary trials are included. The first iteration of a strand mapping program to automate cable strand maps is introduced. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. In vitro percutaneous absorption of boron as boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in human skin: a summary.

    PubMed

    Wester, R C; Hartway, T; Maibach, H I; Schell, M J; Northington, D J; Culver, B D; Strong, P L

    1998-01-01

    Literature from the first half of this century reports concern for toxicity from topical use of boric acid, but assessment of percutaneous absorption has been impaired by lack of analytical sensitivity. Analytical methods in this study included inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry which now allows quantitation of percutaneous absorption of 10B in 10B-enriched boric acid, borax and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in biological matrices. In vitro human skin percent doses of boric acid absorbed were 1.2 for a 0.05% solution, 0.28 for a 0.5% solution, and 0.70 for a 5.0% solution. These absorption amounts translated into flux values of, respectively, 0.25, 0.58, and 14.58 microg/cm2/h, and permeability constants (Kp) of 5.0 x 10(-4), 1.2 x 10(-4), and 2.9 x 10(-4) cm/h for the 0.05%, 0.5%, and 5.0% solutions. The above in vitro doses were at infinite, 1000 microL/cm2 volume. At 2 microL/cm2 (the in vivo dosing volume), flux decreased some 200-fold to 0.07 microg/cm2/h and Kp of 1.4 x 10(-6) cm/h, while percent dose absorbed was 1.75%. Borax dosed at 5.0%/1000 microL/cm2 had 0.41 percent dose absorbed, flux at 8.5 microg/cm2/h, and Kp was 1.7 x 10(-4) cm/h. Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) dosed at 10%/1000 microL/cm2 was 0.19 percent dose absorbed, flux at 7.9 microg/cm2/h, and Kp was 0.8 x 10(-4) cm/h. These in vitro results from infinite doses (1000 microL/cm2) were a 1000-fold greater than those obtained in the companion in vivo study. The results from the finite (2 microL/cm2) dosing were closer (10-fold difference) to the in vivo results. General application of infinite dose percutaneous absorption values for risk assessment is questioned by these results. PMID:10050913

  17. 3D Seismic and Magnetic characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, southeastern Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, S.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Routh, P.; Liberty, L.; Donaldson, P.

    2004-05-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems, we are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs. BLHS is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. The Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben in the Northern Great Basin bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We conducted a 2D seismic survey to characterize the geologic structure of the basin, a high-resolution 3D seismic survey to characterize the geologic structure of the BLHS, and a high-resolution 3D magnetic survey to characterize any lineaments in the bedrock that might control fluid flow in the BLHS. Previous results from the 2D seismic survey show a mid-basin basement high aligned approximately with the hot springs. In this study we present the results from the high-resolution 3D seismic and magnetic survey of the BLHS. We acquired the 3D seismic data using an SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The seismic survey covers approximately 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. The coincidental magnetic survey was collected using a Geometrics 858G cesium vapor magnetometer. We designed both surveys to span nearly 100 active hydrothermal springs, including an approximately 50 m stepover in the trend of the surface expression of the hot springs. After preliminary processing, the 3D seismic data show continuous reflections up to 300 ms (~ 480 m). The initial interpretation of features seen in the 3D data cube include: normal faults dipping to the east and west, near-surface disturbances that are consistent with the trend of the hot springs, and significant near surface velocity anomalies throughout the survey area. Time slices through the 3D seismic cube show evidence of semi-continuous linear features consistent with the trend of the hot springs. A large scale inversion has been performed on the magnetic data. The fit to the observed data is good given the noise assumption of 3 nT. After more extensive processing, we will compare structures in the inverted magnetic model with features in the seismic data and explore the connection between the subsurface geology and the surface geometry of the hot springs.

  18. Parameters Initial Link 1 Length 32 mm 32 mm

    E-print Network

    and Perspective view of CAD model Design and Optimization of a Four-bar Knee Prosthesis N. IQBAL, G. KARATIGIN, J. MILLS, Z. PAVLOVIC SUPERVISOR: PROF. CRAIG SIMMONS (PhD, PEng) UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MECHANICAL Wyss, project supervisor Prof. Craig Simmons, the ECP and MIE491 staff at the University of Toronto

  19. mm,50 mm) and (90 mm,50 mm). There is an eight-unit cell separation between the two ports.

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    suppression in high speed digital systems, IEEE 11th Topical Meeting on Electrical Performance of Electronic mil), r1 4.3, and r2 4.0. In the reported Etenna's board, the overall board dimension is 191 140 mm2

  20. Apollo 12 photography 70 mm, 16 mm, and 35 mm frame index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    For each 70-mm frame, the index presents information on: (1) the focal length of the camera, (2) the photo scale at the principal point of the frame, (3) the selenographic coordinates at the principal point of the frame, (4) the percentage of forward overlap of the frame, (5) the sun angle (medium, low, high), (6) the quality of the photography, (7) the approximate tilt (minimum and maximum) of the camera, and (8) the direction of tilt. A brief description of each frame is also included. The index to the 16-mm sequence photography includes information concerning the approximate surface coverage of the photographic sequence and a brief description of the principal features shown. A column of remarks is included to indicate: (1) if the sequence is plotted on the photographic index map and (2) the quality of the photography. The pictures taken using the lunar surface closeup stereoscopic camera (35 mm) are also described in this same index format.

  1. Confirmatory radiological survey of the BORAX-V turbine building Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.H.; Coleman, R.L.; Jensen, M.K.; Pierce, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Egidi, P.V.; Mather, S.K. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    1993-07-01

    An independent assessment of the remediation of the BORAX-V (Boiling Water Reactor Experiment) turbine building at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho Falls, Idaho, was accomplished by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pollutant Assessments Group (ORNL/PAG). The purpose of the assessment was to confirm the site`s compliance with applicable Department of Energy guidelines. The assessment included reviews of both the decontamination and decommissioning Plan and data provided from the pre- and post-remedial action surveys and an independent verification survey of the facility. The independent verification survey included determination of background exposure rates and soil concentrations, beta-gamma and gamma radiation scans, smears for detection of removable contamination, and direct measurements for alpha and beta-gamma radiation activity on the basement and mezzanine floors and the building`s interior and exterior walls. Soil samples were taken, and beta-gamma and gamma radiation exposure rates were measured on areas adjacent to the building. Results of measurements on building surfaces at this facility were within established contamination guidelines except for elevated beta-gamma radiation levels located on three isolated areas of the basement floor. Following remediation of these areas, ORNL/PAG reviewed the remedial action contractor`s report and agreed that remediation was effective in removing the source of the elevated direct radiation. Results of all independent soil analyses for {sup 60}Co were below the detection limit. The highest {sup 137}Cs analysis result was 4.6 pCi/g; this value is below the INEL site-specific guideline of 10 pCi/g.

  2. TUDE DE QUELQUES BTONS SPCIAUX DE PROTECTION Par MM. J. BOURGEOIS, A. ERTAUD et J. JACQUESSON.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ordinaire, béton au carbure de bore, béton au borax, béton à la serpentine et tourmaline, béton à la,62 cm (béton ordinaire) à I,I5 cm (béton à la serpentine et tourmaline). La densité des bétons varie de

  3. A 55-mm object inside a 40-mm orbit.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Anne M; Whipple, Katherine M; Lim, Lee Hooi; Korn, Bobby S; Kikkawa, Don O

    2013-10-01

    A 43-year-old man was struck in the left orbit with his board while surfing and sustained a 3-cm laceration above his left eyebrow. The laceration was sutured closed primarily at a local emergency room. When he presented to UCSD oculoplastics for suture removal, he complained of diplopia with upgaze and was found to have hypoglobus on clinical exam. An orbital CT demonstrated a hyperintense linear signal within the orbit. The patient underwent surgical exploration. A 55-mm-length piece of fiberglass from the patient's surfboard was removed from his orbit. This case demonstrates the importance of having a high index of suspicion for retained orbital foreign bodies, regardless of the size of the object inflicting the injury. PMID:23875613

  4. High-water-content mouldable polyvinyl alcohol-borax hydrogels reinforced by well-dispersed cellulose nanoparticles: dynamic rheological properties and hydrogel formation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Han, Jingquan; Lei, Tingzhou; Wu, Qinglin

    2014-02-15

    Cellulose nanoparticle (CNP) reinforced polyvinyl alcohol-borax (PB) hydrogels were produced via a facile approach in an aqueous system. The effects of particle size, aspect ratio, crystal structure, and surface charge of CNPs on the rheological properties of the composite hydrogels were investigated. The rheological measurements confirmed the incorporation of well-dispersed CNPs to PB system significantly enhanced the viscoelasticity and stiffness of hydrogels. The obtained free-standing, high elasticity and mouldable hydrogels exhibited self-recovery under continuous step strain and thermo-reversibility under temperature sweep. With the addition of cellulose I nanofibers, a 19-fold increase in the high-frequency plateau of storage modulus was obtained compared with that of the pure PB. CNPs acted as multifunctional crosslinking agents and nanofillers to physically and chemically bridge the 3D network hydrogel. The plausible mechanism for the multi-complexation between CNPs, polyvinyl alcohol and borax was proposed to understand the relationship between the 3D network and hydrogel properties. PMID:24507286

  5. An Approximate Solution for Ph/Ph/1 and Ph/Ph/1/N Queues

    E-print Network

    Begin, Thomas

    An Approximate Solution for Ph/Ph/1 and Ph/Ph/1/N Queues Alexandre Brandwajn Baskin School approximation to assess the steady-state probabilities of the number of customers in Ph/Ph/1 and Ph/Ph/1/N for the Ph/Ph/1/N queue. The phase-type distributions considered are assumed to be acyclic. Our method

  6. Apollo 12 70 mm photographic catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Proof prints of the 70-mm photography are presented, sorted by magazine and frame number. The 28 lunar surface panorama mosaics and a listing of the mosaics are included. The catalog is designed to be used in conjunction with the "Apollo 12 Photography: 70-mm, 16-mm, and 35-mm Frame Index', which makes it possible to locate the area covered by each frame.

  7. a 3.37 mm length b 3.32 mm diameter

    E-print Network

    Marc, Robert E.

    5.2 ml retinal subtense 300 µm/deg retinal arc 51 mm retinal area* 1024 ± 184 mm2 total.3 µl retinal subtense 31 µm/deg retinal arc 4.9 mm retinal area 15.6 mm2 cone:rod ratio 0/deg retinal arc 10.6 mm retinal area 52 mm2 cone:rod ratio mean cone density* mm-2 mean rod

  8. Hickey -TT175, casts 220, line 222-229,231-232 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scans

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey -TT175, casts 220, line 222- 229,231-232 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date,220 #12;Hickey -TT175, casts 220, line 222- 229,231-232 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date #12;Hickey -TT175, casts 220, line 222- 229,231-232 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date

  9. Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scans

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date;Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date;Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date

  10. In vivo percutaneous absorption of boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in humans compared to in vitro absorption in human skin from infinite and finite doses.

    PubMed

    Wester, R C; Hui, X; Hartway, T; Maibach, H I; Bell, K; Schell, M J; Northington, D J; Strong, P; Culver, B D

    1998-09-01

    Literature from the first half of this century report concern for toxicity from topical use of boric acid, but assessment of percutaneous absorption has been impaired by lack of analytical sensitivity. Analytical methods in this study included inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry which now allows quantitation of percutaneous absorption of 10B in 10B-enriched boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in biological matrices. This made it possible, in the presence of comparatively large natural dietary boron intakes for the in vivo segment of this study, to quantify the boron passing through skin. Human volunteers were dosed with 10B-enriched boric acid, 5.0%, borax, 5.0%, or disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, 10%, in aqueous solutions. Urinalysis, for boron and changes in boron isotope ratios, was used to measure absorption. Boric acid in vivo percutaneous absorption was 0.226 (SD = 0.125) mean percentage dose, with flux and permeability constant (Kp) calculated at 0.009 microgram/cm2/h and 1.9 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. Borax absorption was 0.210 (SD = 0.194) mean percentage of dose, with flux and Kp calculated at 0.009 microgram/cm2/h and 1.8 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. DOT absorption was 0.122 (SD = 0.108) mean percentage, with flux and Kp calculated at 0.01 microgram/cm2/h and 1.0 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. Pretreatment with the potential skin irritant 2% sodium lauryl sulfate had no effect on boron skin absorption. In vitro human skin percentage of doses of boric acid absorbed were 1.2 for a 0.05% solution, 0.28 for a 0.5% solution, and 0.70 for a 5.0% solution. These absorption amounts translated into flux values of, respectively, 0.25, 0.58, and 14.58 micrograms/cm2/h and permeability constants (Kp) of 5.0 x 10(-4), 1.2 x 10(-4), and 2.9 x 10(-4) cm/h for the 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0% solutions. The above in vitro doses were at infinite, 1000 microliters/cm2 volume. At 2 microliters/cm2 (the in vivo dosing volume), flux decreased some 200-fold to 0.07 microgram/cm2/h and Kp of 1.4 x 10(-6) cm/h, while percentage of dose absorbed was 1.75%. Borax dosed at 5.0%/1000 microliters/cm2 had 0.41% dose absorbed, flux at 8.5 micrograms/cm2/h, and Kp was 1.7 x 10(-4) cm/h. Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) dosed at 10%/1000 microliters/cm2 was 0.19% dose absorbed, flux at 7.9 micrograms/cm2/h, and Kp was 0.8 x 10(-4) cm/h. These in vitro results from infinite doses (1000 microliters/cm2) were 1000-fold greater than those obtained in the companion in vivo study. The results from the finite (2 microliters/cm2) dosing were closer (10-fold difference) to the in vivo results. General application of infinite dose percutaneous absorption values for risk assessment is questioned by these results. These in vivo results show that percutaneous absorption of boron, as boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, through intact human skin, is low and is significantly less than the average daily dietary intake. This very low boron skin absorption makes it apparent that, for the borates tested, the use of gloves to prevent systemic uptake is unnecessary. These findings do not apply to abraded or otherwise damaged skin. PMID:9848109

  11. In VivoPercutaneous Absorption of Boric Acid, Borax, and Disodium Octaborate Tetrahydrate in Humans Compared to in VitroAbsorption in Human Skin from Infinite and Finite Doses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald C. Wester; Xiaoying Hui; Tracy Hartway; Howard I. Maibach; Kathleen Bell; Michael J. Schelly; D. Jack Northington; Philip Strong; B. Dwight Culver

    1998-01-01

    Literature from the first half of this century report concern for toxicity from topical use of boric acid, but assessment of percutaneous absorption has been impaired by lack of analytical sensitivity. Analytical methods in this study included inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry which now allows quantitation of percutaneous absorption of10B in10B-enriched boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in biological

  12. Application of MM wave therapy in radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, R.S. [Inst. of Radio Physics & Electronics, Ashtarack (Argentina); Gasparyan, L.V. [Republican Medical Centre Armenia, Yerevan (Argentina)

    1995-12-31

    The authors studied the effects of MM wave electromagnetic radiation influence on patients, affected by X-ray radiation during the reparation works after Chernobyl nuclear power plant exposure. They compared results of treatment of two groups of patients: (1) control group patients received only basis therapy; (2) testing group, 10 patients received basis therapy and MM wave influence. The authors used the wide band noise generator `Artsakh - 2` for local irradiation on the acupuncture points. Their data proved that low intensity MM waves have immunocorrective, antioxidant effects, and MM wave therapy is a perspective method for treatment of patients with radiological pathology.

  13. GOI characterization of 300-mm furnace tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautz, Karl E.

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this characterization was to gain an initial understand of the gate oxide integrity (GOI) differences on wafers processed in the 300mm furnace tools at SC300, a joint venture between Motorola and Infineon Technologies for 300mm wafer, process and equipment development, compared to similarly processed 200mm wafers at Motorola. Measurements were done using mercury probe tools located at different sites to characterize the various gate oxide films and thicknesses. Separately, a study was done on defectivity levels of the Epi-layered 300mm wafers used in this study.

  14. Crew-Served Machine Guns 5.56-mm and 7.62-mm

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    FM 3-22.68 Crew-Served Machine Guns 5.56-mm and 7.62-mm JULY 2006 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION-Served Machine Guns 5.56-mm and 7.62-mm Contents Page Weapons Index............................................................................................................................................... xvii Chapter 1 M249 MACHINE GUN

  15. A Toddler's Treatment of "Mm" and "Mm Hm" in Talk with a Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipi, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The study to be reported in this paper examined the work accomplished by "mm" and "mm hm" in the interactions of a parent and his daughter aged 0;10-2;0. Using the findings of Gardner (2001) for adults, the analysis shows that "mm" accomplished a range of functions based on its sequential placement and prosodic features, whereas "mm hm" was much…

  16. Is lithography ready for 300 mm?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain B. Charles; Clint Haris; Steffen R. Hornig; Dietmar Ganz; Thorsten Schedel; Guenther Hraschan; Wolfram Koestler; John G. Maltabes; Karl E. Mautz; Sebastian Schmidt; Ralf Schuster

    2000-01-01

    SEMICONDUCTOR300 was the first pilot production facility for 300mm wafers in the world. This company, a joint venture between Infineon Technologies Motorola, started in early 1998 to develop processes and manufacture products using 300mm wafer tool set. The lithography tools include I-line steppers, as I-line scanner, a DUV stepper, and DUV scanners. All of these exposure tools are running in-line

  17. Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-10-01

    pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, an imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. In this paper, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of a commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (SNARF-5F carboxylic acid) in tissue phantoms. We demonstrated that PAM is capable of pH imaging in absolute values at tissue depths of up to 2.0 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

  18. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table MM-2 Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for...

  19. suitable QM/MM interaction models and treatments for the QM/MM interface region,

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    of a molecular system to be described at the sim- plest level possible: as atoms, using quantum or classical, as a continuous medium that lacks atomic detail2,4 . Molecular interactions are captured by potential surfacessuitable QM/MM interaction models and treatments for the QM/MM interface region, and efficient

  20. Development of SRAO 3MM SIS Receiver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Won Lee; Seog-Tae Han; Do-Young Byun; Bon-Chul Koo; Yong-Sun Park

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a 3 mm band receiver for SRAO. The receiver employs an Nb-based SIS junction in the mixer and operates at 85–115 GHz with single polarization. The receiver noise temperature is 40–50 K in DSB. It is equipped with an MPI-type filter for single-side band observations. We present the design, construction, and test results for individual components of

  1. Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 3 30 [mm

    E-print Network

    Ohya, Akihisa

    1. 2. 3 [1] [2] Velodyne 3 2 [3] [4] 3. ASUS Xtion Fig. 1 Xtion Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 30 [mm] 10 Xtion 720mm 50 deg 200600mm (a) Xtion (b) Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 30 [mm] Fig. 4 10, 20, 30 [mm] 10, 20, 30 [mm] 7 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 [mm] 5 #12; () (RANSAC) Fig. 5

  2. mmView: a web-based viewer of the mmCIF format

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Structural biomolecular data are commonly stored in the PDB format. The PDB format is widely supported by software vendors because of its simplicity and readability. However, the PDB format cannot fully address many informatics challenges related to the growing amount of structural data. To overcome the limitations of the PDB format, a new textual format mmCIF was released in June 1997 in its version 1.0. mmCIF provides extra information which has the advantage of being in a computer readable form. However, this advantage becomes a disadvantage if a human must read and understand the stored data. While software tools exist to help to prepare mmCIF files, the number of available systems simplifying the comprehension and interpretation of the mmCIF files is limited. Findings In this paper we present mmView - a cross-platform web-based application that allows to explore comfortably the structural data of biomacromolecules stored in the mmCIF format. The mmCIF categories can be easily browsed in a tree-like structure, and the corresponding data are presented in a well arranged tabular form. The application also allows to display and investigate biomolecular structures via an integrated Java application Jmol. Conclusions The mmView software system is primarily intended for educational purposes, but it can also serve as a useful research tool. The mmView application is offered in two flavors: as an open-source stand-alone application (available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/mmview) that can be installed on the user's computer, and as a publicly available web server. PMID:21486459

  3. Mm\\/sub-mm bolometer with free carriers heating in bipolar semiconductor waveguide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. F. Sizov; V. N. Dobrovolsky; V. V. Zabudsky; N. I. Momot; Y. Y. Kamenev; Z. F. Tsybrii

    2010-01-01

    In this paper direct detection bolometers on the base of MCT bipolar narrow-gap semiconductor for mm and sub-mm region is considered. Warm electrons bolometer theoretical model is developed. In this model electromagnetic wave propagates in bipolar semiconductor waveguide with the thickness a1, the width a2 and the distance a3 between the metal contacts, heats electrons and holes, and therefore creates

  4. Long term clinical results with 19 mm or 21 mm standard aortic St. Jude Medical prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, J; Nakazawa, S; Okazaki, H; Ohzeki, H; Saito, A; Moro, H; Yamamoto, K; Eguchi, S

    1994-09-01

    Comparison of long term clinical results after aortic valve replacement with 19 mm or 21 mm vs. 23 mm or larger bileaflet prostheses has not yet been reported. Between December 1979 and September 1993, 80 consecutive patients who underwent isolated aortic valve replacement at Niigata University using a standard St. Jude Medical valve were assigned to small size group (19 mm and 21 mm, n = 34) or to large size group (23 mm or larger, n = 46). In the small size group, patient's age was older, body surface area smaller, female patients and calcified aortic stenosis were dominant (all p < 0.01). The left ventricular systolic dimension was shorter (p < 0.001), while the cardiothoracic ratio was similar to that of the large size group. All patients received warfarin treatment, and target thrombotest level was 15 to 25% (equivalent to INR 1.6 to 2.1). Actuarial survival rates including hospital death in the small size group (94% at fifth postoperative year) were comparable to those in the large size group. Cerebrovascular event occurred in two patients with the small size prosthesis (1.3%/pty) and three with larger prosthesis (0.9%/pty). Major hemorrhagic complication was not observed in either group. No significant difference was noticed in the proportion free from valve-related morbidity. In the patients with aortic stenosis (n = 41), the left ventricular posterior wall thickness decreased from 15 mm preoperatively to 11 mm late post surgery in both groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8000589

  5. Phase Correction for mm-arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staguhn, J.; Harris, A. I.; Mundy, L. G.; Woody, D. P.; Plambeck, R. L.

    1999-10-01

    Monitoring the line emission from tropospheric water vapor can be used for phase correction of mm and sub-mm signals, since phase fluctuations at these wavelengths are predominantly caused by fluctuations in the distribution of water vapor. We have built a prototype cooled broad band 16-channel radiometer which allows us to measure the shape of the optically thin 22 GHz water vapor line. In the optically thin limit, line intensity and shape information allows the measurement of the total water vapor column and a coarse separation of the altitude distribution of the fluctuating water vapor component. This altitude information can be used to reduce the uncertainties in the conversion between the measured sky fluctuations and the actual phase fluctuations of astronomical signals. The use of a multi channel measurement will allow robust phase corrections over a wide range of weather conditions, including the presence of liquid water clouds. The system that we are building is targeted for implementation on the BIMA array with a goal of path length correction to 35 mu m rms. The system is the low frequency analogy to the 183 GHz system planned for the ALMA array. It will provide valuable experience in high accuracy phase correction.

  6. SSC 50 mm dipole cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Morgan, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present the magnetic design of the two dimensional coil and iron cross section, referred to as DSX201/W6733, for the 50 mm aperture main ring dipole magnet for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The computed values of the allowed field harmonics as a function of current, the quench performance predictions, the stored energy calculations, the effect of random errors on the coil placement and the Lorentz forces on the coil will be presented. The yoke has been optimized to reduce iron saturation effects on the field harmonics. We shall present the summary of this design which will include the expected overall performance of this cross section. Prototypes of these dipoles are being built at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). There are slight differences between the cross sections at the two laboratories. 7 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. The Haystack observatory lambda 3-mm upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvainis, Richard; Ball, John A.; Ingalls, Richard P.; Salah, Joseph E.

    1993-11-01

    In this paper we describe a program to upgrade the Haystack 37-m radio telescope for operations at lambda 3 mm. Attainment of useable antenna efficiency at these relatively short wavelengths (Haystack was originally designed for use at lambda 3 cm) required, in addition to extensive and careful resetting of the surface panels, two critical developments for control or correction of surface distortions. One is a system for active thermal control of a crucial element of the antenna structure--the splice plate, a heavy aluminum ring that serves to join the inner and outer antenna panels. Thermal lags in this ring relative to the panels previously caused high amplitude, ring-like deformations on the surface. The other development was necessitated by the early, nonhomologous, antenna design, which led to astigmatic and ring-like deformations with elevation angle. Part of the ring distortions can be corrected by the active thermal-control system, but one full ring and part of another do not respond to thermal control. A novel deformable subreflector was developed to correct phase errors arising on the antenna as a result of astigmatism and ring distortions. Haystack is now fully operational across the 86-115 GHz frequency range, with a nearly diffraction-limited primary beam (20 arcsecs at 115 GHz), and moderate efficiency--13% aperture and 18% beam efficiency at 15 GHz. The current 115 GHz sensitivity of 50 mK/Jy is the highest of any lambda 3-mm antenna in the U.S. The highest sidelobes are below - 15 dB. A sensitive, two-channel SIS mixer radiometer has been developed, with system temperatures of 200-400 K (depending on frequency) under dry conditions, followed by a flexible new autocorrelation spectrometer with 4096 lags and 160 MHz bandwidth.

  8. Radio-mm-FIR Photometric Redshifts for (sub-)mm Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Aretxaga, I; Dunlop, J S; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David H.; Dunlop, James S.

    2007-01-01

    We present a comparison between the published optical, IR and CO spectroscopic redshifts of 86 (sub-)mm galaxies and their photometric redshifts as derived from long-wavelength radio-mm-FIR photometric data. The redshift accuracy measured for 13 sub-mm galaxies with at least one robustly determined colour in the radio-mm-FIR regime and additional constraining upper limits is z \\~0.3. This accuracy degrades to z~0.65 when only the 1.4GHz/850um spectral index is used, as derived from the analysis of a subsample of 58 galaxies with robustly determined redshifts. Despite the wide range of spectral energy distributions in the local galaxies that are used in an un-biased manner as templates, this analysis demonstrates that photometric redshifts can be effciently derived for sub-mm galaxies with a precision of Delta z < 0.5 using only the rest-frame FIR to radio wavelength data, suficient to guide the tuning of broad-band heterodyne observations (e.g. 100m GBT, 50m LMT, ALMA) or aid their determination in the cas...

  9. Understanding pH

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    The first site related to pH is from the Horiba corporate Web site entitled the Story of pH (1). Visitors can learn what pH is and how it's measured, explore various facts about pH, and read several anecdotes such as "Is the Rain in Our Cities Acidic." The site contains simple text, attractive graphics, and a well-designed layout making it fun and easy for anyone to explore. The second site from the Miami Museum of Science is called the pH Factor (2) kids activity page. This interactive and extensive site contains lessons on testing items for pH, tasting acids and bases, an interactive meter to find the pH of common household items, and much more. Next, is the pH and Water Quality (3) page, which is part of the State of Kentucky Division of Water Web site. The site provides a table of the effects of pH on fish and aquatic life and gives a short description of the most significant environmental impacts of pH. Trout for example, can tolerate a pH range between 4.1 and 9.5 while Mosquito larvae can survive within the 3.3 and 4.7 range. The fourth site from Gardengate Magazine.com is entitled More Soil Stuff: Soil pH (4). Described is the pH range of most soil types, requirements of certain plants, how to test soil for pH, and how to adjust it using sulfur and limestone. Seaworld.org maintains the Understanding the pH Cycle within the Aquarium (5) lesson plan site. The stated objective of the activity is to have students define pH, explain how it affects a tank's water quality, and test the pH level in a classroom aquarium. Although an aquarium is obviously needed, the activity offers a unique and fun way for kids to learn about this basic chemistry concept. About.com offers the next site, which is an interactive pH calculator called pH (6). Users simply enter a pH to get the concentration of Hydrogen ions or, conversely, the Hydrogen ion concentration to get the pH. Another tool to learn about pH and Hydrogen ions is called Acids and Alkalis--the pH Scale (7). Provided by Purchon.com, the interactive pH scale illustrates how the ion concentration changes with pH, common acids associated with each, and whether it is a weak or strong acid or alkali. The last site maintained by the National Park Service is called Acid Rain Lesson Plan: Activity 1 The pH Scale (8). Kids will be able to describe the pH scale and its components, explain why a pH measurement must be accurate, and explain why small changes in pH are important. Everything needed to complete the activity is provided, including a materials list, complete instructions, thinking questions, as well as links for further information.

  10. Cold-electron bolometers for future mm and sub-mm sky surveys

    E-print Network

    Salatino, Maria; Mahashabde, Sumedh; Kuzmin, Leonid S; Masi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Future sky surveys in the mm/sub-mm range, like the forthcoming balloon-borne missions LSPE, OLIMPO, SPIDER etc., will need detectors insensitive to cosmic rays (CRs) and with a NEP of the order of $10^{-17} \\div 10^{-18}\\,$W/sqrt(Hz). The Cold-Electron Bolometers (CEBs) technology is promising, having the required properties, since the absorber volume is extremely small and the electron system of the absorber is thermally insulated from the phonon system. We have developed an experimental setup to test the optical performance and the CRs insensitivity of CEBs, with the target of integrating them in the OLIMPO and LSPE focal planes.

  11. Cold-electron bolometers for future mm and sub-mm sky surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salatino, Maria; de Bernardis, Paolo; Mahashabde, Sumedh; Kuzmin, Leonid S.; Masi, Silvia

    2014-07-01

    Future sky surveys in the mm/sub-mm range, like the forthcoming balloon-borne missions LSPE, OLIMPO, SPIDER etc., will need detectors insensitive to cosmic rays (CRs) and with a NEP of the order of 10-17 ¥ 10-18 W/sqrt(Hz). The Cold-Electron Bolometers (CEBs) technology is promising, having the required proper- ties, since the absorber volume is extremely small and the electron system of the absorber is thermally insulated from the phonon system. We have developed an experimental setup to test the optical performance and the CRs insensitivity of CEBs, with the target of integrating them in the OLIMPO and LSPE focal planes.

  12. Single-pulse driven plasma Pockels cell with 350mm×350mm aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiongjun; Wu, Dengsheng; Zhang, Jun; Lin, Donghui; Zheng, Kuixing; Jing, Feng

    2010-08-01

    Large-aperture plasma Pockels cell is one of important components for inertial confinement fusion laser facility. We demonstrate a single-pulse driven PPC with 350mm×350mm aperture. It is different to the PPC of NIF and LMJ for its simple operation to perform Pockels effect. With optimized operation parameters, the PPC meets the optical switching requirement of SGII update laser facility. Only driven by one high voltage pulser, the simplified PPC system would be provided with less associated diagnostics, less the maintenance, and higher reliability.

  13. From the nm to the Mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, I. M.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic models for the evolution of an orogen start at the Mm scale, and use field work on smaller subunits at the km scale and rocks collected at the m scale. At the mm scale, minerals are identified, analyzed by mass spectrometry, their "cooling ages" assigned to a specific closure temperature, a cooling rate attributed to a particular tectonic regime, and a large body of self-referential literature is the product of an oiled machinery. Problems become apparent if one attempts to harmonize mm-scale science with the nasty little details at even smaller scales. Atoms are invisible to the naked eye (unlike the minerals mentioned above) and their actual behavior is, or was, only accessible to indirect argumentations and simplified calculations. Increased computing power now allows calculating the transport of atoms in a crystal from the Schr”dinger equation: results do not fit 19th century continuum physics for infinitely dilute solutions (Fick's and Arrhenius' "laws"). Moreover, improved nanochemical analyses allow characterizing the supposedly homogeneous mineral matrix. TEM images show how layers or chains in pristine minerals are substituted in a non-periodic way by alteration products. EMP analyses show the almost ubiquitous presence of razor-sharp boundaries rather than Erf profiles. Disequilibrium recrystallization textures thus prevail over diffusive reequilibration; diffusion sensu stricto is shown to be a much slower process than heterochemical replacement. Alterability sequences are well known to surface scientists: e.g. halite, olivine, biotite, muscovite, zircon. Such sequences are reflected in the isotopic retentivity. The link only becomes clear at the nm scale: isotopic exchange occurs during the replacement reactions that affect all rocks on their retrograde P-T evolution. This is sufficient to explain why zircons record higher isotopic ages than muscovites, which in turn undergo less isotope exchange than biotites etc. While there is a vague dependence on temperature (hydrothermal waters affect biotite more thoroughly than meteoric ones) this dependence does not allow to quantify a purely thermal evolution in neglect of more efficient isotope exchange promoters such as the availability of fluids. What consequence should tectonic modellers draw? In their past, tectonicists have abandoned well-charted waters (e.g. an exceedingly vast body of literature on geosynclinals) just because it wasn't true. As mineralogy and nanoscience make constant progress, their insights should not be fought against in the name of old paradigms, but should instead be the starting-point for new paradigms blending petrology, fluid inclusion studies, and molecular dynamics to understand the coupling of major and trace element mobility in minerals. As a consequence of this change in paradigms, what is the meta-information that needs to be reported so as to interpret a mass spectrometer output? Certainly not just the parent/daughter ratio, as this would tacitly imply that only Fickian diffusion controls isotope mobility. This is clearly not the case: REE patterns in CL-zoned zircons and monazites, BSE maps of patchy micas and feldspars, and oxygen isotopes of Sr-bearing carbonate crusts all demonstrate the importance of heterochemical disequilibrium as the most important atomic-scale process. Disequilibrium textures also mean that a rock does not "have an age", it rather records a history. Trivializing the microchemical-microtextural information by reducing it to one number does not do justice to the knowledge accumulated by petrologists on the nano-scale processes on which the whole of geochronology rests.

  14. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday PH 1110 PH 1110

    E-print Network

    Weekes, Suzanne L.

    Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday PH 1110 PH 1110 Muhammad Muhammad CS 1101 CS 1101 CS 1101 Mairaj Mairaj Mairaj Ph 1111 Ph 1111 PH 1111 Zhen Zhen Zhen CH 1010 CH 1010 Elisabeth Elisabeth MA 1023 MA 1021 MA 1023 MA 1021 Kushi Han Li Murtaza Jeffrey MA 1021 MA 1023 PH 1110 Han Li Murtaza Muhammad

  15. Immunofluorescence labeling 50 mM PIPES 15,1 g (PIPES free acid, mw=302,4)

    E-print Network

    Bonn, Universität

    M MgSO4.7H2O 1,23 g 5 mM EGTA 10 ml of 0,5 M stock solution add solid KOH to dissolve PIPES first final volume 1000 ml pH=6,9 (use KOH to set) EGTA (0,5 M stock solution) 3,8 g EGTA in 10 ml H2O, add solid KOH until clear make to 20 ml, pH=8 PBS 0,14 M NaCl 8,0 g 2,7 mM KCl 0,2 g 6,5 mM Na2HPO4.2H2O 1,15 g 1,5 m

  16. System performance advances of 18-mm and 16-mm subminiature image intensifier sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nils I.

    2000-11-01

    Night vision system design has been centered aroudn the An/AVS-6 and AN/PVS-7 night vision goggle systems for the past 20 years. Goggle performance has improved during this time through increased performance of the image intensifier sensor, primarily the Omni IV sensor from ITT Industries Night Vision. Most of this improvement has been at the optimal light level (1E-3 fc scene illumination). Recent advances in image sensor performance from the filmless Generation (Gen) IV sensors has increased the low light level performance of night vision devices from 0.3 cy/mr to 0.7 cy/mr. In addition, sensor packaging design requirements have forced night vision sensor manufactures to design light weight, small volume sensors. ITT recently has designed such a sensor in a 16-mm format. This sensor if 50% lighter, up to 50% shorter, and has design features that simplify the objective lens design. New night vision goggles have been, and are being, designed which reduce the perceived head-supported weight. This paper presents signal-to-noise ratio, halo, and other film-less sensor data and similar 16-mm subminiature sensor data. The resulting system performance data will be described. Finally, the system design improvements and relationships with the subminiature 16-mm subminiature sensor will be given.

  17. Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Genetic Drift and M&M's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Nancy L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity that teaches the mechanism of genetic drift to undergraduates. Illustrates a number of concepts that are critical in developing evolution literacy by sampling M&M milk chocolate candies. (MM)

  18. pH Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this resource is to teach students about the acidity levels of liquids and other substances around their school so they understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students will create mixtures of water samples, soil samples, plants and other natural materials to better understand the importance of pH levels.

  19. Peacemaker: Fracture assessment of a 155mm cannon barrel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zywicz

    1993-01-01

    A single crack 30 mm or deeper which is 75 mm long is sufficient to fracture a typical 155 mm cannon barrel with a pressure at or above two-thirds (206 MPa -- 30 ksi) of the maximum operating pressure (310 MPa -- 45 ksi). Longer and deeper flaws reduce the critical pressure required to initiate fracture. For the monolithic barrel

  20. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column... Other Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline...

  1. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column... Other Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline...

  2. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column... Other Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline...

  3. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column... Other Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline...

  4. Ambient temperature or moderately cooled semiconductor hot electron bolometer for mm and sub-mm regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolsky, V. N.; Sizov, F. F.; Kamenev, Y. E.; Smirnov, A. B.

    2008-06-01

    A model of semiconductor hot electron bolometer (SHEB), in which electromagnetic radiation heats only electrons in narrow-gap semiconductor without its lattice slow-response heating, is considered. Free carrier heating changes the generation-recombination processes that are the reason of semiconductor resistance rise. It is estimated, that Hg0.8Cd0.2Te detector noise equivalent power (NEP) for mm and sub-mm radiation wavelength range can reach NEP ˜10-11 W at ?f = 1 Hz signal gain frequency bandwidth. Measurements performed at electromagnetic wave frequencies v = 36, 39, 55, 75 GHz, and at 0.89 and 1.58 THz too, with non-optimized Hg0.8Cd0.2Te antenna-coupled bolometer prototype confirmed the basic concept of SHEB. The experimental sensitivity Sv ˜2 V/W at T = 300 K and the calculated both Johnson-Nyquist and generation-recombination noise values gave estimation of SHEB NEP ˜3.5 × 10-10 W at the band-width ?f = 1 Hz and v = 36 GHz.

  5. PH urine test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine is tested for acidity or alkalinity (pH) because certain medications are more effective in acidic or alkaline environments. Medications for urinary tract infections are more effective when the urine ...

  6. Ph.D. Manual PH.D. PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Ph.D. Manual 1 PH.D. PROGRAM IN SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY Manual of Policies and Procedures College://www.lehigh.edu/education/sp/phd_sp.html Approved: May 1985 Last Revision: July 2010 #12;Ph.D. Manual 2 Table of Contents Program Philosophy..................................................................................... 3 Differentiation of Ph.D. & Ed.S. Programs................................................... 8

  7. Index to 8mm Motion Cartridges. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    Research at the National Information Center for Educational Media has shown that the 8mm motion cartridge with optical and magnetic sound seems to meet the basic tenets of a prime educational criterion for an educational medium--that it be available to the learner at his convenience. This is a bibliographical source for 8mm motion cartridges, and…

  8. Index to 8mm Motion Cartridges. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    Research at the National Information Center for Educational Media (NICEM) has shown that the 8mm motion cartridge with optical and magnetic sound seems to meet the basic tenets of a prime educational criterion for an educational medium--that it be available to the learner at his convenience. This is a bibliographical source for 8mm motion…

  9. Stress relaxation in SSC 50mm dipole coils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rogers; F. Markley

    1992-01-01

    We are measuring the stress relaxation of SSC 50mm outer coils with the goal of predicting how much of the coil prestress will be lost while the coils are warehoused between manufacture and cooldown. We manufacture 3 inch (76.2mm) long segments of coil with the same materials and techniques that have been used for prototype coils. We are running four

  10. Thales Angenieux: 42 years of cine 35 mm zoom leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debize, Jacques

    2004-02-01

    Since the early years of zoom optics, Angenieux has been involved in cine 8 mm, 16 mm and 35 mm. Among more than twenty different zoom lenses, four of them have been milestones in this field, technical progresses being sanctified by two Oscars in 1964 and 1990. From 1960 to 2002 Angenieux has created first the 4 x 35 LA2, the first four times mechanically compensated zoom lens for cine 35 mm in the world, secondary the 10 x 25 T2, the first ten times mechanically compensated zoom lens for cine 35 mm in the world, then the 10 x 25 HR, the top level of quality for its category and finally the 12 x 24 Optimo with all characteristics and performances greatly increased. This leadership has been reached thanks to computers and in-house softwares but also thanks to new manufacturing processes.

  11. Japanese Science Films; a Descriptive and Evaluative Catalog of: 16mm Motion Pictures, 8mm Cartridges, and Video Tapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newren, Edward F., Ed.

    One hundred and eighty Japanese 16mm motion pictures, 8mm cartridges, and video tapes produced and judged appropriate for a variety of audience levels are listed in alphabetical order by title with descriptive and evaluative information. A subject heading list and a subject index to the film titles are included, as well as a sample of the…

  12. 17-4 PH and 15-5 PH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Howard T.

    1995-01-01

    17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

  13. pH optrode

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Langry, Kevin C. (Tracy, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for forming a long-lasting, stable, pH-sensitive dye-acrylamide copolymer useful as a pH-sensitive material for use in an optrode or other device sensitive to pH. An optrode may be made by mechanically attaching the copolymer to a sensing device such as an optical fiber.

  14. Influence of pH on Ammonia Accumulation and Toxicity in Halophilic, Methylotrophic Methanogens

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, P. C.; Boone, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the effects of pH and ammonia concentration on the growth of three methanogens. These three halophilic, methylotrophic methanogens, Methanolobus bombayensis, Methanolobus taylorii, and Methanohalophilus zhilinaeae, grew at environmental pH ranges that overlapped with each other and spanned the pH range from 7.0 to 9.5. During growth they had reversed membrane pH gradients ((Delta)pH) at all pH values tested. The (Delta)pH was in the range of -0.4 to -0.9 pH units, with the cytosol being more acidic than the environmental pH. Methanohalophilus zhilinaeae had the most negative (Delta)pH (-0.9 pH units). These negative pH gradients resulted in the accumulation of ammonium (NH(inf4)(sup+)), and when grown at the highest external ammonia concentrations that allowed good growth, cells had cytosolic NH(inf4)(sup+) concentrations as high as 180 mM. The high concentrations of cytosolic NH(inf4)(sup+) were accompanied by greater (Delta)pH and lower concentrations of the major cytosolic cation K(sup+) (compared with cells grown in medium with only 5 mM ammonia). Methanolobus bombayensis and Methanolobus taylorii were more sensitive to total external ammonia at higher external pH values, but the inhibitory concentration of un-ionized ammonia that resulted in a 50% reduction of the growth rate was about 2 to 5 mM, regardless of the pH. This is consistent with growth inhibition by ammonia in other bacteria. However, Methanohalophilus zhilinaeae was more resistant to un-ionized ammonia than any other known organism. It had a 50% inhibitory concentration for un-ionized ammonia of 13 mM at pH 8.5 and 45 mM at pH 9.5. We examined the effects of pH on three ammonia-assimilating activities (glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and alanine dehydrogenase) in cell lysates and found that the pH ranges were consistent with the observed ranges of intracellular pH. PMID:16535465

  15. The 19 mm data recorders similarities and differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Confusion over the use of non-video 19 mm data recorders is becoming more pronounced as we enter the world of high performance computing. This paper addresses the following: the differences between ID-1, ID-2, MIL-STD-2179 and DD-2; what the proper machine is for various applications; how the machine can be integrated into an environment; and any misconceptions there might be about 19 mm tape recorders. DD-2 and 19 mm instrumentation recorders have missions for which each is well designed. While the differences may appear subtle, understanding the difference between the two is the key to picking the right recorder for a particular application.

  16. Replacing 16 mm film cameras with high definition digital cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, K.S. [Eastman Kodak Co., San Diego, CA (United States). Motion Analysis Systems Div.

    1995-12-31

    For many years 16 mm film cameras have been used in severe environments. These film cameras are used on Hy-G automotive sleds, airborne gun cameras, range tracking and other hazardous environments. The companies and government agencies using these cameras are in need of replacing them with a more cost effective solution. Film-based cameras still produce the best resolving capability, however, film development time, chemical disposal, recurring media cost, and faster digital analysis are factors influencing the desire for a 16 mm film camera replacement. This paper will describe a new camera from Kodak that has been designed to replace 16 mm high speed film cameras.

  17. MATERIALS MANAGEMENT OFFICE SUPPLY REQUEST FORM -MM-4

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    MATERIALS MANAGEMENT OFFICE SUPPLY REQUEST FORM - MM-4 REQUESTER'S NAME: DEPARTMENT: TTILE: MAIL: Warehouse #: _____________________ Vendor #: ___________________________________________________ PRODUCT. Include the justification with this form when faxing or mailing to Materials Management. Fax 679

  18. INTRODUCTION Pipunculidae are small (2-12 mm), inconspicuous

    E-print Network

    Cotton, Sam

    INTRODUCTION Pipunculidae are small (2-12 mm), inconspicuous dark flies belonging. Humeri yellowish brown, mesonotum black with predominantly brown pollinosity. Femora yellow with dark, Hungary (foldvari@gmx.net) Keywords: faunistics, Tomosvaryella, Eudorylas #12;Eudorylas sp. Material

  19. Advanced Applications Flight Equipment (AAFE) 125mm ultraviolet spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The conceptual work is reported for the 125 mm ultraviolet spectrometer to measure atmospheric ozone as a function of height, latitude, and time. The instrument is described along with the assembly, test, and calibration.

  20. Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building 908 at extreme right for context. - Travis Air Force Base, Handling Crew Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  1. Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  2. Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  3. Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  4. Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens Travis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  5. Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  6. MESFET VCO for use in mm-wave communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Slesarenko

    1998-01-01

    Many applications in the millimeter-wave frequency range (above 50 GHz) require highly stable mm-wave sources with reasonable output power. Although the Gunn and IMPATT diodes are the conventional power sources for mm-wave radio systems, their DC to RF conversion efficiencies, cost and power supply is not optimal. This justifies using a low cost MESFET for the active device in a

  7. Transistor & IC design for Sub-mm-Wave & THz ICs

    E-print Network

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    Transistor & IC design for Sub-mm-Wave & THz ICs rodwell@ece.ucsb.edu 805-893-3244 Plenary, 2012-300 GHz far-IR (sub-mm) 0.3-3THz mid-IR 3-30 THz near-IR 30-450 THz optical 450-900THz How high-Terabit optical fiber links 1982: ~13 GHz 2012: 820 GHz ~2030: 3THz #12;100-1000 GHz Systems #12;100-1000 GHz

  8. The 19 mm date recorders: Similarities and differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Steve

    1991-01-01

    Confusion over the use of non-video 19 mm data recorders is becoming more pronounced in the world of high performance computing. The following issues are addressed: (1) the difference between ID-1, ID-2, MIL-STD-2179, and DD-2; (2) the proper machine for the necessary application; and (3) integrating the machine into an existing environment. Also, an attempt is made to clear up any misconceptions there might be about 19 mm tape recorders.

  9. QM/MM investigations of organic chemistry oriented questions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas C; Paasche, Alexander; Grebner, Christoph; Ansorg, Kay; Becker, Johannes; Lee, Wook; Engels, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    About 35 years after its first suggestion, QM/MM became the standard theoretical approach to investigate enzymatic structures and processes. The success is due to the ability of QM/MM to provide an accurate atomistic picture of enzymes and related processes. This picture can even be turned into a movie if nuclei-dynamics is taken into account to describe enzymatic processes. In the field of organic chemistry, QM/MM methods are used to a much lesser extent although almost all relevant processes happen in condensed matter or are influenced by complicated interactions between substrate and catalyst. There is less importance for theoretical organic chemistry since the influence of nonpolar solvents is rather weak and the effect of polar solvents can often be accurately described by continuum approaches. Catalytic processes (homogeneous and heterogeneous) can often be reduced to truncated model systems, which are so small that pure quantum-mechanical approaches can be employed. However, since QM/MM becomes more and more efficient due to the success in software and hardware developments, it is more and more used in theoretical organic chemistry to study effects which result from the molecular nature of the environment. It is shown by many examples discussed in this review that the influence can be tremendous, even for nonpolar reactions. The importance of environmental effects in theoretical spectroscopy was already known. Due to its benefits, QM/MM can be expected to experience ongoing growth for the next decade.In the present chapter we give an overview of QM/MM developments and their importance in theoretical organic chemistry, and review applications which give impressions of the possibilities and the importance of the relevant effects. Since there is already a bunch of excellent reviews dealing with QM/MM, we will discuss fundamental ingredients and developments of QM/MM very briefly with a focus on very recent progress. For the applications we follow a similar strategy. PMID:22392477

  10. Approach to green chemistry of DMT-MM: recovery and recycle of coproduct to chloromethane-free DMT-MM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munetaka Kunishima; Kazuhito Hioki; Ayako Wada; Hiroko Kobayashi; Shohei Tani

    2002-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine (HO-DMT), a coproduct arising from dehydrating condensation using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM) has been established. HO-DMT can be recycled by treatment with POCl3 to give 2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine (CDMT), which is further converted to DMT-MM. Alternatively, reaction with triflic anhydride followed by addition of N-methylmorpholine gives DMT-MM triflate.

  11. Optimization of pH values to formulate the bireagent kit for serum uric acid assay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya; Chen, Yuanxiang; Yang, Xiaolan; Zhao, Hua; Hu, Xiaolei; Pu, Jun; Liao, Juan; Long, Gaobo; Liao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation of the bireagent kit for serum uric acid assay was developed based on the effects of pH on enzyme stability. At 4 °C, half-lives of uricases from Bacillus fastidious and Arthrobacter globiforms were longer than 15 months at pH 9.2, but became shorter at pH below 8.0; half-lives of ascorbate oxidase and peroxidase were comparable at pH 6.5 and 7.0, but became much shorter at pH higher than 7.4. In the new formulation of the bireagent kit, Reagent A contained peroxidase, 4-aminoantipyrine, and ascorbate oxidase in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.5; Reagent B contained B. fastidious or A. globiforms uricase in 50 mM sodium borate buffer at pH 9.2; Reagents A and B were mixed at 4:1 to produce a final pH from 7.2 to 7.6 for developing a stable color. The new bireagent kit consumed smaller quantities of three enzymes for the same shelf life. With the new bireagent kit, there were linear responses of absorbance at 546 nm to uric acid up to 34 mM in reaction mixtures and a good correlation of uric acid levels in clinical sera with those by a commercial kit, but stronger resistance to ascorbate. Therefore, the new formulation was advantageous. PMID:24673428

  12. Cervical length versus vaginal PH in the second trimester as preterm birth predictor

    PubMed Central

    Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Tabasi, Zohreh; Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Sehat, Mojtaba; Mehrdad, Mahdian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate diagnostic value of vaginal pH and cervical length measurement in the second trimester of pregnancy as a preterm labor (PTL) predictor. Methods: During a prospective cohort study 438 uncomplicated singleton pregnant women between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation were assessed regarding vaginal PH and cervical length. Vaginal pH was measured using Ph-indicator strips and cervical length was determined using transvaginal ultrasound. The cut-off values for vaginal PH and cervical length were defined as 5 and <30 mm respectively. Results: Vaginal pH of 5 and above was found in 162/438 women (37%) while cervical length <30mm was found in 38/438 (8.7%). The incidence of PTL < 37 weeks was 87/438 (19.9%) while the incidence of early (PTL <34 weeks) was 51/438 (11.6%). Predictive value of higher vaginal PH was significantly more (31%) than vaginal PH<5 (13%) in predicting PTL. As a result, alkaline vaginal PH significantly increases the odds of preterm labor (OR=3.06). Shortened cervical length is better predictor of PTL than higher vaginal PH with positive predictive value of 71% and negative predictive value of 85%. Cervical length less than 30 mm nearly 14-fold increases odds of preterm birth (OR=13.9). Conclusion: Compared to alkaline vaginal PH, shortened cervical length has better value to predict PTL overall. However, regarding early or late PTL, vaginal PH is more accurate to predict late PTL, while cervical length measurement is more appropriate to predict early PTL (<34 weeks).

  13. PH—Postharvest Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Özarslan

    2002-01-01

    Some physical properties of delinted and bare cotton seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content. The average length, width and thickness of seeds ranged from 9·02 to 9·19, 4·70 to 4·86 and 4·25 to 4·45 mm as the moisture content increased from 8·33 to 13·78% dry basis (d.b.), respectively. In the same moisture range, studies on rewetted cotton

  14. Esophageal pH monitoring

    MedlinePLUS

    pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... to stay in the hospital for the esophageal pH monitoring. ... Esophageal pH monitoring is used to check how much stomach acid is entering the esophagus. It also checks how ...

  15. The pH scale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-05-26

    Some animals tolerate broad changes in pH well while others do not. Human activities can create acid rain. Acid rain can change the pH of the environment and destroy entire ecosystems and habitats. For an ecosystem to function properly, its pH must be able to accommodate all of the organisms living in it.

  16. QM/MM X-ray Refinement of Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Hayik, Seth A.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc metalloenzymes play an important role in biology. However, due to the limitation of molecular force field energy restraints used in X-ray refinement at medium or low resolutions, the precise geometry of the zinc coordination environment can be difficult to distinguish from ambiguous electron density maps. Due to the difficulties involved in defining accurate force fields for metal ions, the QM/MM (Quantum-Mechanical /Molecular-Mechanical) method provides an attractive and more general alternative for the study and refinement of metalloprotein active sites. Herein we present three examples that indicate that QM/MM based refinement yields a superior description of the crystal structure based on R and Rfree values and on the inspection of the zinc coordination environment. It is concluded that QM/MM refinement is a useful general tool for the improvement of the metal coordination sphere in metalloenzyme active sites. PMID:20116858

  17. Peacemaker: Fracture assessment of a 155mm cannon barrel

    SciTech Connect

    Zywicz, E.

    1993-10-07

    A single crack 30 mm or deeper which is 75 mm long is sufficient to fracture a typical 155 mm cannon barrel with a pressure at or above two-thirds (206 MPa -- 30 ksi) of the maximum operating pressure (310 MPa -- 45 ksi). Longer and deeper flaws reduce the critical pressure required to initiate fracture. For the monolithic barrel design considered in this work, the postulated 30 mm deep by 75 mm long crack should propagate through the entire wall and, depending upon the new ``fractured`` geometry, may propagate axially down the cannon barrel. Numerical analyses conducted with straight through-thickness crack fronts propagated axially at pressures below the maximum operating pressure while those with curved crack fronts required pressures in excess of the working pressures to extend axially. (Experiments on actual 155 mm barrels with flaws similar to the one generated by the tested shape charge show appreciable axial crack extension at approximately equivalent pressures.) In either case, a through-thickness ``hole`` will be formed in the barrel`s side and a reduction in firing pressure should result. Finally, debris deposited within the barrel can greatly assist the fracture process, especially at lower operating pressures. Overall, a single deep and long interior crack appears the most effective way to fracture a cannon barrel. Unless clustered very closely together, multiple ``shallow`` cracks require higher pressures to fracture than does a single deep crack. Flaws introduced on the barrel`s exterior are less efficient since no crack-face pressures exist and the overall stresses on the barrel`s exterior are much lower than on its interior. Thus, very deep exterior cracks would be required to fail the barrel from internal pressure.

  18. Novel Processing of 81-mm Cu Shaped Charge Liners

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A; Korzekwa, D

    2002-01-16

    A seven-step procedure was developed for producing shaped charge liner blanks by back extrusion at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Starting with a 38.1-mm diameter, 101.6-mm long cylinder at 77K, three forging steps with a flat-top die are required to produce the solid cone while maintaining low temperature. The solid cone is forged in four individual back extrusions at 77K to produce the rough liner blank. This procedure is capable of being run in batch processes to improve the time efficiency.

  19. Computational Modeling in Plasma Processing for 300 mm Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Migration toward 300 mm wafer size has been initiated recently due to process economics and to meet future demands for integrated circuits. A major issue facing the semiconductor community at this juncture is development of suitable processing equipment, for example, plasma processing reactors that can accomodate 300 mm wafers. In this Invited Talk, scaling of reactors will be discussed with the aid of computational fluid dynamics results. We have undertaken reactor simulations using CFD with reactor geometry, pressure, and precursor flow rates as parameters in a systematic investigation. These simulations provide guidelines for scaling up in reactor design.

  20. Performance evaluation of 4.75-mm NMAS superpave mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Farhana

    A Superpave asphalt mixture with 4.75-mm nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) is a promising, low-cost pavement preservation treatment for agencies such as the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT). The objective of this research study is to develop an optimized 4.75-mm NMAS Superpave mixture in Kansas. In addition, the study evaluated the residual tack coat application rate for the 4.75-mm NMAS mix overlay. Two, hot-in-place recycling (HIPR) projects in Kansas, on US-160 and K-25, were overlaid with a 15- to 19-mm thick layer of 4.75-mm NMAS Superpave mixture in 2007. The field tack coat application rate was measured during construction. Cores were collected from each test section for Hamburg wheel tracking device (HWTD) and laboratory bond tests performed after construction and after one year in service. Test results showed no significant effect of the tack coat application rate on the rutting performance of rehabilitated pavements. The number of wheel passes to rutting failure observed during the HWTD test was dependent on the aggregate source as well as on in-place density of the cores. Laboratory pull-off tests showed that most cores were fully bonded at the interface of the 4.75-mm NMAS overlay and the HIPR layer, regardless of the tack application rate. The failure mode during pull-off tests at the HMA interface was highly dependent on the aggregate source and mix design of the existing layer material. This study also confirmed that overlay construction with a high tack coat application rate may result in bond failure at the HMA interface. Twelve different 4.75-mm NMAS mix designs were developed using materials from the aforementioned but two binder grades and three different percentages of natural (river) sand. Laboratory performance tests were conducted to assess mixture performance. Results show that rutting and moisture damage potential in the laboratory depend on aggregate type irrespective of binder grade. Anti-stripping agent affects moisture sensitivity test results. Fatigue performance is significantly influenced by river sand content and binder grade. Finally, an optimized 4.75-mm NMAS mixture design was developed and verified based on statistical analysis of performance data.

  1. Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scan

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM;Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scan

  2. Development and application of specially-focused ultrasonic transducers to location and sizing of defects in 75 mm- to 127 mm-thick austenitic stainless steel weld metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. C. Dalder; S. Benson; B. J. McKinley; T. Carodiskey

    1992-01-01

    Special ultrasonic transducer (UT) parts, capable of focusing incident signals within a 25 mm x 25 mm x 25 mm volume in an austenitic stainless weld metal at depths that varied from 25 mm to 127 mm, were developed and demonstrated to be capable of detecting a defect with cross section equivalent to that of a 4.76 mm-dia flat-bottom hole.

  3. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN URBAN CANOPY PARAMETERIZATION IN MM5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) (Grell et al. 1994) has been modified to include an urban canopy parameterization (UCP) for fine-scale urban simulations (~1-km horizontal grid spacing). The UCP accounts for drag ...

  4. Bell & Howell Introduces an 8mm Cartridge Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educ Screen Audiovisual Guide, 1970

    1970-01-01

    "Bell & Howell has developed a highly versatile cartidge projector system for cine and super 8mm formats. Because Bell & Howell believes that standardization is an important factor in the development of a cartridge system, it has built in a flexibility which will allow this standardization. (Author)

  5. Index to 8mm Motion Cartridges. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    This index to 8mm motion cartridges contains almost 10,000 entries, arranged alphabetically both by individual title and by series title in the main section of the book. Individual title entries include title with subtitle, size and physical description, length of film, stock or color code, description of contents, series title reference when…

  6. Dimensions are shown in inch (mm ) Dimensions subject to change

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    Dimensions are shown in inch (mm ) Dimensions subject to change www.ittcannon.comH-16 DIP H C&K RTE of Positions RTE02 2 position RTE03 3 position RTE04 4 position* RTE10 10 position RTE16 16 position ESD Silver * RTE04 version only available with screw driver slot acuator "0" ** ESD protection only available

  7. First name Last name Birth date (MM/DD/YYYY)

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    substitution of certain brand-name drugs is allowed by law in Texas, Florida, and Ohio, unless you or your generically equivalent drug for a brand name drug unless you or your physician direct otherwise. Check the box1 2 First name Last name Birth date (MM/DD/YYYY) Doctor's last name 1st initial Doctor's phone

  8. Coil and iron design for SSC 50 mm magnet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Gupta; S. A. Kahn; G. H. Morgan

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present the design of the two dimensional coil and iron cross section, referred to as DSX201\\/W6733, for the 50 mm aperture dipole magnet being built at the Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The computed values of the allowed field harmonics as a function of current, the quench performance predictions, the stored energy

  9. RF and mm-Wave Photonics at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, G.A.; Sullivan, C.

    1999-07-08

    RF and mm-wave photonic devices and circuits have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories for applications ranging from RF optical data links to optical generation of mm-wave frequencies. This talk will explore recent high-speed photonics technology developments at Sandia including: (1) A monolithic optical integrated circuit for all-optical generation of mm-waves. Using integrated mode-locked diode lasers, amplifiers, and detectors, frequencies between 30 GHz and 90 GHz are generated by a single monolithic (Al,Ga)As optical circuit less than 2mm in its largest dimension. (2) Development of polarization-maintaining, low-insertion-loss, low v-pi, Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulators with DC-to-potentially-K-band modulation bandwidth. New low-loss polarization-maintaining waveguide designs using binary alloys have been shown to reduce polarization crosstalk in undoped (Al,Ga)As waveguides, yielding high extinction ratio (>40dB) and low on-chip loss (<6dB) in Mach-Zehnder interferometers. RF drive voltage is reduced through use of 45rnrn-active length devices with modulator sensitivity, v-pi, less than 3V.

  10. Needlescopic urology: incorporating 2-mm instruments in laparoscopic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon J Soble; Inderbir S Gill

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. To report the initial experience with incorporation of needlescopic (2 mm) instruments and optics in various therapeutic minimally invasive urologic procedures.Methods. Needlescopic techniques were used to successfully perform a variety of urologic surgeries including adrenalectomy, nephrectomy, renal cyst marsupialization, orchiopexy, lymphocele marsupialization, and pelvic lymph node dissection.Results. To date we have performed 42 needlescopic procedures in 39 patients (14

  11. A 40 mm Bore Quadrupole Magnet for the SSC

    E-print Network

    Taylor, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    mm 1.2 deg. Coil bore diameter Gradient Length Number ofof the gradient This type of self-supported coil structuregradient at 6500A, 2-laycr "cos 2 9" winding arrangement with 30 strand cable and one spacer wedge per coil.

  12. Course Outline: ENGINEER 2MM3 Electrical Circuits & Power

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    systems, transformers, and ac generators and motors. They will also be able to measure the parameters Page: www.ece.mcmaster.ca/~kumars/eng_2mm3 Text Book: S.J. Chapman, Electric Machinery Fundamentals, Mc Description: Fundamentals of electromechanical energy conversion. Motors and generators, transformers, single

  13. Advisory List of Instructional Media--16MM Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Educational Media.

    These two advisory lists include information on 16mm films appropriate for the K-12 instructional program. In both bibliographies films are listed in the following categories: communication skills; guidance; health, physical education, safety, and sports; science; and social studies. The list for the 1982-1983 school year also includes categories…

  14. FISHERY STATISTICS I OF THE UNITED STATESmmmMM

    E-print Network

    ^^ FISHERY STATISTICS I OF THE UNITED STATESmmmMM 'f^ gjIP^Ws^WI'l STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 25 Fish Statistical Digest 25 FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1949 BY A. W. ANDERSON and C. E. PETERSON UNITED. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. - - - Price $1.25 (paper) #12;Fishery Statistics

  15. BI-CMOS TRACKING SERVO LSI FOR 8 mm VCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Mizoguchi; Yasuhiro Sugimoto; Minoru Taguchi; Hiroshi Sadamatsu; Tetsuo Hirota; Kiyoshi Nishitani; Yoji Tanii

    2010-01-01

    A tracking servo LSI for 8 mm VCR has been developed by utilizing 3 um high-speed Bipolar CMOS technology. The chip con- tains analog functions such as a low noise amplifier, a gain control amplifier, balanced demodulators, rectifiers, a precision schmit amplifier and a subtrac- ter, mixed analog-digital functions such as switched capacitor filters, sample & hold amplifiers and analog

  16. Hardware and Software Complex for MM-Wave Spectroscopic Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. V. Golovashchenko; O. V. Goroshko; A. V. Varavin; A. S. Plevako; V. N. Derkach

    2006-01-01

    A hardware and software complex intended for investigation of spectral and energy characteristics of resonant systems in the mm range is described. The complex has been integrated into a cryodielectrometer to measure losses of electromagnetic energy in dielectric and semiconductor materials in the 40-80 GHz frequency range at temperatures between 0.85 K and 300 K

  17. 3×3 incoherent MIMO transmission over MM fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Siuzdak; M. Kowalczyk

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents some theoretical background and results obtained for 3×3 incoherent MIMO system operating over 4.4 km of SO Jim core silica GI MM fiber Although 3×3 incoherent MIMO transmission was possible the quality of the received channels varied between channels and in time.

  18. Selected implications of photoresist processing in 300mm manfacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Lederer; Steffen R. Hornig; Ralf Schuster

    2002-01-01

    In our paper, we discuss implications currently relevant to 300mm resist processing in lithography. The large size of the wafers, and therefore the large volume of machine modules and media within these modules, demand tighter specifications and a careful re-consideration of design. Firstly, we investigated a novel resist development process based on a new developer dispense nozzle. The CD uniformity

  19. Etching 200-mm diameter SCALPEL masks with the ASE process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian R. Johnston; Huma Ashraf; Jy K. Bhardwaj; Janet Hopkins; Alan M. Hynes; Glenn Nicholls; Serrita A. McAuley; Stephen Hall; Lilian Atabo; Gregory R. Bogart; Avi Kornblit; Anthony E. Novembre

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Silicon Etch (ASER) process has been used for silicon substrate etching for the manufacture of SCALPELR (SCattering using Angular Limitation Projection E-beam Lithography) masks. The current SCALPELR mask fabrication process uses an aqueous solution of KOH to etch the membrane support struts in 100 mm diameter, crystalline silicon wafers. This technique is undesirable for the manufacture of large

  20. Etching 200 mm diameter SCALPEL® masks with the ASE® process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian R. Johnston; Huma Ashraf; Jy K. Bhardwaj; Alan M. Hynes; Stephen Hall; Gregory R. Bogart; Anthony E. Novembre

    The Advanced Silicon Etch (ASE ® ) process has been used for silicon substrate etching for the manufacture of SCALPEL ® (SCattering using Angular Limitation Projection E-beam Lithography) masks. The current SCALPEL® mask fabrication process uses an aqueous solution of KOH to etch the membrane support struts in 100mm diameter, <100> crystalline silicon wafers. This technique is undesirable for the

  1. Parallel implementation, validation, and performance of MM5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Michalakes; T. Canfield; R. Nanjundiah; S. Hammond; G. Grell

    1994-01-01

    We describe a parallel implementation of the nonhydrostatic version of the Penn State\\/NCAR Mesoscale Model, MM5, that includes nesting capabilities. This version of the model can run on many different massively Parallel computers (including a cluster of workstations). The model has been implemented and run on the IBM SP and Intel multiprocessors using a columnwise decomposition that supports irregularly shaped

  2. Guide to Free-Loan Sports Films (16mm).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    This catalog provides information on free 16 mm films dealing with a wide variety of individual and team sports, such as football, golf, water sports, snow sports, racing, and baseball, as well as on general sports competition and safety. Unless otherwise noted, the films are in color and with sound. Titles are listed alphabetically under their…

  3. Permeant Cations and Blockers Modulate pH Gating of ROMK Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sackin, H.; Vasilyev, A.; Palmer, L. G.; Krambis, M.

    2003-01-01

    External potassium (K) activates the inward rectifier ROMK (Kir1.1) by altering the pH gating of the channel. The present study examines this link between external K and internal pH sensitivity using both the two-electrode voltage clamp and the perfused, cut-open Xenopus oocyte preparation. Elevating extracellular K from 1 mM to 10 mM to 100 mM activated ROMK channels by shifting their apparent pKa from 7.2 ± 0.1 (n = 6) in 1 mM K, to 6.9 ± 0.02 (n = 5) in 10 mM K, and to 6.6 ± 0.03 (n = 5) in 100 mM K. At any given internal pH, the number of active ROMK channels is a saturating function of external [K]. Extracellular Cs (which blocks almost all inward K current) also stimulated outward ROMK conductance (at constant 1 mM external K) by shifting the apparent pKa of ROMK from 7.2 ± 0.1 (n = 6) in 1 mM K to 6.8 ± 0.01 (n = 4) in 1 mM K + 104 mM Cs. Surprisingly, the binding and washout of the specific blocker, Tertiapin-Q, also activated ROMK in 1 mM K and caused a comparable shift in apparent pKa. These results are interpreted in terms of both a three-state kinetic model and a two-gate structural model that is based on results with KcsA in which the selectivity filter can assume either a high or low K conformation. In this context, external K, Cs, and Tertiapin-Q activate ROMK by destabilizing the low-K (collapsed) configuration of the selectivity filter. PMID:12547773

  4. Light-evoked changes in extracellular pH in frog retina.

    PubMed

    Borgula, G A; Karwoski, C J; Steinberg, R H

    1989-01-01

    Light-induced changes in extracellular H+ concentration (delta pH0) were studied with intraretinal H(+)-sensitive double-barreled microelectrodes in frog eyecup and isolated retina preparations. The most prominent delta pH0 were found in the inner plexiform layer, as pH increases (alkalinizations) at light onset and offset. With a small-spot stimulus (0.3 mm dia.), 30 sec in duration, the delta pH0 were relatively small (0.03 pH units), and long lasting (peak at 25-30 sec). They were enhanced by flicker (0.3 Hz). Depth profiles paralleled those of the field potentials (PNR/M-wave), the ON delta pH0 peaking 40 microns more proximal than the OFF response. The delta pH0 exhibited surround antagonism, which was blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX), indicating an independence from action potentials. The mechanism for these pH increases in proximal retina is not yet understood. In the subretinal space diffuse retinal illumination produced a small pH increase, consistent with a presumed decrease in photoreceptor lactate production. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase (CA) with acetazolamide or methazolamide increased both the proximal and distal retinal delta pH0, suggesting that CA is involved in buffering retinal pH. PMID:2617854

  5. Light-dependent pH gradients are generated in liposomes containing ferrocyanide.

    PubMed

    Deamer, D W; Harang, E

    1990-01-01

    Ferrocyanide solutions absorb light energy in a photochemical reaction that causes cyanide radicals to be lost from the iron complex. Because cyanide is a weak acid (pKa = 9.2), at pH ranges between 6 and 9 it associates with protons, thereby causing the pH of its solutions to increase. The pH change is proportional to the photon flux and concentration of ferrocyanide. For instance, the pH of an unbuffered 1.0 mM potassium ferrocyanide solution increases from 6 to 9 within seconds after illumination. We have encapsulated ferrocyanide in liposomes, and demonstrated that light-dependent pH gradients were readily produced, alkaline inside. This preparation offers a convenient system for generating pH gradients across lipid bilayer membranes. It also provides a useful model for simulating primitive bioenergic systems relevant to light energy transduction by early forms of life. PMID:2171694

  6. Acid-induced gelation of whey protein polymers: effects of pH and calcium concentration during polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Britten; Hélène J Giroux

    2001-01-01

    Heating whey protein dispersions (90°C for 15 min) at low ionic strength and pH values far from isoelectric point (pH>6.5) induced the formation of soluble polymers. The effect of mineral environment during heating on the hydrodynamic characteristics and acid-induced gelation properties of polymers was studied. Whey protein dispersions (80g\\/l) were denatured at different pH (6.5–8.5) and calcium concentrations (0–4mm) according

  7. OCTAN-1-OL/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENTS OF P-BENZO- AND P-NAPHTHOQUINONES CORRECTED FOR PH EFFECT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of pH of the aqueous phase on the octan-1-ol / water partition coefficients (kow) of quinones was demontrated. The kow of a series of p-benzo- and p-naphthoquinones were determined using a mildly buffered aqueous phase (1 mM Hepes, pH 7.0) to correct for the pH effects on the lipophilicit...

  8. MmTX1 and MmTX2 from coral snake venom potently modulate GABAA receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Jean-Pierre; Schwarz, Jürgen R; Diaz-Bustamante, Marcelo; Céard, Brigitte; Gutiérrez, José M; Kneussel, Matthias; Pongs, Olaf; Bosmans, Frank; Bougis, Pierre E

    2015-02-24

    GABAA receptors shape synaptic transmission by modulating Cl(-) conductance across the cell membrane. Remarkably, animal toxins that specifically target GABAA receptors have not been identified. Here, we report the discovery of micrurotoxin1 (MmTX1) and MmTX2, two toxins present in Costa Rican coral snake venom that tightly bind to GABAA receptors at subnanomolar concentrations. Studies with recombinant and synthetic toxin variants on hippocampal neurons and cells expressing common receptor compositions suggest that MmTX1 and MmTX2 allosterically increase GABAA receptor susceptibility to agonist, thereby potentiating receptor opening as well as desensitization, possibly by interacting with the ?(+)/?(-) interface. Moreover, hippocampal neuron excitability measurements reveal toxin-induced transitory network inhibition, followed by an increase in spontaneous activity. In concert, toxin injections into mouse brain result in reduced basal activity between intense seizures. Altogether, we characterized two animal toxins that enhance GABAA receptor sensitivity to agonist, thereby establishing a previously unidentified class of tools to study this receptor family. PMID:25675485

  9. Size Structure and Catch Rates of White Crappie, Black Crappie, and Bluegill in Trap Nets with 13-mm and 16-mm Mesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Jackson; Daryl L. Bauer

    2000-01-01

    We compared catch rates and size structure of white crappie Pomoxis annularis, black crappie P. nigromaculatus, and bluegill Lepomis macrochirus captured in trap nets with mesh sizes of 13 and 16 mm. We found that trap nets with 13-mm mesh caught significantly more white crappies less than 130 mm total length (TL) and bluegills less than 80 mm TL than

  10. Influence of calcium, iron and pH on phosphate availability for microbial mineralization of organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, B.K.; Alexander, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine some of the factors affecting the P requirement for the biodegradation of p-nitrophenol, phenol, and glucose by Pseudomonas and Corynebacterium strains. Mineralization of glucose was rapid and the Pseudomonas sp. grew extensively in solutions with 5 and 10 mM phosphate, but the rate and extent of degradation were low and the bacterial population never became abundant in media with 0.2 mM phosphate. Similar results were obtained with the Corynebacterium sp. growing in media containing p-nitrophenol or phenol and in solutions with a purified phosphate salt. The extent of growth of the Corynebacterium sp. was reduced with 2 or 10 mM phosphate in media containing high Fe concentrations. Ca at 5 mM but not 0.5 mM inhibited p-nitrophenol mineralization by the Corynebacterium sp. with phosphate concentrations from 0.2 to 5.0 mM. Phenol mineralization by the Pseudomonas sp. in medium with 0.2 mM phosphate was rapid at pH 5.2, but the bacteria had little or no activity at pH 8.0. In contrast, the activity was greater at pH 8.0 than at pH 5.2 when the culture contained 10 mM phosphate. These effects of pH were similar in media with 5 mM Ca or no added Ca. The authors conclude that the effect of P on bacterial degradation can be influenced by the pH and the concentrations of Fe and Ca.

  11. A 10-mm MR-Conditional Unidirectional Pneumatic Stepper Motor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Mershon, Christopher D; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) conditional robotic devices facilitate accurate interventional procedures under MR imaging (MRI) guidance. For this purpose, a compact (10-mm diameter) MR-conditional stepper motor is presented. The device features seven key components, which contribute to a dense and easy to fabricate design. Alternating bursts of pressurized air and vacuum can drive the motor in 60° per step to achieve a maximum torque of 2.4 mNm. The relationship between torque and angular speed was investigated to demonstrate motor performance under different loading conditions. The stepper motor was tested in a GE 3T MRI scanner to verify its MR-compatibility. A maximum artifact width of 3 mm was measured in MRI images and a maximum signal-to-noise ratio reduction of 2.49% was recorded. PMID:25419104

  12. Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.; Chau, H.H.

    1993-06-14

    A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250ns, with a time-to-burst jitter under 10ns. Both the slapper impact and the detonation breakout of the pellet have been measured to be flat to within 10ns over a 6-mm diameter. Fabry-Perot velocimetry of impacts with LiF crystals were used to characterize shock pressures and durations. Attenuator plates and flyers driven by the HE were also measured, which provided a variety of available pulse shapes and data for modeling efforts.

  13. Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.; Chau, H.H. (Lawrence Livermore, National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States))

    1994-07-10

    A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250 ns, with time-to-burst jitter under 10 ns. Both the slapper impact and the detonation breakout of the pellet have been measured to be flat to within 10 ns over a 6-mm diameter. Fabry-Perot velocimetry of impacts with LiF crystals were used to characterize shock pressures and durations. Attenuator plates and flyers driven by the HE were also measured, which provided a variety of available pulse shapes and data for modeling efforts. [copyright]American Institute of Physics

  14. Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Alan M.; Chau, Henry H.

    1994-07-01

    A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250 ns, with time-to-burst jitter under 10 ns. Both the slapper impact and the detonation breakout of the pellet have been measured to be flat to within 10 ns over a 6-mm diameter. Fabry-Perot velocimetry of impacts with LiF crystals were used to characterize shock pressures and durations. Attenuator plates and flyers driven by the HE were also measured, which provided a variety of available pulse shapes and data for modeling efforts.

  15. A 10-mm MR-Conditional Unidirectional Pneumatic Stepper Motor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Mershon, Christopher D.; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) conditional robotic devices facilitate accurate interventional procedures under MR imaging (MRI) guidance. For this purpose, a compact (10-mm diameter) MR-conditional stepper motor is presented. The device features seven key components, which contribute to a dense and easy to fabricate design. Alternating bursts of pressurized air and vacuum can drive the motor in 60° per step to achieve a maximum torque of 2.4 mNm. The relationship between torque and angular speed was investigated to demonstrate motor performance under different loading conditions. The stepper motor was tested in a GE 3T MRI scanner to verify its MR-compatibility. A maximum artifact width of 3 mm was measured in MRI images and a maximum signal-to-noise ratio reduction of 2.49% was recorded. PMID:25419104

  16. 2000-fps digital imager for replacing 16-mm film cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balch, Kris S.

    1999-06-01

    For many years 16 mm film cameras have been used in severe environments. These film cameras are used on Hy-G automotive sleds, airborne weapon testing, range tracking, and other hazardous environments. The companies and government agencies using these cameras are in need of replacing them with a more cost-effective solution. Film-based cameras still produce the best resolving capability. However, film development time, chemical disposal, non-optimal lighting conditions, recurring media cost, and faster digital analysis are factors influencing the desire for a 16 mm film camera replacement. This paper will describe a new imager from Kodak that has been designed to replace 16 mm high-speed film cameras. Also included is a detailed configuration, operational scenario, and cost analysis of Kodak's imager for airborne applications. The KODAK EKTAPRO HG Imager, Model 2000 is a high-resolution color or monochrome CCD Camera especially designed for replacement of rugged high-speed film cameras. The HG Imager is a self-contained camera. It features a high-resolution [512 X 384], light-sensitive CCD sensor with an electronic shutter. This shutter provides blooming protection that prevents 'smearing' of bright light sources, e.g., camera looking into a bright sun reflection. The HG Imager is a very rugged camera packaged in a highly integrated housing. This imager operates from +22 to 42 VDC. The HG Imager has a similar interface and form factor as that of high-speed film cameras, e.g., Photosonics 1B. However, the HG also has the digital interfaces such as 100-Base-T Ethernet and RS-485 that enable control and image transfer. The HG Imager is designed to replace 16 mm film cameras that support rugged testing applications.

  17. DS De Geometrie LM3 et MM1 ; NOVEMBRE 2004

    E-print Network

    André, Leroy

    DS De G´eom´etrie LM3 et MM1 ; NOVEMBRE 2004 QUESTION DE COURS a) D´efinir l'axe d'une homographie h entre deux droites d, d d'un plan projectif. Pr´eciser la position de cet axe par rapport d d . b. Montrer que h|D : D - D = h(D) est une projection dont l'axe est constitu´e de points fixes. b) Montrer

  18. 120-mm supercondcting quadrupole for interaction regions of hadron colliders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Zlobin; V. V. Kashikhin; N. V. Mokhov; I. Novitski

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic and mechanical designs of a NbSn quadrupole magnet with 120-mm aperture suitable for interaction regions of hadron colliders are presented. The magnet is based on a two-layer shell-type coil and a cold iron yoke. Special spacers made of a low-Z material are implemented in the coil mid-planes to reduce the level of radiation heat deposition and radiation dose in

  19. Simple spectral Representations for the M\\/M\\/1 Queue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Abate; Ward Whitt

    1988-01-01

    This paper shows that certain basic descriptions of the time-dependent behavior of the M\\/M\\/1 queue have very simple representations as mixtures of exponentials. In particular, this is true for the busy-period density, the probability that the server is busy starting at zero, the expected queue length starting at zero and the autocorrelation function of the stationary queue-length process. In each

  20. Absorption of hydrogen by MmNi 5 alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Verbetsky; R. A. Sirotina; E. A. Umerenko

    1996-01-01

    In recent years much attention has been paid to the development of hydrogen absorbing alloys in which the pure rare-earth metals are substituted by a more accessible raw material—mischmetal, but the composition of mischmetal can vary widely. The properties of MmNi5Hx (hydrogen capacity, hydrogen desorption equilibrium pressure at given temperature) depend on the composition of mischmetal and the mode of

  1. Emission properties of pulsars at mm-wavelengths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Xilouris; M. Kramer; A. Jessner; R. Wielebinski; M. Timofeev

    1996-01-01

    Pulsar polarimetric observations, conducted at the highest frequency ever, 32GHz, have been used to probe the emission properties of pulsar radiation at mm-wavelengths. The sample consists of eight nearby, relatively-young pulsars, located above the 5-Myr luminosity line. The flatter spectral indices characterizing the pulsars in this sample do not show any correlation with observed and derived parameters often used to

  2. BI-CMOS tracking servo LSI for 8 mm VCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Mizoguchi; Yasuhiro Sugimoto; Minoru Taguchi; Hiroshi Sadamatsu; Tetsuo Hirota; Kiyoshi Nishitani; Yoji Tanii

    1988-01-01

    A tracking servo LSI for an 8-mm VCR has been developed by utilizing 3-?m high-speed bipolar CMOS technology. The chip contains analog functions, such as a low-noise amplifier, a gain-control amplifier, balanced demodulators, rectifiers, a precision Schmit amplifier and subtracter; mixed analog-digital functions, such as switched-capacitor filters, sample-and-hold amplifiers and analog switches; and digital functions, such as an oscillator, a

  3. MM5 Simulated Evolution and Structure of Typhoon Vamei (2001)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredolin T. Tangang; Juneng Liew; Chris J. Reason

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the evolution and structure of tropical cyclone Vamei (2001) were simulated using the version 3.6 of the fifth generation of the Pennsylvania State University and the National Center for Atmospheric Research non-hydrostatic model MM5 using one-way nesting and two nested grids. The parameterizations employed include the subgrid-scale convective parameterization of Kain-Fritsch, the grid resolvable Schultz microphysics scheme,

  4. Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Frank; H. H. Chau

    1993-01-01

    A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250ns,

  5. Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan M. Frank; Henry H. Chau

    1994-01-01

    A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250

  6. Wireless channel characterization for mm-size neural implants.

    PubMed

    Mark, Michael; Bjorninen, Toni; Chen, Yuhui David; Venkatraman, Subramaniam; Ukkonen, Leena; Sydanheimo, Lauri; Carmena, Jose M; Rabaey, Jan M

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to modeling and characterizing wireless channel properties for mm-size neural implants. Full-wave electromagnetic simulation was employed to model signal propagation characteristics in biological materials. Animal tests were carried out, proving the validity of the simulation model over a wide range of frequency from 100MHz to 6GHz. Finally, effects of variability and uncertainty in human anatomy and dielectric properties of tissues on these radio links are explored. PMID:21096382

  7. Ph.D. Astronomy Program Ph.D. in Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Ph.D. Astronomy Program Ph.D. in Astronomy Department(s) Physics and Astronomy College Sciences 1 physics at the graduate level 4. understand observational astronomy techniques 5. understand astrophysics strong background of knowledge and expertise in physics and astronomy #12;2. Curriculum Alignment

  8. Flux monitoring of Sagittarius A* at mm-wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Atsushi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Miyoshi, Makoto; Tsuboi, Masato; Tsutsumi, Takahiro

    2006-12-01

    We performed the monitoring observations of the fbx density toward the Galactic center compact radio source, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), which is associated with a supermassive black hole, since 1996 using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA). The monitoring observations of Sgr A* were carried out in the 3- and 2-mm (100 and 140 GHz) bands over one to several months on each NMA observable season. We have detected several fares of Sgr A * with duration of, roughly, one month. The fbx density at the fare peak increases 100% 200% at 100 GHz band and 200% 400% at 140 GHz band, respectively, while the averaged quiescent fbx density was about 1 Jy. We also found some intraday variations (IDVs) of Sgr A* at both 2- and 3-mm bands. The shortest twofold increase timescale of the IDV is estimated to be about 1.5 hr at 140 GHz. This short timescale variability suggests that the physical size of emitting region is compact on a scale at or below about 12 AU (~150 RS). The IDV at mm-wavelengths has a similar increase timescale as those in the X-ray and infrared fares but has a smaller amplitude.

  9. Coupled inductive sensors for monitoring the pH of electrolyte solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siavash Saremi-Yarahmadi; Kristel Fobelets; Chris Toumazou

    2011-01-01

    Variations of the coupling between two inductors in the presence of a strong electrolyte with varying pH value is investigated. Inductors were placed at a distance of 15.875 mm apart. S12 parameters were measured and used as an indicator to the strength of coupling between the two inductors. The pH of the electrolyte solution was reduced from 4.2 to 0.2,

  10. Production of Solvents by Clostridium acetobutylicum Cultures Maintained at Neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Robert A.; Stephens, Gillian M.; Morris, J. Gareth

    1984-01-01

    The formation of acetone and n-butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIB 8052 (ATCC 824) was monitored in batch culture at 35°C in a glucose (2% [wt/vol]) minimal medium maintained throughout at either pH 5.0 or 7.0. At pH 5, good solvent production was obtained in the unsupplemented medium, although addition of acetate plus butyrate (10 mM each) caused solvent production to be initiated at a lower biomass concentration. At pH 7, although a purely acidogenic fermentation was maintained in the unsupplemented medium, low concentrations of acetone and n-butanol were produced when the glucose content of the medium was increased (to 4% [wt/vol]). Substantial solvent concentrations were, however, obtained at pH 7 in the 2% glucose medium supplemented with high concentrations of acetate plus butyrate (100 mM each, supplied as their potassium salts). Thus, C. acetobutylicum NCIB 8052, like C. beijerinckii VPI 13436, is able to produce solvents at neutral pH, although good yields are obtained only when adequately high concentrations of acetate and butyrate are supplied. Supplementation of the glucose minimal medium with propionate (20 mM) at pH 5 led to the production of some n-propanol as well as acetone and n-butanol; the final culture medium was virtually acid free. At pH 7, supplementation with propionate (150 mM) again led to the formation of n-propanol but also provoked production of some acetone and n-butanol, although in considerably smaller amounts than were obtained when the same basal medium had been fortified with acetate and butyrate at pH 7. PMID:16346678

  11. Gastric juice as a dissolution medium: Surface tension and pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Efentakis; J. B. Dressman

    1998-01-01

    Summary  Aspirated gastric juice from eight patients was measured for surface tension, bile salt concentration and pH. Surface tension\\u000a ranged between 35 and 45 mM\\/m, while pH was usually in the range 1–2 and bile salt concentrations were usually between 0 and\\u000a 1 mM. No correlations were found between the three parameters. These findings suggest that the low surface tension of

  12. Jacob Bernoulli, Ph.D. Erhard Weigel, Ph.D. Universitt Leipzig 1650

    E-print Network

    Matta, Abraham "Ibrahim"

    Jacob Bernoulli, Ph.D. Erhard Weigel, Ph.D. Universität Leipzig 1650 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Dr. jur. Universität Altdorf 1666 Johann Bernoulli, Ph.D. 1694 Leonhard Euler, Ph.D. Universität Basel 1726 Joseph Louis Lagrange, Ph.D. Simeon Denis Poisson, Ph.D. Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier, Ph

  13. Keiji TANAKA, Ph.D. Hitoshi OKAMOTO, M.D., Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Kazama, Hokto

    Keiji TANAKA, Ph.D. Hitoshi OKAMOTO, M.D., Ph.D. Atsushi MIYAWAKI, M.D., Ph.D. Tadaharu TSUMOTO, M.D., Ph.D. Shin OHKOUCHI Masao ITO, M.D., Ph.D. Shun-ichi AMARI, D.Eng. Susumu TONEGAWA, Ph Committee Senior Advisor Charles YOKOYAMA, Ph.D. Neural Circuit Function Developmental Gene Regulation

  14. The pH Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  15. PhEDEx Data Service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky Egeland; Tony Wildish; Chih-Hao Huang

    2010-01-01

    The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the \\

  16. Design and testing of a dual 8-T 380-mm\\/12-T 220-mm split superconducting solenoid for ORNL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Ballou; R. L. Brown; W. A. Fietz; J. W. Forseman; W. H. Gray; W. J. Kenney; R. B. Wysor; W. D. Markiewicz; R. G. Van Alstyne

    1981-01-01

    A superconducting high field magnet facility has recently been prepared for operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The facility consists of a background NbTi coil and an insert coil made of NbâSn tape. The background coil produces an 8-T central field, with a peak field of 8.8 T, in a bore of 380 mm and contains radial access

  17. Control of ammonia toxicity to Hyalella azteca by sodium, potassium and pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Borgmann; Anne I. Borgmann

    1997-01-01

    The toxicity of ammonia to Hyalella azteca at constant pH in artificial media was controlled by sodium and potassium, and not by calcium, magnesium, or anions. Small increases in the LC50 for total ammonia (from 0.15 to 0.5 mM) occurred as sodium was increased from 0.1 to 1 mM and above, but major increases in the LC50 (to over 10

  18. Influence of pH on copper and zinc sensitivity of ericoid mycobionts in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian R. Gibson; Derek T. Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pH on growth, metal uptake and toxicity in four isolates of ericoid mycobionts (two Hymenoscyphus ericae from unpolluted heathland sites and two H. ericae-type mycobionts from metal-contaminated mine spoil) was assessed in vitro. These isolates were incubated in liquid medium (10% Rorison’s medium, glucose at 10 g l-1) containing either 0.25 mM Cu or 2.0 mM Zn and adjusted to

  19. Effects of ion implantation on friction and wear of stainless steels. [15-5PH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Pope; F. G. Yost; D. M. Follstaedt; J. A. Knapp; S. T. Picraux

    1982-01-01

    Friction and wear of 304, 15-5 PH and 440C stainless steels and of pure Fe are shown to be reduced by ion implantation of Ti and C. Mechanically polished samples were ion implanted to fluences of 2 x 10¹⁵ Ti\\/mm² (90 to 180 keV) and 2 x 10¹⁵ C\\/mm² (30 keV); the implantation profiles of the two elements extended to

  20. TNT particle size distributions from detonated 155-mm howitzer rounds.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Hewitt, Alan; Lever, James; Hayes, Charlotte; Perovich, Laura; Thorne, Phil; Daghlian, Chuck

    2004-04-01

    To achieve sustainable range management and avoid or minimize environmental contamination, the Army needs to know the amount of explosives deposited on ranges from different munitions and how these are degraded and transported under different geological and climatic conditions. The physical form of the deposited explosives has a bearing on this problem, yet the shapes and size distributions of the explosive particles remaining after detonations are not known. We collected residues from 8 high-order and 6 low-order non-tactical detonations of TNT-filled 155-mm rounds. We found significant variation in the amount of TNT scattered from the high-order detonations, ranging from 0.00001 to 2% of the TNT in the original shell. All low-order detonations scattered percent-level amounts of TNT. We imaged thousands of TNT particles and determined the size, mass and surface-area distributions of particles collected from one high-order and one low-order detonation. For the high-order detonation, particles smaller than 1 mm contribute most of the mass and surface area of the TNT scattered. For the low-order detonation, most of the scattered TNT mass was in the form of un-heated, centimeter-sized pieces whereas most of the surface area was again from particles smaller than 1 mm. We also observed that the large pieces of TNT disintegrate readily, giving rise to many smaller particles that can quickly dissolve. We suggest picking up the large pieces of TNT before they disintegrate to become point sources of contamination. PMID:14987934

  1. Assimilation of GOES-Derived Cloud Fields Into MM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biazar, A. P.; Doty, K. G.; McNider, R.

    2007-12-01

    This approach for the assimilation of GOES-derived cloud data into an atmospheric model (the Fifth-Generation Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model, or MM5) was performed in two steps. In the first step, multiple linear regression equations were developed using a control MM5 simulation to develop relationships for several dependent variables in model columns that had one or more layers of clouds. In the second step, the regression equations were applied during an MM5 simulation with assimilation in which the hourly GOES satellite data were used to determine the cloud locations and some of the cloud properties, but with all the other variables being determined by the model data. The satellite-derived fields used were shortwave cloud albedo and cloud top pressure. Ten multiple linear regression equations were developed for the following dependent variables: total cloud depth, number of cloud layers, depth of the layer that contains the maximum vertical velocity, the maximum vertical velocity, the height of the maximum vertical velocity, the estimated 1-h stable (i.e., grid scale) precipitation rate, the estimated 1-h convective precipitation rate, the height of the level with the maximum positive diabatic heating, the magnitude of the maximum positive diabatic heating, and the largest continuous layer of upward motion. The horizontal components of the divergent wind were adjusted to be consistent with the regression estimate of the maximum vertical velocity. The new total horizontal wind field with these new divergent components was then used to nudge an ongoing MM5 model simulation towards the target vertical velocity. Other adjustments included diabatic heating and moistening at specified levels. Where the model simulation had clouds when the satellite data indicated clear conditions, procedures were taken to remove or diminish the errant clouds. The results for the period of 0000 UTC 28 June - 0000 UTC 16 July 1999 for both a continental 32-km grid and an 8-km grid over the Southeastern United States indicate a significant improvement in the cloud bias statistics. The main improvement was the reduction of high bias values that indicated times and locations in the control run when there were model clouds but when the satellite indicated clear conditions. The importance of this technique is that it has been able to assimilate the observed clouds in the model in a dynamically sustainable manner. Acknowledgments. This work was partially funded by the following grants: a GEWEX grant from NASA , the Cooperative Agreement between the University of Alabama in Huntsville and the Minerals Management Service on Gulf of Mexico Issues, a NASA applications grant, and a NSF grant.

  2. Dynamic impact analysis of the M1 105mm projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.

    1993-06-01

    Evaluation of the effects of [open quotes]rough-handling[close quotes]-induced stresses in the nose region of a 105mm artillery projectile was performed to determine if these stresses could have contributed to the premature explosion of a projectile during a Desert Shield training mission of the 101st Army Airborne in Saudi Arabia. The rough-handling evaluations were simulated by dynamic impact analysis. It was concluded that the combined residual stress and dynamic impact-induced stress would not be of sufficient magnitude to cause cracking of the projectile in the nose region.

  3. Dynamic impact analysis of the M1 105mm projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.

    1993-06-01

    Evaluation of the effects of {open_quotes}rough-handling{close_quotes}-induced stresses in the nose region of a 105mm artillery projectile was performed to determine if these stresses could have contributed to the premature explosion of a projectile during a Desert Shield training mission of the 101st Army Airborne in Saudi Arabia. The rough-handling evaluations were simulated by dynamic impact analysis. It was concluded that the combined residual stress and dynamic impact-induced stress would not be of sufficient magnitude to cause cracking of the projectile in the nose region.

  4. Performance of 2mm radius straw tube drift cells

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.E.; Bantly, J.; Blessing, S.; Buchholz, D.; Gobbi, B.; Liu, Y.; Rajagopalan, S.; Tilden, R. (Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States)); Martin, M. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The performance of a 128 channel test module made with straw tubes of 2mm radius has been studied in a test beam and with cosmic rays. Different gases were used and for each one the time-to-distance relation and the hit efficiency was measured. Comparison are made between results when two different electronics readouts were used. The information was recorded with 106 MHz FADC units and also with TDCs (50ps resolution). The best resolution, of 135 [mu]m, was obtained using 50% ethane, 50% argon and reading out the information with the TDCs, at an operating HV of 1,750V.

  5. Herschel and Planck: surprises in the sub-mm band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Nuevo González, J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper focused on three of the most spectacular and almost unexpected results obtained from the observations in the sub-mm band coming from the ESA's Herschel and Planck missions: the detection of hundred of strongly lensed galaxies, the identification of high-z proto-clusters, and the study of the weak lensing signal through the cross-correlation analysis. Although, there were theoretical works that anticipate them, none of these interesting results appeared in the original scientific programs of both mission. For this reason we have called them ``surprises''.

  6. A 40 mm bore quadrupole magnet for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.E.; Barale, P.; Caspi, S.; Dell'Orco, D.; Fritz, D.; Gilbert, W.S.; Lietzke, A.; Peters, C.; Wandesforde, A.

    1990-09-01

    A 40 mm bore quadrupole magnet design, called QC'', has been made for the SSC with the following parameters: 208 T/m gradient at 6500A, 2-layer cos 2 {theta}'' winding arrangement with 30 strand cable and one spacer wedge per coil. Structural support is provided by self-supporting interlocking collars; two types of symmetrical laminations are pre-assembled into collar packs for ease of assembly. This paper will describe the design of a prototype quadrupole magnet for the SSC and preliminary tests results on 1 m models. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Stress relaxation in SSC 50mm dipole coils

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.; Markley, F.

    1992-04-01

    We are measuring the stress relaxation of SSC 50mm outer coils with the goal of predicting how much of the coil prestress will be lost while the coils are warehoused between manufacture and cooldown. We manufacture 3 inch (76.2mm) long segments of coil with the same materials and techniques that have been used for prototype coils. We are running four simultaneous tests in an attempt to separate the contributions of the different coil materials. Test one is a completely insulated coil section where the insulation is the all polyamide system being tested at Brookhaven; test two is a wire stack insulated only with the normal Kapton overwrap; test three is a stack of bare cable; and test four is a completely insulated normal coil section. All, except for the bare cable, include the ground insulation. The insulated coil sections are carefully dried before loading and testing in order to eliminate stress changes due to varying moisture content. The temperature dependence of the stress relaxation is being studied separately. Three companion papers presented at this conference will be: (1) ``Temperature dependence of the viscoelastic properties of SSC coil insulation`` (2) ``Measurement of the elastic modulus of Kapton perpendicular to the plane of the film at room and cryogenic temperatures`` (3) ``Theoretical methods for creep and stress relaxation studies of SSC coil.``

  8. Stress relaxation in SSC 50mm dipole coils

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.; Markley, F.

    1992-04-01

    We are measuring the stress relaxation of SSC 50mm outer coils with the goal of predicting how much of the coil prestress will be lost while the coils are warehoused between manufacture and cooldown. We manufacture 3 inch (76.2mm) long segments of coil with the same materials and techniques that have been used for prototype coils. We are running four simultaneous tests in an attempt to separate the contributions of the different coil materials. Test one is a completely insulated coil section where the insulation is the all polyamide system being tested at Brookhaven; test two is a wire stack insulated only with the normal Kapton overwrap; test three is a stack of bare cable; and test four is a completely insulated normal coil section. All, except for the bare cable, include the ground insulation. The insulated coil sections are carefully dried before loading and testing in order to eliminate stress changes due to varying moisture content. The temperature dependence of the stress relaxation is being studied separately. Three companion papers presented at this conference will be: (1) Temperature dependence of the viscoelastic properties of SSC coil insulation'' (2) Measurement of the elastic modulus of Kapton perpendicular to the plane of the film at room and cryogenic temperatures'' (3) Theoretical methods for creep and stress relaxation studies of SSC coil.''

  9. Multilayer Laue Lenses with Focal Length of 10 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, S.; Kubec, A.; Menzel, M.; Niese, S.; Krüger, P.; Seiboth, F.; Patommel, J.; Schroer, C.

    2013-03-01

    Multilayer laue lenses are diffractive optics with a high potential for producing X-ray foci in the order of 10 nm or even below. Particularly for hard X-rays (E > 6 keV) these optics promise better resolution and higher efficiencies than currently available Fresnel zone plates. Magnetron sputter deposition has been used for the fabrication of multilayer laue lenses using the layer materials MoSi2 and Si. The lens design has been defined to get focal length in the order of 10 mm. One of the lenses with an aperture of about 20 ?m has been used as focusing optics in the nanoprobe beamline P06 at PETRA III. Ptychography has been applied to characterize the caustic of the focused beam and to determine the size of the X-ray focus. A spot size of about 39 nm could be obtained with a photon energy of 21 keV and a focal length of 9.9 mm.

  10. Recycling of sodium metaborate to borax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Hee Park; Seong Uk Jeong; Un Ho Jung; Sung Hyun Kim; Jaeyoung Lee; Suk Woo Nam; Tae Hoon Lim; Young Jun Park; Yong Ho Yu

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated an electrochemical method for recycling sodium metaborate (NaBO2) to sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Palladium (Pd), boron-doped diamond (BDD), gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) were used as electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to recycle the NaBO2 either to NaBH4 or to an intermediate material for making NaBH4. The electrochemical products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) as

  11. Heterogeneous Distribution of Microbial Activity in Methanogenic Aggregates: pH and Glucose Microprofiles

    PubMed Central

    Lens, Piet N. L.; De Beer, Dirk; Cronenberg, Carel C. H.; Houwen, Frans P.; Ottengraf, Simon P. P.; Verstraete, Willy H.

    1993-01-01

    Methanogenic aggregates, harvested from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating potato starch wastewater, were acclimatized to either glucose or a mixture of sugars and organic nitrogen compounds (i.e., diluted molasses). Both types of granules exhibited internal pH and substrate concentration gradients in mineral medium (pH 7.0, 30°C) as was measured with microelectrodes. Glucose-acclimatized granules suspended in a mineral medium lacking glucose exhibited a distinct internal pH decrease of about 1 U within the granule, suggesting strong metabolism by the acidogenic bacteria. Molasses-acclimatized and aged granules suspended in mineral medium did not exhibit such a pH decrease, suggesting the importance of the metabolic state of these acidogens. The pH gradient did not occur in deactivated granules and was not observable in strongly buffered media (mineral medium containing 33 mM phosphate or reactor liquid). When glucose (0.5 to 5.0 mM) was added to the mineral medium, granules exhibited a convex pH profile. Glucose consumption was located exclusively in the outer 200 to 300 ?m of the aggregates (mean diameter = 1.5 mm). The addition of 20 mM 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid to the mineral medium indicated that the higher pH levels in the centre of the granule appeared to be related to the activity of methanogens. It is suggested that acidogenic activity occurs predominantly in the outer 200 to 300 ?m of the aggregate and methanogenic activity occurs predominantly in the center of the investigated granules. Images PMID:16349091

  12. Properties of 100-mm X 100-mm triple stacks of microchannel plates used in a sealed detector for x-ray crystallography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark B. Williams; Stanley E. Sobottka; John A. Shepherd

    1993-01-01

    We report the assembly of an imaging phototube which, together with a thin NaI(Tl) x-ray scintillator, forms a photon counting area detector for x-ray crystallography. The tube contains a bialkali photocathode, a triple (Z) stack of 100 mm X 100 mm MCPs, and a 133 mm X 133 mm two dimensional delay line readout. Some aspects of the processing setup

  13. Comparison of less lethal 40 mm sponge projectile and the 37 mm projectile for injury assessment on human thorax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsiampa, N.; Robbe, C.; Oukara, A.; Papy, A.

    2012-08-01

    Since there is an increasing interest in avoiding human body injury in diverse situations like crowd control or peacekeeping missions, less lethal ammunition are more and more used. In this study we focus only on kinetic energy non-lethal (KENLW) projectiles. Their desired effects on human body are the temporary incapacitation through blunt trauma. There are different types of KENLW projectiles ranging from rigid to deformable projectiles. Unfortunately, the effects of such projectiles are not really well known as it is difficult to measure the force transmitted to the human body or the related deformation. Because the potential of injury excludes human living tests, tests are performed on cadavers, animals or human tissue surrogates. Besides these tests, numerical simulations are more and more used to gain more understanding, to assess or to predict the effects of this kind of projectile on human body. In this paper a comparison based on the viscous criterion between the 37 mm rigid projectile and the 40 mm sponge projectile was made.

  14. Solar ALMA: Observation-Based Simulations of the mm and sub-mm Emissions from Active Regions

    E-print Network

    Fleishman, Gregory; Nita, Gelu

    2015-01-01

    We developed an efficient algorithm integrated in our 3D modeling tool, GX Simulator (Nita et al. 2015), allowing quick computation of the synthetic intensity and polarization maps of solar active regions (AR) in the ALMA spectral range. The algorithm analyzes the photospheric input (white light and magnetogram) to classify a given photospheric pixel to belong to a given photospheric structure. Then, a 1D chromospheric model (Fontenla et al. 2009) is added on top of each pixel, which forms a chromospheric model of the AR. Next step is computation of the mm and sub-mm emission produced from this chromosphere model. A huge advantage of this approach is that emission from any given AR can be synthesized very fast, on the order of a few minutes after the AR selection. Using the GX Simulator tool it is also possible to produce synthetic maps of the microwave (gyroresonance) and EUV emission from the same AR model and compare them with the ALMA synthetic maps and with the corresponding observed microwave and/or EUV...

  15. Balloon dilatation of the mitral valve by a single bifoil (2 x 19 mm) or trefoil (3 x 15 mm) catheter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Patel; S Vythilingum; A S Mitha

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of balloon dilatation of the mitral valve by a bifoil (2 x 19 mm) or trefoil (3 x 15 mm) catheter (single catheter technique) was assessed in 53 patients (mean age 28) with mitral stenosis, most of whom were women. The procedure was unsuccessful in three patients. After balloon dilatation the left atrial pressure decreased from 22 mm

  16. Supersonic Love waves in strong piezoelectrics of symmetry mm2

    SciTech Connect

    Darinskii, A. N.; Weihnacht, M.

    2001-07-01

    A study has been made of the Love wave propagation on piezoelectric substrates of symmetry mm2. It has been shown that under certain conditions the velocity of the Love wave exceeds that of shear horizontal (SH) bulk waves in the substrate. This occurs when the slowness curve of SH bulk waves in the substrate either has a concavity or is convex with nearly zero curvature. For such {open_quotes}supersonic{close_quotes} Love waves to appear, it is also required that the substrate as well as the layer be specially oriented and that their material constants fulfill a number of inequalities. Numerical computations have been carried out for a number of structures. The results of numerical computations have been compared with approximate analytical estimations. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Coil and iron design for SSC 50 mm magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Morgan, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present the design of the two dimensional coil and iron cross section, referred to as DSX201/W6733, for the 50 mm aperture dipole magnet being built at the Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The computed values of the allowed field harmonics as a function of current, the quench performance predictions, the stored energy calculations, the effect of random errors on the coil placement and the Lorentz forces on the coil will be presented. The yoke has been optimized to reduce iron saturation effects on the field harmonics. We shall present the summary of this design which will include the expected overall performance of this cross section. 4 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. 120-mm superconducting quadrupole for interaction regions of hadron colliders

    E-print Network

    Zlobin, A V; Mokhov, N V; Novitski, I

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic and mechanical designs of a Nb3Sn quadrupole magnet with 120-mm aperture suitable for interaction regions of hadron colliders are presented. The magnet is based on a two-layer shell-type coil and a cold iron yoke. Special spacers made of a low-Z material are implemented in the coil mid-planes to reduce the level of radiation heat deposition and radiation dose in the coil. The quadrupole mechanical structure is based on aluminum collars supported by an iron yoke and a stainless steel skin. Magnet parameters including maximum field gradient and field harmonics, Nb3Sn coil pre-stress and protection at the operating temperatures of 4.5 and 1.9 K are reported. The level and distribution of radiation heat deposition in the coil and other magnet components are discussed.

  19. 120-mm supercondcting quadrupole for interaction regions of hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, A.V.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Mokhov, N.V.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic and mechanical designs of a Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnet with 120-mm aperture suitable for interaction regions of hadron colliders are presented. The magnet is based on a two-layer shell-type coil and a cold iron yoke. Special spacers made of a low-Z material are implemented in the coil mid-planes to reduce the level of radiation heat deposition and radiation dose in the coil. The quadrupole mechanical structure is based on aluminum collars supported by an iron yoke and a stainless steel skin. Magnet parameters including maximum field gradient and field harmonics, Nb3Sn coil pre-stress and protection at the operating temperatures of 4.5 and 1.9 K are reported. The level and distribution of radiation heat deposition in the coil and other magnet components are discussed.

  20. Improved mm-wave photometry for kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M.; Roesch, M.; Désert, F.-X.; Monfardini, A.; Benoit, A.; Mauskopf, P.; Ade, P.; Boudou, N.; Bourrion, O.; Camus, P.; Cruciani, A.; Doyle, S.; Hoffmann, C.; Leclercq, S.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Ponthieu, N.; Schuster, K. F.; Tucker, C.; Vescovi, C.

    2013-03-01

    Context. We have developed a dual-band (140 and 220 GHz) mm-wave imaging camera based on superconducting kinetic inductance detector (KID) arrays. Each array contains 132 superconducting resonators whose resonant frequencies are shifted by mm-wave photons absorption. The read out is achieved with a single electronics chain per band, taking advantage of the intrinsic KID frequency-domain multiplexability. The arrays are easily scalable and well adapted for future large format focal plane instruments. NIKA (formerly Néel IRAM KID Array, now New IRAM KID Array) has been specifically designed for the IRAM 30 m telescope at Pico Veleta, and is one of the first instruments using KIDs to have made measurements of astronomical sources. Aims: In this Letter we describe the solutions adopted to improve the calibration accuracy and the sensitivity of the instrument, and we report on the outcome of the 3rd NIKA observing run of October, 2011. Methods: We use a fast electronic modulation of the readout tone for each KID pixel in order to linearize the instrument calibration, which we track with measurements of planets. We also adopt a new design of the KIDs, sensitive to both polarizations, to increase the amount of radiation absorbed and thus the optical efficiency of the system. Results: We measured an average sensitivity on the sky of 21 mJys0.5 per beam at 140 GHz and 140 mJys0.5 at 220 GHz in the best observing conditions (?220 ? 0.2) after atmospheric noise decorrelation. The sensitivity at 220 GHz was limited by the atmospheric attenuation and loading as well as a reduction in the spectral bandwidth due to a misplaced filter. We found the repeatability in the photometry over the entire observing run to be better than 10% in both bands, thus demonstrating a significant improvement over the previous runs. We also find good agreement between NIKA measurements of faint astronomical sources and previous measurements of the same sources.

  1. Mark Clark, Ph.D. Clinical Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    E-print Network

    Ottino, Julio M.

    , "Membrane-Powdered Activated Carbon Reactors," in Membrane Processes in Water Treatment, McGraw-Hill, New, "Prediction and Verification of the Performance of Powdered Activated Carbon for Removal of Organic Compounds. (based on Ph.D.) * 5. Wiesner, M. and M.M. Clark, "Membrane Filtration of Coagulated Suspensions

  2. Michelle M (Gooch) Jackson PhD Candidate, Ecosystem & Landscape Ecology Lab

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    Michelle M (Gooch) Jackson PhD Candidate, Ecosystem & Landscape Ecology Lab Department of Zoology, Jackson, WY 2005 B.S. Biology, cum laude. Davidson College, Davidson, NC Advisor: Dr. Michael Dorcas at Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. #12;Publications Jackson (Gooch), M.M. and L. Naughton. 2012. Education

  3. Regulation of intracellular pH during anoxia in rice coleoptiles in acidic and near neutral conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kulichikhin, Konstantin Yu; Greenway, Hank; Byrne, Lindsay; Colmer, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    Rice coleoptiles, renowned for anoxia tolerance, were hypoxically pretreated, excised, ‘healed’, and then exposed to a combination of anoxia and pH 3.5. The putative acid load was confirmed by net effluxes of K+ to the medium, with concurrent net decreases of H+ in the medium, presumably mainly due to H+ influx. Yet the coleoptiles survived the combination of anoxia and pH 3.5 for at least 90 h, and even for at least 40 h when the energy crisis, inherent to anoxia, had been aggravated by supplying the coleoptiles with 2.5 mM rather than 50 mM glucose. Even in the case of coleoptiles with 2.5 mM glucose, an accumulation ratio of 6 for Cl– was attained at 4 h after the start of re-aeration, implying plasma membrane integrity was either maintained during anoxia, or rapidly restored after a return to aerated conditions. Cytoplasmic pH and vacuolar pH were measured using in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with 50 mM glucose in the basal perfusion medium. After 60 h in anoxia, external pH was suddenly decreased from 6.5 to 3.5, but cytoplasmic pH only decreased from 7.35 to 7.2 during the first 2 h and then remained steady for the next 16 h. During the first 3 h at pH 3.5, vacuolar pH decreased from 5.7 to 5.25 and then stabilized. After 18 h at pH 3.5, the initial values of cytoplasmic pH and vacuolar pH were rapidly restored, both upon a return to pH 6.5 while maintaining anoxia and after subsequent return to aerated solution. Summing up, rice coleoptiles exposed to a combination of anoxia and pH 3.5 retained pH regulation and cellular compartmentation, demonstrating tolerance to anoxia even during the acid load imposed by exposure to pH 3.5. PMID:19363206

  4. Experimental characteristics of a high-gain free-electron laser amplifier operating at 8-mm and 2-mm wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Throop, A.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Anderson, B.R.; Chambers, F.W.; Clark, J.C.; Fawley, W.M.; Jong, R.A.; Halbach, K.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.

    1987-06-08

    The Electron Laser Facility (ELF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses a high-current induction linac (3.5 MeV, 1000 A), in conjunction with a pulsed electromagnetic wiggler (4.0 M, 4000 G), to operate a free electron laser (FEL) that produces intense radiation in the microwave regime (2 to 8 mm). ELF is a high-gain, single-pass amplifier, using a commercial microwave source as an oscillator input (200 W-50 kW). Previous experiments at 35 GHz produced exponential gains of 40 dB/m, peak powers exceeding 1 GW, and beam-to-rf conversion efficiencies of 34%. Recent experiments at 140 GHz have demonstrated exponential gains of 22 dB/m, peak powers exceeding 50 MW, and total gains of 65 dB. In this paper, we describe the experimental results at these two frequencies and compare then with the predictions of simulation codes.

  5. ALMA reveals VYCMa's sub-mm maser and dust distribution

    E-print Network

    Richards, A M S; Humphreys, E M; Vlahakis, C; Vlemmings, W; Baudry, A; De Beck, E; Decin, L; Etoka, S; Gray, M D; Harper, G M; Hunter, T R; Kervella, P; Kerschbaum, F; McDonald, I; Melnick, G; Muller, S; Neufeld, D; O'Gorman, E; Parfenov, S Yu; Peck, A B; Shinnaga, H; Sobolev, A M; Testi, L; Uscanga, L; Wootten, A; Yates, J A; Zijlstra, A

    2014-01-01

    Cool, evolved stars have copious, enriched winds. The structure of these winds and the way they are accelerated is not well known. We need to improve our understanding by studying the dynamics from the pulsating stellar surface to about 10 stellar radii, where radiation pressure on dust is fully effective. Some red supergiants have highly asymmetric nebulae, implicating additional forces. We retrieved ALMA Science Verification data providing images of sub-mm line and continuum emission from VY CMa. This enables us to locate water masers with milli-arcsec precision and resolve the dusty continuum. The 658-, 321- and 325-GHz masers lie in irregular, thick shells at increasing distances from the centre of expansion. For the first time this is confirmed as the stellar position, coinciding with a compact peak offset to the NW of the brightest continuum emission. The maser shells (and dust formation zone) overlap but avoid each other on tens-au scales. Their distribution is broadly consistent with excitation models...

  6. High resolution mm-VLBI imaging of Cygnus A

    E-print Network

    Boccardi, Bia; Bach, Uwe; Ros, Eduardo; Zensus, J Anton

    2015-01-01

    At a distance of 249 Mpc ($z$=0.056), Cygnus A is the only powerful FR II radio galaxy for which a detailed sub-parsec scale imaging of the base of both jet and counter-jet can be obtained. Observing with VLBI at millimeter wavelengths is fundamental for this object, as it uncovers those regions which appear self-absorbed or free-free absorbed by a circumnuclear torus at longer wavelengths. We performed 7 mm Global VLBI observations, achieving ultra-high resolution imaging on scales down to 90 $\\mu$as. This resolution corresponds to a linear scale of only $\\sim$400 Schwarzschild radii. We studied the transverse structure of the jets through a pixel-based analysis, and kinematic properties of the main emission features by modeling the interferometric visibilities with two-dimensional Gaussian components. Both jets appear limb-brightened, and their opening angles are relatively large ($\\phi_\\mathrm {j}\\sim 10^{\\circ}$). The flow is observed to accelerate within the inner-jet up to scales of $\\sim$1 pc, while lo...

  7. Mapping wetlands on beaver flowages with 35-mm photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Beaver flowages and associated wetlands on the Chippewa National Forest, north-central Minnesota, were photographed from the ground and from the open side window of a small high-wing monoplane. The 35-mm High Speed Ektachrome transparencies obtained were used to map the cover-type associations visible on the aerial photographs. Nearly vertical aerial photos were rectified by projecting the slides onto a base map consisting ofcontrol points located by plane-table survey. Maps were prepared by tracing the recognizable stands of vegetation in the rectified projection at the desired map scale. Final map scales ranging from 1:260 to 1:571 permitted identification and mapping of 26 cover-type associations on 10 study flowages in 1971. This cover-mapping technique was economical and substituted for detailed ground surveys. Comparative data from 10 flowages were collected serially throughout the entire open-water season. Although developed for analysis of waterfowl habitat, the technique has application to other areas of wildlife management and ecological investigation.

  8. MEMS Fabricated MM-Wave Slow Wave Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Mark; Borwick, Robert; Shin, Young-Min; Barnett, Larry; Luhmann, Neville; Kimura, Takuji; Atkinson, John

    2012-02-01

    We report on the fabrication and test of a MEMS slow wave structure designed for a > 40 GHz bandwidth centered on 220 GHz operation, that slows radiation down to group velocity of 8.16 x 10^7 ms-1 where the velocity matches the speed of electrons from a 20 keV source. The slow wave device uses a 40 mm long staggered interdigitated vane structure within a waveguide [1]. Ultimately, such a device will be integrated with an electron beam to become part of a sheet beam travelling wave tube (SBTWT) amplifier. A gold coated deep reactive ion etched (DRIE) silicon test structure was fabricated to test the RF properties of the design. This MEMS structure was coupled to WR-4 waveguide in a metal fixture and the S-parameters measured using a vector network analyzer, allowing extraction of the insertion loss and signal delay as a function of frequency. A further MEMS structure with just 10 cells of the vane structure within a cavity were fabricated which allows points on the dispersion curve to be directly measured as resonances of the structure. Extraction of the dispersion curve verifies the group velocity measurement of the device. [4pt] [1] Y-M. Shin & L.R. Barnett, Appl.Phys. Lett. 2008, 92 pp. 091501.

  9. Sub-mm observations and modelling of Vega type stars

    E-print Network

    I. Sheret; W. R. F. Dent; M. C. Wyatt

    2003-12-10

    We present new sub-mm observations and modelling of Vega excess stars, using realistic dust grain models. For resolved disks, we find that different objects require very different dust grain properties in order to simultaneously fit the image data and SED. Fomalhaut and Vega require solid dust grains, whilst HR4796 and HD141569 can only be fitted using porous grains. The older stars tend to have less porous grains than younger stars, which may indicate that collisions have compacted the dust grains. Eps Eri appears to be deficient in small dust grains compared to our best fitting model. This may be due to factors which affect the size distribution of grains close to the radiation pressure blowout limit. Alternatively, this discrepancy may be due to some external influence on the disk (e.g. a planet). When the model is applied to unresolved targets, an estimate of the disk size can be made. However, the large diversity in dust composition for the resolved disks means that we cannot make a reliable assumption as to the composition of the grains in an unresolved disk, and there is corresponding uncertainty in the disk size. In addition, the poor fit for Eps Eri shows that the model cannot always account for the SED even if the disk size is known. These two factors mean that it may not be possible to determine a disk's size without actually resolving it.

  10. Calcification, growth and mortality of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus under increased pCO 2 and reduced pH: Variable responses to ocean acidification at local scales?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Range; M. A. Chícharo; R. Ben-Hamadou; D. Piló; D. Matias; S. Joaquim; A. P. Oliveira; L. Chícharo

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ocean acidification on juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus (average shell length 10.24mm) in a controlled CO2 perturbation experiment. The carbonate chemistry of seawater was manipulated by diffusing pure CO2, to attain two reduced pH levels (by ?0.4 and ?0.7 pH units), which were compared to unmanipulated seawater. After 75days we found no differences among pH treatments

  11. Stabilization of pH in solid-matrix hydroponic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frick, J.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer or Amberlite DP-1 (cation-exchange resin beads) were used to stabilize substrate pH of passive-wicking, solid-matrix hydroponic systems in which small canopies of Brassica napus L. (CrGC 5-2, genome : ACaacc) were grown to maturity. Two concentrations of MES (5 or 10 mM) were included in Hoagland 1 nutrient solution. Alternatively, resin beads were incorporated into the 2 vermiculite : 1 perlite (v/v) growth medium at 6% or 12% of total substrate volume. Both strategies stabilized pH without toxic side effects on plants. Average seed yield rates for all four pH stabilization treatments (13.3 to 16.9 g m-2 day-1) were about double that of the control (8.2 g m-2 day-1), for which there was no attempt to buffer substrate pH. Both the highest canopy seed yield rate (16.9 g m-2 day-1) and the highest shoot harvest index (19.5%) occurred with the 6% resin bead treatment, even though the 10 mM MES and 12% bead treatments maintained pH within the narrowest limits. The pH stabilization methods tested did not significantly affect seed oil and protein contents.

  12. Photophysical properties of MM quadruply bonded complexes supported by carboxylate ligands, MM = Mo2, MoW, or W2.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Malcolm H; Gustafson, Terry L; Turro, Claudia

    2013-02-19

    While chemists have extensively studied the photophysical properties of d(6), d(8), and d(10) transition metal complexes, their early transition metal counterparts have received less attention. Quadruply bonded complexes of molybdenum and tungsten supported by carboxylate ligands have intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) absorptions that arise from the electronic coupling of the metal-metal (MM) ? orbital with the CO(2) ?-system. This coupling may in turn be linked to an extended ?-conjugated organic functional group. The major interaction is akin to the so-called back-bonding in metal carbonyl complexes. By the appropriate selection of MM, its attendant ligands, and the organic group, this absorption can be tuned to span the visible and near IR range, from 400 to 1000 nm. Consequently, these complexes offer potential as photon harvesters for photovoltaic devices and photocatalysis. In this Account, we describe recent studies of dinuclear M(II) containing complexes, where M = Mo or W, and show that there are both parallels and disparities to the monomeric transition metal complexes. These early transition metal complexes have relatively long lived excited state singlets when compared to other transition metal complexes. They also often show unusual dual emission (fluorescence and phosphorescence), with singlet (S(1)) lifetimes that range from 1 to 20 ps, and triplet (T(1)) lifetimes from 3 ns to 200 ?s. The fluorescent S(1) states are typically (1)MLCT for both M = Mo and W. These extended singlet lifetimes are uncommon for mononuclear transition metal complexes, which typically have very short lived (1)MLCT states due to rapid femto-second intersystem crossing rates. However, the T(1) states differ. This phosphorescence is MLCT in nature when M = W, while this emission comes from the ??* state for M = Mo. Through time-resolved femtosecond infrared spectroscopy, we can detect the asymmetric stretch of the CO(2) ligand in both the singlet and triplet ??* states. Through these analytical methods, we can study how the charge distribution in the singlet and triplet excited states changes over time. In addition, we can detect delocalized or localized examples of MLCT states, which represent class III and I excited state mixed valence in the Robin and Day scheme. PMID:23145921

  13. Sub-mm CO Measurements of the Orion Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T. L.; Muders, D.; Kramer, C.; Henkel, C.

    2000-05-01

    Images of a >3' region around the Orion KL source have been made in the J=4-3 (461 GHz) and J=7-6 (806 GHz) lines of CO with angular resolutions of 18'' and 13'', using the 10-meter Heinrich Hertz Telescope (HHT) of the Sub-Millimeter Telescope Observatory (SMTO). This region contains a variety of objects: (1) the Hot Core (a region containing complex molecules) and Orion KL outflow (NE of the center of the 10'' diameter Hot Core, and very likely associated with the continuum source `I' (Menten & Reid 1995 ApJ 445, L157)), (2) another outflow source, Orion-S ( ~100'' south of the Hot Core (Rodriguez-Franco et al. 1999 A&A 344, L57)), (3) the ionized-neutral interface at the rear of the Orion HII region, and (4) the Orion Bar feature (an ionized-neutral interface to the SW of the HII region). Regions (3) and (4) are examples of `Photon Dominated Regions' or `PDR's'. The sub-mm CO lines are emitted from warm gas; the J=7-6 line is emitted from an energy level 156 Kelvin above the ground state. The excellent pointing and low sidelobes of the HHT allow accurate comparisons with high r! esolution CO images in lower J lines and images of other species. Our J=7-6 CO image was made with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Hot Electron Bolometer (Kawamura et al. 1999 IEEE Trans. on Appl. Superconductivity 9, 3753. The HHT is operated by the Submillimeter Telescope Observatory on behalf of the Max-Planck-Institut f. Radioastronomie and Steward Observatory of The University of Arizona. We thank the CfA receiver group for providing the Hot Electron Bolometer used to take the J=7-6 CO line data.

  14. MM5 Simulated Evolution and Structure of Typhoon Vamei (2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangang, Fredolin T.; Liew, Juneng; Reason, Chris J.

    In this study, the evolution and structure of tropical cyclone Vamei (2001) were simulated using the version 3.6 of the fifth generation of the Pennsylvania State University and the National Center for Atmospheric Research non-hydrostatic model MM5 using one-way nesting and two nested grids. The parameterizations employed include the subgrid-scale convective parameterization of Kain-Fritsch, the grid resolvable Schultz microphysics scheme, the Blackadar parameterization scheme for planetary boundary layer processes, and the CCM2 radiation scheme. The model was initialized and bound by the NCEP global final analyses. The model was integrated for 36 h with an analysis nudging technique employed in the first domain throughout the integration. The second domain was initialized 12 h later with the initial and boundary conditions interpolated from the first domain. The model performed reasonably well in reproducing the track, minimum central pressure, surface maximum sustained wind speed and cloud distribution. During the 36 h of integration, the model clearly shows the evolutionary stages of rapid deepening, maximum intensity, landfall and rapid weakening. The simulated system intensified into a typhoon about 15 h into the model integration time. The thermodynamic and precipitation structures of the simulated system during maximum intensity clearly showed the eye, eyewall, and spiral rainbands. Sensitivity tests indicate that both the sea surface heat transfer and the release of latent heat in clouds contribute positively to the cyclogenesis. Rapid weakening occurred once the system made landfall and there was no longer any latent heat supply from the sea surface.

  15. SgrA* emission at 7 mm: variability and periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaklini, Pedro Paulo B.; Abraham, Zulema

    2013-01-01

    We present the result of 6 yr monitoring of SgrA*, radio source associated with the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. Single dish observations were performed with the Itapetinga radio telescope at 7 mm, and the contribution of the SgrA Complex that surrounds SgrA* was subtracted and used as instantaneous calibrator. The observations were alternated every 10 min with those of the H ii region SrgB2, which was also used as a calibrator. The reliability of the detections was tested comparing them with simultaneous observations using interferometric techniques. During the observing period we detected a continuous increase in the SgrA* flux density starting in 2008, as well as variability in time-scales of days and strong intraday fluctuations. We investigated if the continuous increase in flux density is compatible with free-free emission from the tail of the disrupted compact cloud that is falling towards SgrA* and concluded that the increase is most probably intrinsic to SgrA*. Statistical analysis of the light curve using Stellingwerf and structure function methods revealed the existence of two minima, 156 ± 10 and 220 ± 10 d. The same statistical tests applied to a simulated light curve constructed from two quadratic sinusoidal functions superimposed to random variability reproduced very well the results obtained with the real light curve, if the periods were 57 and 156 d. Moreover, when a daily sampling was used in the simulated light curve, it was possible to reproduce the 2.3 GHz structure function obtained by Falcke in 1999, which revealed the 57 d period, while the 106 periodicity found by Zhao et al. in 2001 could be a resonance of this period.

  16. pH Optrode Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

    1995-01-01

    pH-sensitive chromophoric reagents immobilized in porous optical fibers. Optoelectronic instrumentation system measures acidity or alkalinity of aqueous nutrient solution. Includes one or more optrodes, which are optical-fiber chemical sensors, in sense, analogous to electrodes but not subject to some of spurious effects distorting readings taken by pH electrodes. Concept of optrodes also described in "Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes" (KSC-11579). pH optrode sensor head, with lead-in and lead-out optical fibers, convenient for monitoring solutions located away from supporting electronic equipment.

  17. PhET: Masses & Springs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This simulation provides a realistic virtual mass-and-spring laboratory. Users can explore spring motion by manipulating stiffness of the spring and mass of the hanging weight. Concepts of Hooke's Law and elastic potential energy are further clarified through charts showing kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring. This item is part of a larger collection of simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET). The simulations are animated, interactive, and game-like environments in which students learn through exploration. All of the sims are freely available from the PhET website for incorporation into classes.

  18. Ph.D. Requirements Fall, 2009 and Forward Approved Ph.D. Training Requirements

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    Ph.D. Requirements Fall, 2009 and Forward 1 Approved Ph.D. Training Requirements Requirements effective for Ph.D. programs enrolling students in Fall 2009 and forward Critical Outcomes of a Research-Oriented Ph.D. Program In terms of an overall vision of the Curry Ph.D. graduate, the aims include student

  19. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics and IFIC, University of Valencia-CSIC, Dr. Moliner 50, E46100 Burjassot (Spain); Medical Physics Section, University Hospital, Av. Ramon y Cajal 3, E47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2004-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with {sup 125}I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained.

  20. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque.

    PubMed

    Granero, D; Pérez-Calatayud, J; Ballester, F; Casal, E; de Frutos, J M

    2004-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with 125I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T= 1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained. PMID:15651616

  1. Cari Kitahara, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Kitahara earned her Ph.D. in cancer epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She joined the Radiation Epidemiology Branch in 2008 as a predoctoral fellow and became a research fellow in 2011. In 2015, she was appointed to the position of tenure-track investigator.

  2. Effect of low pH on single skeletal muscle myosin mechanics and kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Debold, E. P.; Beck, S. E.; Warshaw, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    Acidosis (low pH) is the oldest putative agent of muscular fatigue, but the molecular mechanism underlying its depressive effect on muscular performance remains unresolved. Therefore, the effect of low pH on the molecular mechanics and kinetics of chicken skeletal muscle myosin was studied using in vitro motility (IVM) and single molecule laser trap assays. Decreasing pH from 7.4 to 6.4 at saturating ATP slowed actin filament velocity (Vactin) in the IVM by 36%. Single molecule experiments, at 1 ?M ATP, decreased the average unitary step size of myosin (d) from 10 ± 2 nm (pH 7.4) to 2 ± 1 nm (pH 6.4). Individual binding events at low pH were consistent with the presence of a population of both productive (average d = 10 nm) and nonproductive (average d = 0 nm) actomyosin interactions. Raising the ATP concentration from 1 ?M to 1 mM at pH 6.4 restored d (9 ± 3 nm), suggesting that the lifetime of the nonproductive interactions is solely dependent on the [ATP]. Vactin, however, was not restored by raising the [ATP] (1–10 mM) in the IVM assay, suggesting that low pH also prolongs actin strong binding (ton). Measurement of ton as a function of the [ATP] in the single molecule assay suggested that acidosis prolongs ton by slowing the rate of ADP release. Thus, in a detachment limited model of motility (i.e., Vactin ? d/ton), a slowed rate of ADP release and the presence of nonproductive actomyosin interactions could account for the acidosis-induced decrease in Vactin, suggesting a molecular explanation for this component of muscular fatigue. PMID:18480297

  3. Variation of urinary pH and bicarbonate concentrations of students in metropolitan and rural areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, A; Yamanaka, S; Kawai, H; Itoh, H; Katsumata, M; Minami, M; Hashimoto, T; Tanii, H; Hashimoto, K

    1995-01-01

    Changes in urinary pH and bicarbonate levels were studied in urine collected before and after final examinations taken by 91 medical students (65 males, 26 females) in Tokyo and from 87 students (73 males, 14 females) in Kanazawa, a rural municipality. Bicarbonate levels and pH in the urine of students in both cities increased significantly after attending 2 h of final examinations. The highest pH value and highest bicarbonate level were 7.66 and 80.3 mM, respectively, found in the urine of a student in Kanazawa. Urinary pH and bicarbonate levels averaged 6.48 and 11.1 mM, respectively, for students in Tokyo and 6.26 and 8.91 mM, respectively, for students in Kanazawa. Given that the concentrations of carbon dioxide in the air of the classrooms in both cities increased drastically during the final examinations (i.e., from 700 ppm to 1 200 ppm in Tokyo and from 700 ppm to 1 500 ppm in Kanazawa), it appears that the increases in urinary pH and bicarbonate levels were correlated with the increase of carbon dioxide (known to be convertible to bicarbonate in blood) in the rooms. This was also supported by the increase in urinary pH and bicarbonate levels found in urine collected from 20 students who stayed in a cinema for 3 h, at which location carbon dioxide levels in air reached 1 200 ppm. PMID:8572725

  4. SQL99, SQL/MM, and SQLJ: AnSQL99, SQL/MM, and SQLJ: An Overview of the SQL StandardsOverview of the SQL Standards

    E-print Network

    Breu, Ruth

    SQL99, SQL/MM, and SQLJ: AnSQL99, SQL/MM, and SQLJ: An Overview of the SQL StandardsOverview of the SQL Standards Nelson M. MattosNelson M. Mattos HughHugh DarwenDarwen Paul CottonPaul Cotton Peter.........................................................................................16 History of SQL Standard

  5. A Polarizable QM/MM Explicit Solvent Model for Computational Electrochemistry in Water

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lee-Ping

    We present a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) explicit solvent model for the computation of standard reduction potentials E[subscript 0]. The QM/MM model uses density functional theory (DFT) to model the ...

  6. Sub-mm Jet Properties of the X-Ray Binary Swift J1745-26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetarenko, A. J.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Curran, P. A.; Russell, T. D.; Coulson, I. M.; Heinz, S.; Maitra, D.; Markoff, S. B.; Migliari, S.; Petitpas, G. R.; Rupen, M. P.; Rushton, A. P.; Russell, D. M.; Sarazin, C. L.

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of our observations of the early stages of the 2012–2013 outburst of the transient black hole X-ray binary (BHXRB), Swift J1745–26, with the Very Large Array, Submillimeter Array, and James Clerk Maxwell telescope (SCUBA–2). Our data mark the first multiple-band mm and sub-mm observations of a BHXRB. During our observations the system was in the hard accretion state producing a steady, compact jet. The unique combination of radio and mm/sub-mm data allows us to directly measure the spectral indices in and between the radio and mm/sub-mm regimes, including the first mm/sub-mm spectral index measured for a BHXRB. Spectral fitting revealed that both the mm (230 GHz) and sub-mm (350 GHz) measurements are consistent with extrapolations of an inverted power law from contemporaneous radio data (1–30 GHz). This indicates that, as standard jet models predict, a power law extending up to mm/sub-mm frequencies can adequately describe the spectrum, and suggests that the mechanism driving spectral inversion could be responsible for the high mm/sub-mm fluxes (compared to radio fluxes) observed in outbursting BHXRBs. While this power law is also consistent with contemporaneous optical data, the optical data could arise from either jet emission with a jet spectral break frequency of {{? }break}? 1× {{10}14} Hz or the combination of jet emission with a lower jet spectral break frequency of {{? }break}? 2× {{10}11} Hz and accretion disk emission. Our analysis solidifies the importance of the mm/sub-mm regime in bridging the crucial gap between radio and IR frequencies in the jet spectrum, and justifies the need to explore this regime further.

  7. Experimental characterization and system simulations of depth of interaction PET detectors using 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm LSO arrays

    PubMed Central

    James, Sara St.; Yang, Yongfeng; Wu, Yibao; Farrell, Richard; Dokhale, Purushottam; Shah, Kanai S.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2009-01-01

    Small animal PET scanners may be improved by increasing the sensitivity, improving the spatial resolution and improving the uniformity of the spatial resolution across the field of view. This may be achieved by using PET detectors based on crystal elements that are thin in the axial and transaxial directions and long in the radial direction, and by employing depth of interaction (DOI) encoding to minimize the parallax error. With DOI detectors, the diameter of the ring of the PET scanner may also be decreased. This minimizes the number of detectors required to achieve the same solid angle coverage as a scanner with a larger ring diameter and minimizes errors due to non-collinearity of the annihilation photons. In this study, we characterize prototype PET detectors that are finely pixelated with individual LSO crystal element sizes of 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm × 20 mm and 0.7 mm × 0.7 mm × 20 mm, read out at both ends by position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). Both a specular reflector and a diffuse reflector were evaluated. The detectors were characterized based on the ability to clearly resolve the individual crystal elements, the DOI resolution and the energy resolution. Our results indicate that a scanner based on any of the four detector designs would offer improved spatial resolution and more uniform spatial resolution compared to present day small animal PET scanners. The greatest improvements to spatial resolution will be achieved when the detectors employing the 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm × 20 mm crystals are used. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to demonstrate that 2 mm DOI resolution is adequate to ensure uniform spatial resolution for a small animal PET scanner geometry using these detectors. The sensitivity of such a scanner was also simulated using Monte Carlo simulations and was shown to be greater than 10 % for a four ring scanner with an inner diameter of 6 cm, employing 20 detectors per scanner ring. PMID:19567945

  8. Geometry Optimization with QM/MM, ONIOM, and Other Combined Methods. I. Microiterations

    E-print Network

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Geometry Optimization with QM/MM, ONIOM, and Other Combined Methods. I. Microiterations Abstract: Hybrid energy methods such as QM/MM and ONIOM, that combine different levels of theory into one: geometry optimization; QM/MM; ONIOM; microiterations; hybrid methods; combined methods Introduction Hybrid

  9. Ramesh Gupta, March 30, 2010 Initial Design of 200 mm, 6 T

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    · Peak field on the conductor · Design field errors inside the solenoid · Field in the yoke iron (shield reduces the material cost - less superconductor, iron, etc. · In addition, there are some cost saving Superconducting Solenoid for e-lens (Rev 1) Coil i.d. 200 mm Coil length 2500 mm Yoke length 2500 mm Wire, bare 1

  10. Konstan/Innovative, Interactive MM ... 1 Winter 2002 Towards Innovative and

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Konstan/Innovative, Interactive MM ... 1 Winter 2002 Towards Innovative and Interactive Multimedia University of Minnesota konstan@cs.umn.edu http://www.cs.umn.edu/~konstan Konstan/Innovative, Interactive MM model · DEMAIS ­ design tool Konstan/Innovative, Interactive MM ... 3 Winter 2002 FLIPS ­ Flexible

  11. The pH of antiseptic cleansers

    PubMed Central

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Varothai, Supenya; Nuchkull, Piyavadee

    2014-01-01

    Background Daily bathing with antiseptic cleansers are proposed by some physicians as an adjunctive management of atopic dermatitis (AD). As atopic skin is sensitive, selection of cleansing products becomes a topic of concern. Objective Our purpose is to evaluate the pH of various antiseptic body cleansers to give an overview for recommendation to patients with AD. Methods Commonly bar and liquid cleansers consisted of antiseptic agents were measured for pH using pH meter and pH-indicator strips. For comparison, mild cleansers and general body cleansers were also measured. Results All cleansing bars had pH 9.8-11.3 except syndet bar that had neutral pH. For liquid cleansers, three cleansing agents had pH close to pH of normal skin, one of antiseptic cleansers, one of mild cleansers and another one of general cleansers. The rest of antiseptic cleansers had pH 8.9-9.6 while mild cleansers had pH 6.9-7.5. Syndet liquid had pH 7 and general liquid cleansers had pH 9.6. Conclusion The pH of cleanser depends on composition of that cleanser. Adding antiseptic agents are not the only factor determining variation of pH. Moreover, benefit of antiseptic properties should be considered especially in cases of infected skin lesions in the selection of proper cleansers for patients with AD. PMID:24527408

  12. Detection of the 267 GHz J = 1-0 rotational transition of PH3 in Saturn with a new Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisstein, Eric W.; Serabyn, E.

    1994-01-01

    In recent observations at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, the highly pressure-broadened (FWHM = 11.2 GHz) J = 1-0 rotational transition of PH3 (phosphine) was detected on Saturn. By modeling the Saturnian atmosphere with a radiative transfer code, the observed line profile was consistent with a constant PH3 mole fraction of 3.0 plus or minus 1.0 ppm in the upper troposphere. A best-fit to the depth of the line implies a cutoff at high altitudes, with no PH3 present at pressures approximately less than 100 mbar. The observed line depth, combined with the lack of a detectable emission core, implies that a cutoff in the PH3 abundance occurs at a pressure between 13 and 140 mbar. PH3 in Jupiter was not detected, nor any other molecular lines between 195 and 295 GHz (1.54 mm and 1.02 mm, respectively) in either Jupiter or Saturn.

  13. Stella Koutros, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Koutros received her M.P.H. and Ph.D. in epidemiology from Yale University. She completed her doctoral work through the Yale-NCI partnership training program in cancer epidemiology, conducting research in the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch (OEEB). In 2008, upon completion of her doctorate she became a fellow in OEEB; she was appointed to the position of tenure-track investigator in 2015.

  14. Kinetic evidence for the interactive inhibition of laccase from Trametes versicolor by pH and chloride.

    PubMed

    Raseda, Nasrin; Hong, Soonho; Kwon, O Yul; Ryu, Keungarp

    2014-12-28

    The interactive inhibitory effects of pH and chloride on the catalysis of laccase from Trametes versicolor were investigated by studying the alteration of inhibition characteristics of sodium chloride at different pHs for the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). At pH 3.0, the addition of sodium chloride (50 mM) brought about a 40-fold increase in Km(app) and a 4-fold decrease in Vmax(app). As the pH increased to 7.0, the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride became significantly weakened. The mixed-inhibition mechanism was successfully used to quantitatively estimate the competitive and uncompetitive inhibition strengths by chloride at two different pHs (pH 3.0 and 6.0). At pH 3.0, the competitive inhibition constant, Ki, was 0.35 mM, whereas the uncompetitive inhibition constant, Ki', was 18.1 mM, indicating that the major cause of the laccase inhibition by chloride is due to the competitive inhibition step. At a higher pH of 6.0, where the inhibition of the laccase by hydroxide ions takes effect, the inhibition of the laccase by chloride diminished to a great extent, showing increased values of both the competitive inhibition constant (Ki= 23.7 mM) and uncompetitive inhibition constant (Ki' = 324 mM). These kinetic results evidenced that the hydroxide anion and chloride share a common mechanism to inhibit the laccase activity. PMID:25152059

  15. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: effects of pH and mixed nitrogen sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D. Jr; Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.; Chaillou, S.

    1991-01-01

    To determine if the daily pattern of NO3- and NH4+ uptake is affected by acidity or NO3- : NH4+ ratio of the nutrient solution, non-nodulated soybean plants (Glycine max) were exposed for 21 days to replenished, complete nutrient solutions at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5 which contained either 1.0 mM NH4+, 1.0 mM NO3- [correction of NO3+], 0.67 mM NH4+ plus 0.33 mM NO3- (2:1 NH4+ : NO3-) [correction of (2:1 NH3+ : NO4-)], or 0.33 mM NH4+ plus 0.67 mM NO3- (1:2 NH4+ : NO3-). Net uptake rates of NH4+ and NO3- were measured daily by ion chromatography as depletion from the replenished solutions. When NH4+ and NO3- were supplied together, cumulative uptake of total nitrogen was not affected by pH or solution NH4+ : NO3- ratio. The cumulative proportion of nitrogen absorbed as NH4+ decreased with increasing acidity; however, the proportional uptake of NH4+ and NO3- was not constant, but varied day-to-day. This day-to-day variation in relative proportions of NH4+ and NO3- absorbed when NH4+ : NO3- ratio and pH of solution were constant indicates that the regulatory mechanism is not directly competitive. Regardless of the effect of pH on cumulative uptake of NH4+, the specific nitrogen uptake rates from mixed and from individual NH4+ and NO3- sources oscillated between maxima and minima at each pH with average periodicities similar to the expected interval of leaf emergence.

  16. Cell Expansion and Tracheary Element Differentiation Are Regulated by Extracellular pH in Mesophyll Cultures of Zinnia elegans L.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, A. W.; Haigler, C. H.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of medium pH on cell expansion and tracheary element (TE) differentiation were investigated in differentiating mesophyll suspension cultures of Zinnia elegans L. In unbuffered cultures initially adjusted to pH 5.5, the medium pH fluctuated reproducibly, decreasing about 1 unit prior to the onset of TE differentiation and then increasing when the initiation of new Tes was complete. Elimination of large pH fluctuations by buffering the culture medium with 20 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid altered both cell expansion and TE differentiation, whereas altering the starting pH of unbuffered culture medium had no effect on either process. Cell expansion in buffered cultures was pH dependent with an optimum of 5.5 to 6.0. The direction of cell expansion was also pH dependent in buffered cultures. Cells elongated at pH 5.5 to 6.0, whereas isodiametric cell expansion was predominant at pH 6.5 to 7.0. The onset of TE differentiation was delayed when the pH was buffered higher or lower than 5.0. However, TEs eventually appeared in cultures buffered at pH 6.5 to 7.0, indicating that a decrease in pH to 5.0 is not necessary for differentiation. Very large TEs with secondary cell wall thickenings resembling metaxylem differentiated in cultures buffered at pH 5.5 to 6.0, which also showed the greatest cell expansion. The correlation between cell expansion and delayed differentiation of large, metaxylem-like TEs may indicate a link between the regulatory mechanisms controlling cell expansion and TE differentiation. PMID:12232237

  17. Defining and Teaching pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Richard F.

    2007-07-01

    The 1909 definition of pH given in most general chemistry textbooks conflicts with the modern, operationally-defined pH scale that underlies laboratory measurement and relates to activities. At an elementary level, pH and the algebra of equilibria can be simply and correctly taught, without logarithms, in terms of the latter scale.

  18. Effect of pH on chloride absorption in the flounder intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Charney, A.N.; Scheide, J.I.; Ingrassia, P.M.; Zadunaisky, J.A. (Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salsbury Cove, ME (USA) New York Univ., New York (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Chloride absorption in the small intestine of the winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, is reported to be sensitive to ambient pH. The authors studied this sensitivity in isolated stripped intestinal mucosa mounted in modified Ussing chambers. Unidirectional {sup 36}Cl fluxes (J{sup Cl}{sub m{yields}s}, J{sup Cl}{sub s{yields}m}) were measured under short-circuited conditions in bathing solutions containing various combinations of HCO{sup {minus}}{sub 3} (0-20 mM), partial pressure of CO{sub 2}, and pH (6.77-7.85). They found that J{sup Cl}{sub m{yields}s}, net {sup 36}Cl flux (J{sup Cl}{sub net}), and short-circuit current (I{sub sc}) increased and J{sup Cl}{sub s{yields}m} decreased predominantly in response to increases in bathing solution pH. There was a linear relationship between pH and both J{sup Cl}{sub net} and I{sub sc} between pH 6.77 and 7.74. The pH effect was completely reversible, did not require either CO{sub 2} or HCO{sup {minus}}{sub 3}, and was not affected by the presence of mucosal barium at 1 mM. Mucosal bumetanide completely inhibited the pH effect. These data suggest that the process by which Cl{sup {minus}} is absorbed in the flounder intestine is sensitive to pH. The data do not indicate whether pH affects Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-2Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport or a Cl{sup {minus}} transport pathway in series with this process. The direction of Cl{sup {minus}} absorption in response to pH contrasts with inverse relation of pH and Cl{sup {minus}} absorption in mammalian small intestine.

  19. Effects of pH and phosphate on CeO2 nanoparticle dissolution.

    PubMed

    Dahle, Jessica T; Livi, Ken; Arai, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    As the result of rapidly grown nanotechnology industries, release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to environment has increased, posing in a serious risk to environmental and human health. To better understand the chemical fate of ENPs in aquatic environments, solubility of CeO2 NPs was investigated using batch dissolution experiments as a function of pH (1.65-12.5), [phosphate] and particle size (33 and 78 nm). It was found that CeO2 dissolution was only significant at pH<5 and inversely proportional to surface area. After 120 h, the release of Ce was ?3 times greater in large NPs than that in small NPs that is likely contributed by the difference in exchangeable Ce(III) impurity (small: 0.3 mM kg(-1), large: 1.56 mM kg(-1)). When 100 ?M of phosphate was added, the dissolution rate of CeO2 NPs was decreased in small NPs by 15% at pH 1.65 and 75% at pH 4.5 and in large NPs by 56% at pH 1.65 and 63% at pH 4.5. The inner-sphere surface complexation of P that is revealed by the zeta potential measurements is effectively suppressing the CeO2 NP dissolution. Predicting the fate and transport of CeO2 NPs in aquatic environment, pH and P ligands might play important roles in controlling the solubility of CeO2 NPs. PMID:24630459

  20. Natalie Sachs-Ericsson, Ph.D. Natalie J. Sachs-Ericsson, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Hull, Elaine

    Natalie Sachs-Ericsson, Ph.D. 1 10-26-08 Natalie J. Sachs-Ericsson, Ph.D. Current Address University Tallahassee, FL 32306-1051 #12;Natalie Sachs-Ericsson, Ph.D. 2 1993 - 2000 Assistant in Clinical. Boulder, CO #12;Natalie Sachs-Ericsson, Ph.D. 3 *denotes FSU graduate student. Publications 1. *Sawyer, K

  1. Soils - Part 4: Soil pH

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Soil pH is defined and its implications for crop production are described in this lesson. How are soil pH and buffer pH determined? How are these assessments used in lime recommendations? The factors that influence pH variations in soils, the chemistry involved in changing the pH of a soil, and the benefits associated with liming acid soils will be discussed.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

  2. Development and application of specially-focused ultrasonic transducers to location and sizing of defects in 75 mm- to 127 mm-thick austenitic stainless steel weld metals

    SciTech Connect

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Benson, S.; McKinley, B.J.; Carodiskey, T.

    1992-08-01

    Special UT transducer parts, capable of focusing incident signals within a 25 mm {times} 25 mm {times} 25 mm volume in an austenitic stainless weld metal at depths that varied from 25 mm to 127 mm, were developed and demonstrated to be capable of detecting a defect with cross section equivalent to that of a 4.76 mm-dia flat-bottom hole. Defect length sizing could be accomplished to {plus_minus}50% for 100% of the time and to {plus_minus}25% on selected defect types as follows: porosity groups, 100%; cracks, 67%; combined slag and porosity, 60%; and linear slag indications, 59%. Extensive linear elastic-fracture-mechanics analyses were performed to establish allowable defect sizes at functions of stress, based on a cyclic-life criterion of 10{sup 3} full power cycles of the MFTF-B magnet system. These defect sizes were used to determine which UT indicating were to be removed and repaired and which were to be retained and their recorded sizes and locations.

  3. In Vivo Model to Test Implanted Biosensors for Blood pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Somps, Chris J.; Madou, Marc; Hines, John; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Biosensors for monitoring physiologic data continuously through telemetry are available for heart rate, respiration, and temperature but not for blood pH or ions affected by hydrogen ion concentration. A telemetric biosensor for monitoring blood pH on-line could be used to identify and manage problems in fluid and electrolyte metabolism, cardiac and respiratory function during space flight and the acid-base status of patients without the need for venipuncture in patients on Earth. Critical to the development of biosensors is a method for evaluating their performance after implantation. Mature rats, prepared with jugular, cannulas for repeated blood samples, were exposed to a gas mixture containing high levels of carbon dioxide (7%) in a closed environment to induce mild respiratory acidosis. Serial blood gas and pH measurements in venous blood were compared with electrical responses from sensors implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals became slightly tachypneic after exposure to excess CO2, but remained alert and active. After 5 minutes, basal blood pH decreased from 7.404 +/- 0.013 to 7.289 +/- 0.010 (p less than 0.001)and PC02 increased from 45 +/- 6 to 65 +/- 4 mm. Hg (p les than 0.001). Thereafter pH and blood gas parameters remained stable. Implanted sensors showed a decrease in millivolts (mV) which paralleled the change in pH and averaged 5-6 mV per 0.1 unit pH. Implanted sensors remained sensitive to modest changes in tissue pH for one week. A system for inducing acidosis in rats was developed to test the in vivo performance of pH biosensors. The system provides a method which is sensitive, rapid and reproducible in the same and different animals with full recovery, for testing the performance of sensors implanted in subcutaneous tissues.

  4. In situ generation of pH gradients in microfluidic devices for biofabrication of freestanding, semi-permeable chitosan membranes

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    *ab and Gary W. Rubloff*cd Received 11th August 2009, Accepted 9th October 2009 First published as an Advance-controlled and localized pH gradient. Chitosan molecules were deprotonated at the flow interface, causing gelation chitosan membranes were about 30­60 mm thick and uniform throughout the flow interface inside

  5. Quantification of iopamidol multi-site chemical exchange properties for ratiometric chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhe Sun, Phillip; Livio Longo, Dario; Hu, Wei; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua

    2014-08-01

    pH-sensitive chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI holds great promise for in vivo applications. However, the CEST effect depends on not only exchange rate and hence pH, but also on the contrast agent concentration, which must be determined independently for pH quantification. Ratiometric CEST MRI normalizes the concentration effect by comparing CEST measurements of multiple labile protons to simplify pH determination. Iopamidol, a commonly used x-ray contrast agent, has been explored as a ratiometric CEST agent for imaging pH. However, iopamidol CEST properties have not been solved, determination of which is important for optimization and quantification of iopamidol pH imaging. Our study numerically solved iopamidol multi-site pH-dependent chemical exchange properties. We found that iopamidol CEST MRI is suitable for measuring pH between 6 and 7.5 despite that T1 and T2 measurements varied substantially with pH and concentration. The pH MRI precision decreased with pH and concentration. The standard deviation of pH determined from MRI was 0.2 and 0.4 pH unit for 40 and 20?mM iopamidol solution of pH 6, and it improved to be less than 0.1 unit for pH above 7. Moreover, we determined base-catalyzed chemical exchange for 2-hydrooxypropanamido (ksw = 1.2*10pH-4.1) and amide (ksw = 1.2*10pH-4.6) protons that are statistically different from each other (P < 0.01, ANCOVA), understanding of which should help guide in vivo translation of iopamidol pH imaging.

  6. Effect of pH on chloride absorption in the flounder intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Charney; J. I. Scheide; P. M. Ingrassia; J. A. Zadunaisky

    1988-01-01

    Chloride absorption in the small intestine of the winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, is reported to be sensitive to ambient pH. The authors studied this sensitivity in isolated stripped intestinal mucosa mounted in modified Ussing chambers. Unidirectional ³⁶Cl fluxes (J{sup Cl}{sub mâs}, J{sup Cl}{sub sâm}) were measured under short-circuited conditions in bathing solutions containing various combinations of HCO⁻â (0-20 mM), partial

  7. Effect of Static Loading of Dentin Beams at Various pH Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mishra; J. E. A. Palamara; M. J. Tyas; M. F. Burrow

    2006-01-01

    Noncarious cervical lesions have a multifactorial etiology. Mechanical stress has been identified as one of the factors, but\\u000a little evidence exists for its cause-effect relationship. This study was conducted at three different pH levels to observe\\u000a the surface loss on dentin beams under tension and compression. Bovine dentin beams (10 x 3.75 x 1.45 mm) were fixed at one\\u000a end

  8. Growth and characterization of 200 mm SI GaAs crystals grown by the VGF method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzenberger, J.; Bünger, T.; Börner, F.; Eichler, S.; Flade, T.; Hammer, R.; Jurisch, M.; Kretzer, U.; Teichert, S.; Weinert, B.

    2003-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that 200 mm diameter semi-insulating (SI) GaAs single crystals can be grown by an upscaled proprietary VGF method successfully used for commercial crystal growth up to 150 mm in the past. First results of structural and electrical characterization of wafers made from these crystals will be presented. They are similar to those known for state-of-the-art 150 mm SI GaAs VGF/VB crystals.

  9. A positron tomograph with 600 BGO crystals and 2. 6 mm resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Derenzo; R. H. Huesman; J. L. Cahoon; A. B. Geyer; W. W. Moses; D. C. Uber; T. F. Vuletich; T. F. Budinger

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe the imaging performance of the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph, a single 60 cm diam ring of 3 mm wide bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals coupled individually to 14 mm phototubes. With a pulse height threshold of 200 keV and a slice thickness of 5 mm, the sensitivity is 7024 events\\/sec per ..mu..Ci\\/ml in a 20 cm cylinder of

  10. A positron tomograph with 600 BGO (bismuth germanate) crystals and 2. 6 mm resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Derenzo; R. H. Huesman; J. L. Cahoon; A. B. Geyer; W. W. Moses; D. C. Uber; T. Vuletich; T. F. Budinger

    1987-01-01

    We describe the imaging performance of the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph, a single 600 cm diam ring of 3 mm wide bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals coupled individually to 14 mm phototubes. With a pulse height threshold of 200 keV and a slice thickness of 5 mm, the sensitivity is 7024 eventssec per ..mu..Ciml in a 20 cm cyliner of water.

  11. Spatially resolved electron density measurements in a CCRF with an 1 mm microwave interferometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Schulz-von der Gathen; Christoph Lukas; Michael Spaan; H. F. Döbele

    1998-01-01

    Three dimensional electron density profiles are measured with an 1 mm heterodyne microwave interferometer(N.Niemöller et al., Plasma Sources Sci.Technol., 6 (1997) 478) at a capacitively coupled rf discharge. The stainless steel electrode assembly (100 mm diameter and 25 or 40 mm separation) can be displaced in both directions transverse to the microwave beam. From a series of line-of-sight measurements a

  12. A NOVEL 400-mm RO SYSTEM FOR WATER REUSE AND DESALINATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Say-Leong Ong

    For years, the 200-mm (8-inch) diameter reverse osmosis (RO) element has been the standard size used in full-scale RO system for both desalination and water reclamation. Recently, larger diameter RO elements (400-460 mm, 16-18 inch diameter) have started to emerge in the market. Comparing large diameter RO membrane with the conventional 200-mm RO element, larger diameter RO element is preferred

  13. GaN 20-mm diameter ingots grown from melt-solution by seeded technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Sukhoveyev; V. A. Ivantsov; I. P. Nikitina; A. I. Babanin; A. Y. Polvakov; A. V. Govorkov; N. B. Smirnov; M. G. Milvidskii; V. A. Dmitriev

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe the seeded growth of 20 mm diameter 15 mm long GaN ingots from the melt-solution. This is the first successful attempt to conduct growth of GaN boule-crystals. GaN ingots were grown from Ga-based melt in the temperature range of 800--1000 C at less than 2 atm ambient pressure. Growth was performed at 2 mm\\/hr

  14. Computed tomography dose assessment for a 160 mm wide, 320 detector row, cone beam CT scanner

    PubMed Central

    Geleijns, J; Artells, M Salvadó; de Bruin, P W; Matter, R; Muramatsu, Y; McNitt-Gray, M F

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) dosimetry should be adapted to the rapid developments in CT technology. Recently a 160 mm wide, 320 detector row, cone beam CT scanner that challenges the existing Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) dosimetry paradigm was introduced. The purpose of this study was to assess dosimetric characteristics of this cone beam scanner, to study the appropriateness of existing CT dose metrics and to suggest a pragmatic approach for CT dosimetry for cone beam scanners. Dose measurements with a small Farmer-type ionization chamber and with 100 mm and 300 mm long pencil ionization chambers were performed free in air to characterize the cone beam. According to the most common dose metric in CT, namely CTDI, measurements were also performed in 150 mm and 350 mm long CT head and CT body dose phantoms with 100 mm and 300 mm long pencil ionization chambers, respectively. To explore effects that cannot be measured with ionization chambers, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the dose distribution in 150 mm, 350 mm and 700 mm long CT head and CT body phantoms were performed. To overcome inconsistencies in the definition of CTDI100 for the 160 mm wide cone beam CT scanner, doses were also expressed as the average absorbed dose within the pencil chamber (D?100). Measurements free in air revealed excellent correspondence between CTDI300air and D?100air, while CTDI100air substantially underestimates CTDI300air. Results of measurements in CT dose phantoms and corresponding MC simulations at centre and peripheral positions were weighted and revealed good agreement between CTDI300w, D?100w and CTDI600w, while CTDI100w substantially underestimates CTDI300w. D?100w provides a pragmatic metric for characterizing the dose of the 160 mm wide cone beam CT scanner. This quantity can be measured with the widely available 100 mm pencil ionization chamber within 150 mm long CT dose phantoms. CTDI300w measured in 350 mm long CT dose phantoms serves as an appropriate standard of reference for characterizing the dose of this CT scanner. A CT dose descriptor that is based on an integration length smaller than the actual beam width is preferably expressed as an (average) dose, such as D?100 for the 160 mm wide cone beam CT scanner, and not as CTDI100. PMID:19420423

  15. The pH Factor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Miami Museum of Science's learning site, The pH Factor, gives teachers a fun and interactive way to teach elementary and middle school students some basics of science. Material is divided into seven learning areas: excite, explore, explain, expand, extend, exchange, and examine. Each contains an interactive screen that can be used directly in the classroom and lesson plans that correspond with each subject. For example, the excite area contains the "tasting tongue" that, when clicked, shows the location on the tongue where you taste bitter or sour things. The site's teaching style is based on the proposition that learners need to build their own understanding of new ideas. The unique material that is offered on this site provides educators with an excellent alternative for teaching these sometimes difficult concepts to grade school students.

  16. Optical Replacement of pH Electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aliasgar Sohanghpurwala; Govind Rao; Yordan Kostov

    2009-01-01

    The development of a noninvasive, self-contained optical pH sensor probe intended as a direct replacement for a pH electrode is presented. It uses a fluorescent excitation-ratiometric pH sensing dye in a patch. The patch is excited by light emitting diodes of differing wavelengths which are controlled by a microcontroller (MCU). The emission levels are measured by analog circuitry and their

  17. Middle School and pH?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Herricks

    2007-02-01

    A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. As a result, the grade-appropriate, hands-on laboratory, "Creating the pH Scale" was developed to help students grasp the fundamentals of pH.

  18. Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Caldeira; Michael E. Wickett

    2003-01-01

    ocean 1 with potentially adverse consequences for marine biota 2-4 . We quantify pH changes that may result from continued release of fossil-fuel CO 2 to the atmosphere, and compare these with pH changes inferred from geological and historical records. We conclude that releasing fossil-fuel CO 2 to the atmosphere over several centuries may result in ocean pH changes greater

  19. Epidemiologic determinants of vaginal pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montserrat García-Closas; Rolando Herrero; Concepción Bratti; Allan Hildesheim; Mark E. Sherman; Lidia Ana Morera; Mark Schiffman

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between vaginal pH and factors related to cervical cancer. Study Design: In a population-based sample of 9161 women from Guanacaste Province in Costa Rica women were categorized into 2 groups, those with vaginal pH in the reference range (4.0-4.5) and those with elevated vaginal pH (5.0-5.5). Odds ratios were used to

  20. pH of estuarine waters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The emf measurements for the TRIS buffer in seawater have been used to define buffer solutions that can be used to determine the pH on a free or total proton scale for estuarine waters. The pH is related to the stoichiometric dissociation constant (K*) of TRISH/sup +/, the concentration of buffer (m/sub TRIS/) and salinity (S). An electrode system with liquid junction was used to measure these buffers to compare the various pH scales.

  1. Sensitization of Listeria monocytogenes to Low pH, Organic Acids, and Osmotic Stress by Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Clive; Park, Simon F.

    2001-01-01

    The killing of Listeria monocytogenes following exposure to low pH, organic acids, and osmotic stress was enhanced by the addition of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol. At pH 3, for example, the presence of this agent stimulated killing by more than 3 log units in 40 min of exposure. The rate of cell death at pH 3.0 was dependent on the concentration of ethanol. Thus, while the presence 10% (vol/vol) ethanol at pH 3.0 stimulated killing by more than 3 log units in just 5 min, addition of 1.25% (vol/vol) ethanol resulted in less than 1 log unit of killing in 10 min. The ability of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol to stimulate killing at low pH and at elevated osmolarity was also dependent on the amplitude of the imposed stress, and an increase in the pH from 3.0 to 4.0 or a decrease in the sodium chloride concentration from 25 to 2.5% led to a marked reduction in the effectiveness of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol as an augmentative agent. Combinations of organic acids, low pH, and ethanol proved to be particularly effective bactericidal treatments; the most potent combination was pH 3.0, 50 mM formate, and 5 % (vol/vol) ethanol, which resulted in 5 log units of killing in just 4 min. Ethanol-enhanced killing correlated with damage to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:11282610

  2. Improvement of biohydrogen production by Enterobacter cloacae IIT-BT 08 under regulated pH.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Namita; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Gilbert, J Jose; Das, Debabrata

    2011-03-10

    The present study investigates the effect of pH and intermediate products formation on biological hydrogen production using Enterobacter cloacae IIT-BT 08. Initial pH was found to have a profound effect on hydrogen production potential, while regulating the pH 6.5 throughout the fermentation was found to increase the cumulative hydrogen production rate and yield significantly. Modified Gompertz equation was used to fit the cumulative hydrogen production curves to obtain the hydrogen production potential P, the hydrogen production rate R and lag phase ?. At regulated pH 6.5, higher H(2) yield (3.1molH(2)mol(-1) glucose), specific hydrogen production potential (798.1mL/g) and specific rate of H(2) production (72.1mLL(-1)h(-1)g(-1)) were obtained. The volatile fatty acid profile showed butyrate, ethanol and acetate as the major end metabolites of fermentation under the operating pH conditions tested; however, their pattern of distribution was pH dependent. At the optimum pH of 6.5, the acetate to butyrate ratio (A/B ratio) was found to be higher than that at any other pH. The study also investigates the effect of sodium ions on biohydrogen production potential. It was also found that sodium ion concentration up to 250mM enhanced the hydrogen production potential; however, any further increase in the metal ion concentration had an inhibitory effect. PMID:21185338

  3. Project Summary MRI: Development of a Chirped-Pulse, Fourier-Transform mm-Wave Pulsed

    E-print Network

    Baskaran, Mark

    Project Summary MRI: Development of a Chirped-Pulse, Fourier-Transform mm-Wave Pulsed Uniform technologies: chirped-pulse Fourier-transform mm-wave spectroscopy and pulsed uniform supersonic flows: The instrument will leverage the ultra-broadband Chirped-pulse Fourier-transform Microwave (CP

  4. The Development and Demise of 8 MM Film Loops in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Rebecca P.

    Educators in the late 1960s and early 1970s found that 8 mm film loop cartridges encouraged learning techniques such as self-tutorials, individualized instruction, and small-group participation. The single concept approach used in the production of most 8 mm cartridges contributed to alternative learning strategies in these settings. The…

  5. The M/M Center: Meeting the Demand for Multicultural, Multilingual Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Pia Lindquist; Murai, Harold; Berta-Avila, Margarita; William-White, Lisa; Baker, Susan; Arellano, Adele; Echandia, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    The Multilingual/Multicultural Teacher Preparation Center (M/M Center), a teacher preparation program offered by the Bilingual/Multicultural Education Department (BMED) at California State University, Sacramento, is entering its third decade of operation. The M/M Center was established by a group of progressive teacher educators, most with a…

  6. Estimation of the Young’s modulus of cellulose Iß by MM3 and quantum mechanics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young’s modulus provides a measure of the resistance to deformation of an elastic material. In this study, modulus estimations for models of cellulose Iß relied on calculations performed with molecular mechanics (MM) and quantum mechanics (QM) programs. MM computations used the second generation emp...

  7. Young’s modulus calculations for cellulose Iß by MM3 and quantum mechanics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics (MM) calculations were performed to elucidate Young’s moduli for a series of cellulose Iß models. Computations using the second generation empirical force field MM3 with a disaccharide cellulose model, 1,4'-O-dimethyl-ß-cellobioside (DMCB), and an analo...

  8. As of , , (yyyy,mm dd) Appended Form 1 No. 1

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    (yyyy/mm/dd) Family Name Date of Family Name Change Valid until Final StatusName of Institution (School submitting the resume. You may use either a black-and-white or a color full-faced photograph showing your width Previous Family Name SexFirst Name mm Status of Residence at the end of the academic year

  9. Effect of thermal shield and gas flow on thermal elastic stresses in 300 mm silicon crystal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu GAO; Qinghua XIAO; Qigang ZHOU; Xiaolin DAI; Hailing TU

    2006-01-01

    The thermal elastic stresses induced in 300 mm Si crystal may be great troubles because it can incur the generation of dislocations and undesirable excessive residual stresses. A special thermal modeling tool, CrysVUn, was used for numerical analysis of thermal elastic stresses and stress distribution of 300 mm Si crystal under the consideration of different thermal shields and gas flow

  10. Draft, 07 Sep 2010 The Science Case for the GBT 4mm Receiver

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    a traditional dual- beam feed-horn receiver which operates at the lower frequency end of the 3- 4 mm atmospheric window (67­93 GHz), designated as the 4mm Receiver. The project will make use of previously acquired for Green Bank is given by the blue curve for an elevation of 90 and the red curve at 30 . The solid black

  11. Two-mm-wavelength superheterodyne modulation radiometer with a Josephson frequency converter at the input

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Abliazov; S. A. Andreev; A. N. Vystavkin; V. N. Gubankov; V. P. Diakov; A. I. Zhukov; A. G. Kisliakov; K. A. Rulev; M. A. Tarasov; S. Iu. Turygin

    1981-01-01

    The paper reports the successful field testing of a 2-mm-wavelength superheterodyne modulation radiometer with Josephson frequency converter on the RT-25x2 IPF radio telescope. The design and basic characteristics of the radiometer are summarized. Results were obtained that make it possible to refine values of solar brightness temperature at 2 mm.

  12. HES SIMULATION STUDY USING CUBE DATA FROM MM5 Fengying Sun

    E-print Network

    Li, Jun

    P1.37 HES SIMULATION STUDY USING CUBE DATA FROM MM5 Fengying Sun * , Jun Li * , Timothy J. Schmit and spatial resolutions. The atmospheric cube data from the output of PSU/NCAR MM5 version 3.5 (Grell etc to simulate HES top of atmosphere clear sky radiances by a fast forward model (Hannon et al. 1996). These cube

  13. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Charles J. (San Jose, CA)

    1983-01-01

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe.

  14. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, C.J.

    1983-11-15

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe. 1 fig.

  15. pH jump induced ?-helix folding.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donten, M. L.; Hamm, P.

    2013-03-01

    pH can be used to impact the folding equilibrium of peptides and proteins. This fact is utilized, similarly to temperature jumps, in pH jump experiments employing laser time-resolved spectroscopy to study the function and structural dynamics of these molecules. Here the application of pH jumps in folding experiments was investigated. Experiments with poly-L-glutamic acid alpha-helix formation shown the critical aspects of pH jump experiments and yielded direct information about the folding kinetics monitored with the amide I IR band.

  16. Effect of External pH on the Internal pH of Chlorella saccharophila1

    PubMed Central

    Gehl, Katharina A.; Colman, Brian

    1985-01-01

    The overall internal pH of the acid-tolerant green alga, Chlorella saccharophila, was determined in the light and in the dark by the distribution of 5,5-dimethyl-2-[14C]oxazolidine-2,4-dione ([14C]DMO) or [14C]benzoic acid ([14C]BA) between the cells and the surrounding medium. [14C]DMO was used at external pH of 5.0 to 7.5 while [14C]BA was used in the range pH 3.0 to pH 5.5. Neither compound was metabolized by the algal cells and intracellular binding was minimal. The internal pH of the algae obtained with the two compounds at external pH values of 5.0 and 5.5 were in good agreement. The internal pH of C. saccharophila remained relatively constant at pH 7.3 over the external pH range of pH 5.0 to 7.5. Below pH 5.0, however, there was a gradual decrease in the internal pH to 6.4 at an external pH of 3.0. The maintenance of a constant internal pH requires energy and the downward drift of internal pH with a drop in external pH may be a mechanism to conserve energy and allow growth at acid pH. PMID:16664162

  17. Permanent Magnet with Very Low Field Gradient (0.1G/mm) for NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilic, Ognjen; Issadore, David; Hunt, Tom; Westervelt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful analytical tool for obtaining chemical, physical and structural information. To produce the uniform fields required, NMR experiments typically employ large, expensive electromagnets and shimming coils. We have developed a small permanent magnet with an iron yoke that produces a field of ˜10 kG with gradient < 0.1G/mm across a 6 mm region for a total field homogeneity of 10 ppm. The system consists of two parallel cylindrical NdFe permanent magnets, 50mm in diameter and 25mm thick, separated by 4mm. The magnets are surrounded by hollow low-carbon steel cylinders with steel caps on each end of the yoke. By adjusting the distance between the yoke caps and the magnet we cancel first-order field strength variations, as shown in simulations. This design is an important innovation for low cost, benchtop NMR systems. *Supported by the NCI MIT-Harvard CCNE.

  18. Simultaneous pressure and /sup 19/F NMR pH measurements of smooth muscle cells of intact hog carotid arteries at rest and during contractions with norepinephrine

    SciTech Connect

    Grieder, T.A.; Evans, C.A.; Greenberg, S.S.; Diecke, F.P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Using /sup 19/F NMR we have measured the intracellular pH of the vascular smooth muscle cells of hog carotid arteries at rest and during contractions induced with norepinephrine. Experiments were performed on single, intact arteries closed at both ends, superfused from the lumen and loaded with the /sup 19/F NMR pH indicator ..cap alpha..-difluoromethylalanine. At rest, luminal pressure was maintained at 100 +/-2 mm Hg and intracellular pH was 7.12 +/- 0.04. Contractions elicited with 10/sup -5/ M norepinephrine were associated with a pressure increase of 18 +/-6 mm Hg and a decrease in pH of 0.04 +/- 0.02 units.

  19. Unsedated peroral wireless pH capsule placement vs. standard pH testing: A randomized study and cost analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wireless capsule pH-metry (WC) is better tolerated than standard nasal pH catheter (SC), but endoscopic placement is expensive. Aims: to confirm that non-endoscopic peroral manometric placement of WC is as effective and better tolerated than SC and to perform a cost analysis of the available esophageal pH-metry methods. Methods Randomized trial at 2 centers. Patients referred for esophageal pH testing were randomly assigned to WC with unsedated peroral placement or SC after esophageal manometry (ESM). Primary outcome was overall discomfort with pH-metry. Costs of 3 different pH-metry strategies were analyzed: 1) ESM?+?SC, 2) ESM?+?WC and 3) endoscopically placed WC (EGD?+?WC) using publicly funded health care system perspective. Results 86 patients (mean age 51?±?2?years, 71% female) were enrolled. Overall discomfort score was less in WC than in SC patients (26?±?4?mm vs 39?±?4?mm VAS, respectively, p?=?0.012) but there were no significant group differences in throat, chest, or overall discomfort during placement. Overall failure rate was 7% in the SC group vs 12% in the WC group (p?=?0.71). Per patient costs ($Canadian) were $1475 for EGD?+?WC, $1014 for ESM?+?WC, and $906 for ESM?+?SC. Decreasing the failure rate of ESM?+?WC from 12% to 5% decreased the cost of ESM?+?WC to $991. The ESM?+?SC and ESM?+?WC strategies became equivalent when the cost of the WC device was dropped from $292 to $193. Conclusions Unsedated peroral WC insertion is better tolerated than SC pH-metry both overall and during placement. Although WC is more costly, the extra expense is partially offset when the higher patient and caregiver time costs of SC are considered. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT01364610 PMID:22650250

  20. CARLOS FERNANDEZ-PELLO. PH.D., MS AND UNDERGRAD STUDENTS Ph.D. Program

    E-print Network

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    , Ph.D. Spring 1991. Current Employment, SAIC, Ca Elisabeth R. Cantwell, Ph.D. Spring 1992. Current Carol E. Buchholz, Ms Spring 1987 Jennifer L. Newhall, Ms Spring 1988 Lisa Gavin. Ms Spring 1989 Robert

  1. Calcium release and its voltage dependence in frog cut muscle fibers equilibrated with 20 mM EGTA

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release was studied at 13-16 degrees C in cut fibers (sarcomere length, 3.4-3.9 microns) mounted in a double Vaseline-gap chamber. The amplitude and duration of the action- potential stimulated free [Ca] transient were reduced by equilibration with end-pool solutions that contained 20 mM EGTA with 1.76 mM Ca and 0.63 mM phenol red, a maneuver that appeared to markedly reduce the amount of Ca complexed by troponin. A theoretical analysis shows that, under these conditions, the increase in myoplasmic free [Ca] is expected to be restricted to within a few hundred nanometers of the SR Ca release sites and to have a time course that essentially matches that of release. Furthermore, almost all of the Ca that is released from the SR is expected to be rapidly bound by EGTA and exchanged for protons with a 1:2 stoichiometry. Consequently, the time course of SR Ca release can be estimated by scaling the delta pH signal measured with phenol red by -beta/2. The value of beta, the buffering power of myoplasm, was determined in fibers equilibrated with a combination of EGTA, phenol red, and fura-2; its mean value was 22 mM/pH unit. The Ca content of the SR (expressed as myoplasmic concentration) was estimated from the total amount of Ca released by either a train of action potentials or a depleting voltage step; its mean value was 2,685 microM in the action-potential experiments and 2,544 microM in the voltage- clamp experiments. An action potential released, on average, 0.14 of the SR Ca content with a peak rate of release of approximately 5%/ms. A second action potential, elicited 20 ms later, released only 0.6 times as much Ca (expressed as a fraction of the SR content), probably because Ca inactivation of Ca release was produced by the first action potential. During a depolarizing voltage step to 60 mV, the rate of Ca release rapidly increased to a peak value of approximately 3%/ms and then decreased to a quasi-steady level that was only 0.6 times as large; this decrease was also probably due to Ca inactivation of Ca release. SR Ca release was studied with small step depolarizations that open no more than one SR Ca channel in 7,000 and increase the value of spatially averaged myoplasmic free [Ca] by only 0.2 nM. PMID:8537818

  2. Should the definition of preeclampsia include a rise in diastolic blood pressure of ?15 mm Hg to a level <90 mm Hg in association with proteinuria?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Levine; M. G. Ewell; J. C. Hauth; L. B. Curet; P. M. Catalano; C. D. Morris; G. Choudhary; B. M. Sibai

    2000-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to compare baseline characteristics and pregnancy outcomes between normotensive women who did and those who did not have a rise in diastolic blood pressure of ?15 mm Hg in association with proteinuria. Study Design: We studied 4302 healthy nulliparous women from the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention trial who were delivered at ?20 weeks’ gestation. We

  3. Calcium taste preferences: Genetic analysis and genome screen of C57BL/6J × PWK/PhJ hybrid mice

    PubMed Central

    Tordoff, Michael G.; Reed, Danielle R.; Shao, Hongguang

    2008-01-01

    To characterize the genetic basis of voluntary calcium consumption, we tested C57BL/6J mice (B6; with low avidity for calcium), PWK/PhJ mice (PWK; with high avidity for calcium) and their F1 and F2 hybrids. All mice received a series of 96-h two-bottle preference tests with a choice between water and the following: 50 mM CaCl2, 50 mM calcium lactate, 50 mM MgCl2, 100 mM KCl, 100 mM NH4Cl, 100 mM NaCl, 5 mM citric acid, 30 ?M quinine hydrochloride, and 2 mM saccharin. Most frequency distributions of the parental and F1 but not F2 groups were normally distributed, and there were few sex differences. Reciprocal cross analysis revealed that B6 × PWK F1 mice had a nonspecific elevation of fluid intake relative to PWK × B6 F1 mice. In the F2 mice, trait correlations were clustered among the divalent salts and the monovalent chlorides. A genome screen involving 116 short tandem repeat markers revealed 30 QTLs, of which six involved consumption of calcium chloride or lactate. The results demonstrate pleiotropic controls of calcium and magnesium consumption that are distinct from those controlling consumption of monovalent chlorides or exemplars of the primary taste qualities. PMID:18363849

  4. High field performance tests for Bi-2212 magnets with 30 mm bore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaguchi, H.; Kumakura, H.; Togano, K.; Okada, M.; Tanaka, K.; Sato, J.

    Two kinds of compact superconducting magnet with 30 mm inner bore have been fabricated in a wind and react process by using Bi-2212/Ag multifilamentary tapes. One is a double pancake type coil of 78 mm outer diameter and 11 mm height. The other is composed of three double pancake coils of 88 mm outer diameter. As for a reinforcement against large magnetoelectric force, the combination of Ag-Mg alloy tape co-winding and epoxy impregnation is employed in both samples. High field performance of these magnets is examined in backup fields up to 20 T at 4.2 K. The critical current density of double pancake coil at 20 T is 480 A mm -2 and 98 A mm -2 with the criteria of 1×10 -13 ? m for the oxide part and whole cross-section of the conductor, respectively. The stacked double pancake coil magnet carries 112 A mm -2 with the criterion for conductor and generates 0.95 T in the backup field of 20 T at 4.2 K. The results indicate that the reinforcement is effective against the hoop stress of 120 MPa.

  5. Administration Noma Bennett Anderson, PhD

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    Administration Dean Noma Bennett Anderson, PhD Assistant Deans Faculty and Academic Affairs RebeccaD Department of Physical Therapy Chair and Program Director CarolCountLikens,PT,PhD,MBA Department of Physician Assistant Studies Chair & Director Johnna Tanner, MSPAS, PA

  6. Glossary of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) Terms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and tongue. Back to top of page -D - Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) : Formation a blood clot in the veins deep in the body, most typically in the lower ... Programs Patients and Caregivers PHA Classroom Live e-Learning Events Recordings About PH Living with PH Caregivers ...

  7. CURRICULUM VITAE Naveen Chikthimmah, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    /550 Food Processing, (3 cr.); SP 12, SP 13 UW STOUT BIO 406/606 Food Microbiology (lab course) (3 cr.); SPCURRICULUM VITAE Naveen Chikthimmah, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Stout Department of Food State University, M.S. in Food Science, 2000 The Pennsylvania State University, Ph.D. in Food Science

  8. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePLUS

    The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the kidneys to send acid to the urine when there is too much acid in the ... Urine with a pH less than 5.3 is normal. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different ...

  9. pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the…

  10. CALCULATING THE PH OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SATURATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two new expressions for the pH of saturation (pH subs) were derived. One is a simplified equation developed from an aqueous carbonate equilibrium system in which correction for ionic strength was considered. The other is a more accurate quadratic formula that involves computerize...

  11. pH [Measure of Acidity].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paula

    This autoinstructional program deals with the study of the pH of given substances by using litmus and hydrion papers. It is a learning activity directed toward low achievers involved in the study of biology at the secondary school level. The time suggested for the unit is 25-30 minutes (plus additional time for further pH testing). The equipment…

  12. Response to the "Responsive PhD"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyssen, David

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, 50 graduate school deans gathered at Princeton to address the fact that the number of new PhDs conferred each year far exceeds the number of tenure-track academic jobs on offer. Under the auspices of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's Responsive PhD Project, these deans spoke passionately about how American…

  13. Nursing PhD 2010 Edition

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Nursing PhD Handbook 2010 Edition 107 Wiggins Rd, Saskatoon SK S7N 5E5 Phone: (306) 966-8239 Fax: (306) 966-6703 Email: grad.nursing@usask.ca #12;Welcome to the College of Nursing Graduate Program & Continuing Nursing Education #12;PhD Manual 2 Table of Contents General Information

  14. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a sub-Arctic fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause-Jensen, D.; Duarte, C. M.; Hendriks, I. E.; Meire, L.; Blicher, M. E.; Marbà, N.; Sejr, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification (OA) and large-scale assessments of pH and the saturation state for aragonite (?arag) indicate that it is already close to corrosive states (?arag < 1). In high-latitude coastal waters the regulation of pH and ?arag is far more complex than offshore because increased biological activity and input of glacial meltwater affect pH. As most calcifiers occupy coastal habitats, the assessment of risks from OA to these vulnerable organisms cannot be derived from extrapolation of current and forecasted offshore conditions, but requires an understanding of the regimes of pH and ?arag in their coastal habitats. To increase knowledge of the natural variability of pH in the Arctic coastal zone and specifically to test the influence of benthic vegetated habitats, we quantified pH-variability in a Greenland fjord in a nested scale approach. A sensor array logging pH, O2, PAR, temperature and salinity was applied on spatial scales ranging from km-scale across the horizontal extension of the fjord, over 100 m scale vertically in the fjord, 10-100 m scale between subtidal habitats with and without kelp forests and between vegetated tidal pools and adjacent vegetated shores, to cm-m scale within kelp forests and mm-scale across boundary layers of macrophyte tissue. In addition, we assessed the temporal variability in pH on diurnal and seasonal scales. Based on pH-measurements combined with relationships between salinity, total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon we also estimated variability of ?arag. Results show variability in pH and ?arag of up to 0.2-0.3 units at several scales, i.e. along the horizontal and vertical extension of the fjord, between seasons and on a diel basis in benthic habitats and within 1 m3 of kelp forest. Vegetated intertidal pools exhibited extreme diel pH variability of > 1.5 units and macrophyte boundary layers a pH-range of up to 0.8 units. Overall, ?arag was favorable to calcification, and pelagic and benthic metabolism was an important driver of pH and ?arag producing mosaics of variability from low levels in the dark to peak levels at high irradiance. We suggest that productive coastal environments may form niches of high pH in a future acidified Arctic Ocean.

  15. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    DOEpatents

    Maynard, John D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hendee, Shonn P. (Albuquerque, NM); Rohrscheib, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Nunez, David (Albuquerque, NM); Alam, M. Kathleen (Cedar Crest, NM); Franke, James E. (Franklin, TN); Kemeny, Gabor J. (Madison, WI)

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  16. GaN 20-mm diameter ingots grown from melt-solution by seeded technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhoveyev, V.A.; Ivantsov, V.A.; Nikitina, I.P.; Babanin, A.I.; Polvakov, A.Y.; Govorkov, A.V.; Smirnov, N.B.; Mil'vidskii, M.G.; Dmitriev, V.A.

    2000-07-01

    In this paper, the authors describe the seeded growth of {approximately}20 mm diameter 15 mm long GaN ingots from the melt-solution. This is the first successful attempt to conduct growth of GaN boule-crystals. GaN ingots were grown from Ga-based melt in the temperature range of 800--1000 C at less than 2 atm ambient pressure. Growth was performed at {approximately}2 mm/hr growth rate. X-ray diffraction revealed polycrystalline structure of the ingots. Homoepitaxial GaN layers were deposited by HVPE technique on the substrates, which were fabricated from the grown GaN ingots.

  17. Algal and bacterial activities in acidic (pH 3) strip mine lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Gyure, R.A.; Konopka, A.; Brooks, A.; Doemel, W.

    1987-09-01

    Reservoir 29 and Lake B are extremely acid lakes (epilimnion pHs of 2.7 and 3.2, respectively), because they receive acidic discharges from coal refuse piles. They differ in that the pH of profundal sediments in Reservoir 29 increased from 2.7 to 3.8 during the period of thermal stratification, whereas permanently anoxic sediments in Lake B had a pH of 6.2. The pH rise in Reservoir 29 sediments was correlated with a temporal increase in H/sub 2/S concentration in the anaerobic hypolimnion from 0 to >1 mM. The chlorophyll a levels in the epilimnion of Reservoir 29 were low, and the rate of primary production was typical of an oligotrophic system. However, there was a dense 10-cm layer of algal biomass at the bottom of the metalimnion. Production by this layer was low owing to light limitation and possibly H/sub 2/S toxicity. The specific photosynthetic rates of epilimnetic algae were low, which suggests that nutrient availability is more important than pH in limiting production. The highest photosynthetic rates were obtained in water samples incubated at pH 2.7 to 4. Heterotrophic bacterial activity (measured by (/sup 14/C)glucose metabolism) was greatest at the sediment/water interface. Bacterial production (assayed by thymidine incorporation) was as high in Reservoir 29 as in a nonacid mesotrophic Indiana lake.

  18. Long period grating-based ocean pH sensor in an SMS fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Klimov, Denis; Kolber, Zbigniew

    2008-03-01

    A long period grating-based pH sensor has been designed in order to measure the pH in the ocean. The pH-sensitive hydrogel, which is made through the thermal crosslink of poly vinyl alcohol and poly acrylic acid, can swell or contract in response to the pH change in the surrounding environment. The sensor is designed in a single mode-multimode-single mode (SMS) fiber structure. The long period grating is written into the multimode fiber of the SMS structure using a focused CO II laser at the critical period (1 mm) of this particular multimode fiber. The hydrogel is glued underneath the SMS structure and will physically stretch or compress the long period grating hence change the phase matching condition in the SMS structure. Because of the different core sizes of the single mode fiber and the multimode fiber, only energy coupled in and out of the fundamental mode in the multimode fiber will be detected directly. The SMS structure has a higher sensitivity than using just the multimode sensing fiber. This sensor has been utilized in the seawater pH sensing in the range of 6 ~ 8. Experiments show that the sensor has a pH resolution of 0.0042.

  19. Hans Peter SchwefelTraffic Analysis II: MM3/4, LAQT, Fall05 Traffic Theory and Queueing Systems II

    E-print Network

    Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    / Stationarity Connection · Nonstationarity in traffic is primarily a result of varying human behavior over timePage 1 Hans Peter SchwefelTraffic Analysis II: MM3/4, LAQT, Fall05 Traffic Theory and Queueing-Peter Schwefel · Mm1 M/GI/1 and GI/M/1 Queues · Mm2 Correlated/Bursty Traffic Models, MMPPs · Mm3 Matrix

  20. Hans Peter SchwefelTraffic Analysis II: MM3/4, LAQT, Fall04 Traffic Theory and Queueing Systems II

    E-print Network

    Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    / Stationarity Connection · Nonstationarity in traffic is primarily a result of varying human behavior over timePage 1 Hans Peter SchwefelTraffic Analysis II: MM3/4, LAQT, Fall04 Traffic Theory and Queueing-Peter Schwefel · Mm1 M/GI/1 and GI/M/1 Queues · Mm2 Correlated/Bursty Traffic Models, MMPPs · Mm3 Long

  1. Elution of lipoprotein fractions containing apolipoproteins E and A-I in size exclusion on Superose 6 columns is sensitive to mobile phase pH and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, J; Yao, Z

    1995-12-01

    Separation of lipoproteins secreted from McA-RH7777 (rat hepatoma) cells by Superose 6 column size-exclusion chromatography, using PBS buffer (NaCl 150 mM, sodium phosphate 10 mM, pH 7.5, EDTA 1 mM), produced apolipoprotein (apo) E or A-I profiles that did not correlate with lipoproteins separated by density ultracentrifugation. By density ultracentrifugation, apoE and apoA-I were mostly (> 90%) confined to high-density lipoproteins (HDL, d = 1.063-1.023 g/ml), but by chromatography apoE and apoA-I were recovered in all lipoprotein classes, including low-density lipoproteins (LDL), HDL, and post-HDL. Moreover, the elution volume of phenol red on Superose 6 greatly exceeded the total column volume. These discrepancies were attributable to pH and ionic strength effects. In low ionic strength, high pH buffer (Tris 25 mM, pH 8.3), elution volumes of lipoproteins, albumin, and phenol red were minimized. Elution volumes increased 25-70% when buffer pH was lowered at constant ionic strength (Tris 25 mM, pH 7.4) or when ionic strength was increased at constant pH (Tris 25 mM, pH 8.3, NaCl 500 mM). Altered phase partition appeared to cause the altered elution volumes, since recovery (measured as analyte peak area), resolution (measured as peak width at half height), and column void volume varied little from buffer to buffer. In Superose 6 size-exclusion chromatography with PBS buffer, then, elution volumes vary with pH and ionic strength. We propose that TBE buffer (Tris-borate 89 mM, pH 8.3, EDTA 2 mM) may produce fewer artefacts than PBS. With TBE there were (i) better correlation between size-exclusion and ultracentrifugal fractions, (ii) lower elution volumes, and (iii) less ¿smearing¿ of McA-RH7777 apoE and apoA-I containing lipoprotein bands. PMID:8556167

  2. Synergistic and Antagonistic Effects of Salinity and pH on Germination in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Yunwei; Cui, Jian; Chen, Guo; Xie, Bao; Wu, Chunhui; Liu, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    The effects of salt-alkaline mixed stress on switchgrass were investigated by evaluating seed germination and the proline, malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble sugar contents in three switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars in order to identify which can be successfully produced on marginal lands affected by salt-alkaline mixed stress. The experimental conditions consisted of four levels of salinity (10, 60, 110 and 160 mM) and four pH levels (7.1, 8.3, 9.5 and 10.7). The effects of salt-alkaline mixed stress with equivalent coupling of the salinity and pH level on the switchgrass were explored via model analyses. Switchgrass was capable of germinating and surviving well in all treatments under low-alkaline pH (pH?8.3), regardless of the salinity. However, seed germination and seedling growth were sharply reduced at higher pH values in conjunction with salinity. The salinity and pH had synergetic effects on the germination percentage, germination index, plumular length and the soluble sugar and proline contents in switchgrass. However, these two factors exhibited antagonistic effects on the radicular length of switchgrass. The combined effects of salinity and pH and the interactions between them should be considered when evaluating the strength of salt-alkaline mixed stress. PMID:24454834

  3. Synergistic and antagonistic effects of salinity and pH on germination in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Yunwei; Cui, Jian; Chen, Guo; Xie, Bao; Wu, Chunhui; Liu, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    The effects of salt-alkaline mixed stress on switchgrass were investigated by evaluating seed germination and the proline, malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble sugar contents in three switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars in order to identify which can be successfully produced on marginal lands affected by salt-alkaline mixed stress. The experimental conditions consisted of four levels of salinity (10, 60, 110 and 160 mM) and four pH levels (7.1, 8.3, 9.5 and 10.7). The effects of salt-alkaline mixed stress with equivalent coupling of the salinity and pH level on the switchgrass were explored via model analyses. Switchgrass was capable of germinating and surviving well in all treatments under low-alkaline pH (pH?8.3), regardless of the salinity. However, seed germination and seedling growth were sharply reduced at higher pH values in conjunction with salinity. The salinity and pH had synergetic effects on the germination percentage, germination index, plumular length and the soluble sugar and proline contents in switchgrass. However, these two factors exhibited antagonistic effects on the radicular length of switchgrass. The combined effects of salinity and pH and the interactions between them should be considered when evaluating the strength of salt-alkaline mixed stress. PMID:24454834

  4. 18. Southeast end room; view to northeast, 65mm lens plus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Southeast end room; view to northeast, 65mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. Failed south wall at right. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  5. 17. Oblique view, typical room; view to south, 65mm lens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Oblique view, typical room; view to south, 65mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  6. 16. Oblique view, typical room; view to north, 65mm lens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Oblique view, typical room; view to north, 65mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  7. 19. Southeast end room; view to southeast, 65mm lens plus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Southeast end room; view to southeast, 65mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. Note extent of failure; figure for scale. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  8. VIEW OF KENNEDY AVIONICS TEST SET LABORATORY, ROOM NO. MM6, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF KENNEDY AVIONICS TEST SET LABORATORY, ROOM NO. MM6, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. DMT-MM mediated functionalisation of the non-reducing end of glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Gemma, Emiliano; Hulme, Alison N; Jahnke, Astrid; Jin, Lan; Lyon, Malcolm; Müller, Ralf M; Uhrín, Dusan

    2007-07-14

    Efficient functionalisation of the non-reducing end of uronic acid derivatives and glycosaminoglycan-derived disaccharides using peptide coupling has been achieved, mediated by the water-soluble agent DMT-MM. PMID:17594020

  10. INSTRUCTIONS e-Portal and MMIS Signature Authorization Form MM-3P (Pharmacy)

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    INSTRUCTIONS e-Portal and MMIS Signature Authorization Form ­ MM-3P (Pharmacy) Submit Form: You: Special Instructions: Authorized By: Title: Authorized Signature: Authorized Employee: Title Telephone #: Fax #: Room # Mail Code: Signature: Date: Pharmaceutical

  11. Solvents effects on the mechanism of cellulose hydrolysis: A QM/MM study.

    PubMed

    Loerbroks, Claudia; Heimermann, Andreas; Thiel, Walter

    2015-06-01

    This article reports a combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) investigation on the acid hydrolysis of cellulose in water using two different models, cellobiose and a 40-unit cellulose chain. The explicitly treated solvent molecules strongly influence the conformations, intramolecular hydrogen bonds, and exoanomeric effects in these models. As these features are largely responsible for the barrier to cellulose hydrolysis, the present QM/MM results for the pathways and reaction intermediates in water are expected to be more realistic than those from a former density functional theory (DFT) study with implicit solvent (CPCM). However, in a qualitative sense, there is reasonable agreement between the DFT/CPCM and QM/MM predictions for the reaction mechanism. Differences arise mainly from specific solute-solvent hydrogen bonds that are only captured by QM/MM and not by DFT/CPCM. PMID:25809959

  12. 5. East portal of Tunnel 26, view to southwest, 135mm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East portal of Tunnel 26, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Tunnel 25 (HAER CA-201) is visible in the distance. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 26, Milepost 133.29, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  13. COEFFICIENTS DE CORRECTION DES VOLUMES GAZEUX; PAR MM. N. GRHANT ET E. MER.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    222 COEFFICIENTS DE CORRECTION DES VOLUMES GAZEUX; PAR MM. N. GRÉHANT ET E. MER. Pour ramener à échelle graduée sur verre étant H, la température de la cuve à mer- cure ou à eau, sur laquelle on a fait

  14. MoSI Habitat Assessment Form Location:___ ___ ___ ___ Station:___ ___ ___ ___ Date:____/____/________ (mm/dd/year) Observers

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MoSI Habitat Assessment Form Location:___ ___ ___ ___ Station:___ ___ ___ ___ Date:____/____/________ (mm/dd/year) Observers: Total number of habitat types present:_____ Notes: Habitat Type Letter ____ (from Station Habitat Map) Percent of study area covered by habitat type (determine from Station Habitat

  15. INTRODUCTION The fertilized Xenopus egg is a sphere 1.2 mm in diameter.

    E-print Network

    Blumberg, Bruce

    INTRODUCTION The fertilized Xenopus egg is a sphere 1.2 mm in diameter. 4 days later the resulting is whether the tailbud is composed of truly undifferentiated pluripotential stem cells, i.e., a `blastema

  16. The clustering of X-ray and sub-mm sources

    E-print Network

    O. Almaini

    2002-03-12

    It is becoming clear that luminous extragalactic X-ray and sub-mm sources are essentially distinct populations. Thus, if high redshift sub-mm sources represent massive spheroids in formation, there must be a time lag between the major epoch of star-formation and the appearance of a visible quasar. Despite this distinction, I find tentative evidence for a puzzling angular cross-correlation between X-ray sources and bright sub-mm sources in two independent fields. If this signal is due to large-scale structure it would argue for a low redshift (z<2) for many of the SCUBA sources. Alternatively, I suggest that the effect may be enhanced by gravitational lensing. The exceptionally steep slope of the bright sub-mm counts makes this population particularly prone to lensing bias. An apparent correlation may therefore be produced if X-ray sources trace the intervening large scale structure.

  17. pH. Training Module 5.305.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with pH, measurement of pH with a pH meter and maintenance of pH meter electrodes. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers the definition of pH, types of electrodes and…

  18. Chloride dependence of intracellular pH in frog skin: a /sup 31/P NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson-Yantorno, K.; Civan, M.M.

    1986-03-01

    Single frog skins from Northern Variety Rana pipiens were analyzed by /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy during superfusion alternately with control and experimental Ringer's solutions, permitting each preparation to serve as its own control. The spectral positions of intracellular inorganic phosphate and extracellular methylphosphonate permitted continuous monitoring of intracellular (pH/sub c/) and extracellular (pH/sub 0/) pH, respectively. Acute and steady state measurements suggested that pH/sub c/ is well regulated at about 7.29 +- 0.05 over an external pH range of about 7.25-7.65. Below this range, pH/sub c/ decreased markedly when the external pH was reduced with nonvolatile acid. In the presence of 2.5 mM HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and 1% CO/sub 2/, total substitution of external Cl/sup -/ by gluconate reversibly increased pH/sub c/ by 0.34 +- 0.05 U (mean +- SE). Replacing external Cl/sup -/ by SO/sup 2 -//sub 4/ increased pH/sub c/ by 0.12 +- 0.01 in the presence of external HCO/sup -//sub 3/, but only by 0.05 +- 0.02 in its absence. SITS (1 mM) at a pH/sub 0/ of 6.95 +- 0.05 did not significantly alter pH/sub c/, but entirely prevented the steady state alkalinization characteristically induced by gluconate substitution for external Cl/sup -/. The results document that: (1) intracellular pH is maintained relatively constant when the external pH is varied over the physiologic range by adding fixed acid or base, and (2) this regulation is (at least in part) a reflection of Cl/HCO/sub 3/ antiport activity.

  19. Can the supermassive objects at the centers of galaxies be traversable wormholes? The first test of strong gravity for mm/sub-mm very long baseline interferometry facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2013-05-01

    The near future mm/sub-mm very long baseline interferometry experiments are ambitious projects aiming at imaging the “shadow” of the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of the Milky Way and of the ones in nearby galaxies. An accurate observation of the shape of the shadow can potentially test the nature of these objects and verify if they are Kerr black holes, as predicted by general relativity. However, previous work on the subject has shown that the shadows produced in other spacetimes are very similar to the one of the Kerr background, suggesting that tests of strong gravity are not really possible with these facilities in the near future. In this work, I instead point out that it will be relatively easy to distinguish black holes from wormholes, topologically nontrivial structures of the spacetime that might have been formed in the early Universe and might connect our Universe with other universes.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Four Ae/Be stars map emission at 1mm and 3mm (Boissier+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissier, J.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Fuente, A.; Berne, O.; Bachiller, R.; Neri, R.; Ginard, D.

    We carried out interferometric observations in the continuum around 1.3mm and 3.0mm toward 4 stars: BD+61654, LkHa198, RR Tau, VY Mon. These objects are HAeBe stars with stellar masses of 3 to 7 solar masses located at distances of 600-800pc from the Sun. All the sources were observed in 2008-2009 using the PdBI in different configurations. We make available here the deconvolved (clean) maps constructed from these observations. The units of the map are Jy per Beam. The data reduction was performed using the GILDAS software package. The continuum maps were built summing all the channels free of line emission in the data. Natural weighting has been applied to the measured visibilities. (2 data files).

  1. Optical design and evaluation of a 4 mm cost-effective ultra-high-definition arthroscope

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Yu, Lu; Liu, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    High definition and magnification rigid endoscope plays an important role in modern minimally invasive medical surgery and diagnosis. In this paper, we present the design and evaluation methods of a high definition rigid endoscope, specifically an arthroscope, with a large depth of field (DOF). The incident heights and exit angles of the sampled rays on the relay lens are controlled during the optimization process to ensure an effective field view (70°) and a normal ray path within the limited lens diameter of 2.7 mm. The lens is set up as a multi-configuration system with two extreme and one middle object distances to cover a large DOF. As a result, an entrance pupil of 0.3 mm is achieved for the first time, to bring the theoretical resolution to 23.1 lps/mm in the object space at a working distance of 20 mm, with the wavelength of 0.532 um. The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves approach diffraction limit, and the values are all higher than 0.3 at 160 line pairs/mm (lps/mm) in the image space. Meanwhile, stray light caused by total internal reflection on the inner wall of the rod lenses and the objective lens is eliminated. The measured resolution in the object space at a 20 mm working distance is 22.3 lps/mm, and test results show that other performance characteristics also fulfill design requirements. The relay lenses are designed with only one type of the spacer and two types of lenses to greatly reduce the fabrication and assembly cost. The design method has important research and application values for lens systems used in modern minimally invasive medical surgery and industrial non-destructive testing area. PMID:25136495

  2. Molecular and immunological characterization of Fasciola antigens recognized by the MM3 monoclonal antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Muiño; M. J. Perteguer; T. Gárate; V. Martínez-Sernández; A. Beltrán; F. Romarís; M. Mezo; M. González-Warleta; F. M. Ubeira

    2011-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a re-emerging parasitosis produced by liver flukes of the genus Fasciola. In this study we used protein fingerprinting (PMF) and MS\\/MS analysis to investigate the Fasciola secretory antigens that are recognized by mAb MM3. The results showed that mAb MM3 binds to several Fasciola cathepsins L1 and L2, but also co-purifies a Kunitz-type protein previously described in F.

  3. Mesoscale Modeling of Katabatic Winds over Greenland with the Polar MM5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Bromwich; John J. Cassano; Thomas Klein; Gunther Heinemann; Keith M. Hines; Konrad Steffen; Jason E. Box

    2001-01-01

    Verification of two months, April and May 1997, of 48-h mesoscale model simulations of the atmospheric state around Greenland are presented. The simulations are performed with a modified version of The Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5), referred to as the Polar MM5. Global atmospheric analyses as well as automatic weather station and instrumented aircraft

  4. Optical design and evaluation of a 4 mm cost-effective ultra-high-definition arthroscope.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Yu, Lu; Liu, Xiaohua

    2014-08-01

    High definition and magnification rigid endoscope plays an important role in modern minimally invasive medical surgery and diagnosis. In this paper, we present the design and evaluation methods of a high definition rigid endoscope, specifically an arthroscope, with a large depth of field (DOF). The incident heights and exit angles of the sampled rays on the relay lens are controlled during the optimization process to ensure an effective field view (70°) and a normal ray path within the limited lens diameter of 2.7 mm. The lens is set up as a multi-configuration system with two extreme and one middle object distances to cover a large DOF. As a result, an entrance pupil of 0.3 mm is achieved for the first time, to bring the theoretical resolution to 23.1 lps/mm in the object space at a working distance of 20 mm, with the wavelength of 0.532 um. The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves approach diffraction limit, and the values are all higher than 0.3 at 160 line pairs/mm (lps/mm) in the image space. Meanwhile, stray light caused by total internal reflection on the inner wall of the rod lenses and the objective lens is eliminated. The measured resolution in the object space at a 20 mm working distance is 22.3 lps/mm, and test results show that other performance characteristics also fulfill design requirements. The relay lenses are designed with only one type of the spacer and two types of lenses to greatly reduce the fabrication and assembly cost. The design method has important research and application values for lens systems used in modern minimally invasive medical surgery and industrial non-destructive testing area. PMID:25136495

  5. High-Speed Access Mechanism for 90 mm 1-Inch-High Optical Disk Drive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teruyuki Takizawa; Masayuki Shinoda; Kanji Wakabayashi; Kouichi Takamine; Yoshihiro Ikawa; Yoshikazu Gotoh; Isao Satoh

    1993-01-01

    A 90 mm, 1-inch-high optical disk drive with a 17-mm-high mechanism and a 27 ms seek time was developed using a separated optical system with an improved galvanomirror. This optical layout reduced the weight of the movable optical part to 7 g. The maximum acceleration of 127 m\\/s2 was driven by 8 W. The major component parts of the galvanomirror,

  6. The power supply and control system for the MM2U neutral beam injector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Wang; X. W. Xu; X. Y. Li; D. L. Lu; S. F. Jiang; M. D. Sun; H. J. Li; B. S. Yuan; M. Z. Liu

    1993-01-01

    A single injector with one ion source has been constructed, which is provided for researching the stability effect of the sloshing ion distribution in the magnetic mirror experiment facility (MM-2U) by oblique injection of neutral beam. The neutral beam injector (NBI) can deliver 80 kW of neutral beam power at energy of 25 keV with 50 ms for MM-2U. In

  7. A turn-up in pulsar spectra at mm-wavelengths?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kramer; K. M. Xilouris; A. Jessner; R. Wielebinski; M. Timofeev

    1996-01-01

    We present the results of recent pulsar observations at frequencies between 27.9GHz and 34.8GHz, i.e. in a wavelength range of lambda10.75mm to lambda8.61mm, made with the Effelsberg radiotelescope. The measured flux densities of two out of eight detected pulsars suggest that the spectrum flattens out at high frequencies or even shows a turn-up. Moreover, we report variations in the measured

  8. Development of a small animal PET imaging device with resolution approaching 1 mm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Correia; C. A. Burnham; D. Kaufman; A. J. Fischman

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes progress in the design and construction of a single-plane PET tomograph having a spatial resolution approaching 1 mm. The system consists of a 12-cm diameter ring with 360 LSO (Lu2SiO5) detectors viewed by 30 photomultiplier tubes. Thin (5-mm) crystals and a low energy threshold are used. Crystals are identified using both position arithmetic and energy criteria. To

  9. The 69-mm forsterite band as a dust temperature indicator J. E. Bowey,1P

    E-print Network

    Bowey, Janet

    The 69-mm forsterite band as a dust temperature indicator J. E. Bowey,1P M. J. Barlow,1 F. J; in original form 2001 October 12 A B S T R AC T A band of pure crystalline forsterite (100 per cent Mg2SiO4 feature is at *73 mm. The Mg-rich forsterite feature is observed in a variety of ISO LWS spectra

  10. Polar MM5 Simulations of the Winter Climate of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at the LGM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Bromwich; E. Richard Toracinta; Helin Wei; Robert J. Oglesby; James L. Fastook; Terence J. Hughes

    2004-01-01

    Optimized regional climate simulations are conducted using the Polar MM5, a version of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5), with a 60-km horizontal resolution domain over North America during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 000 calendar years ago), when much of the continent was covered by the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). The objective is to describe the

  11. On the cross-correlation of sub-mm sources and optically-selected galaxies

    E-print Network

    Chris Blake; Alexandra Pope; Douglas Scott; Bahram Mobasher

    2006-02-20

    Bright sub-mm galaxies are expected to arise in massive highly-biased haloes, and hence exhibit strong clustering. We argue that a valuable tool for measuring these clustering properties is the cross-correlation of sub-mm galaxies with faint optically-selected sources. We analyze populations of SCUBA-detected and optical galaxies in the GOODS-N survey area. Using optical/IR photometric-redshift information, we search for correlations induced by two separate effects: (1) cosmic magnification of background sub-mm sources by foreground dark matter haloes traced by optical galaxies at lower redshifts; and (2) galaxy clustering due to sub-mm and optical sources tracing the same population of haloes where their redshift distributions overlap. Regarding cosmic magnification, we find no detectable correlation. Our null result is consistent with a theoretical model for the cosmic magnification, and we show that a dramatic increase in the number of sub-mm sources will be required to measure the effect reliably. Regarding clustering, we find evidence at the 3.5-sigma level for a cross-correlation between sub-mm and optical galaxies analyzed in identical photometric redshift slices. The data hint that the sub-mm sources have an enhanced bias parameter compared to the optically-selected population (with a significance of 2-sigma). The next generation of deep sub-mm surveys can potentially perform an accurate measurement of each of these cross-correlations, adding a new set of diagnostics for understanding the development of massive structure in the Universe.

  12. An autonomous 16 mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett A. Warneke; Michael D. Scott; Brian S. Leibowitz; Lixia Zhou; Colby L. Bellew; J. Alex Chediakt; Joseph M. Kahn; Bernhard E. Boser; Kristofer S. J. Pister

    2002-01-01

    A 16 mm3 autonomous solar-powered sensor node with bidirectional optical communication for distributed sensor networks has been demonstrated. The device digitizes integrated sensor signals and transmits\\/receives data over a free-space optical link. The system consists of three die - a 0.25 ?m CMOS ASIC, a 2.6 mm2 SOI solar cell array, and a micromachined four-quadrant corner-cube retroreflector (CCR), allowing it

  13. Performance of 300-mm lithography tools in a pilot production line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltabes, John G.; Charles, Alain B.; Hornig, Steffen R.; Schedel, Thorsten; Ganz, Dietmar; Schmidt, Sebastian

    1999-07-01

    Semiconductor 300 is the first pilot manufacturing facility for 300mm wafers in the world. This company is a joint venture between Siemens and Motorola, formed for the purpose of developing a 300mm manufacturing tool set. The pilot line contains a full compliment of tools for DRAM manufacturing. This paper discusses the performance of the initial 300mm lithography tool set installed in our pilot line in Dresden, Germany. The product used for evaluating and debugging the tool set is a 0.25-micron ground rule 64 Meg DRAM. This was chosen for the ability to easily benchmark against 200mm DRAM manufacturing data. We have produced several lots of wafers with measurable yield. These lots have produced data on overlay, CD and run to run performance of the lithography tools on actual product. We have data on resist coating, and develop uniformity. With several lithography tools installed we have generated a large amount of mix and match data. In addition several challenges for successful lithography have surfaced related entirely to the increase in wafer size. Film, etch, polish and thermal non-uniformity have impacted the throughput and performance of the lithography tools. The installation of the first integrated 300mm pilot line has also produced data on the impact larger wafer size has on tool logistics, for example fab layout, installation schedules and wafer and lot transport. While technical data is always important, the main reason for converting to 300mm is economic. We now have preliminary data on the comparison of 200 tools to 300mm tools in terms of footprint, throughput, and productivity gains for equivalent square centimeters of silicon. With this data we can start to make preliminary recommendations for 300mm manufacturing tools.

  14. Experimental Results of 3-piece 0.4 mm Molded Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Myong-Do; Lee, Kyung-Geun; Yoon, Du-Seop; Hwang, In-Oh; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Yoon-Gi; Park, In-Sik; Shin, Dong-Ho

    2001-03-01

    To achieve the same margin as that of the digital versatile disk (DVD), using a 0.4 mm substrate has been molded for a high-density optical disk for double-sided dual layer disk. In this paper, the characteristics of a read-only and rewritable high-density optical disk of 0.4 mm plastic substrate is reported using a new resin material for injection molding, to improve both the birefringence and the mechanical characteristics.

  15. Passive mm-wave Sensor for InDoor and OutDoor Homeland Security Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kapilevich; B. Litvak; M. Einat; O. Shotman

    2007-01-01

    Design and testing of the passive mm-wave sensor operating in 88-100 GHz range is reported. The scanning part of this sensor is based on a heterodyne configuration with a bandwidth up to 12 GHz and NF = 9-10 dB. It can receive like noise signals that are typical for passive mm-wave imaging. Depending on the antenna system the sensor can

  16. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery for Correction of Adolescent Idiopatic Scoliosis: Comparison of 4.5 mm versus 5.5 mm Rod Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak Sun; Park, Jin Oh; Nanda, Ankur; Kho, Phillip Anthony; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Hwan Mo; Moon, Seong Hwan; Ha, Jung Won; Ahn, Eun Kyoung; Shin, Dong Eun; Kim, Sung Jun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to report the comparative results of thoracoscopic correction achieved via cantilever technique using a 4.5 mm thin rod and the poly-axial reduction screw technique using a 5.5 mm thick rod in Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Materials and Methods Radiographic data, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) patient-based outcome questionnaires, and operative records were reviewed for forty-nine patients undergoing surgical treatment of scoliosis. The study group was divided into a 4.5 mm thin rod group (n = 24) and a 5.5 mm thick rod group (n = 25). The radiographic parameters that were analyzed included coronal curve correction, the most caudal instrumented vertebra tilt angle correction, coronal balance, and thoracic kyphosis. Results The major curve was corrected from 49.8° and 47.2° pre-operatively to 24.5° and 18.8° at the final follow-up for the thin and thick rod groups, respectively (50.8% vs. 60.2% correction). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of kyphosis, coronal balance, or tilt angle at the time of the final follow-up. The mean number of levels fused was 6.2 in the thin rod group, compared with 5.9 levels in the thick rod group. There were no major intraoperative complications in either group. Conclusion Significant correction loss was observed in the thin rod system at the final follow-up though both groups had comparable correction immediately post-operative. Therefore, the thick rod with poly axial screw system helps to maintain post-operative correction. PMID:20635452

  17. Accuracy of buffered-force QM/MM simulations of silica.

    PubMed

    Peguiron, Anke; Colombi Ciacchi, Lucio; De Vita, Alessandro; Kermode, James R; Moras, Gianpietro

    2015-02-14

    We report comparisons between energy-based quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) and buffered force-based QM/MM simulations in silica. Local quantities-such as density of states, charges, forces, and geometries-calculated with both QM/MM approaches are compared to the results of full QM simulations. We find the length scale over which forces computed using a finite QM region converge to reference values obtained in full quantum-mechanical calculations is ?10 Å rather than the ?5 Å previously reported for covalent materials such as silicon. Electrostatic embedding of the QM region in the surrounding classical point charges gives only a minor contribution to the force convergence. While the energy-based approach provides accurate results in geometry optimizations of point defects, we find that the removal of large force errors at the QM/MM boundary provided by the buffered force-based scheme is necessary for accurate constrained geometry optimizations where Si-O bonds are elongated and for finite-temperature molecular dynamics simulations of crack propagation. Moreover, the buffered approach allows for more flexibility, since special-purpose QM/MM coupling terms that link QM and MM atoms are not required and the region that is treated at the QM level can be adaptively redefined during the course of a dynamical simulation. PMID:25681896

  18. Mechanism of proteolysis in matrix metalloproteinase-2 revealed by QM/MM modeling.

    PubMed

    Vasilevskaya, Tatiana; Khrenova, Maria G; Nemukhin, Alexander V; Thiel, Walter

    2015-08-01

    The mechanism of enzymatic peptide hydrolysis in matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was studied at atomic resolution through quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations. An all-atom three-dimensional molecular model was constructed on the basis of a crystal structure from the Protein Data Bank (ID: 1QIB), and the oligopeptide Ace-Gln-Gly?Ile-Ala-Gly-Nme was considered as the substrate. Two QM/MM software packages and several computational protocols were employed to calculate QM/MM energy profiles for a four-step mechanism involving an initial nucleophilic attack followed by hydrogen bond rearrangement, proton transfer, and C?N bond cleavage. These QM/MM calculations consistently yield rather low overall barriers for the chemical steps, in the range of 5-10 kcal/mol, for diverse QM treatments (PBE0, B3LYP, and BB1K density functionals as well as local coupled cluster treatments) and two MM force fields (CHARMM and AMBER). It, thus, seems likely that product release is the rate-limiting step in MMP-2 catalysis. This is supported by an exploration of various release channels through QM/MM reaction path calculations and steered molecular dynamics simulations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26132652

  19. 5 year Global 3-mm VLBI survey of Gamma-ray active blazars

    E-print Network

    Hodgson, J A; Marscher, A P; Jorstad, S G; Marti-Vidal, I; Lindqvist, M; Bremer, M; Sanchez, S; de Vicente, P; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    The Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA) is a network of 14 3\\,mm and 7\\,mm capable telescopes spanning Europe and the United States, with planned extensions to Asia. The array is capable of sensitive maps with angular resolution often exceeding 50\\,$\\mu$as. Using the GMVA, a large sample of prominent $\\gamma$-ray blazars have been observed approximately 6 monthly from later 2008 until now. Combining 3\\,mm maps from the GMVA with near-in-time 7\\,mm maps from the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR program and 2\\,cm maps from the MOJAVE program, we determine the sub-pc morphology and high frequency spectral structure of $\\gamma$-ray blazars. The magnetic field strength can be estimated at different locations along the jet under the assumption of equipartition between magnetic field and relativistic particle energies. Making assumptions on the jet magnetic field configuration (e.g. poloidal or toroidal), we can estimate the separation of the mm-wave "core" and the jet base, and estimate the strength of the magnetic field there. The results ...

  20. Effects of starvation on the transport of Escherichia coli K12 in saturated porous media are dependent on pH and ionic strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Walczak, J. J.; Wang, L.; Bardy, S. L.; Li, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this research, we investigate the effects of starvation on the transport of E. coli K12 in saturated porous media. Particularly, we examine the relationship between such effects and the pH and ionic strength of the electrolyte solutions that were used to suspend bacterial cells. E. coli K12 (ATCC 10798) cells were cultured using either Luria-Bertani Miller (LB-Miller) broth (10 g trypton, 5 g yeast extract and 10 g NaCl in 1 L of deionized water) or LB-Luria broth (10 g tryptone, 5 g yeast extract and 0.5 g NaCl in 1 L of deionized water). Both broths had similar pH (~7.1) but differed in ionic strength (LB-Miller: ~170 mM, LB-Luria: ~ 8 mM). The bacterial cells were then harvested and suspended using one of the following electrolyte solutions: phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (pH ~7.2; ionic strength ~170 mM), 168 mM NaCl (pH ~5.7), 5% of PBS (pH ~ 7.2; ionic strength ~ 8 mM) and 8 mM NaCl (pH ~ 5.7). Column transport experiments were performed at 0, 21 and 48 hours following cell harvesting to evaluate the change in cell mobility over time under “starvation” conditions. Our results showed that 1) starvation increased the mobility of E. coli K12 cells; 2) the most significant change in mobility occurred when bacterial cells were suspended in an electrolyte solution that had different pH and ionic strength (i.e., LB-Miller culture suspended in 8 mM NaCl and LB-Luria culture suspended in 168 mM Nacl); and 3) the change in cell mobility primarily occurred within the first 21 hours. The size of the bacterial cells was measured and the surface properties (e.g., zeta potential, hydrophobicity, cell-bound protein, LPS sugar content, outer membrane protein profiles) of the bacterial cells were characterized. We found that the measured cell surface properties could not fully explain the observed changes in cell mobility caused by starvation.

  1. Regulation of cytoplasmic pH of cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells in the absence and presence of bicarbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Jentsch; Christoph Korbmacher; Ilse Janicke; Dieter G. Fischer; Frank Stahl; Horst Helbig; Herwig Hollwede; Edward J. Cragoe; Svea K. Keller; Michael Wiederholt

    1988-01-01

    Summary Intracellular pH (pHi) in confluent monolayers of cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells was determined using the pH-dependent absorbance of intracellularly trapped 5(and 6)carboxy-4',5'-dimethylfluorescein. Steady-state pH was 7.05±0.1 in the nominal absence of bicarbonate, and 7.15±0.1 in the presence of 28mm HCO3-\\/5% CO2. Following an acid load imposed by a NH4Cl prepulse, pHi was regulated in the absence of HCO3-

  2. Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite with different solution concentration, pH and packing density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Li, Ming-Hsu; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2008-09-01

    In this work we used an "in-diffusion" method to study the effects of pH, solution concentration and packing density on Cs diffusion by packing local Taiwan laterite (LTL) into modified capillary columns with 5mm diameter. These packed columns were first pre-equilibrated with synthetic groundwater (GW) for 3 weeks. The diffusion experiments were then carried out at ambient condition for 2 weeks. Our experimental results showed that the Cs diffusion profile fits Fick's second law very well in given experimental conditions, indicating the validity of modified capillary column method. Generally speaking, Cs diffusion in LTL decreases as the pH increases and as Cs concentration decreases. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D(a)) increases from 5.52 x 10(-12) (10(-7)M) to 2.18 x 10(-11) (10(-3)M)m(2)/s, while the effective diffusion coefficient (D(e)) shows slight variation as the Cs concentration changes. Both the derived D(a) and D(e) values decrease as the pH increases, implying that the diffusion mechanisms of Cs nuclide in alkaline and acid environment are different. In addition, our results show that Cs diffusion is unaffected by the given packing density, indicating the interlaminary space is not the major determinant of Cs adsorption and diffusion in LTL. PMID:18321721

  3. Effects of pH, Chloride, and Bicarbonate on Cu(I) Oxidation Kinetics at Circumneutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, X.; Pham, A.; Waite, T.; Xing, G.; Rose, A.

    2012-12-01

    The redox chemistry of copper species in the upper water column plays a significant role in its speciation, transport and bioavailability. Most previous studies have focused primarily on Cu(II), principally because Cu(I) is easily oxidized to Cu(II) by oxygen or other oxidants. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that a number of potentially important reactions may lead to Cu(I) formation and result in a significant steady-state concentration of Cu(I) in natural waters. Redox reactions of Cu(I) could result in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydroxyl radical, that may subsequently induce a cascade of radical-promoted reactions with other constituents in natural waters. As such, a better understanding of copper-catalysed processes that produce and consume O2- is important in furthering our insight into factors contributing to global biogeochemical cycles. In this study, the oxidation kinetics of nanomolar concentrations of Cu(I) in NaCl solutions have been investigated over the pH range 6.5-8.0.The overall apparent oxidation rate constant was strongly affected by chloride, moderately by bicarbonate and, and to a lesser extent, by pH. In the absence of bicarbonate, an equilibrium-based speciation model indicated that Cu+ and CuClOH- were the most kinetically reactive species, while the contribution of other Cu(I) species to the overall oxidation rate was minor. A kinetic model based on recognized key redox reactions for these two species further indicated that oxidation of Cu(I) by oxygen and superoxide were important reactions at all pH values and [Cl-] considered, but back reduction of Cu(II) by superoxide only became important at relatively low chloride concentrations. Bicarbonate concentrations from 2-5 mM substantially accelerated Cu(I) oxidation. Kinetic analysis over a range of bicarbonate concentrations revealed that this was due to the formation of CuCO3-, which reacts relatively rapidly with oxygen, and not due to inhibition of the back reduction of Cu(II) by formation of Cu(II)-carbonate complexes. We conclude that the simultaneous oxygenation of Cu+, CuClOH- and CuCO3- is the rate-limiting step in the overall oxidation of Cu(I) under these conditions. Determination of values for apparent and intrinsic rate constants for the oxidation of those critical Cu(I) species by O2 over the pH range 6.5-8.0 should greatly assist in understanding and predicting inorganic Cu(I) and Cu(II) transformations in natural waters.

  4. Metabolism and disposition of MM-433593, a selective FAAH-1 inhibitor, in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Banijamali, Ali R; Wakefield, James D; Mermerian, Ara H; Busby, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    MM-433593 is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase-1 (FAAH-1) with potential utility as an orally administered treatment of pain, inflammation, and other disorders. In this study, we investigated the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of MM-433593 in monkeys, and compared plasma and urine metabolites of this compound to the in vitro metabolites produced by monkey hepatocytes. Intravenous administration of MM-433593 to cynomolgus monkeys produced a rapid distribution phase and slower elimination phase with a mean systemic clearance rate of 8–11 mL/min/kg. Absolute oral bioavailability was determined to be 14–21% with maximum plasma concentrations reached ?3 h (Tmax) following a 10 mg/kg oral dose. The average terminal half-life of MM-433593 was 17–20 h, and there were no qualitative sex differences in the metabolite profile of MM-433593. The major site of metabolism was oxidation of the methyl group at the five position of the indole ring, which was confirmed by chromatography and mass spectrometry comparison to a synthesized authentic standard. This metabolite was further oxidized to the corresponding carboxylic acid and/or conjugated with sulfate, glucuronide, or glutathione. In all, 18 metabolites were found in plasma and urine. In vitro incubations of MM-433593 with monkey hepatocytes yielded 13 metabolites, all of which were found in vivo, indicating a good correlation between the in vitro and in vivo metabolism data. A comprehensive pathway for the metabolism of MM-433593 is proposed, including a plausible, five-step biotransformation for the formation of N-acetylcysteine conjugate metabolite (M18) from the hydroxylated parent (M5). PMID:25505606

  5. AUTOMNE 2013 PhD EN COMMUNICATION

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    AUTOMNE 2013 PhD EN COMMUNICATION LUNDI MARDI MERCREDI JEUDI VENDREDI 9:00 À 12 Forum Doctoral Prof : Thierry Bardini Et Gaby Hsab UQAM Communication organisationnelle William Buxton (hors campus) Séminaire spécialisé : Médias mobiles et communication : approches

  6. Dr. Julie Beth Zimmerman, PhD,

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Dr. Julie Beth Zimmerman, PhD, Associate Professor, Acting Director are common. Dr. Julie Beth Zimmerman is an Associate Professor of Green treatment technologies for the developing world. Dr. Zimmerman previously served

  7. Embarking on a PhD.

    PubMed

    Hill, Myfanwy

    2015-06-13

    To PhD or not to PhD? That was never really a question for Myfanwy Hill, who knew it was part of her career path before she started at Bristol vet school. Although the twists and turns en route were challenging at times, she is now settled in Cambridge and beginning her research in the Department of Clinical Neuroscience. Myfanwy will be sharing her experiences with Vet Record Careers. PMID:26067026

  8. Measurement of soil pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Schofield; A. Wormald Taylor

    1955-01-01

    A number of experimental results are presented which show the variation of the pH values of several soils when samples of each are shaken with CaClâ solutions of different concentrations. These results are then interpreted on the basis of the ratio law-derived from the Gouy theory of the electrical double layer - and it is shown that the pH values

  9. IMPEE PhD Opportunity Project title: LightFoot PhD A PhD Investigation Lightning Protection of HV Overhead Lines with Non-Ideal

    E-print Network

    Greenaway, Alan

    IMPEE PhD Opportunity Project title: LightFoot PhD ­ A PhD Investigation Lightning Protection of HV.swingler@hw.ac.uk Abstract LightFoot PhD ­ A PhD Investigation Lightning Protection of HV Overhead Lines with Non-Ideal Tower to the understanding of the effect of lightning strikes on an overhead transmission line in terms of its electrical

  10. Development and application of QM/MM methods to study the solvation effects and surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dibya, Pooja Arora

    2010-05-16

    Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations have the advantage of attaining high-level accuracy, however QM calculations become computationally inefficient as the size of the system grows. Solving complex molecular problems on large systems and ensembles by using quantum mechanics still poses a challenge in terms of the computational cost. Methods that are based on classical mechanics are an inexpensive alternative, but they lack accuracy. A good trade off between accuracy and efficiency is achieved by combining QM methods with molecular mechanics (MM) methods to use the robustness of the QM methods in terms of accuracy and the MM methods to minimize the computational cost. Two types of QM combined with MM (QM/MM) methods are the main focus of the present dissertation: the application and development of QM/MM methods for solvation studies and reactions on the Si(100) surface. The solvation studies were performed using a discreet solvation model that is largely based on first principles called the effective fragment potential method (EFP). The main idea of combining the EFP method with quantum mechanics is to accurately treat the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions, such as electrostatic, polarization, dispersion and charge transfer, that are important in correctly calculating solvent effects on systems of interest. A second QM/MM method called SIMOMM (surface integrated molecular orbital molecular mechanics) is a hybrid QM/MM embedded cluster model that mimics the real surface.3 This method was employed to calculate the potential energy surfaces for reactions of atomic O on the Si(100) surface. The hybrid QM/MM method is a computationally inexpensive approach for studying reactions on larger surfaces in a reasonably accurate and efficient manner. This thesis is comprised of four chapters: Chapter 1 describes the general overview and motivation of the dissertation and gives a broad background of the computational methods that have been employed in this work. Chapter 2 illustrates the methodology of the interface of the EFP method with the configuration interaction with single excitations (CIS) method to study solvent effects in excited states. Chapter 3 discusses the study of the adiabatic electron affinity of the hydroxyl radical in aqueous solution and in micro-solvated clusters using a QM/EFP method. Chapter 4 describes the study of etching and diffusion of oxygen atom on a reconstructed Si(100)-2 x 1 surface using a hybrid QM/MM embedded cluster model (SIMOMM). Chapter 4 elucidates the application of the EFP method towards the understanding of the aqueous ionization potential of Na atom. Finally, a general conclusion of this dissertation work and prospective future direction are presented in Chapter 6.

  11. 450 mm dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma sources: Conventional, graded, and segmented electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Kushner, Mark J.

    2010-12-01

    Wafer diameters for microelectronics fabrication will soon transition from 300 to 450 mm at a time when excitation frequencies for capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) are increasing to 200 MHz or higher. Already for 300 mm tools, there is evidence that wave behavior (i.e., propagation, constructive, and destructive interference) affects the uniformity of processing. The increase in diameter to 450 mm is likely to exacerbate these effects, perhaps requiring nontraditional tool designs. This is particularly important in dual frequency (DF) CCP tools in which there are potential interactions between frequencies. In this paper, results from a two-dimensional computational investigation of Ar plasma properties in a 450 mm DF-CCP reactor, incorporating a full-wave solution of Maxwell's equations, are discussed. As in 300 mm DF-CCP reactors, the electron density collapses toward the center of the reactor with increasing high frequency (HF), however, with more pronounced finite wavelength effects. Graded conductivity electrodes with multilayer of dielectrics are computationally demonstrated as a possible means to suppress wave effects thereby increasing plasma uniformity. Segmentation of the HF electrode also improves the plasma uniformity by making the electrical distance between the feeds and the sheath edges as uniform as possible.

  12. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroche, G.; Vallade, J.; Bazinette, R.; van Nijnatten, P.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm × 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45° beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  13. POLYVIEW-MM: web-based platform for animation and analysis of molecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Porollo, Aleksey; Meller, Jaroslaw

    2010-07-01

    Molecular simulations offer important mechanistic and functional clues in studies of proteins and other macromolecules. However, interpreting the results of such simulations increasingly requires tools that can combine information from multiple structural databases and other web resources, and provide highly integrated and versatile analysis tools. Here, we present a new web server that integrates high-quality animation of molecular motion (MM) with structural and functional analysis of macromolecules. The new tool, dubbed POLYVIEW-MM, enables animation of trajectories generated by molecular dynamics and related simulation techniques, as well as visualization of alternative conformers, e.g. obtained as a result of protein structure prediction methods or small molecule docking. To facilitate structural analysis, POLYVIEW-MM combines interactive view and analysis of conformational changes using Jmol and its tailored extensions, publication quality animation using PyMol, and customizable 2D summary plots that provide an overview of MM, e.g. in terms of changes in secondary structure states and relative solvent accessibility of individual residues in proteins. Furthermore, POLYVIEW-MM integrates visualization with various structural annotations, including automated mapping of known inter-action sites from structural homologs, mapping of cavities and ligand binding sites, transmembrane regions and protein domains. URL: http://polyview.cchmc.org/conform.html. PMID:20504857

  14. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Laroche, G; Vallade, J; Bazinette, R; van Nijnatten, P; Hernandez, E; Hernandez, G; Massines, F

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm × 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45° beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma. PMID:23126767

  15. Survival and growth of age-0 steelhead after surgical implantation of 23-mm passive integrated transponders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, D.S.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little information is available on the effects of implanting 23-mm passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in salmonids less than 90 mm fork length (FL). Using juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss (range, 73-97 mm FL), we compared instantaneous growth rates and survival among three experimental groups: control, surgery with no tag, and surgery with tag. Survival rate was lower for tagged fish (86%) than for control and surgery-no tag fish (virtually 100% in each group). Approximately 90% of the mortalities occurred during days 1-3. Growth rate for the tagged group was lower for the first two 10-d measurement intervals; however, during the third 10-d interval, growth rates for tagged fish equaled or exceeded values for the other groups. These results suggest that tagged fish recovered by day 20. Growth rates for the control and surgery-no tag groups did not differ from one another during any measurement interval. Tag retention rate was 97% over the 30-d period of the study. It appears that the combination of fish length and tag size in this study resulted in short-term negative effects on growth rate and survival; however, 23-mm PIT tags may still be useful for studies of salmonids 80-90 mm FL when survival is not the parameter of interest. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  16. The Effect of Crystallizing and Non-crystallizing Cosolutes on Succinate Buffer Crystallization and the Consequent pH Shift in Frozen Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaramurthi, Prakash; Suryanarayanan, Raj (UMM)

    2011-09-06

    To effectively inhibit succinate buffer crystallization and the consequent pH changes in frozen solutions. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), the crystallization behavior of succinate buffer in the presence of either (i) a crystallizing (glycine, mannitol, trehalose) or (ii) a non-crystallizing cosolute (sucrose) was evaluated. Aqueous succinate buffer solutions, 50 or 200 mM, at pH values 4.0 or 6.0 were cooled from room temperature to -25 C at 0.5 C/min. The pH of the solution was measured as a function of temperature using a probe designed to function at low temperatures. The final lyophiles prepared from these solutions were characterized using synchrotron radiation. When the succinic acid solution buffered to pH 4.0, in the absence of a cosolute, was cooled, there was a pronounced shift in the freeze-concentrate pH. Glycine and mannitol, which have a tendency to crystallize in frozen solutions, remained amorphous when the initial pH was 6.0. Under this condition, they also inhibited buffer crystallization and prevented pH change. At pH 4.0 (50 mM initial concentration), glycine and mannitol crystallized and did not prevent pH change in frozen solutions. While sucrose, a non-crystallizing cosolute, did not completely prevent buffer crystallization, the extent of crystallization was reduced. Sucrose decomposition, based on XRD peaks attributable to {beta}-D-glucose, was observed in frozen buffer solutions with an initial pH of 4.0. Trehalose completely inhibited crystallization of the buffer components when the initial pH was 6.0 but not at pH 4.0. At the lower pH, the crystallization of both trehalose dihydrate and buffer components was evident. When retained amorphous, sucrose and trehalose effectively inhibited succinate buffer component crystallization and the consequent pH shift. However, when trehalose crystallized or sucrose degraded to yield a crystalline decomposition product, crystallization of buffer was observed. Similarly, glycine and mannitol, two widely used bulking agents, inhibited buffer component crystallization only when retained amorphous. In addition to stabilizing the active pharmaceutical ingredient, lyoprotectants may prevent solution pH shift by inhibiting buffer crystallization.

  17. New developments in food-based synthetic attractants for pest Tephritidae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal capture of several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera spp. tephritid fruit flies is in traps baited with the aqueous protein bait Nulure combined with borax. Nulure is produced by acid hydrolysis of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline and more att...

  18. A Comparitive Evaluation of Sealing Ability, pH and Rheological Properties of Zinc Oxide Eugenol Sealer Combined with Different Antibiotics: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Girija S; Peddireddi, Suresh; Kumar, M. Sita Rama; Bhavana, V.; Raju, Sita Rama

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the sealing ability, pH & viscosity of Zinc oxide eugenol sealer mixed with different antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Clindamycin and Doxycycline). Materials and Methods: Ninety single rooted anterior teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups of 15 teeth each and 3 control groups of 10 each. Sealer-antibiotic combination was used as a sealer in experimental group. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally to assess linear dye penetration. pH and viscosity of the experimental groups were evaluated with Elico pH Meter and Brook Field Viscometer respectively. Results: (Amoxicillin+ ZOE) Group II and (Clindamycin + ZOE) Group IV have shown minimum linear dye leakage of 1.07mm & 1.22 mm respectively & (Ciprofloxacin + ZOE) Group III and (Doxycycline + ZOE) Group V 2.69 mm & 2.59 mm respectively. There was decrease in the viscosity of the experimental group. pH was found to be 8.55 for Group II sealer which was greater than control group. Conclusion: Amoxicillin and sealer combination can improve the success rate of endodontic therapy by enhancing the antimicrobial activity, alkaline environment and reducing apical microleakage. PMID:25584296

  19. GTKDynamo: a PyMOL plug-in for QC/MM hybrid potential simulations

    PubMed Central

    Bachega, José Fernando R.; Timmers, Luís Fernando S.M.; Assirati, Lucas; Bachega, Leonardo R.; Field, Martin J.; Wymore, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid quantum chemical (QC)/molecular mechanical (MM) potentials are very powerful tools for molecular simulation. They are especially useful for studying processes in condensed phase systems, such as chemical reactions, that involve a relatively localized change in electronic structure and where the surrounding environment contributes to these changes but can be represented with more computationally efficient functional forms. Despite their utility, however, these potentials are not always straightforward to apply since the extent of significant electronic structure changes occurring in the condensed phase process may not be intuitively obvious. To facilitate their use we have developed an open-source graphical plug-in, GTKDynamo, that links the PyMOL visualization program and the pDynamo QC/MM simulation library. This article describes the implementation of GTKDynamo and its capabilities and illustrates its application to QC/MM simulations. PMID:24137667

  20. OpenMM 4: A Reusable, Extensible, Hardware Independent Library for High Performance Molecular Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Peter; Friedrichs, Mark S.; Chodera, John D.; Radmer, Randall J.; Bruns, Christopher M.; Ku, Joy P.; Beauchamp, Kyle A.; Lane, Thomas J.; Wang, Lee-Ping; Shukla, Diwakar; Tye, Tony; Houston, Mike; Stich, Timo; Klein, Christoph; Shirts, Michael R.; Pande, Vijay S.

    2012-01-01

    OpenMM is a software toolkit for performing molecular simulations on a range of high performance computing architectures. It is based on a layered architecture: the lower layers function as a reusable library that can be invoked by any application, while the upper layers form a complete environment for running molecular simulations. The library API hides all hardware-specific dependencies and optimizations from the users and developers of simulation programs: they can be run without modification on any hardware on which the API has been implemented. The current implementations of OpenMM include support for graphics processing units using the OpenCL and CUDA frameworks. In addition, OpenMM was designed to be extensible, so new hardware architectures can be accommodated and new functionality (e.g., energy terms and integrators) can be easily added. PMID:23316124

  1. A study on friction stir welding of 12mm thick aluminum alloy plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepati Anil; Biswas, Pankaj; Tikader, Sujoy; Mahapatra, M. M.; Mandal, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the investigations regarding friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloy plates have been limited to about 5 to 6 mm thick plates. In prior work conducted the various aspects concerning the process parameters and the FSW tool geometry were studied utilizing friction stir welding of 12 mm thick commercial grade aluminum alloy. Two different simple-to-manufacture tool geometries were used. The effect of varying welding parameters and dwell time of FSW tool on mechanical properties and weld quality was examined. It was observed that in order to achieve a defect free welding on such thick aluminum alloy plates, tool having trapezoidal pin geometry was suitable. Adequate tensile strength and ductility can be achieved utilizing a combination of high tool rotational speed of about 2000 r/min and low speed of welding around 28 mm/min. At very low and high dwell time the ductility of welded joints are reduced significantly.

  2. Dust emissivity in the submm/mm. SCUBA and SIMBA observations of Barnard 68

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, S.; Gonçalves, J.; Albrecht, M.; Caselli, P.; Chini, R.; Galli, D.; Walmsley, M.

    2003-03-01

    We have observed the dark cloud Barnard 68 with SCUBA at 850 mu m and with SIMBA at 1.2 mm. The submillimetre and millimetre dust emission correlate well with the extinction map of Alves et al. (\\cite{AlvesNature2001}). The AV/850 mu m correlation is clearly not linear and suggests lower temperatures for the dust in the inner core of the cloud. Assuming a model for the temperature gradient, we derive the cloud-averaged dust emissivities (normalised to the V-band extinction efficiency) at 850 mu m and 1.2 mm. We find kappa850 mum/ kappaV =4.0+/- 1.0x 10-5 and kappa1.2 mm/ kappaV =9.0+/- 3.0x 10-6. These values are compared with other determinations in this wavelength regime and with expectations for models of diffuse dust and grain growth in dense clouds.

  3. Ultrastructural response of rat lung to 90 days' exposure to oxygen at 450 mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    Young Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 100% oxygen at 450 mm Hg in constant environment capsules for 90 days. Lung tissue examined by electron microscopy revealed a number of changes, many similar to those observed after exposure to oxygen at 760 mm Hg for shorter periods of time. Alterations in vesicle size and number and in mitochondrial matrix and cristae appear in both the endothelial and epithelial cells. Blebbing and rarefication of cytoplasm occur in both cell layers of the alveolo-capillary wall. Also seen are fluid in the basement membrane, platelets in the capillaries, and alveolar fluid and debris. All of these alterations occur at 1 atm exposure. However, after exposure to 450 mm Hg the changes are not as widespread nor as destructive as they are at the higher pressure.

  4. Six-element objective based on a new configuration for a 16-mm cinematographic projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Manoj K.; Gupta, Baijnath N.

    1994-06-01

    A 50-mm, f/1.4, six-element lens based on a new configuration has been developed for a 16- mm cinematographic projector. In this design, Indian-made Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI) glasses are used. To compare the performance of this system, a separated six-element Petzval configuration based on U.S. Patent No. 2,541,484, Ex. 1, is designed under similar conditions of optimization using CGCRI glasses. The performance of both designs is compared using transverse aberration curves, energy distribution curves, and geometrical modulation transfer function curves. These criteria for image evaluation indicate that the proposed new configuration gives better performance than the 16-mm motion picture projection lens based on the Petzval configuration. The same conclusion is also drawn from a comparison of resolving power at different field angles for both the systems.

  5. Radio Identification of Sub-mm Sources in the Hubble Deep Field

    E-print Network

    Eric. A. Richards

    1998-11-06

    Determination of the epoch dependent star-formation rate of field galaxies is one of the principal goals of modern observational cosmology. Recently, Hughes et al. (1998) using the SCUBA instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, report the detection of a new population of heavily dust enshrouded, star-forming galaxies at high redshifts (z > 2), dramatically altering the picture of galaxy evolution. However, we show that this interpretation must be treated with caution because of ambiguities in the identification of the host galaxies. Based on our deep, high resolution 1.4 GHz obervations of the Hubble Deep Field, we suggest alternate identifications to the sub-mm detections. These identifications argue for a substantially lower redshift to the sub-mm population with a consequential lowering of the z > 2 sub-mm/far infrared luminosity density and global star-formation rate.

  6. Exchangeable hydrogen explains the pH of spodosol Oa horizons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, D.S.; David, M.B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bartlett, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The chemistry of extremely acid Oa horizons does not conform to traditional pH, Al, and base saturation relationships. Results from two separate studies of northeastern U.S. forested soils were used to investigate relationships between pH in water or dilute salt solutions and other soil characteristics. In Oa horizons with pH below 4, soil pH in dilute CaCl2 solution was correlated with exchangeable H+ measured either by titration (r = -0.88, P = 0.0001, n = 142) or by electrode (r = -0.89, P = 0.0001, n = 45). Exchangeable H+ expressed as a percentage of the cation-exchange capacity (CEC) was linear with pH and showed similar slopes for data from both studies. For all samples, pHw = 4.21 - 1.80 x H+/CEC (R2 = 0.69, n = 194). The reciprocal of the H+/CEC ratio is base saturation with Al added to the bases. Because of the low pH, exchangeable Al does not appear to behave as an acid. Exchangeable H+ remains an operationally defined quantity because of the difficulty in separating exchange and hydrolysis reactions. In a variety of neutral-salt extractants, concentration of H+ were correlated with 0.1 M BaCl2-exchangeable H+ (r > 0.91, P = 0.0001, n = 26) regardless of the strength of the extract. Nine successive extractions with 0.33 mM CaCl2 removed more H+ than was removed by single batch extractions with either 1 M KCl or 0.1 M BaCl2 (average H+ of 70, 43, and 49 mmol kg-1, respectively for 26 samples). The data showed little difference in the chemical behavior of Oa horizons from a variety of geographical sites and vegetation types.

  7. Hybrid Laser-arc Welding of 17-4 PH Martensitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Ma, Junjie; Atabaki, Mehdi Mazar; Pillai, Raju; Kumar, Biju; Vasudevan, Unnikrishnan; Sreshta, Harold; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2015-06-01

    17-4 PH stainless steel has wide applications in severe working conditions due to its combination of good corrosion resistance and high strength. The weldability of 17-4 PH stainless steel is challenging. In this work, hybrid laser-arc welding was developed to weld 17-4 PH stainless steel. This method was chosen based on its advantages, such as deep weld penetration, less filler materials, and high welding speed. The 17-4 PH stainless steel plates with a thickness of 19 mm were successfully welded in a single pass. During the hybrid welding, the 17-4 PH stainless steel was immensely susceptible to porosity and solidification cracking. The porosity was avoided by using nitrogen as the shielding gas. The nitrogen stabilized the keyhole and inhibited the formation of bubbles during welding. Solidification cracking easily occurred along the weld centerline at the root of the hybrid laser-arc welds. The microstructural evolution and the cracking susceptibility of 17-4 PH stainless steel were investigated to remove these centerline cracks. The results showed that the solidification mode of the material changed due to high cooling rate at the root of the weld. The rapid cooling rate caused the transformation from ferrite to austenite during the solidification stage. The solidification cracking was likely formed as a result of this cracking-susceptible microstructure and a high depth/width ratio that led to a high tensile stress concentration. Furthermore, the solidification cracking was prevented by preheating the base metal. It was found that the preheating slowed the cooling rate at the root of the weld, and the ferrite-to-austenite transformation during the solidification stage was suppressed. Delta ferrite formation was observed in the weld bead as well no solidification cracking occurred by optimizing the preheating temperature.

  8. Somatic embryogenesis of carrot in hormone-free medium: external pH control over morphogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Cultures of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs) were initiated from mechanically wounded mature zygotic embryos of carrot, Daucus carota, on a hormone-free, semisolid medium. These PGSPs have been maintained and multiplied for extended periods without their progression into later embryo stages on the same hormone-free medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Sustained maintenance of cultures comprised exclusively of PGSPs was dependent on medium pH throughout the culture period. Best growth and multiplication of PGSP cultures occurred when the pH of unbuffered, hormone-free medium fell from 4.5 to 4 over a 2-week period or when buffered medium was titrated to pH 4. If the hormone-free medium was buffered to sustain a pH at or above 4.5, PGSPs developed into later embryo stages. Maintenance with continuous multiplication of PGSPs occurred equally well on medium containing NH4+ or NH4+ and NO3-, but growth was poor with NO3- alone. Additional observations on the effects of medium components such as various nitrogen sources and levels, sucrose concentration, semisolid supports, type of buffer, borate concentration, activated charcoal, and initial pH that permit optimum maintenance of the PGSPs or foster their continued developmental progression into mature embryos and plantlets are reported. The influence of the pH of the hormone-free medium as a determinant in maintaining cultures as PGSPs or allowing their continued embryonic development are unequivocally demonstrated by gross morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and histological preparations.

  9. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on striated muscle metabolism and intracellular pH during endotoxic shock.

    PubMed

    Bollaert, P E; Robin-Lherbier, B; Mallie, J P; Nace, L; Escanye, J M; Larcan, A

    1994-03-01

    The effects of HCO3Na load on acid-base balance and muscle intracellular bioenergetics have been investigated using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in an experimental model of endotoxinic shock. Anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and paralyzed rats (n = 16) were given an intravenous bolus of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (15 mg/kg). When shock was established they were randomly assigned to receive either HCO3Na intravenously (2 mmol/kg in 2 min) or an equimolar saline injection. Lipopolysaccharide induced a significant decrease in the levels of mean arterial pressure (58 +/- 6 vs. 120 +/- 8 mmHg), arterial pH (7.20 +/- .03 vs. 7.35 +/- .01), intracellular pH (6.86 +/- .04 vs. 7.08 +/- .01), a marked hyperlactatemia (7 +/- 3 vs. 1.2 +/- .2 mmol/L) and a drop in the phosphocreatine-inorganic phosphate ratio. In the bicarbonate-loaded rats, mean arterial pressure further decreased whereas it remained unchanged in the saline group. Bicarbonate increased arterial pH and PaCO2 transiently. In the saline group, arterial pH decreased and PaCO2 remained stable. In both groups, intracellular pH and high energy phosphates had a similar evolution. In this model of septic shock, partial correction of arterial pH using HCO3Na did not reduce the metabolic cellular injury in skeletal muscle. Based on these results, HCO3Na may be of limited therapeutic value in severe septic metabolic acidosis. PMID:7735951

  10. The Galactic Centre Mini-Spiral in the MM-Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunneriath, D.; Eckart, A.; Vogel, S. N.; Teuben, P.; Muzic, I.; Schoedel, R.; Garcia-Marin, M.; Moultaka, J.; Staguhn, J.; Straubmeier, C.; Zensus, J. A.; Valencia-S., M.; Karas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The mini-spiral is a feature of the interstellar medium in the central approx.2 pc of the Galactic center. It is composed of several streamers of dust and ionised and atomic gas with temperatures between a few 100 K to 10(exp 4) K. There is evidence that these streamers are related to the so-called circumnuclear disk of molecular gas and are ionized by photons from massive, hot stars in the central parsec. Aims: We attempt to constrain the emission mechanisms and physical properties of the ionized gas and dust of the mini-spiral region with the help of our multiwavelength data sets. Methods: Our observations were carried out at 1.3 mm and 3 mm with the mm interferometric array CARMA in California in March and April 2009, with the MIR instrument VISIR at ESO's VLT in June 2006, and the NIR Bry with VLT NACO in August 2009. Results: We present high resolution maps of the mini-spiral, and obtain a spectral index of 0.5 +/- 0.25 for Sgr A *, indicating an inverted synchrotron spectrum. We find electron densities within the range 0.8-1.5 x 10(exp 4)/cu cm for the mini-spiral from the radio continuum maps, along with a dust mass contribution of approx. 0.25 Mo from the MIR dust continuum. and extinctions ranging from 1.8-3 at 2.16 microns in the Bry line. Conclusions: We observe a mixture of negative and positive spectral indices in our 1.3 mm and 3 mm observations of the extended emission of the mini-spiral, which we interpret as evidence that there are a range of contributions to the thermal free-free emission by the ionized gas emission and by dust at 1.3 mm.

  11. Prediction of heavy rainfall events over Rangamati, Bangladesh using high-resolution MM5 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahasan, M. N.; Mannan Chowdhury, M. A.; Quadir, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, prediction of the heavy rainfall events over Rangamati, Bangladesh has been carried out using the Fifth-Generation PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) conducting two historical rainfall events. The model was run on two-way triple-nested domains at 45, 15, 5 km horizontal resolutions using Anthes-Kuo cumulus parameterization schemes (CPS) with MRF planetary boundary layer (PBL). Bangladesh is the main focus area in this study. Thus, Bangladesh is taken as inner most domain (D3) with 5 km horizontal resolution. The model-predicted rainfall was compared with TRMM 3B42V7 and BMD observed rainfall. Both subjective and objective evaluation methods have been followed. The MM5 model produces realistic prediction of heavy rainfall events in terms of intensity and structure. The results show that the model performed all the Day 1 (24 h), Day 2 (48 h) and Day 3 (72 h) predictions reasonably well. The predictions are more accurate for Day 2 (48 h) and worse for Day 4 (96 h) in both cases. The prediction deteriorates as the prediction time increases. Thus, the prediction may be updated in every 24 h which would provide more realistic prediction. The RMSE shows that the value for 24 h prediction lies within 10-20 mm range. The prediction error is minimal for 48 h prediction, the error ranging from 8 to 12 mm. The error increases thereafter for 72 and 96 h of predictions. The errors range from around 10-20 and 15-25 mm, respectively. The topography/terrain over the southeast hilly region of Bangladesh has not been resolved by USGS terrain data which was used in the MM5 model. Thus, accurate and high-resolution terrain data of this region is expected to improve the performance of the model over the southeast hilly regions of Bangladesh.

  12. Optically controlled characteristics of III–V Nitride based MM-wave transit-time devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moumita Mukherjee

    2009-01-01

    Extensive simulation experiments are carried out for the first time, to study the photo-irradiation effects on the high frequency characteristics of III-V GaN (Gallium Nitride) based Top-Mounted and Flip-Chip IMPATT oscillators at MM-wave window frequency (140.0 GHz). MM-wave properties of un-illuminated GaN IMPATTs are compared with those of conventional Si, GaAs and InP IMPATTs, under similar operating conditions. Superiority of

  13. GPS surveying with 1 mm precision using corrections for atmospheric slant path delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alber, Chris; Ware, Randolph; Rocken, Christian; Solheim, Fredrick

    Multipath and atmospheric effects can limit GPS surveying precision. We surveyed a 43 km baseline using large diameter choke ring antennas to reduce multipath and pointed radiometer and barometric data to correct for atmospheric slant delay. Based on 11 daily solutions, atmospheric slant delay corrections improved vertical precision to 1.2 mm rms and horizontal precision to sub-mm. Applications for high precision GPS surveying include deformation monitoring associated with earthquake and volcanic processes, subsidence, isostasy, and sea level measurements; monitoring of atmospheric water vapor for climate and global change research, and to improve the resolution of synthetic aperture radar; calibration of satellite altimeters; and precise satellite orbit determination.

  14. 12 W\\/mm AlGaN-GaN HFETs on silicon substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Johnson; E. L. Piner; A. Vescan; R. Therrien; P. Rajagopal; J. C. Roberts; J. D. Brown; S. Singhal; K. J. Linthicum

    2004-01-01

    Al0.26Ga0.74N-GaN heterojunction field-effect transistors were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on high-resistivity 100-mm Si (111) substrates. Van der Pauw sheet resistance of the two-dimensional electron gas was 300 ?\\/square with a standard deviation of 10 ?\\/square. Maximum drain current density of ?1 A\\/mm was achieved with a three-terminal breakdown voltage of ?200 V. The cutoff frequency and maximum frequency

  15. Chemical accuracy in QM/MM calculations on enzyme-catalysed reactions

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, Adrian J

    2007-01-01

    Combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) modelling has the potential to answer fundamental questions about enzyme mechanisms and catalysis. Calculations using QM/MM methods can now predict barriers for enzyme-catalysed reactions with unprecedented, near chemical accuracy, i.e. to within 1 kcal/mol in the best cases. Quantitative predictions from first-principles calculations were only previously possible for very small molecules. At this level, quantitative, reliable predictions can be made about the mechanisms of enzyme-catalysed reactions. This development signals a new era of computational biochemistry. PMID:17880750

  16. Ionization Measurements of SuperCDMS SNOLAB 100 mm Diameter Germanium Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chagani, H.; /Minnesota U.; Bauer, D.A.; /Fermilab; Brandt, D.; Brink, P.L.; /SLAC; Cabrera, B.; Cherry, M.; /Stanford U.; Silva, E.Do Couto e; Godfrey, G.G.; /SLAC; Hall, J.; Hansen, S.; /Fermilab; Hasi, J.; Kelsey, M.; Kenney, C.J.; /SLAC; Mandic, V.; /Minnesota U.; Nagasawa, D.; Novak, L.; /Stanford U.; Mirabolfathi, N.; /UC, Berkeley; Partridge, R.; /SLAC; Radpour, R.; /Minnesota U.; Resch, R.; /SLAC; Sadoulet, B.; /UC, Berkeley /Stanford U. /SLAC /Stanford U. /Santa Clara U. /Minnesota U.

    2012-06-12

    Scaling cryogenic Germanium-based dark matter detectors to probe smaller WIMP-nucleon cross-sections poses significant challenges in the forms of increased labor, cold hardware, warm electronics and heat load. The development of larger crystals alleviates these issues. The results of ionization tests with two 100 mm diameter, 33 mm thick cylindrical detector-grade Germanium crystals are presented here. Through these results the potential of using such crystals in the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) SNOLAB experiment is demonstrated.

  17. MRF with adjustable pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2011-10-01

    Deterministic final polishing of high precision optics using sub-aperture processing with magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is an accepted practice throughout the world. A wide variety of materials can be successfully worked with aqueous (pH 10), magnetorheological (MR) fluids, using magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) and either ceria or nanodiamond nonmagnetic abrasives. Polycrystalline materials like zinc sulfide (ZnS) and zinc selenide (ZnSe) are difficult to polish at pH 10 with MRF, due to their grain size and the relatively low stiffness of the MR fluid lap. If microns of material are removed, the grain structure of the material begins to appear. In 2005, Kozhinova et al. (Appl. Opt. 44 4671-4677) demonstrated that lowering pH could improve MRF of ZnS. However, magnetic CI particle corrosion rendered their low pH approach unstable and unsuitable for commercial implementation. In 2009, Shafrir et al. described a sol-gel coating process for manufacturing a zirconia-coated CI particle that protects the magnetic core from aqueous corrosion (Appl. Opt .48 6797-6810). The coating process produces free nanozirconia polishing abrasives during the coating procedure, thereby creating an MR polishing powder that is "self-charged" with the polishing abrasive. By simply adding water, it was possible to polish optical glasses and ceramics with good stability at pH 8 for three weeks. The development of a corrosion resistant, MR polishing powder, opens up the possibility for polishing additional materials, wherein the pH may be adjusted to optimize effectiveness. In this paper we describe the CI coating process, the characterization of the coated powder, and procedures for making stable MR fluids with adjustable pH, giving polishing results for a variety of optical glasses and crystalline ceramics.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Mono-13C acetaldehydes mm/submm wave spectra (Margules+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margules, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2015-06-01

    This paper is a continuation of a series of studies conducted in PhLAM Lille (France) that are devoted to the investigations of the spectra of different isotopic species of astrophysical molecules. We present a new study of the 13CH3CHO and CH313CHO spectra with measurements and analysis extended up to 945GHz. (6 data files).

  19. Intracellular pH, intracellular free Ca, and junctional cell-cell coupling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Rose; Roger Rick

    1978-01-01

    Summary Intracellular pH (pHi) and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) were determined inChironomus salivary gland cells under various conditions of induced uncoupling. pHi was measured with aThomas-type microelectrode, changes in [Ca2+]i and their spatial distribution inside the cell were determined with the aid of intracellularly injected aequorin and an image intensifier-TV system, and cell-to-cell coupling was measured electrically. Treatments with NaCN (5mm),

  20. Third-body abrasive wear challenge of 32 mm conventional and 44 mm highly crosslinked polyethylene liners in a hip simulator model.

    PubMed

    Sorimachi, T; Clarke, I C; Williams, P A; Gustafson, A; Yamamoto, K

    2009-07-01

    Hip simulator studies have shown that wear in the polyethylene liners used for total hip replacements increased with the larger-diameter femoral balls and could also be exacerbated by third-body abrasion. However, they also indicated that the more highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXPE) bearings were more wear resistant than conventional polyethylene (CXPE) bearings. Unfortunately the HXPE bearings appeared to be particularly sensitive to adverse wear conditions. One simulator study in particular indicated that poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) debris increased wear sixfold by means of two-body abrasive interactions rather than the supposed third-body abrasion or roughening effects of the Co-Cr surfaces. There has been no confirmation of such novel theories. Therefore the goal of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of large-diameter HXPE bearings to the third-body PMMA wear challenge in a hip simulator model. An orbital hip simulator was used in standard test mode with a physiological load profile. The 32 mm control liners were machined from moulded GUR1050 and gamma irradiated to 35 kGy under nitrogen (CXPE). The 44 mm liners were also from moulded blanks, gamma irradiated to 75 kGy, machined to shape, given a proprietary heat treatment, and sterilized by gas plasma (HXPE). As in the published simulator model, the study was conducted in three phases. In phase 1, all cups were run in standard ('clean') lubricant for 1.5 x 10(6) cycles duration. In phase 2, three CXPE cups and six HXPE cups were run for 2 x 10(6) cycles with a slurry of PMMA particles added to the lubricant. In phase 3, the implants were again run in 'clean' lubricant for 2 x 10(6) cycles duration. In addition, three HXPE cups were run as wear controls for 5.5 x 10(6) cycles duration in clean lubricant. In phase-1, the HXPE liners demonstrated twelvefold reduced wear compared with the CXPE controls. The 32 mm and 44 mm Co-Cr balls were judged of comparable roughnesses. However, the surface finish of HXPE liners was superior to that of CXPE liners. In phase-2 abrasion, wear rates increased sixfold and eighty-fold for CXPE and HXPE bearings respectively. These data confirmed that HXPE bearings were particularly sensitive to 'severe' test modes. The Co-Cr balls revealed numerous surface patches representing transferred PMMA with average transient roughness increased to 25 nm and 212 nm for the 32 mm and 44 mm balls respectively. These PMMA patches produced an aggressive two-body abrasion wear of the polyethylene. After cleaning, the ball roughness returned to near normal. Therefore the Co-Cr roughness was not an issue in this severe test mode. In phase 3, the wear decreased to near the index values of phase 1, while liner roughness dropped by more than 90 per cent. The control CXPE liners now demonstrated twice the wear of the HXPE, as would be predicted comparing the diameter and cross-linking algorithms. No previous study has correlated polyethylene roughness profiles to wear performance. In phase 2, PMMA abrasion created significant damage to the polyethylene surfaces. The average roughness Sa of CXPE liners increased to 3.6 microm, a twenty-four-fold increase with some scratches up to 40 microm deep. The HXPE roughness also increased but only to 1.5 microm, a ninefold increase. The scratch indices Sz and Sp for HXPE surfaces were also 50 per cent less severe than on CXPE surfaces. However, within 2 x 10(6) cycles duration of phase 3, all liners had recovered to virtually their original surface finish in phase 1. In all test phases, the surface finish of the HXPE liners remained superior to control liners. These experimental data confirmed many of the results from the previous simulator study with the PMMA abrasion models. Thus the 44 mm liners appeared an excellent clinical alternative to the smaller ball designs used in total hip replacements. PMID:19623913

  1. Low pH myoglobin photoproducts.

    PubMed

    Sage, J T; Morikis, D; Li, P; Champion, P M

    1992-04-01

    Recently, there has been interest in determining the conditions under which the iron-histidine bond ruptures in myoglobin at low pH, so that the effect of proximal heme ligation can be studied. A 220-cm-1 Raman mode, assigned to iron-histidine stretching, is clearly visible after photolysis of aqueous MbCO samples below pH4 at room temperature (Sage et al. Biochemistry. 30:1237-1247). In contrast, Iben et al. (Biophys. J. 59:908-919) do not observe this mode upon photolysis of a pH3 MbCO sample in a glycerol/water glass at low temperature. In order to account for both the low temperature and the room temperature experiments, Iben et al. suggest a scheme involving an unusual protonation state of the proximal histidine. Here, we discuss some inconsistencies in their explanation of the room temperature results and offer instead a simple modification of an earlier model. In addition, circular dichroism data are presented that indicate partial unfolding of MbCO in aqueous solution below pH4, and raise questions about the claim of Iben et al. that MbCO remains folded in 75% glycerol at pH3. PMID:1581497

  2. AN UNRELEASED MM-WAVE RESONANT BODY TRANSISTOR Wentao Wang, Laura C. Popa, Radhika Marathe, Dana Weinstein

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brian C.

    RF and mm-wave building blocks with high Q, small footprint, and low power for use in wirelessAN UNRELEASED MM-WAVE RESONANT BODY TRANSISTOR Wentao Wang, Laura C. Popa, Radhika Marathe, Dana detection up to mm-wave frequencies. The unreleased resonator demonstrated here is not limited to CMOS

  3. A 16 mm3 autonomous solar-powered sensor node with bi-directional optical communication for distributed sensor net-

    E-print Network

    Kahn, Joseph M.

    , a 2.6 mm2 SOI solar cell array, and a micromachined four-quadrant corner-cube retroreflector (CCR and Receiver Incoming Laser Communication 1-2mm Thick-Film Battery Solar Cell Power Capacitor Analog I/O, DSPAbstract A 16 mm3 autonomous solar-powered sensor node with bi- directional optical communication

  4. Detecting opaque and nonopaque tropical upper tropospheric ice clouds: A trispectral technique based on the MODIS 812 mm

    E-print Network

    Baum, Bryan A.

    based on the MODIS 8­12 mm window bands Gang Hong,1 Ping Yang,1 Andrew K. Heidinger,2 Michael J on the brightness temperature differences between the MODIS 8.5 and 11 mm bands and between the 11 and 12 mm bands together with the MODIS detected cloud thermodynamic phase. The brightness temperature differences provide

  5. In Situ Fluorescence Measurement of Tear Film [Na+], [K+], [Cl?], and pH in Mice Shows Marked Hypertonicity in Aquaporin-5 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Ederra, Javier; Levin, Marc H.; Verkman, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Tear film composition depends on water and ion transport across ocular surface epithelia and on fluid secretion by lacrimal glands. The purpose of this study was to establish in situ fluorescence methods to measure tear film ionic concentrations and pH in mice and to determine whether tear film composition is sensitive to deficiency of the major ocular surface aquaporin water channels. Methods Tear film ionic concentrations and pH were measured in anesthetized mice by ratio imaging fluorescence microscopy after topical application of ion/pH-sensing, dual-wavelength fluorescent indicators. [Na+], [K+], and [Cl?] were measured with membrane-impermeant indicators developed by our laboratory, and pH was measured with bis(carboxyethyl)-carboxyfluorescein fluorescence-conjugated dextran. Measurements were performed on wild-type mice and on knockout mice lacking aquaporins AQP1, AQP3, and AQP5. Results In wild-type mice, tear film [Na+] was 139 ± 8 mM, [K+] was 48 ± 1 mM, [Cl?] was 127 ± 4 mM, and pH was 7.59 ± 0.2 (SE; n = 5–8). pH did not differ significantly in the AQP knockout mice. [Na+] was increased by approximately twofold in AQP5 null mice (230 ± 20 mM) and was greatly reduced after exposure of the ocular surface to a humidified atmosphere. [K+] was mildly reduced in AQP1 null mice. Conclusions These results establish an in situ optical methodology to measure tear film [Na+], [K+], [Cl?], and pH in living mice, without the need for fluid sampling. Tear film hypertonicity in AQP5 deficiency is likely caused by reduced transcorneal water secretion in response to evaporative water loss. PMID:19136711

  6. Instrument development and field application of the in situ pH Calibrator at the Ocean Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C.; Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    A novel, self-calibrating instrument for in-situ measurement of pH in deep sea environments up to 4000 m has recently been developed. The device utilizes a compact fluid delivery system to perform measurement and two-point calibration of the solid state pH sensor array (Ir|IrOx| Ag|AgCl), which is sealed in a flow cell to enhance response time. The fluid delivery system is composed of a metering pump and valves, which periodically deliver seawater samples into the flow cell to perform measurements. Similarly, pH buffer solutions can be delivered into the flow cell to calibrate the electrodes under operational conditions. Sensor signals are acquired and processed by a high resolution (0.25 mV) datalogger circuit with a size of 114 mm×31 mm×25 mm. Eight input channels are available: two high impedance sensor input channels, two low impedance sensor input channel, two thermocouple input channels and two thermistor input channels. These eight channels provide adequate measurement flexibility to enhance applications in deep sea environments. The two high impedance channels of the datalogger are especially designed with the input impedance of 1016 ? for YSZ (yittria-stabilized zirconia) ceramic electrodes characterized by the extremely low input bias current and high resistance. Field tests have been performed in 2008 by ROV at the depth up to 3200 m. Using the continuous power supply and TCP/IP network capability of the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) ocean observatory, the so-called "pH Calibrator" has the capability of long term operation up to six months. In the observatory mode, the electronics are configured with DC-DC power converter modules and Ethernet to serial module to gain access to the science port of seafloor junction box. The pH Calibrator will be deployed at the ocean observatory in October and the in situ data will be on line on the internet. The pH Calibrator presents real time pH data at high pressures and variable temperatures, while the in situ calibration capability enhances the accuracy of electrochemical measurements of seawater pH, fulfilling the need for long term objectives for marine studies.

  7. Press Advertising 39x3col (390mm x 3 cols)

    E-print Network

    Botea, Adi

    Press Advertising 39x3col (390mm x 3 cols) Total cost of ad Canberra Times $1,682.49 HES $4. 200 words Canberra Times $1,037.29 HES $2,785.00 STANDALONE Press advertising describes job advertisements in a printed medium such as newspapers, magazines and journals. We currently primarily advertised

  8. QM/MM simulations as an assay for carbapenemase activity in class A ?-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Chudyk, Ewa I; Limb, Michael A L; Jones, Charlotte; Spencer, James; van der Kamp, Marc W; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2014-12-01

    Carbapenems, 'last resort' antibiotics for many bacterial infections, can now be broken down by several class A ?-lactamases (i.e. carbapenemases). Here, carbapenemase activity is predicted through QM/MM dynamics simulations of acyl-enzyme deacylation, requiring only the 3D structure of the apo-enzyme. This may assist in anticipating resistance and future antibiotic design. PMID:25321894

  9. Water Management EC Kumbur and MM Mench, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA

    E-print Network

    Mench, Matthew M.

    types of fuel cell systems including the alkaline electrolyte fuel cell, solid oxide fuel cell electrolyte membrane. Reproduced with permission from Mench MM (2008) Fuel Cell Engines. New Jersey: John, USA & 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Introduction Fuel cells hold great promise to meet

  10. Hans Peter Schwefel Wireless Networks III, Fall 2005: MM1, IP Mobility Support

    E-print Network

    Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2005: MM1, IP Mobility Support Content 1. Background · Mobility & Handover Types 2. Link-Layer Hand-over Mobility Support Content 1. Background · Mobility & Handover Types 2. Link-Layer Hand-over · Example: WLAN · Handover to neighbouring base station when necessary · Base Stations connected by some networking

  11. Guide to Foreign-Government Loan Film (16 mm). First Edition, 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    More than 3,000 films (16 mm.) available on loan in the United States under the auspices of 66 foreign governments are catalogued. About 1,800 of them may be borrowed at no charge, and the rest at a nominal fee. Many of the listings are simply tourist films, but others deal with the country's history, literature, culture, people, and politics. The…

  12. 9 mm ammunition used in a 40 caliber glock pistol: an atypical gunshot wound.

    PubMed

    Thogmartin, J R; Start, D A

    1998-05-01

    Atypical gunshot wounds due to ricochet and intermediate targets have been well described in the literature. We represent a case of suicide with an atypical entrance wound and bullet without rifling marks due to 9 mm ammunition being loaded and fired from a 40 caliber semiautomatic pistol. PMID:9608712

  13. Laser-Assisted Stir Welding of 25-mm-Thick HSLA65 Plate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith M. Williamson

    2002-01-01

    Laser-assisted stir welding is a hybrid process that combines energy from a laser with functional heating and mechanical energy to join materials in the solid state. The technology is an adaptation of friction stir welding which is particularly suited for joining thick plates. Aluminum plates up to 75 mm thick have been successfully joined using friction stir welding. Since joining

  14. Producing the 8mm Self-Instructional Film: A Demonstration Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Vernon S.

    How does one conduct a workshop in self-instructional film production? A demonstration kit was put together to enable a teacher to do this. It consists of five monographs' ("Programing the Instructional Film", "Stating Objectives", "Developing The Instructional Specification", "An Introduction to Programing", and "Lighting Fundamentals"), one 8mm…

  15. Metrology Tool for Microstructure Control on 300 mm Wafers During Damascene Copper Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Kozaczek; D. S. Kurtz; P. R. Moran; R. I. Martin; L.-Y. Huang; A. Stratilatov

    2003-01-01

    The rapid adoption of damascene copper processing has brought about an increased need to understand and control microstructure in the barrier, seed and electroplated copper layers during manufacture. We have developed a fully automated metrology tool for rapidly characterizing thin film polycrystalline microstructures on 300 mm silicon oxidized substrates. This x-ray based metrology tool measures crystallographic texture, phase composition, film

  16. Experimental Ballistic Improvement in a Pure Electrothermal (ET) 25-mm Gun

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Alimi; Lior Bakshi; Eran Kot; Noam Shafir; Daniel Forte; Moris Sudai

    2007-01-01

    The Soreq Propulsion Physics Division has recently initiated the development of a small-caliber pure electrothermal (ET) weapon. This paper reports the promising results obtained with a 25-mm ET gun. The currently mature gun technology based on conventional ballistic process is mostly limited because: 1) the propellant burning features dictate a curve that is entirely determined by the grain geometry and

  17. Geometry optimization with QM\\/MM, ONIOM, and other combined methods. I. Microiterations and constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thom Vreven; Keiji Morokuma; Ödön Farkas; H. Bernhard Schlegel; Michael J. Frisch

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid energy methods such as QM\\/MM and ONIOM, that combine different levels of theory into one calculation, have been very successful in describing large systems. Geometry optimization methods can take advantage of the partitioning of these calculations into a region treated at a quantum mechanical (QM) level of theory and the larger, remaining region treated by an inexpensive method such

  18. Development of optical ground verification method for mum to sub-mm reflectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Stockman; C. Thizy; P. Lemaire; M. Georges; E. Mazy; A. Mazzoli; Y. Houbrechts; P. Rochus; S. Roose; D. Doyle; G. Ulbrich

    2004-01-01

    Large reflectors and antennas for the IR to mm wavelength range are being planned for many Earth observation and astronomical space missions and for commercial communication satellites as well. Scientific observatories require large telescopes with precisely shaped reflectors for collecting the electro-magnetic radiation from faint sources. The challenging tasks of on-ground testing are to achieve the required accuracy in the

  19. Ramesh Gupta, April 6, 2010 Iterated Design of 200 mm, 6 T

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    ;Ramesh Gupta, April 6, 2010 Field in the Iron Yoke Field in yoke is primarily below 2T #12;Ramesh Gupta · Keeps the iron saturation in the main solenoid reasonable. This means that the influence of the external · Exterior field (fringe field) coil is brought within 2500 mm yoke · Exterior field coil is made

  20. A 50 mm bore superconducting dipole with a unique iron yoke structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Caspi; A. Lietzke; R. Scanlan; C. E. Taylor; A. Wandesforde

    1992-01-01

    A 50 mm bore superconducting dipole with a thin stainless steel collar and a close in elliptical iron yoke was designed in order to obtain a high transfer function SW low saturation effects on the multipoles, and a one meter model was built and tested. Training behavior of the first 1 m model, called D19, is presented at 4.3 K

  1. Polystyrene PS648 inlet optical birefringence pattern, piston speed 1.0mm/s

    E-print Network

    Hassell, David

    2008-08-27

    The optical birefringence pattern obtained from polystyrene PS648 flowing through a narrow slit. Experiment conducted on the Cambridge Multi Pass Rheometer (MPR4) at a piston speed of 1.0 mm/s at 170C. Video shows the inlet flow (from bottom to top)....

  2. Polystyrene PS648 outlet optical birefringence pattern, piston speed 1.0mm/s

    E-print Network

    Hassell, David

    2008-08-27

    The optical birefringence pattern obtained from polystyrene PS648 flowing through a narrow slit. Experiment conducted on the Cambridge Multi Pass Rheometer (MPR4) at a piston speed of 1.0 mm/s at 170C. Video shows the outlet flow (from top to bottom)....

  3. Polystyrene PS648 outlet optical birefringence pattern, piston speed 0.16mm/s

    E-print Network

    Hassell, David

    2008-08-27

    The optical birefringence pattern obtained from polystyrene PS648 flowing through a narrow slit. Experiment conducted on the Cambridge Multi Pass Rheometer (MPR4) at a piston speed of 0.16 mm/s at 170C. Video shows the outlet flow (from top...

  4. Polystyrene PS648 outlet optical birefringence pattern, piston speed 1.4mm/s

    E-print Network

    Hassell, David

    2008-08-27

    The optical birefringence pattern obtained from polystyrene PS648 flowing through a narrow slit. Experiment conducted on the Cambridge Multi Pass Rheometer (MPR4) at a piston speed of 1.4 mm/s at 170C. Video shows the outlet flow (from top to bottom)....

  5. Polystyrene PS648 inlet optical birefringence pattern, piston speed 1.4mm/s

    E-print Network

    Hassell, David

    2008-08-27

    The optical birefringence pattern obtained from polystyrene PS648 flowing through a narrow slit. Experiment conducted on the Cambridge Multi Pass Rheometer (MPR4) at a piston speed of 1.4 mm/s at 170C. Video shows the inlet flow (from bottom to top)....

  6. Polystyrene PS648 inlet optical birefringence pattern, piston speed 0.16mm/s

    E-print Network

    Hassell, David

    2008-08-27

    The optical birefringence pattern obtained from polystyrene PS648 flowing through a narrow slit. Experiment conducted on the Cambridge Multi Pass Rheometer (MPR4) at a piston speed of 0.16 mm/s at 170C. Video shows the inlet flow (from bottom to top)....

  7. Clinicopathologic features and endoscopic treatment of superficially spreading colorectal neoplasms larger than 20 mm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Tanaka; Ken Haruma; Shiro Oka; Ryoji Takahashi; Masaki Kunihiro; Yasuhiko Kitadai; Masaharu Yoshihara; Fumio Shimamoto; Kazuaki Chayama

    2001-01-01

    Background: A colorectal neoplasm that spreads superficially over the mucosa is known as a laterally spreading tumor. The clinicopathologic features of these large lesions and the efficacy and safety of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) were studied retrospectively. Methods: Surgically or endoscopically resected laterally spreading tumors larger than 20 mm in diameter were studied. Lesions were divided into 2 macroscopic subtypes:

  8. MM3-ELISA detection of Fasciola hepatica coproantigens in preserved human stool samples.

    PubMed

    Ubeira, Florencio M; Muiño, Laura; Valero, M Adela; Periago, M Victoria; Pérez-Crespo, Ignacio; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Romarís, Fernanda; Paniagua, Esperanza; Cortizo, Sandra; Llovo, José; Más-Coma, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    In this study, we evaluate the MM3-COPRO method for detection of Fasciola coproantigens in human fecal samples, and the usefulness of a new preservative/diluent, CoproGuard, developed for preservation of Fasciola coproantigens. The MM3-COPRO assay was evaluated with 213 samples from healthy patients, 30 Fasciola positive fecal samples (according to the Kato-Katz method), and 83 samples from patients with other parasitic infections. All Fasciola positive specimens were detected with the MM3-COPRO assay (100% sensitivity) and there was no cross-reactivity with other common parasites present in the clinical specimens analyzed (100% specificity). The use of CoproGuard enhanced coproantigen extraction without affecting the detection limit of the assay, and the antigenicity of Fasciola coproantigens in fecal samples stored at 37 degrees C was retained throughout the entire observation period (120 days). We concluded that the MM3-COPRO ELISA combined with the use of CoproGuard may be a very useful tool for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis. PMID:19556582

  9. Oct. 12, 2005 QM/MM: What have we learned, where are we, and where

    E-print Network

    Truhlar, Donald G

    briefly reviews the current status of the most popular methods for combined quantum mechanical/molecular/MM ­ Electrostatic Interactions ­ Embedding Scheme ­ Link Atom ­ Multi-configuration Molecular Mechanics ­ Potential. Algorithms that combine quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics provide a solution to this problem

  10. TAMUS-OGC-Approved 06/2007 Account Number Date (mm/dd/yyyy)

    E-print Network

    TAMUS-OGC-Approved 06/2007 *RMF001* Account Number Date (mm/dd/yyyy) Enter Student Organization court costs and attorney's fees and expenses, that may be sustained by me while participating death), or damages, including court costs and attorney's fees and expenses, which may occur to myself

  11. INSTRUCTIONS e-Portal and MMIS Signature Authorization Form Surplus Property Program -MM-3S

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    INSTRUCTIONS e-Portal and MMIS Signature Authorization Form ­ Surplus Property Program - MM-3S #: Room # Mail Code: Signature: Date: Special Instructions: Authorized By: Title: Authorized Signature of Connecticut: Agency Municipality School Non-Profit Organization Authorized Employee: Title Telephone #: Fax

  12. The Radio-2 mm Spectral Index of the Crab Nebula Measured with Gismo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, R. G.; George, J. V.; Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Fixsen, D. J.; Irwin, K. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Korngut, P. M.; Kovács, A.; Maher, S. F.; Mason, B. S.; Miller, T. M.; Moseley, S. H.; Navarro, S.; Sievers, A.; Sievers, J. L.; Sharp, E.; Wollack, E. J.

    2011-06-01

    We present results of 2 mm observations of the Crab Nebula, obtained using the Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer (GISMO) bolometer camera on the IRAM 30 m telescope. Additional 3.3 mm observations with the MUSTANG bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope are also presented. The integrated 2 mm flux density of the Crab Nebula provides no evidence for the emergence of a second synchrotron component that has been proposed. It is consistent with the radio power-law spectrum, extrapolated up to a break frequency of log (? b [GHz]) = 2.84 ± 0.29 or ? b = 695+651 - 336 GHz. The Crab Nebula is well resolved by the ~16farcs7 beam (FWHM) of GISMO. Comparison to radio data at comparable spatial resolution enables us to confirm significant spatial variation of the spectral index between 21 cm and 2 mm. The main effect is a spectral flattening in the inner region of the Crab Nebula, correlated with the toroidal structure at the center of the nebula that is prominent in the near-IR through X-ray regime. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  13. Technical Manual for Attitudes Towards Teaching All Students (ATTAS-mm) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Jess L.; Noto, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    The general education teacher has the greatest influence on a student's success in school, and a teacher's attitude towards inclusion is a major factor in determining whether inclusion will be successful. The ATTAS-mm is a 9-item scale with strong reliability and validity. The three subscales: believing all students can succeed in general…

  14. Error Analysis for the National Bureau of Standards 1016 mm Guarded Hot Plate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Rennex

    1983-01-01

    An error analysis is given for the 1-meter Guarded Hot Plate at the National Bureau of Standards. This apparatus is used to measure the thermal resistance of insulation materials. The individual contributions to uncertainty in thermal resistance are discussed in detail. The total uncertainty is estimated to be less than 0.5 percent at sample thicknesses up to 150 mm (6

  15. 5. East portal of Tunnel 18, view to westsouthwest, 135mm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East portal of Tunnel 18, view to west-southwest, 135mm lens. The train exiting the tunnel, though northbound toward Portland, is considered an eastbound train on the Southern Pacific (see explanation above). - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel No. 18, Milepost 410, Dorris, Siskiyou County, CA

  16. 5. East portal of Tunnel 28, view to southsouthwest, 135mm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East portal of Tunnel 28, view to south-southwest, 135mm lens. Shed above portal appears to have housed machinery connected with a counterweighted curtain mechanism used to help dissipate smoke from this 3,209-foot tunnel during the days of steam locomotive use - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  17. 0.5mm Pitch Board to Board Connector DF17 Series

    E-print Network

    A319 0.5mm Pitch Board to Board Connector DF17 Series sFeatures 1. Solution of Connector Damage Caused when Mobile Phone is Dropped DF17 series are the connector which has been developed mainly for the mobile phone. Connector Problems Involving in Mobile phone Example: The following problems can be solved

  18. May 14, 2008 Heights of solar tracers observed at 8 mm and an interpretation of

    E-print Network

    May 14, 2008 Heights of solar tracers observed at 8 mm and an interpretation of their radiation R to explain the observed phenomena. Aims. The goal of the present analysis is to determine the heights the method for the simultaneous determination of the solar synodic rotation velocity and the height

  19. IR & MM WAVES, VOL. 24, NO. 3, 2003 261 A FULL-HEIGHT WAVEGUIDE TO

    E-print Network

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    IR & MM WAVES, VOL. 24, NO. 3, 2003 261 A FULL-HEIGHT WAVEGUIDE TO THIN-FILM MICROSTRIP TRANSITION-film microstrip line, to full- height rectangular waveguide with better than 99% efficiency (VSWR 1.20) and 45 range. Keywords Radial probe, full-height waveguide to thin-film microstrip tran- sition, suspended

  20. The Media with a Great Future: 8mm Single Concept Loop Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaney, Donald S.

    1970-01-01

    The single-concept loop film is usually a one to five minute film involving a concept, information, or skill. The 8mm loop films are short, silent, continuous loops that offer advantages of economy and simplicity, and can result in a high degree of student involvement. (Author)