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Molecular Structure of Borax  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Borax was discovered 4000 years ago. It was first brought to Europe from Kashmir and Tibet. It is deposited by the evaporation of alkaline lakes, and today is mined in California, Nevada, and Tibet. The hydrated mineral is colorless and becomes chalky white during dehydration. It is water soluble, has a sweet alkaline taste, and is brittle. Borax has no toxic fumes; it is environmentally safe and should not be ingested. This chemical is an important source of boron containing compounds such as tincalconite and kernite, and is industrially important in the manufacturing of ceramics, paint, glass, and coated paper. It is also utilized as a disinfectant, insect repellent, water softener, and a detergent. The most common detergent brand is 20 Mule Team Borax.



40 CFR 415.270 - Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory. 415.270...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.270 Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory. The...



[Infrared spectral analysis for calcined borax].  


To valuate the quality of calcined borax which is sold in the market, 18 samples of calcined borax were studied using the Fourier transform infrared, and samples with different water content were selected and analyzed. Then, the results of analysis were used to evaluate the quality of calcined borax. Results show that the infrared spectra of calcined borax include OH vibration, BO3(-3) vibration and BO4(5-) vibration absorption bands. The position and width of OH vibration absorption band depend on the level of water content, and the more the water content, the wider the absorption band. The number of BO3(3-) vibration and BO4(5-) vibration bands also depend on the level of water content, and the more the water content, and the stronger the hydrogen bond and the lower the symmetry of B atoms, the more the number of infrared absorption peaks. It was concluded that because the quality of calcined borax has direct correlation with water content, the infrared spectroscopy is an express and objective approach to quality analysis and evaluation of calcined borax. PMID:22007396

Zhao, Cui; Ren, Li-Li; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Bo-Tao



Solubility and Leaching of Boron from Borax and Colemanite in Flooded Acidic Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron (B) is a micronutrient essential for adequate plant growth. Borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O) and colemanite (Ca2B6O11·5H2O) are common B fertilizer materials, the former being widely used worldwide. Boron is completely water soluble and subjected to leaching. In this study, the dissolution kinetics of both borax and colemanite in deionized water and at pH 3.8, 5.2, 6.5, and 8.2 were determined. Soils

M. Saleem; Y. M. Khanif; Y. M. Fauziah Ishak; A. W. Samsuri



Assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human developmental and reproductive toxicity of agents  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3BO3 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). The element, boron, does not exist naturally. In dilute aqueous solution and at physiological pH (7.4), the predominant species in undissociated boric acid (greater than 98%), irrespective of whether the initial material was boric acid of borax. Therefore, it is both useful and correct to compare exposures and dosages to boric acid and borax in terms of `boron equivalents`, since both materials form equivalent species in dilute aqueous solution with similar systemic effects. In order to be clear in this document, the term `boron` will refer to `boron equivalents` or percent boron in boric acid and borax.

Moore, J.A.



Dry borax applicator operator's manual.  

SciTech Connect

Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting their roots and eventually killing the trees. The fungus Heterobasidion annosum causes annosum root rot. The fungus colonizes readily on freshly cut stumps. Partially cut stands have a high risk of infestation because the fungus can colonize on each of the stumps and potentially infect the neighboring trees. Wind and rain carry the annosum spores. Spores that land on freshly cut stumps grow down the stump's root system where they can infect living trees through root grafts or root contacts. Once annosum becomes established, it can remain active for many years in the Southern United States and for several decades in the north. About 7% of the trees that become infected die. When thinning, stumps can be treated successfully using a competing fungus, Phlebia gigantea, and with ''Tim-Bor'' in liquid formulations. These liquid products are no longer approved in the United States. Only the dry powder form is registered and approved by the EPA. Stumps can be treated with a dry formula of borax, (Sporax), significantly reducing one of the primary routes by which Heterobasidion annosum infects a stand of trees. Sporax is used by the USDA Forest Service to control annosum root rot. Sporax is now applied by hand, but once the felled trees are skidded it becomes very hard to locate the stumps. A stump applicator will reduce error, labor costs, and hazards to workers.

Karsky, Richard, J.



Ingredients: Borax (found in the laundry section of the store)  

E-print Network

Ingredients: white glue Borax (found in the laundry section of the store) Water Food coloring will dissolve. Pour some glue into a clean cup (add color at this time). Add a small amount of borax solution


Crystallization kinetics of the borax decahydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth and dissolution rates of borax decahydrate have been measured as a function of supersaturation for various particle sizes at different temperature ranges of 13 and 50 °C in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed crystallizer. The values of mass transfer coefficient, K, reaction rate constant, kr and reaction rate order, r were determined. The relative importances of diffusion and integration resistance were described by new terms named integration and diffusion concentration fraction. It was found that the overall growth rate of borax decahydrate is mainly controlled by integration (reaction) steps. It was also estimated that the dissolution region of borax decahydrate, apart from other materials, is controlled by diffusion and surface reaction. Increasing the temperature and particle size cause an increase in the values of kinetic parameters ( Kg, kr and K). The activation energies of overall, reaction and mass transfer steps were determined as 18.07, 18.79 and 8.26 kJmol -1, respectively.

Ceyhan, A. A.; Sahin, Ö.; Bulutcu, A. N.



Yeast Genomic DNA Preparation from Spheroplasts 1. Resuspend with 50 mM Tris, 25 mM EDTA (pH 8) in 10X the spheroplast pellet volume.  

E-print Network

% ethanol. Mix gently. DNA may precipitate immediately. Precipitate on ice for 1 hour. 9. Centrifuge 1071 Yeast Genomic DNA Preparation from Spheroplasts 1. Resuspend with 50 mM Tris, 25 mM EDTA (pH 8/4 volume 10M NH4OAc. Mix completely. Add 2 volumes 100% EtOH. Precipitate on ice. 16. Centrifuge 10 minutes

Aris, John P.


(4 mg) was concentrated by vacuum dialysis against 100 mM KCl, 100 mM NaCl, 5 mM potassium phosphate (pH  

E-print Network

and extended to 3.2 Ã?. Data were collected on beamline F-1 at the Cornell High-Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS(4 mg) was concentrated by vacuum dialysis against 100 mM KCl, 100 mM NaCl, 5 mM potassium

Vale, Ronald D.


40 CFR 436.130 - Applicability; description of the borax subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the borax subcategory. 436.130 Section 436...MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Subcategory § 436.130 Applicability; description of the borax subcategory. The provisions of...



A study of the behavior of copper electrodes in buffered borax solutions containing BTA-type inhibitors by photoelectrochemical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide useful information pertaining to the corrosion inhibition mechanism of BTA and its derivatives on copper. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The photoelectrochemical behavior of copper electrodes in buffered borax solutions (pH 9.2) containing BTA and its derivatives was comparatively studied by using a photoelectrochemical technique. It was possible to analyze the inhibition mechanism

Qun-jie Xu; Guo-ding Zhou



Assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human developmental and reproductive toxicity of agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3BO3 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). The element, boron, does not exist naturally. In dilute aqueous solution and at physiological pH (7.4), the predominant species in undissociated boric acid (greater than 98%), irrespective of whether the initial



Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication  

PubMed Central

During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4691106

Gordon, A. S.; Prichard, J. S.; Freedman, M. H.



A new Tertiary borax deposit in the Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Loma Blanca borate deposit was formed in the muds of playa-lake environments during the Late Miocene and is the fourth Tertiary commercial borax deposit discovered within the borate districts of the world. It is the only South American deposit known to contain any of the minerals colemanite, inyoite, ulexite, borax, tincalconite and teruggite with a unique and characteristic mineral sequence among the other Argentinian borate deposits. The Loma Blanca deposit is characterized by abundant Ca, Na and B, very low Cl and relatively high As, S and Mg concentrations compared with other borate deposits. Thermal springs and hydrothermal solutions associated with local volcanic activity are thought to be the source of the borates. The early colemanite, inyoite, ulexite, borax and teruggite nodules and crystals appear to have been formed directly from brines penecontemporaneously within the unconsolidated sediments, and they continued to grow as the sediments were compacted. Later generations of borate minerals occur in vughs, veins and as thin layers. Diagenetic alterations include the partial replacement of borax by ulexite and tincalconite; when weathered, borates are often almost completely replaced by calcite.

Alonso, R. N.; Helvac?, C.; Sureda, R. J.; Viramonte, J. G.



Photonic crystal borax competitive binding carbohydrate sensing motif†  

PubMed Central

We developed a photonic crystal sensing method for diol containing species such as carbohydrates based on a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel containing an embedded crystalline colloidal array (CCA). The polymerized CCA (PCCA) diffracts visible light. We show that in the presence of borax the diffraction wavelength shifts as the concentration of glucose changes. The diffraction shifts result from the competitive binding of glucose to borate, which reduces the concentration of borate bound to the PVA diols. PMID:19381378

Cui, Qingzhou; Muscatello, Michelle M. Ward; Asher, Sanford A.



Effect of borax on the crystallization kinetics of boric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of different borax concentrations on the growth and dissolution rates of boric acid crystals were measured in a fluidized bed crystallizer under well-established conditions of supersaturation and undersaturation and fluidization. It was found that the presence of borax in boric-acid solution decreases the mass-transfer coefficient, kd, the surface-reaction constant, kr and reaction order r pertaining to growth and dissolution rates of boric acid crystals. The effectiveness factors were estimated from the growth rate data to evaluate the relative magnitudes of the two resistances in series, diffusion and integration. The controlling mechanism is mainly by integration for the crystal growth of boric acid in the pure state and in the presence of borax in solution. The kinetic parameters ( kr, kd, r) were determined by a new method which is called trial and error under no assumption. This method gives a high accuracy of determination of the mass-transfer coefficient, kd, the surface-reaction constant, kr and surface-reaction order, r. The relative standard deviation between the equation Rg= kr(( ??- ?eq)- Rg(1- w?)/ kd) r and those experimentally obtained and represented by the equation Rg= kg( ??- ?eq) g do not exceed 0.013 for both the growth and dissolution regions.

?ahin, Ömer



Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.  


Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives. PMID:23923788

Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun



Effect of borax on immune cell proliferation and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background Borax is used as a food additive. It becomes toxic when accumulated in the body. It causes vomiting, fatigue and renal failure. Methods The heparinized blood samples from 40 healthy men were studied for the impact of borax toxicity on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. The MTT assay and Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) technic were used in this experiment with the borax concentrations of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml. Results It showed that the immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) was decreased when the concentrations of borax increased. The borax concentration of 0.6 mg/ml had the most effectiveness to the lymphocyte proliferation and had the highest cytotoxicity index (CI). The borax concentrations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml significantly induced sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes (P < 0.05). Conclusion Borax had effects on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and induced sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. Toxicity of borax may lead to cellular toxicity and genetic defect in human. PMID:19878537

Pongsavee, Malinee



40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium...



40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate...residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium...



Corrosion resistance of inconel 690 to borax, boric acid, and boron nitride at 1100°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant general and localized corrosion was observed on Inconel 690 coupons following exposure to borax, boric acid and boron nitride at 1100°C. Severe localized attack at and below the melt line was observed on coupons exposed to borax. An intergranular attack at and below the melt line was observed on coupons exposed to borax. An intergranular attack (IGA) of the




Guar gum and scleroglucan interactions with borax: experimental and theoretical studies of an unexpected similarity.  


Guar gum is a galactomannan that assumes a very flexible conformation in solution, while Scleroglucan is a very rigid polysaccharide that dissolves in water as triple helices. Both polymers can form gels in the presence of borax. Despite their structural differences, the freeze-dried gel systems of both polymers, when compressed to form tablets, show a peculiar anisotropic swelling in water that reflects an amazing similarity in terms of their molecular properies. In this paper the behavior of the Guar/borax gel is compared with that of Scleroglucan/borax. The macroscopic properties of the two systems were characterized in terms of rheological measurements. Atomic force microscopy images and molecular dynamics simulation allowed to evaluate, at molecular level, the effect of borax addition to the Guar polymer. Both experiments show that an increasing of the polymer rigidity is produced by borax. The role played by galactose in the side chain was also discussed. PMID:20863102

Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Mazzuca, Claudia; Sandolo, Chiara; Margheritelli, Silvia; Alhaique, Franco; Coviello, Tommasina; Palleschi, Antonio



Hydrologic data and description of a hydrologic monitoring plan for the Borax Lake area, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Borax Lake is located in southeastern Oregon, within the Alvord Valley Known Geothermal Resource Area. Borax Lake is a large hot spring; there are more than 50 smaller hot springs within about one-half mile to the north of the lake. Several geothermal exploration wells have been drilled near Borax Lake, and there is concern that development of the geothermal resources could affect the lake and nearby hot springs. A factor to consider in developing the resource is that the Borax Lake chub is an endangered species of fish that is found exclusively in Borax Lake. This study was designed to collect basic hydrologic data to develop a long-term monitoring plan. Baseline data, collected before geothermal production wells are used extensively, will provide an understanding of natural trends and will help identify change caused by development. Basic data collected during reconnaissance field visits to the area included spring temperatures, specific conductances, and discharge; field measurements in wells included water-level measurements and temperature, specific conductance, and discharge measurements in flowing wells. The study of the Borax Lake area included depth and temperature measurements in the vent area of the lake, point velocity measurements, underwater video photography, and an evaluation of methods to measure discharge from the lake. Water-quality samples were collected at Borax Lake, one hot spring, and one flowing well. Information from field visits was used to develop a monitoring plan. The plan would include monitoring Borax Lake by measuring discharge, stage, evaporation, temperature, and specific conductance; water-quality sampling and analysis; and monitoring shallow ground-water levels near Borax Lake using shallow piezometers. Minimally, one hot spring in North Borax Lake Spring Group 1 would be monitored for temperature and specific conductance and sampled for water-quality analysis. In addition, two flowing wells would be monitored for water levels, temperature, specific conductance, and discharge and sampled for water-quality analysis. The construction characteristics of these wells must be verified before long-term data collection begins. In the future, it may be helpful to monitor shallow and (or) deep observation wells drilled into the thermal aquifer to understand the possible effects of geothermal development on Borax Lake and nearby springs.

Schneider, T. R.; McFarland, William D.



Geophysical Characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, Southeastern Oregon.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system as part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs, is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. As a result of Basin and Range extension, the Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We are using several geophysical techniques to generate both basin-wide and high-resolution local characterizations of the Alvord Basin and the BLHS. To date we have completed two scales of seismic reflection surveys: an east-west trending basin scale survey and a shallow (~10 - 300 m depth) 3D survey of the BLHS. The basin scale seismic survey consists of 11 km of 2D, 60 fold CMP data acquired with a 200 lb accelerated weight drop. We acquired the 3D survey of the BLHS using a 7.62x39 mm SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The 3D patch covers ~ 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. Additionally, we have completed a regional total-field magnetic survey for a large portion of the Alvord Basin and a 3D transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey of the BLHS. The 3D TEM survey covers the central portion of the 3D seismic survey. Initial results from the regional magnetic and seismic surveys indicate a mid-basin basement high. The basement high appears to correlate with the northeast trending BLHS. Additionally, the cross-basin seismic profile clearly shows that recent deformation has primarily been along an eastward dipping normal fault that bounds the basement high to the east. This suggests that both spatial and temporal characteristics of deformation control hydrothermal activity within the BLHS.

Hess, S.; Paul, C.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Clement, W.; Liberty, L.; Myers, R.; Donaldson, P.



Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) on the Growth Rate and Morphology of Borax Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the effect of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on both growth rate and morphology of borax crystal has been carried out. This experiment was carried out at temperature of 25°C and relative supersaturation of 0.21 and 0.74 under in situ cell optical microscopy method. The result shows that CTAB inhibits the growth rate and changes the morphology of borax crystal.

Suharso; Parkinson, Gordon; Ogden, Mark


Obtaining of Boron as an Alternative Fuel from Borax with Various Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how to obtain elemental boron from borax. For this purpose, first boric acid (H3BO3) was obtained from borax decahydrate with using HCl and H2SO4. The boric was then converted to boron oxide using a dehydration process. It has been studied to reduce the boric acid and the boron oxide into elemental boron with using the elemental magnesium

N. ?en; C. Demir; A. Demirbas; Y. Kar



Borax counteracts genotoxicity of aluminum in rat liver.  


This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of borax (BX) on genotoxicity induced by aluminum (Al) in rat liver, using liver micronucleus assay as an indicator of genotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into six groups and each group had four animals. Aluminum chloride (AlCl?; 5 mg/kg b.w.) and BX (3.25 and 13 mg/kg b.w.) were injected intraperitoneally to rats. Besides, animals were also treated with Al for 4 consecutive days followed by BX for 10 days. Rats were anesthetized after Al and BX injections and the hepatocytes were isolated for counting the number of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs). AlCl? was found to significantly (p < 0.05) increase the number of MNHEPs. Rats treated with BX, however, showed no increase in MNHEPs. Moreover, simultaneous treatments with BX significantly modulated the genotoxic effects of AlCl? in rats. It can be concluded that BX has beneficial influences and has the ability to antagonize Al toxicity. PMID:22491726

Turkez, Hasan; Geyiko?lu, Fatime; Tatar, Abdulgani



Measurement and analysis of polar stratospheric ClO and N2O by ground-based mm-wave spectroscopy. Ph.D. Thesis  

SciTech Connect

Analysis and interpretation of measured spectra of spring-time stratospheric ClO and N2O in Antarctica and Greenland during three field campaigns are presented in this dissertation. Measurements were made at McMurdo Station, Antarctica during September and October in 1992, and at Thule Air Base, Greenland during February and March in 1992 and 1993, using a ground-based mm-wave receiver. Measurements of ClO, a direct product of ozone destruction, were made through the evolution of the Antarctic `ozone hole.` The emission spectrum of ClO at 278.632 GHz was observed and vertical profiles have been determined from measurements both inside and outside the polar vortex and a sharp difference is seen between them. Comparisons are made to coincident balloon and satellite measurements of ozone, and ground-based measurements of NO2. The Arctic polar vortex generally has warmer stratospheric temperatures and is more variable in its position over the pole, consequently no ozone hole has been observed there. However, these measurements, as well as others, show the presence of ClO indicating some ozone depletion has occurred by the same mechanisms at work in the Antarctic. Low altitude mixing ratios of ClO in 1992 were never above 0.2 ppbv, but in 1993 up to 0.5 ppbv was observed in late February. The diurnal variation of the low altitude layer of ClO present in the Antarctic ozone `hole` has also been measured. The mixing ratio increases after sunrise, from less than 0.1 ppbv just before sunrise to approximately 1.5 ppbv at midday, and decreases with increasing solar zenith angle after midday. This diurnal record is unique and is valuable for the validation of photochemical models of the polar stratosphere. N2O is a good tracer of stratospheric dynamics, having only ground sources and having a long chemical lifetime in the atmosphere. N2O spectra at 276.328 GHz were observed at Thule from late February to late March, 1992.

Emmons, L.K.



Experimental determination of the metastable zone width of borax decahydrate by ultrasonic velocity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metastable zone width of borax decahydrate (disodium tetraborate decahydrate), represented by the maximum undercooling ? Tmax, both in pure and impure aqueous solutions were determined according to polythermal method by using the ultrasonic technique. It is found that the metastable zone width of borax decahydrate in pure solutions determined by ultrasonic method fulfills well the linear relation between log? Tmax and log(-d T/d t). However, the sensitivity of the method using the ultrasonic technique increases with increasing saturation temperature, probably due to the increase of temperature dependence of solubility with increasing saturation temperature. A comparison of the nucleation temperatures from ultrasonic measurements and from visual determination shows that both detection techniques give almost the same results for borax decahydrate. The results obtained from ultrasonic measurements show, that the presence of Ca 2+ as impurity has only a small effect on the metastable zone width of borax decahydrate as long as the impurity concentrations is in the range of 25-200 ppm. Similar to the effect of Ca 2+, Mg 2+ also has a small effect on the metastable zone width of borax up to the impurity concentration of 100 ppm. However, the presence of 200 ppm Mg 2+ results in a reasonable increase of the metastable zone width.

Gürbüz, H.; Özdemir, B.



Response to Thermal Exposure of Ball-Milled Aluminum-Borax Powder Blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum-borax powder mixtures were ball milled and heated above 873 K (600 °C) to produce Al-B master alloys. Ball-milled powder blends reveal interpenetrating layers of deformed aluminum and borax grains that are increasingly refined with increasing milling time. Thermal exposure of the ball-milled powder blends facilitates a series of thermite reactions between these layers. Borax, dehydrated during heating, is reduced by Al, and B thus generated reacts with excess Al to produce AlB2 particles dispersed across the aluminum grains starting at 873 K (600 °C). AlB2 particles start to form along the interface of the aluminum and borax layers. Once nucleated, these particles grow readily to become hexagonal-shaped crystals that traverse the aluminum grains with increasing temperatures as evidenced by the increase in the size as well as in the number of the AlB2 particles. Ball milling for 1 hour suffices to achieve a thermite reaction between borax and aluminum. Ball milling further does not impact the response of the powder blend to thermal exposure. The nucleation-reaction sites are multiplied, however, with increasing milling time and thus insure a higher number of smaller AlB2 particles. The size of the AlB2 platelets may be adjusted with the ball milling time.

Birol, Yucel



The relationship of blood- and urine-boron to boron exposure in borax-workers and usefulness of urine-boron as an exposure marker.  

PubMed Central

Daily dietary-boron intake and on-the-job inspired boron were compared with blood- and urine-boron concentrations in workers engaged in packaging and shipping borax. Fourteen workers handling borax at jobs of low, medium, and high dust exposures were sampled throughout full shifts for 5 consecutive days each. Airborne borax concentrations ranged from means of 3.3 mg/m3 to 18 mg/m3, measured gravimetrically. End-of-shift mean blood-boron concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.26 microgram/g; end-of-shift mean urine concentrations ranged from 3.16 to 10.72 micrograms/mg creatinine. Creatinine measures were used to adjust for differences in urine-specific gravity such that 1 ml of urine contains approximately 1 mg creatinine. There was no progressive increase in end-of-shift blood- or urine-boron concentrations across the days of the week. Urine testing done at the end of the work shift gave a somewhat better estimate of borate exposure than did blood testing, was sampled more easily, and was analytically less difficult to perform. Personal air samplers of two types were used: one, the 37-mm closed-face, two-piece cassette to estimate total dust and the other, the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler to estimate inspirable particulate mass. Under the conditions of this study, the IOM air sampler more nearly estimated human exposure as measured by blood- and urine-boron levels than did the sampler that measured total dust.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889874

Culver, B D; Shen, P T; Taylor, T H; Lee-Feldstein, A; Anton-Culver, H; Strong, P L



Effect of borax concentration on the structure of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) hydrogels cross-linked with varying concentrations of borax have been studied using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and X-Ray Diffraction. The intensity of scattering increases with borax concentration from 1 mg/ml up to 2 mg/ml and falls thereafter for 4 mg/ml, increasing again for a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The mesoscopic structural changes that cause these trends in the SANS data are in keeping with the variations in the X-ray diffraction patterns pertaining to structures within the PVA chains.

Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.; Aswal, V. K.



Population exposure owing to a borax accident in the Tammuz 2 nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiological consequences on the population of a borax accident in 1994 in the Tammuz 2 nuclear reactor have been postulated. Dose equivalents resulting from the atmospheric release of radionuclides during the accident have been estimated for distances ranging from the exclusion zone to 100km from the reactor. Gamma submersion, beta submersion doses from the plume, inhalation doses and surface

Baha A. Marouf; Thamir A. Al-Khayat; Ali K. Mehdi



A Human Health Risk Assessment of Boron (Boric Acid and Borax) in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human health risk assessment was conducted to derive an appropriate safe exposure level in drinking water of inorganic boron-containing compounds (boric acid and borax). Several regulatory agencies have set or plan to set drinking water guidelines or standards for boron (B). Recent publication of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies by the National Toxicology Program prompted this risk assessment, along

F. Jay Murray



Sorption of boric acid and borax by activated carbon impregnated with various compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of boron compounds, boric acid and borax from aqueous solution by activated carbon before and after impregnation with various compounds was studied. A series of activated carbons was prepared from coconut shell impregnated with calcium and barium chlorides, citric and tartaric acids. The examined processes were performed in batch and continuous systems under equilibrium and dynamic conditions. Impregnation

Lj. V. Rajakovi?; M. Dj. Risti?



Association of reversible alopecia with occupational topical exposure to common borax-containing solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron is widely used in industrial materials, most frequently as the salt borax. Systemic exposure (eg, ingestion) to boron in boric acid been associated with reversible toxic alopecia among other manifestations. There is scant clinical literature on alopecia caused by topical exposure to boron. We observed a series of 3 patients in 2 workplaces who suffered reversible alopecia from cutaneous

William S. Beckett; Roger Oskvig; Mary Ellen Gaynor; Mark H. Goldgeier



Scleroglucan-borax hydrogel: a flexible tool for redox protein immobilization.  


A highly stable biological film was prepared by casting an aqueous dispersion of protein and composite hydrogel obtained from the polysaccharide Scleroglucan (Sclg) and borax as a cross-linking agent. Heme proteins, such as hemoglobin (Hb), myoglobin (Mb), and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), were chosen as model proteins to investigate the immobilized system. A pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks, characteristics of the protein heme FeII/FeIII redox couples, were obtained at the Sclg-borax/proteins films on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrodes, as a consequence of the direct electron transfer between the protein and the PG electrode. A full characterization of the electron transfer kinetic was performed by opportunely modeling data obtained from cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry experiments. The efficiency of our cross-linking approach was investigated by studying the influence of different borax groups percentage in the Sclg matrix, revealing the versatility of this hydrogel in the immobilization of redox proteins. The native conformation of the three heme proteins entrapped in the hydrogel films were proved to be unchanged, reflected by the unaltered Soret adsorption band and by the catalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The main kinetic parameters, such as the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, for the electrocatalytic reaction were also evaluated. The peculiar characteristics of Sclg-borax matrix make it possible to find wide opportunities as proteins immobilizing agent for studies of direct electrochemistry and biosensors development. PMID:19694483

Frasconi, Marco; Rea, Sara; Matricardi, Pietro; Favero, Gabriele; Mazzei, Franco



Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles.  


Ellagic acid (C(14)H(6)O(8)), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0×10(-10) to 4.0×10(-5) mol L(-1); and the detection limits are 3.2×10(-10) mol L(-1) and 5.9×10(-10) mol L(-1) excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex. PMID:21239219

Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo



Borax mediated layer-by-layer self-assembly of neutral poly(vinyl alcohol) and chitosan.  


We report a multilayer film of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-borate complex and chitosan by using a layer-by-layer approach. PVA is an uncharged polymer, but hydroxyl functional groups of PVA can be cross-linked by using borax as a cross-linking agent. As a result electrostatic charges and intra- and interchain cross-links are introduced in the PVA chain and provide physically cross-linked networks. The PVA-borate was then deposited on a flat substrate as well as on colloidal particles with chitosan as an oppositely charged polyelectrolyte. Quartz crystal microbalance, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to follow the growth of thin film on flat substrate. Analogous experiments were performed on melamine formaldehyde colloidal particles (3-3.5 microm) to quantify the process for the preparation of hollow microcapsules. Removal of the core in 0.1 N HCl results in hollow microcapsules. Characterization of microcapsules by transmission electron microscopy revealed formation of stable microcapsules. Further, self-assembly of PVA-borate/chitosan was loaded with the anticancer drug doxorubicin, and release rates were determined at different pH values to highlight the drug delivery potential of this system. PMID:19530685

Manna, Uttam; Patil, Satish



8mm/16mm Movie-Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials, techniques, and attitudes needed to make professional-quality movies using 8mm., super 8mm., and 16mm. amateur equipment are covered in this guide to movie-making. The pros and cons are discussed of the various makes and models of cameras and lenses. Other topics discussed are: exposure and lighting, choosing film, camera speed and…

Provisor, Henry


Characterization of uranium surfaces machined with aqueous propylene glycol-borax or perchloroethylene-mineral oil coolants  

SciTech Connect

The use of perchloroethylene (perc) as an ingredient in coolants for machining enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been discontinued because of environmental concerns. A new coolant was substituted in December 1985, which consists of an aqueous solution of propylene glycol with borax (sodium tetraborate) added as a nuclear poison and with a nitrite added as a corrosion inhibitor. Uranium surfaces machined using the two coolants were compared with respects to residual contamination, corrosion or corrosion potential, and with the aqueous propylene glycol-borax coolant was found to be better than that of enriched uranium machined with the perc-mineral oil coolant. The boron residues on the final-finished parts machined with the borax-containing coolant were not sufficient to cause problems in further processing. All evidence indicated that the enriched uranium surfaces machined with the borax-containing coolant will be as satisfactory as those machined with the perc coolant.

Cristy, S.S.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.; Dillon, J.J.; Richards, H.L.; Seals, R.D.; Byrd, V.R.



Corrosion resistance of inconel 690 to borax, boric acid, and boron nitride at 1100{degrees}C  

SciTech Connect

Significant general and localized corrosion was observed on Inconel 690 coupons following exposure to borax, boric acid and boron nitride at 1100{degrees}C. Severe localized attack at and below the melt line was observed on coupons exposed to borax. An intergranular attack at and below the melt line was observed on coupons exposed to borax. An intergranular attack (IGA) of the Inconel 690 was also observed. Severe internal void formation and IGA (30 mils penetration after 3 days) was observed in the coupon exposed to boric acid. Both borax and boric acid remove the protective chromium oxide; however, this layer can be reestablished by heating the Inconel 690 to 975 {degrees}C in air for several hours. Inconel 690 in direct contact with boron nitride resulted in the formation of a thick chromium borate layer, a general corrosion rate of 50 to 90 mils per year, and internal void formation of 1 mil per day.

Imrich, K.J.



Determination of kinetic parameters of crystal growth rate of borax in aqueous solution by using the rotating disc technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth rate of polycrystalline disc of borax compressed at different pressure and rotated at various speed has been measured in a rotating disc crystallizer under well-defined conditions of supersaturation. It was found that the mass transfer coefficient, K, increased while overall growth rate constant, Kg, and surface reaction constant, kr, decreased with increasing smoothness of the disc. It was also determined that kinetic parameters (kr,r,K,g) of crystal growth rate of borax decreased with increasing rotating speed of the polycrystalline disc. The effectiveness factor was calculated from the growth rate data to evaluate the relative magnitude of the steps in series bulk diffusion through the mass transfer boundary layer and the surface integration. At low rotating speed of disc, the crystal growth rate of borax is mainly controlled by integration. However, both diffusion and integration steps affect the growth rate of borax at higher rotating speed of polycrystalline disc.

Sahin, Omer; Aslan, Fevzi; Ozdemir, Mustafa; Durgun, Mustafa



Supplemental Data Molecular Cell, Volume 36  

E-print Network

incubated at room temperature for 30 min with 5 µL 5x borate buffer (148 mM borax,148 mM boric acid, pH 8 vacuum dried and dissolved in 60 µL 1x borax buffer (30 mM borax, 30mM boric acid, 50 mM NaOH, pH 9

Higgins, Darren


a Theoretical Analysis of Physical Properties of Aqueous Trehalose with Borax  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature and composition dependence of the viscosity of aqueous trehalose and aqueous trehalose-borax mixtures has been investigated by means of the Bond Strength-Coordination Number Fluctuation (BSCNF) model. The result indicates that the variation in the fragility of the system is very small in the composition range analyzed. The values of the materials parameters determined are consistent with those of the trehalose-water-lithium iodide system which were analyzed in a previous study. Based on the analysis of the obtained parameters of the BSCNF model, the physical interpretation of the WLF parameters reported in a previous study is reconfirmed.

Sahara; Aniya, Masaru



Precipitation method for barium metaborate (BaB2O4) synthesis from borax solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, barium metaborate (BaB2O4, BMB) synthesis from the borax solution was carried out. BMB currently is used in production of ceramic glazes, luminophors, oxide cathodes as well as additives to pigments for aqueous emulsion paints and also ?-BaB2O4 single crystals are the best candidate for fabrication of solid-state UV lasers operating at a wavelength of 200 nm due to excellent nonlinear optical properties. In the present study, synthesis was carried out from the borax solution (Na2B4O7?10H2O, BDH) and barium chloride (BaCI2?2H2O, Ba) in the glass-batch reactor with stirring. The effect of, times (5-15 min), molar ratio [stoich.ration (1.0:2.0), 1.25:2.0, 1.5:2.0, 2.5:2:0, 3.0:2.0, 3.5:2.0,4.0:2.0, 5.0:2.0] and also crystallization time (2-6 hour) on the BMB yield (%) was investigated at 80 °C reaction temperature. It is found that, BMB precipitation synthesis with 90 % yield can be performed from 0.50 molar ration (BDH:Ba), under 80 °C, 15 minute, and 6 hours crystallization time. The structural properties of BMB powders were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG instrumental analysis technique.

Ak?ener, Eymen; Figen, Aysel Kantürk; Pi?kin, Sabriye



Photonic crystal borax competitive binding carbohydrate sensing motif Qingzhou Cui, Michelle M. Ward Muscatello and Sanford A. Asher*  

E-print Network

Photonic crystal borax competitive binding carbohydrate sensing motif Qingzhou Cui, Michelle M crystal sensing method for diol containing species such as carbohydrates based on a poly(vinyl alcohol- hydrates.8 Determination of carbohydrates is important in applications such as controlling glycemia

Asher, Sanford A.


The effects of dietary boric acid and borax supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, and DNA damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of high dietary supplementation with boric acid and borax, called boron (B) compounds, on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some vitamin levels, and DNA damage in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard

Sinan Ince; Ismail Kucukkurt; Ibrahim Hakki Cigerci; A. Fatih Fidan; Abdullah Eryavuz



Mysterious M&M's  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners place an M&M candy in water and observe what happens. The sugar-and-color coating dissolves and spreads out in a circular pattern around the M&M. This introductory activity provides a basis for learners to ask questions and to learn more about dissolving, identifying and controlling variables, and designing a fair test.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.



Experimenting with cameraless photography using turmeric and borax: an introduction to photophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alcoholic extract of the spice turmeric can be used to create a light-sensitive dye that can be used to stain paper. On exposure to sunlight, the dyed paper can be used to capture photographic images of flat objects or reproduce existing images through the preferential degradation of the dye in light-exposed areas over a time period of a few hours. The images can be developed and preserved by spraying the exposed paper with a dilute solution of borax, which forms coloured organo-boron complexes that limit further degradation of the dye and enhance the colour of the image. Similar photochemical reactions that lead to the degradation of the turmeric dye can also be used for reducing the organic pollution load in wastewater produced by many industrial processes and in dye-sensitized solar cells for producing electricity.

Appleyard, S. J.



Preparation and characterization of antimicrobial wound dressings based on silver, gellan, PVA and borax.  


Silver-loaded dressings are designed to provide the same antimicrobial activity of topical silver, with the advantages of a sustained silver release and a reduced number of dressing changes. Moreover, such type of dressing must provide a moist environment, avoiding fiber shedding, dehydration and adherence to the wound site. Here we describe the preparation of a novel silver-loaded dressing based on a Gellan/Hyaff(®) (Ge-H) non woven, treated with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/borax system capable to enhance the entrapment of silver in the dressing and to modulate its release. The new hydrophilic non woven dressings show enhanced water uptake capability and slow dehydration rates. A sustained silver release is also achieved. The antibacterial activity was confirmed on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:22939352

Cencetti, C; Bellini, D; Pavesio, A; Senigaglia, D; Passariello, C; Virga, A; Matricardi, P



Borax in the supraglacial moraine of the Lewis Cliff, Buckley Island quadrangle--first Antarctic occurrence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 1987-1988 austral summer field season, membersof the south party of the antarctic search for meteorites south-ern team* working in the Lewis Cliff/Colbert Hills region dis-covered several areas of unusual mineralization within theLewis Cliff ice tongue and its associated moraine field (figure1). The Lewis Cliff ice tongue (84°15'S 161°25'E) is a meteorite-stranding surface of ablating blue ice, about 2.3 by 7.0 kilo-meters, bounded on the west by the Lewis Cliff, on the northand northeast by a large supraglacial moraine, and on the eastby the Colbert Hills. To the south it opens to the Walcott Névé.Because it is a meteorite-stranding surface, the major component of ice motion in the area is believed to be vertical(Whillans and Cassidy 1983). The presence of Thule-Baffinmoraines at the northern terminus of the blue ice tends tosupport the hypothesis that the area underlying the moraineis essentially stagnant and that ice arriving from the south ispiling up against it. Areas containing mineral deposits werefound within the moraine field to the north and east of theblue ice margin and also along the east margins of the blue iceitself. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses of these depositshave shown that they are composed predominantly of nah-colite (NaHCO3), trona [Na3(CO3)(HCO3) · 2H20], borax[Na2B405(OH)4 · 8H20], and a new hexagonal hydrous sulfatespecies. This paper reports the details of the borax occurrence,because it is the first known on the continent.

Fitzpatrick, J. J.; Muhs, D. R.



Structural and rheological characterization of Scleroglucan/borax hydrogel for drug delivery.  


The polysaccharide Scleroglucan, one of the most rigid polymers found in nature, can form a chemical/physical gel, in the presence of borax. The obtained hydrogel was loaded with three different model molecules (Theophylline, Vitamin B12 and Myoglobin) and then, after freeze-drying, was used as a matrix for tablets. The release profiles of the substances from the dosage forms were evaluated; the matrix appeared capable to modulate the diffusion of the chosen molecules, and different diffusion rates were observed, according to the different radii of the tested molecules. Interestingly, in the dissolution medium the matrix undergoes an anisotropic swelling taking place only in the axial direction, while a negligible radial variation occurs. The water uptake of the matrix occurs according to a Fickian process. Samples at two different polymer concentrations (0.7 and 2.3%, w/v) were characterized in terms of rheological and mechanical parameters and the properties were interpreted in terms of the molecular structure obtained by conformational analysis. The flow curves acquired in the viscoelasticity interval, show the effect of the borate ion in improving the resistance of the gel in comparison to the polymer alone. The evaluation of the moduli indicates that the system is viscoelastic, with an appreciable liquid component that increases as the polymer concentration decreases. Also the cohesion of the gel is higher in comparison to the Scleroglucan and is strongly dependent on temperature. The combination of experimental and theoretical conformational analysis approaches, allowed us to propose a model for the structure of the macromolecular network and to give an explanation to the anomalous swelling that was observed. It came out that the polymer can built up a channel structure, mediated via borax ion interaction, that can accommodate guest molecules of different size. PMID:12957304

Coviello, Tommasina; Coluzzi, Gina; Palleschi, Antonio; Grassi, Mario; Santucci, Eleonora; Alhaique, Franco



MM 601 Mentored Ministry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welcome to MM601 - Mentored Ministry: Inside the Walls! I look forward to this journey with you as you engage this ministry experience. I hope that this opportunity will prove to be more than a class and that you will see God working through you in ways you never expected. I pray that God will bless you as you take

S. Brian Yeich



In vitro percutaneous absorption of boron as boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in human skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature from the first half of this century reports concern for toxicity from topical use of boric acid, but assessment\\u000a of percutaneous absorption has been impaired by lack of analytical sensitivity. Analytical methods in this study included\\u000a inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry which now allows quantitation of percutaneous absorption of10B in10B-enriched boric acid, borax and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in biological

Ronald C. Wester; Tracy Hartway; Howard I. Maibach; Michael J. Schell; D. Jack Northington; B. Dwight Culver; Philip L. Strong



In vitro studies on chemoprotective effect of borax against aflatoxin B1-induced genetic damage in human lymphocytes.  


A common dietary contaminant, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), has been shown to be a potent mutagen and carcinogen in humans and many animal species. Since the eradication of AFB1 contamination in agricultural products has been rare, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boron compounds like borax (BX) and boric acid are the major components of industry and their antioxidant role has recently been reported. In the present report, we evaluated the capability of BX to inhibit the rate of micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formations induced by AFB1. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in both SCE and MN frequencies of cultures treated with AFB1 (3.12 ppm) as compared to controls. However, co-application of BX (1, 2 and 5 ppm) and AFB1 resulted in decreases of SCE and MN rates as compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone. Borax gave 30-50 % protection against AFB1 induced SCEs and MNs. In conclusion, the support of borax was especially useful in aflatoxin-toxicated blood tissue. Thus, the risk on target tissues of AFB1 could be reduced and ensured early recovery from its toxicity. PMID:22526492

Turkez, Hasan; Geyiko?lu, Fatime; Dirican, Ebubekir; Tatar, Abdulgani



direction. Three different pipette solutions were used: Cs-gluconate solution (150 mM CsOH, 5 mM CsCl, 135 mM sucrose, 10 mM HEPES, 1.5 mM EGTA and 1.5 mM EDTA  

E-print Network

salt into HEPES-Tris solution. HEPES-K bath solution (KOH 75 mM (pH 7.2 with about 210 mM HEPES pF. Access resistances, usually 30­60 MQ, were compensated by about 70%. Bath Ca2þ concentration-Tris solution (205 mM HEPES (pH 7.2 with Trisma base)). Bath solution with 105 mM [Ca2þ ]c (105 mM CaCl2

Scholey, Jonathan


A new scleroglucan/borax hydrogel: swelling and drug release studies.  


The aim of the work was the characterization of a new polysaccharidic physical hydrogel, obtained from Scleroglucan (Sclg) and borax, following water uptake and dimension variations during the swelling process. Furthermore, the release of molecules of different size (Theophylline (TPH), Vitamin B12 (Vit. B12) and Myoglobin (MGB)) from the gel and from the dried system used as a matrix for tablets was studied. The increase of weight of the tablets with and without the loaded drugs was followed together with the relative variation of the dimensions. The dry matrix, in the form of tablets was capable, during the swelling process, to incorporate a relevant amount of solvent (ca. 20 g water/g dried matrix), without dissolving in the medium, leading to a surprisingly noticeable anisotropic swelling that can be correlated with a peculiar supramolecular structure of the system induced by compression. Obtained results indicate that the new hydrogel can be suitable for sustained drug release formulations. The delivery from the matrix is deeply dependent on the size of the tested model drugs. The experimental release data obtained from the gel were satisfactorily fitted by an appropriate theoretical approach and the relative drug diffusion coefficients in the hydrogel were estimated. The release profiles of TPH, Vit. B12 and MGB from the tablets have been analyzed in terms of a new mathematical approach that allows calculating of permeability values of the loaded drugs. PMID:15652203

Coviello, Tommasina; Grassi, Mario; Palleschi, Antonio; Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Coluzzi, Gina; Banishoeib, Fateme; Alhaique, Franco



Pulsed laser ablation of borax target in vacuum and hydrogen DC glow discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of our experiment was to produce a material with B sbnd H bonds for applications in hydrogen storage and generation. By using KrF excimer laser ( ? = 248 nm) ablation of borax (Na 2B 4O 7) target, thin films were deposited on KBr and silicon substrates. Ablation was performed both in vacuum and in hydrogen atmosphere. DC glow discharge technique was utilized to enhance hydrogen gas ionization. Experiments were performed using laser fluence from 5 to 20 J/cm 2. Films were deposited under gas pressure of 1 × 10 -5 to 5 × 10 -2 mbar and substrate temperatures of 130-450 °C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of films showed presence of circular particulates. Film thickness, roughness and particulates number increased with increase in laser fluence. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis shows that sodium content in the particulates is higher than in the target. This effect is discussed in terms of atomic arrangements (both at surface and bulk) in systems where ionic and covalent bonds are present and by looking at the increased surface/bulk ratio of the particulates with respect to the deposited films. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements showed presence of B sbnd O stretching and B sbnd O sbnd B bending bonds. Possible reasons for absence of B sbnd H bonds are attributed to binding enthalpy of the competing molecules.

Kale, A. N.; Miotello, A.; Mosaner, P.



Mg- and K-bearing borates and associated evaporites at Eagle Borax spring, Death Valley, California: A spectroscopic exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Efflorescent crusts at the Eagle Borax spring in Death Valley, California, contain an array of rare Mg and K borate minerals, several of which are only known from one or two other localities. The Mg- and/or K-bearing borates include aristarainite, hydroboracite, kaliborite, mcallisterite, pinnoite, rivadavite, and santite. Ulexite and probertite also occur in the area, although their distribution is different from that of the Mg and K borates. Other evaporite minerals in the spring vicinity include halite, thenardite, eugsterite, gypsum-anhydrite, hexahydrite, and bloedite. Whereas the first five of these minerals are found throughout Death Valley, the last two Mg sulfates are more restricted in occurrence and are indicative of Mg-enriched ground water. Mineral associations observed at the Eagle Borax spring, and at many other borate deposits worldwide, can be explained by the chemical fractionation of borate-precipitating waters during the course of evaporative concentration. The Mg sulfate and Mg borate minerals in the Eagle Borax efflorescent crusts point to the fractionation of Ca by the operation of a chemical divide involving Ca carbonate and Na-Ca borate precipitation in the subsurface sediments. At many other borate mining localities, the occurrence of ulexite in both Na borate (borax-kernite) and Ca borate (ulexite-colemanite) deposits similarly reflects ulexite's coprecipitation with Ca carbonate at an early concentration stage. Such ulexite may perhaps be converted to colemanite by later reaction with the coexisting Ca carbonate - the latter providing the additional Ca2+ ions needed for the conversion. Mg and Ca-Mg borates are the expected late-stage concentration products of waters forming ulexite-colemanite deposits and are therefore most likely to occur in the marginal zones or nearby mud facies of ulexite-colemanite orebodies. Under some circumstances, Mg and Ca-Mg borates might provide a useful prospecting guide for ulexite-colemanite deposits, although the high solubility of Mg borate minerals may prevent their formation in lacustrine settings and certainly inhibits their geologic preservation. The occurrence of Mg borates in borax-kernite deposits is also related to fractionation processes and points to the operation of an Mg borate chemical divide, characterized by Mg borate precipitation ahead of Mg carbonate. All of these considerations imply that Mg is a significant chemical component of many borate-depositing ground waters, even though Mg borate minerals may not be strongly evident in borate orebodies. The Eagle Borax spring borates and other evaporite minerals were studied using spectroscopic and X-ray powder diffraction methods, which were found to be highly complementary. Spectral reflectance measurements provide a sensitive means for detecting borates present in mixtures with other evaporites and can be used to screen samples rapidly for X-ray diffraction analysis. The apparently limited occurrence of Mg and K borate minerals compared to Ca and Na borates may stem partly from the inefficiency of X-ray diffraction methods for delineating the mineralogy of large and complex deposits. Spectral reflectance measurements can be made in the laboratory, in the field, on the mine face, and even remotely. Reflectance data should have an important role in studies of existing deposit mineralogy and related chemical fractionation processes, and perhaps in the discovery of new borate mineral resources.

Crowley, J. K.



High-compactness coating grown by plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 magnesium alloy in the solution of silicate-borax  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ceramic coating was formed on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in the silicate solution with and without borax doped. The composition, morphology, elements and roughness as well as mechanical property of the coating were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reciprocal-sliding tribometer. The results show that the PEO coating is mainly composed of magnesia. When using borax dope, boron element is permeating into the coating and the boron containing phase exist in the form of amorphous. In addition, the microhardness and compactness of the PEO coating are improved significantly due to doped borax.

Shen, M. J.; Wang, X. J.; Zhang, M. F.



Preparing high- and low-aspect ratio AlB2 flakes from borax or boron oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The commercial preparation of aluminum-diboride flakes in aluminum relies on relatively expensive starting materials. A new synthesis has been developed that allows AlB2 to be prepared directly from the reaction of borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O) or boron oxide (B2O3) with aluminum. Aluminum metal at temperatures higher than 900°C has been shown to reduce these boron-containing compounds, producing an Al2O3-containing slag and AlB2. A natural separation occurs, leaving AlB2 in the molten aluminum and Al2O3 as part of a slag that forms at the melt surface. Samples containing up to 10 vol.% AlB2 in an aluminum matrix have been directly prepared using this method.

Hall, A. C.; Economy, J.



Density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO 2 and of sodium metaborate-UO 2 solutions at high temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements have been performed of the density, of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and of the viscosity of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO 2 dissolved in each. The viscosity measurements have been performed for the solution of sodium tetraborate with UO 2 and CeO 2, and with CeO 2 only as well. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The density measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 825°C to 1300°C, the viscosity measurements in the temperature range 700-1250°C with a modified Haake viscosity balance. The balance was previously calibrated at ambient temperature with a standard calibration liquid and at high temperatures with data for pure borax available from the literature.

Donne, M. Dalle; Dorner, S.; Roth, A.



Accidental mold\\/termite testing of high density fiberboard (HDF) treated with boric acid, borax and N'-N-naphthoylhydroxylamine (NHA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High density fibreboard (HDF) was made from beech and pine furnish (50:50) and treated with boric acid (0.1-3%), borax (0.1-3%) or N'-N-(1,8-naphthalyl) hydroxylamine (NHA) (0.1-1%) prior to gluing with urea formaldehyde (UF) resin in order to determine resistance to Eastern subterranean termites ( Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar), the most economically important termite species in North America. HDF and southern yellow pine

S. Nami Kartal; Harold S. Burdsall; Frederick Green Ill


3D Seismic and Magnetic characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, southeastern Oregon.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems, we are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs. BLHS is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. The Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben in the Northern Great Basin bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We conducted a 2D seismic survey to characterize the geologic structure of the basin, a high-resolution 3D seismic survey to characterize the geologic structure of the BLHS, and a high-resolution 3D magnetic survey to characterize any lineaments in the bedrock that might control fluid flow in the BLHS. Previous results from the 2D seismic survey show a mid-basin basement high aligned approximately with the hot springs. In this study we present the results from the high-resolution 3D seismic and magnetic survey of the BLHS. We acquired the 3D seismic data using an SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The seismic survey covers approximately 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. The coincidental magnetic survey was collected using a Geometrics 858G cesium vapor magnetometer. We designed both surveys to span nearly 100 active hydrothermal springs, including an approximately 50 m stepover in the trend of the surface expression of the hot springs. After preliminary processing, the 3D seismic data show continuous reflections up to 300 ms (~ 480 m). The initial interpretation of features seen in the 3D data cube include: normal faults dipping to the east and west, near-surface disturbances that are consistent with the trend of the hot springs, and significant near surface velocity anomalies throughout the survey area. Time slices through the 3D seismic cube show evidence of semi-continuous linear features consistent with the trend of the hot springs. A large scale inversion has been performed on the magnetic data. The fit to the observed data is good given the noise assumption of 3 nT. After more extensive processing, we will compare structures in the inverted magnetic model with features in the seismic data and explore the connection between the subsurface geology and the surface geometry of the hot springs.

Hess, S.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Routh, P.; Liberty, L.; Donaldson, P.



Apollo 12 photography 70 mm, 16 mm, and 35 mm frame index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For each 70-mm frame, the index presents information on: (1) the focal length of the camera, (2) the photo scale at the principal point of the frame, (3) the selenographic coordinates at the principal point of the frame, (4) the percentage of forward overlap of the frame, (5) the sun angle (medium, low, high), (6) the quality of the photography, (7) the approximate tilt (minimum and maximum) of the camera, and (8) the direction of tilt. A brief description of each frame is also included. The index to the 16-mm sequence photography includes information concerning the approximate surface coverage of the photographic sequence and a brief description of the principal features shown. A column of remarks is included to indicate: (1) if the sequence is plotted on the photographic index map and (2) the quality of the photography. The pictures taken using the lunar surface closeup stereoscopic camera (35 mm) are also described in this same index format.



Borax: An Ecofriendly and Efficient Catalyst for One-Pot Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-ones under Solvent-Free Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borax in the presence of a very small amount of 5 M sulfuric acid efficiently catalyses the three-component condensation of an aldehyde, ?-ketoester, and urea or thiourea to afford the corresponding 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones or 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-thiones in good to excellent yields under solvent-free conditions at 80 °C. Compared with the classical Biginelli reaction conditions, this new method has the advantage of excellent yield, short

Jayashree Nath; Mihir K. Chaudhuri



Apollo 12 70 mm photographic catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proof prints of the 70-mm photography are presented, sorted by magazine and frame number. The 28 lunar surface panorama mosaics and a listing of the mosaics are included. The catalog is designed to be used in conjunction with the "Apollo 12 Photography: 70-mm, 16-mm, and 35-mm Frame Index', which makes it possible to locate the area covered by each frame.



a 3.37 mm length b 3.32 mm diameter  

E-print Network

5.2 ml retinal subtense 300 µm/deg retinal arc 51 mm retinal area* 1024 ± 184 mm2 total.3 µl retinal subtense 31 µm/deg retinal arc 4.9 mm retinal area 15.6 mm2 cone:rod ratio 0/deg retinal arc 10.6 mm retinal area 52 mm2 cone:rod ratio mean cone density* mm-2 mean rod

Marc, Robert E.


Apollo 11 70-mm photographic catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proof prints of virtually all the 70-mm photography exposed during the Apollo 11 mission are presented. The photography has been sorted by magazine and by frame number. The numbering scheme used throughout all Apollo mission is described. The catalog is designed to be used in conjunction with the section on 70-mm photography in Apollo 11 Photography: 70-mm, 16-mm, and 35-mm Frame Index, which provides pertinent information on each frame, and with Apollo Mission 11 Lunar Photography Indexes, which makes it possible to locate the area covered by each frame.



Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. Even though the regulation system of pH is very robust, tissue pH can be altered in many diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Traditional high-resolution optical imaging techniques, such as confocal microscopy, routinely image pH in cells and tissues using pH sensitive fluorescent dyes, which change their fluorescence properties with the surrounding pH. Since strong optical scattering in biological tissue blurs images at greater depths, high-resolution pH imaging is limited to penetration depths of 1mm. Here, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye in tissue phantoms. Using both opticalresolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), and acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM), we explored the possibility of recovering the pH values in tissue phantoms. In this paper, we demonstrate that PAM was capable of recovering pH values up to a depth of 2 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

Chatni, M. Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.



Hickey -TT175, casts 220, line 222-229,231-232 Cruise cast lat( lon( Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scans  

E-print Network

Hickey -TT175, casts 220, line 222- 229,231-232 Cruise cast lat( lon( Date,220 #12;Hickey -TT175, casts 220, line 222- 229,231-232 Cruise cast lat( lon( Date #12;Hickey -TT175, casts 220, line 222- 229,231-232 Cruise cast lat( lon( Date

Hickey, Barbara


Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat( lon( Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scans  

E-print Network

Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat( lon( Date;Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat( lon( Date;Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat( lon( Date

Hickey, Barbara


Application of MM wave therapy in radiology  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied the effects of MM wave electromagnetic radiation influence on patients, affected by X-ray radiation during the reparation works after Chernobyl nuclear power plant exposure. They compared results of treatment of two groups of patients: (1) control group patients received only basis therapy; (2) testing group, 10 patients received basis therapy and MM wave influence. The authors used the wide band noise generator `Artsakh - 2` for local irradiation on the acupuncture points. Their data proved that low intensity MM waves have immunocorrective, antioxidant effects, and MM wave therapy is a perspective method for treatment of patients with radiological pathology.

Avakian, R.S. [Inst. of Radio Physics & Electronics, Ashtarack (Argentina); Gasparyan, L.V. [Republican Medical Centre Armenia, Yerevan (Argentina)



MM Algorithms for Some Discrete Multivariate Distributions.  


The MM (minorization-maximization) principle is a versatile tool for constructing optimization algorithms. Every EM algorithm is an MM algorithm but not vice versa. This article derives MM algorithms for maximum likelihood estimation with discrete multivariate distributions such as the Dirichlet-multinomial and Connor-Mosimann distributions, the Neerchal-Morel distribution, the negative-multinomial distribution, certain distributions on partitions, and zero-truncated and zero-inflated distributions. These MM algorithms increase the likelihood at each iteration and reliably converge to the maximum from well-chosen initial values. Because they involve no matrix inversion, the algorithms are especially pertinent to high-dimensional problems. To illustrate the performance of the MM algorithms, we compare them to Newton's method on data used to classify handwritten digits. PMID:20877446

Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth



MM Algorithms for Some Discrete Multivariate Distributions  

PubMed Central

The MM (minorization–maximization) principle is a versatile tool for constructing optimization algorithms. Every EM algorithm is an MM algorithm but not vice versa. This article derives MM algorithms for maximum likelihood estimation with discrete multivariate distributions such as the Dirichlet-multinomial and Connor–Mosimann distributions, the Neerchal–Morel distribution, the negative-multinomial distribution, certain distributions on partitions, and zero-truncated and zero-inflated distributions. These MM algorithms increase the likelihood at each iteration and reliably converge to the maximum from well-chosen initial values. Because they involve no matrix inversion, the algorithms are especially pertinent to high-dimensional problems. To illustrate the performance of the MM algorithms, we compare them to Newton’s method on data used to classify handwritten digits. PMID:20877446

Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth



40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability...4) Progress reports Yes 63.10(d)(5) Periodic and immediate startup, shutdown, and malfunction...



40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability...4) Progress reports Yes 63.10(d)(5) Periodic and immediate startup, shutdown, and malfunction...



40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability...4) Progress reports Yes 63.10(d)(5) Periodic and immediate startup, shutdown, and malfunction...



Deep sub-mm surveys with SCUBA  

E-print Network

We review published deep surveys in the submillimeter (sub-mm) regime from the new Sub-millimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) on the 15-m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Summarising the number counts of faint sub-mm sources determined from the different surveys we show that the deepest counts from our completed SCUBA Lens Survey, down to 0.5mJy at 850um fully account for the far-infrared background (FIRB) detected by COBE. We conclude that a population of distant, dust-enshrouded ultraluminous infrared galaxies dominate the FIRB emission around 1mm. We go on to discuss the nature of this population, starting with the identification of their optical counterparts, where we highlight the important role of deep VLA radio observations in this process. Taking advantage of the extensive archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of our fields, we then investigate the morphological nature of the sub-mm galaxy population and show that a large fraction exhibit disturbed or interacting morphologies. By employing existing broadband photometry, we derive crude redshift limits for a complete sample of faint sub-mm galaxies indicating that the majority lie at z<5, with at most 20% at higher redshifts. We compare these limits to the initial spectroscopic results from various sub-mm samples. Finally we discuss the nature of the sub-mm population, its relationship to other classes of high-redshift galaxies and its future role in our understanding of the formation of massive galaxies.

Ian Smail; Rob Ivison; Andrew Blain; Jean-Paul Kneib



Die Gefährlichkeit der „freien“ 4 mm Faustfeuerwaffen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Different models of revolvers (cal 4mm, long), which are obtainable without special permission in Germany, were examinated as to their dangerousness. Both measurements of the kinetic energy of the missiles and investigations on cadavers were performed. Firing of the weapon in its original state yielded kinetic energies of the missiles well below the legal limit of 7,5 Joule. However,

D. Tausch; W. Sattler; K. Wehrfritz; G. Wehrfritz; H-J Wagner



Mm: A variable-period mantle magnitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper lays the theoretical groundwork for a variable period mantle magnitude, Mm, based on the measurement of the spectral amplitude X(omega) of very long period Rayleigh waves. We retain the concept of magnitude by restricting ourselves to single-station measurements, ignoring the focal mechanism and the exact depth of the shallow earthquakes considered. Our measurements are made at a series

Emile A. Okal; Jacques Talandier



Optimizing digital 8mm drive performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experience of attaching over 350,000 digital 8mm drives to 85-plus system platforms has uncovered many factors which can reduce cartridge capacity or drive throughput, reduce reliability, affect cartridge archivability and actually shorten drive life. Some are unique to an installation. Others result from how the system is set up to talk to the drive. Many stem from how applications use the drive, the work load that's present, the kind of media used and, very important, the kind of cleaning program in place. Digital 8mm drives record data at densities that rival those of disk technology. Even with technology this advanced, they are extremely robust and, given proper usage, care and media, should reward the user with a long productive life. The 8mm drive will give its best performance using high-quality 'data grade' media. Even though it costs more, good 'data grade' media can sustain the reliability and rigorous needs of a data storage environment and, with proper care, give users an archival life of 30 years or more. Various factors, taken individually, may not necessarily produce performance or reliability problems. Taken in combination, their effects can compound, resulting in rapid reductions in a drive's serviceable life, cartridge capacity, or drive performance. The key to managing media is determining the importance one places upon their recorded data and, subsequently, setting media usage guidelines that can deliver data reliability. Various options one can implement to optimize digital 8mm drive performance are explored.

Schadegg, Gerry



40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass  

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table MM-2 Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for...



Density embedded VB/MM: a hybrid ab initio VB/MM with electrostatic embedding.  


A hybrid QM/MM method that combines ab initio valence-bond (VB) with molecular mechanics (MM) is presented. The method utilizes the ab initio VB approach to describe the reactive fragments and MM to describe the environment thus allows VB calculations of reactions in large biological systems. The method, termed density embedded VB/MM (DE-VB/MM), is an extension of the recently developed VB/MM method. It involves calculation of the electrostatic interaction between the reactive fragments and their environment using the electrostatic embedding scheme. Namely, the electrostatic interactions are represented as one-electron integrals in the ab initio VB Hamiltonian, hence taking into account the wave function polarization of the reactive fragments due to the environment. Moreover, the assumptions that were utilized in an earlier version of the method, VB/MM, to formulate the electrostatic interactions effect on the off-diagonal matrix elements are no longer required in the DE-VB/MM methodology. Using DE-VB/MM, one can calculate, in addition to the adiabatic ground state reaction profile, the energy of the diabatic VB configurations as well as the VB state correlation diagram for the reaction. The abilities of the method are exemplified on the identity SN2 reaction of a chloride anion with methyl chloride in aqueous solution. Both the VB configurations diagram and the state correlation diagram are presented. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with both experimental and other computational data, suggesting that DE-VB/MM is a proper method for application to different reactivity problems in biological systems. PMID:18293950

Sharir-Ivry, Avital; Crown, Hadar A; Wu, Wei; Shurki, Avital



mmView: a web-based viewer of the mmCIF format  

PubMed Central

Background Structural biomolecular data are commonly stored in the PDB format. The PDB format is widely supported by software vendors because of its simplicity and readability. However, the PDB format cannot fully address many informatics challenges related to the growing amount of structural data. To overcome the limitations of the PDB format, a new textual format mmCIF was released in June 1997 in its version 1.0. mmCIF provides extra information which has the advantage of being in a computer readable form. However, this advantage becomes a disadvantage if a human must read and understand the stored data. While software tools exist to help to prepare mmCIF files, the number of available systems simplifying the comprehension and interpretation of the mmCIF files is limited. Findings In this paper we present mmView - a cross-platform web-based application that allows to explore comfortably the structural data of biomacromolecules stored in the mmCIF format. The mmCIF categories can be easily browsed in a tree-like structure, and the corresponding data are presented in a well arranged tabular form. The application also allows to display and investigate biomolecular structures via an integrated Java application Jmol. Conclusions The mmView software system is primarily intended for educational purposes, but it can also serve as a useful research tool. The mmView application is offered in two flavors: as an open-source stand-alone application (available from that can be installed on the user's computer, and as a publicly available web server. PMID:21486459



CIM for 300-mm semiconductor fab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five years ago, factory automation (F/A) was not prevalent in the fab. Today facing the drastically changed market and the intense competition, management request the plant floor data be forward to their desktop computer. This increased demand rapidly pushed F/A to the computer integrated manufacturing (CIM). Through personalization, we successfully reduced a computer size, let them can be stored on our desktop. PC initiates a computer new era. With the advent of the network, the network computer (NC) creates fresh problems for us. When we plan to invest more than $3 billion to build new 300 mm fab, the next generation technology raises a challenging bar.

Luk, Arthur



Mm : A variable-period mantle magnitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper lays the theoretical groundwork for a variable period mantle magnitude, Mm, based on the measurement of the spectral amplitude X(?) of very long period Rayleigh waves. We retain the concept of magnitude by restricting ourselves to single-station measurements, ignoring the focal mechanism and the exact depth of the shallow earthquakes considered. Our measurements are made at a series of periods (in all cases greater than 40 s), and the largest value is retained. This procedure effectively avoids the well-known interference effects leading to saturation of magnitude scales defined at a fixed period. Two corrections are used: a period-dependent distance correction CD, and a source correction Cs, also period-dependent, compensating for the variation of the excitation of Rayleigh waves with period. Both of these corrections are fully predictable on the basis of standard surface wave excitation and dispersion theory. The result is a formula of the type Mm = log10 X(?) + CD + CS + C0 in which all coefficients, including the constant C0 are justifiable on sound theoretical grounds. The analysis of a data set of 256 records from the broadband seismograph at Papeete, Tahiti, the ultra-long period system at Pasadena, and stations of the GEOSCOPE network, shows that the mean error in the estimation of the seismic moment is on the order of 0.1-0.2 units of magnitude, with the standard deviation at each station also on the order of 0.2 units of magnitude. No significant trend with either distance, period, or station can be identified. The method can also be transposed to the time domain, under some simple assumptions which are justifiable theoretically for typical teleseismic distances across the Pacific Basin. Both versions of the method lend themselves well to automation. Thus, by providing a real-time estimate of the seismic moment of distant earthquakes, Mm has considerable potential for tsunami warning purposes. Its concept can easily be extended to Love waves and also to intermediate and deep earthquakes.

Okal, Emile A.; Talandier, Jacques



Cold-electron bolometers for future mm and sub-mm sky surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future sky surveys in the mm/sub-mm range, like the forthcoming balloon-borne missions LSPE, OLIMPO, SPIDER etc., will need detectors insensitive to cosmic rays (CRs) and with a NEP of the order of 10-17 ¥ 10-18 W/sqrt(Hz). The Cold-Electron Bolometers (CEBs) technology is promising, having the required proper- ties, since the absorber volume is extremely small and the electron system of the absorber is thermally insulated from the phonon system. We have developed an experimental setup to test the optical performance and the CRs insensitivity of CEBs, with the target of integrating them in the OLIMPO and LSPE focal planes.

Salatino, Maria; de Bernardis, Paolo; Mahashabde, Sumedh; Kuzmin, Leonid S.; Masi, Silvia



40 Gbit/s silicon modulators fabricated on 200-mm and 300-mm SOI wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 40 Gbit/s optical modulators based on different types of phase shifters (lateral pn, pipin, and interleaved pn junction phase). Those structures were processed both on 200 and 300mm SOI wafers, available in large-scale microelectronic foundries. Both Ring Resonators (RR) and Mach Zehnder (MZ) modulators were fabricated. As an example, MZ modulator based on 0.95 mm long interleaved pn junction phase shifter delivered a high ER of 7.8 dB at 40 Gbit/s with low optical loss of only 4 dB. Ring modulator was also fabricated and characterized at high-speed, exhibiting 40 Gbit/s.

Marris-Morini, Delphine; Baudot, Charles; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Rasigade, Gilles; Vuillet, Nathalie; Souhaité, Aurélie; Ziebell, Melissa; Rivalin, Pierette; Olivier, Ségolène; Crozat, Paul; Bouville, David; Menezo, Sylvie; Boeuf, Frédéric; Vivien, Laurent



Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)  


... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video PATIENTS Patients Newly Diagnosed Request an Envelope ... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video Help spread PH awareness and share PH ...


Effect of temperature, pH, and ions on sweet taste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of temperature (50°C and 6°C), pH (pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0) and the addition of monovalent and divalent cations (5 mM Na+ , 5 mM K+ , and 5 mM Ca2+ ) on the sweetness intensity ratings of sweeteners ranging widely in chemical structure. A trained panel provided

Susan S. Schiffman; Brevick G. Graham; Jeanette L. Bennett; Barbara J. Booth; Nitin Desai; Ihab Bishay



Pentameric CRP attenuates inflammatory effects of mmLDL by inhibiting mmLDL--monocyte interactions.  


Previous studies have reported that C-reactive protein (CRP) interacting with low-density lipoproteins (LDL) affects macrophage activation and LDL uptake. However, the physiological relevance of CRP-LDL interaction with circulating monocytes remains elusive. Moreover, recent studies have shown that CRP exists in two isoforms with partly opposing characteristics pentameric (pCRP) and monomeric CRP (mCRP). Here we investigated the effects of CRP interacting with minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL) interaction in regard to events involved in formation of atherosclerotic plaque. We analyzed the effect of mmLDL on human monocytes and found a substantial increase in monocyte activation as evaluated by CD11b/CD18 expression and increased monocyte adhesion under static and under shear flow conditions to human endothelial cells. Monocyte adhesion and activation was attenuated by pCRP via the prevention of mmLDL binding to monocytes. These anti-inflammatory properties of pCRP were lost when it dissociates to the monomeric form. Our results elucidate the physiological relevance of the CRP-mmLDL interaction and furthermore confirm the importance of the previously described pCRP dissociation to mCRP as a localized inflammatory "activation" mechanism. PMID:22901456

Eisenhardt, Steffen U; Starke, Julia; Thiele, Jan R; Murphy, Andrew; Björn Stark, G; Bassler, Nicole; Sviridov, Dmitri; Winkler, Karl; Peter, Karlheinz



Osmolytes Contribute to pH Homeostasis of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background Cytoplasmic pH homeostasis in Escherichia coli includes numerous mechanisms involving pH-dependent catabolism and ion fluxes. An important contributor is transmembrane K+ flux, but the actual basis of K+ compensation for pH stress remains unclear. Osmoprotection could mediate the pH protection afforded by K+ and other osmolytes. Methods and Principal Findings The cytoplasmic pH of E. coli K-12 strains was measured by GFPmut3 fluorimetry. The wild-type strain Frag1 was exposed to rapid external acidification by HCl addition. Recovery of cytoplasmic pH was enhanced equally by supplementation with NaCl, KCl, proline, or sucrose. A triple mutant strain TK2420 defective for the Kdp, Trk and Kup K+ uptake systems requires exogenous K+ for steady-state pH homeostasis and for recovery from sudden acid shift. The K+ requirement however was partly compensated by supplementation with NaCl, choline chloride, proline, or sucrose. Thus, the K+ requirement was mediated in part by osmolarity, possibly by relieving osmotic stress which interacts with pH stress. The rapid addition of KCl to strain TK2420 suspended at external pH 5.6 caused a transient decrease in cytoplasmic pH, followed by slow recovery to an elevated steady-state pH. In the presence of 150 mM KCl, however, rapid addition of another 150 mM KCl caused a transient increase in cytoplasmic pH. These transient effects may arise from secondary K+ fluxes occurring through other transport processes in the TK2420 strain. Conclusions Diverse osmolytes including NaCl, KCl, proline, or sucrose contribute to cytoplasmic pH homeostasis in E. coli, and increase the recovery from rapid acid shift. Osmolytes other than K+ restore partial pH homeostasis in a strain deleted for K+ transport. PMID:20386696

Kitko, Ryan D.; Wilks, Jessica C.; Garduque, Gian M.; Slonczewski, Joan L.



40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based...



40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based...



40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based...



pH Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to teach students about the acidity levels of liquids and other substances around their school so they understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students will create mixtures of water samples, soil samples, plants and other natural materials to better understand the importance of pH levels.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)



pH Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test the pH of things like coffee, spit, and soap to determine whether each is acidic, basic, or neutral. Visualize the relative number of hydroxide ions and hydronium ions in solution. Switch between logarithmic and linear scales. Investigate whether changing the volume or diluting with water affects the pH. Or you can design your own liquid!

Simulations, Phet I.; Adams, Wendy; Barbera, Jack; Langdon, Laurie; Loeblein, Patricia; Malley, Chris



Planetary brightness temperature measurements at 8.6 mm and 3.1 mm wavelengths.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New measurements of the sun, moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn at 3.1- and 8.6-mm wavelengths are given. The temperatures reported for the planets at 3.1-mm wavelength are higher than previous measurements in this wavelength range and change the interpretation of some planetary spectra. For Mercury, it is found that the mean brightness temperature is independent of wavelength and that a temperature-dependent thermal conductivity is not required to match the observations. In the case of Mars, the spectrum is shown to rise in the millimeter region, as simple models predict. For Jupiter, the need to recalculate the spectrum with recent models is demonstrated. The flux density scale proposed by Dent (1972) has been revised according to a more accurate determination of the millimeter brightness temperature of Jupiter.

Ulich, B. L.; Cogdell, J. R.; Davis, J. H.



The mm and sub-mm wave planar antenna arrays for SIS detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, construction and tests of planar antennas and arrays suitable for integration with SIS (superconducting tunnel junctions) in the sub mm wavelength regime are discussed. Two different types of planar antennas are investigated, both with and without the use of lenses. It is concluded that log periodic antennas are very wideband but suffer from irregular beam shapes and a large degree of cross polarization. The dipoles are more narrow band and have low cross polarization and regular, symmetric beam patterns.

van de Stadt, Herman; De Graauw, Thijs; Skalare, A.



Comparative analysis between 5 mm and 7.5 mm collimators in CyberKnife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia  

PubMed Central

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is treated in CyberKnife (Accuray Inc, Sunnyvale, USA) with the 5 mm collimator whose dosimetric inaccuracy is higher than the other available collimators. The 7.5 mm collimator which is having less dosimetric uncertainty can be an alternative for 5 mm collimator provided the dose distribution with 7.5 mm collimator is acceptable. Aim of this study is to analyze the role of 7.5 mm collimator in CyberKnife treatment plans of TN. The treatment plans with 5 mm collimators were re-optimized with 7.5 mm collimator and a bi-collimator system (5 mm and 7.5 mm). The treatment plans were compared for target coverage, brainstem doses, and the dose to normal tissues. The target and brainstem doses were comparable. However, the conformity indices were 2.31 ± 0.52, 2.40 ± 0.87 and 2.82 ± 0.51 for 5 mm, bi-collimator (5mm and 7.5 mm), 7.5 mm collimator plans respectively. This shows the level of dose spillage in 7.5 mm collimator plans. The 6 Gy dose volumes in 7.5 mm plans were 1.53 and 1.34 times higher than the 5 mm plan and the bi-collimator plans respectively. The treatment time parameters were lesser for 7.5 mm collimators. Since, the normal tissue dose is pretty high in 7.5 mm collimator plans, the use of it in TN plans can be ruled out though the treatment time is lesser for these 7.5 mm collimator plans. PMID:24049318

Sudahar, H.; Kurup, P. G. G.; Murali, V.; Velmurugan, J.



Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Genetic Drift and M&M's.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a classroom activity that teaches the mechanism of genetic drift to undergraduates. Illustrates a number of concepts that are critical in developing evolution literacy by sampling M&M milk chocolate candies. (MM)

Staub, Nancy L.



THz HBTs & sub-mm-wave ICs Mark Rodwell, UCSB  

E-print Network

THz HBTs & sub-mm-wave ICs Mark Rodwell, UCSB Workshop: Sub-millimeter-wave Monolithic Integrated to Daylight. Far-Infrared Electronics 0.1-1 THz imaging systems 10 9 10 10 10 11 10 12 10 13 10 14 10 15 Frequency (Hz) microwave 3-30 GHz mm-wave 30-300 GHz far-IR (sub-mm) 0.3-3THz mid-IR 3-30 THz near-IR 30

Rodwell, Mark J. W.


200mm Fab AMHS improvement during aggressive ramp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semiconductor industry experienced increased requirements during the period 2008-2010. These requirements were followed by more wafer starts (loading upside). Micron Israel's 200mm factory capacity increased by more than 40% within one year. The automated material handling system (AMHS) was not originally intended to support a 40% load increase. Prior to the load increase, the 200mm AMHS was not considered

Bouhnik Sylvain



ECM and MM algorithms for mixtures with constrained parameters  

E-print Network

ECM and MM algorithms for mixtures with constrained parameters Didier Chauveau1 David R. Hunter2 1 to an EM generalization known as an ECM algorithm. With certain types of variance constraints, yet another software that implements these algorithms. Keywords: generalized EM algorithms, ECM algorithms, MM

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Course Outline ENG 2MM3 Electrical Circuits & Power  

E-print Network Text Book: S.J. Chapman, Electric Machinery Fundamentals, McGraw Hill, Fourth Edition, 2005/assignments in total. Course Outline: 1. Overview; 2. Fundamentals of Electricity and Magnetism; 3. Transformers; 4. ACCourse Outline ENG 2MM3 Electrical Circuits & Power Fall 2011 Instructor: Shiva Kumar Web Page: www

Haykin, Simon


17-4 PH and 15-5 PH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

Johnson, Howard T.



Photo Fenton degradation of high concentration Orange II (2 mM) using catalysts containing Fe: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo Fenton discoloration and mineralization of high concentration Orange II (2mM) was conducted by using three catalysts containing Fe in the presence of 2×8W UVC light (254nm) and 100mM H2O2 at an initial solution pH of 3.0. The three catalysts are laponite clay based Fe nanocomposite (Fe-Lap-RD), betonite clay based Fe nanocomposite (Fe-B), and iron oxide hydrated (FeOOH). All of

Jiyun Feng; Xijun Hu; Po Lock Yue; Shizhang Qiao



Thales Angenieux: 42 years of cine 35 mm zoom leadership  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early years of zoom optics, Angenieux has been involved in cine 8 mm, 16 mm and 35 mm. Among more than twenty different zoom lenses, four of them have been milestones in this field, technical progresses being sanctified by two Oscars in 1964 and 1990. From 1960 to 2002 Angenieux has created first the 4 x 35 LA2, the first four times mechanically compensated zoom lens for cine 35 mm in the world, secondary the 10 x 25 T2, the first ten times mechanically compensated zoom lens for cine 35 mm in the world, then the 10 x 25 HR, the top level of quality for its category and finally the 12 x 24 Optimo with all characteristics and performances greatly increased. This leadership has been reached thanks to computers and in-house softwares but also thanks to new manufacturing processes.

Debize, Jacques



Call-graph-based inter-class MM path generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter-class testing is the testing of classes for composing an object-oriented system or subsystem during integration. MM Path is defined as an interleaved sequence of method executions linked by messages. It represents the interactions between methods in object-oriented software well, hence fits for object-oriented integration testing. However, the current MM Path generation methods only support intra-class testing. In this paper, a call-graph-based approach is proposed to promote MM Path automatic generation from intra-class to inter-class level. The approach is evaluated by controlled experiments on 12 Java benchmark programs with two typical call graph construction algorithms, Class Hierarchy Analysis and Anderson's Points-to Analysis. Then, the impact of the two algorithms on inter-class MM path generation efficiency is studied. The result shows that our approach is practicable and Anderson's Points-to Analysis outperforms Class Hierarchy Analysis for inter-class MM Path generation.

He, Wei; Zhao, Ruilian



Dual Function pH and Oxygen Phosphonated Trityl Probe  

PubMed Central

Triarylmethyl radicals, TAMs, are used as persistent paramagnetic probes for EPR spectroscopic and imaging applications and as hyperpolarizing and contrast agents for MRI and proton-electron double-resonance imaging, PEDRI. Recently we proposed the concept of dual function pH and oxygen TAM probes based on the incorporation of ionizable groups into the TAM structure (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 7240–7241). In this paper we report the synthesis of deuterated derivative of phosphonated trityl radical, pTAM. The presence of phosphono substitutes in the structure of TAM provides pH sensitivity of its EPR spectrum in the physiological range of pH from 6 to 8, the phosphorus hyperfine splitting being convenient and highly sensitive pH marker (spectral sensitivity, 3?aP/?pH?0.5 G/pH unit; accuracy of pH measurements, ±0.05). In addition, substitution of 36 methyl protons with deuterons significantly decreased the individual linewidth of pTAM down to 40 mG and, as consequence, provided high sensitivity of the linewidth broadening to pO2 (?H/?pO2?0.4 mG/mmHg; accuracy of pO2 measurements, ?1 mmHg). The independent character of pH and [O2] effects on the EPR spectra of pTAM provides dual functionality to this probe allowing for an extraction of both parameters from a single EPR spectrum. PMID:22703565

Bobko, Andrey A.; Dhimitruka, Ilirian; Komarov, Denis A.; Khramtsov, Valery V.



Assessing the performance of MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods. 5. Improved docking performance using high solute dielectric constant MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA rescoring.  


With the rapid development of computational techniques and hardware, more rigorous and precise theoretical models have been used to predict the binding affinities of a large number of small molecules to biomolecules. By employing continuum solvation models, the MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA methodologies achieve a good balance between low computational cost and reasonable prediction accuracy. In this study, we have thoroughly investigated the effects of interior dielectric constant, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the number of top-scored docking poses on the performance of the MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA rescoring of docking poses for three tyrosine kinases, including ABL, ALK, and BRAF. Overall, the MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA rescoring achieved comparative accuracies based on a relatively higher solute (or interior) dielectric constant (i.e. ? = 2, or 4), and could markedly improve the 'screening power' and 'ranking power' given by Autodock. Moreover, with a relatively higher solute dielectric constant, the MM/PBSA or MM/GBSA rescoring based on the best scored docking poses and the multiple top-scored docking poses gave similar predictions, implying that much computational cost can be saved by considering the best scored docking poses only. Besides, compared with the rescoring based on the minimized structures, the rescoring based on the MD simulations might not be completely necessary due to its negligible impact on the docking performance. Considering the much higher computational demand of MM/PBSA, MM/GBSA with a high solute dielectric constant (? = 2 or 4) is recommended for the virtual screening of tyrosine kinases. PMID:25205360

Sun, Huiyong; Li, Youyong; Shen, Mingyun; Tian, Sheng; Xu, Lei; Pan, Peichen; Guan, Yan; Hou, Tingjun



Initial results from 50mm short SSC dipoles at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Several short model SSC 50 mm bore dipoles are being built and tested at Fermilab. Mechanical design of these magnets has been determined from experience involved in the construction and testing of 40 mm dipoles. Construction experience includes coil winding, curing and measuring, coil end part design and fabrication, ground insulation, instrumentation, collaring and yoke assembly. Fabrication techniques are explained and construction problems are discussed. Similarities and differences from the 40 mm dipole tooling and management components are outlined. Test results from the first models are presented. 19 refs., 12 figs.

Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Carson, J.A.; Coulter, K.; Delchamps, S.; Ewald, K.D.; Fulton, H.; Gonczy, I.; Gourlay, S.A.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Strait, J.B.; Wake, M.; Gordon, M.; Hassan, N.; Sims, R.; Winters, M.



663 900 1000 1100 1200 3514 Annual precipitation (mm)  

E-print Network

663 900 1000 1100 1200 3514 Annual precipitation (mm) -72.6 -71.5 -70.3 -69.2 -68.1 42 precipitation (mm) -72.6 -71.5 -70.3 -69.2 -68.1 Longitude (degree) Latitude(degree) (b) Baseline (1961-1990) 663 900 1000 1100 1200 3514 Annual precipitation (mm) -72.6 -71.5 -70.3 -69.2 -68.1 42

Beckage, Brian


Mm-wave stand-off screening and detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main advantages of mm-wave radiation is its capability to ldquosee throughrdquo clothing and other materials, therefore enabling the detection of metallic and non-metallic weapons and explosives. Mm-wave imagers are able to perform stand-off screening, providing a solution in checkpoints and compound gates where the chance of suicide bomber attacks is high. A study has been made simulating

N. Alexander; C. Callejero; F. Fiore; I. Gomez; R. Gonzalo; A. E. de Luna; I. Ederra; I. Palacios



The 19 mm date recorders: Similarities and differences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Confusion over the use of non-video 19 mm data recorders is becoming more pronounced in the world of high performance computing. The following issues are addressed: (1) the difference between ID-1, ID-2, MIL-STD-2179, and DD-2; (2) the proper machine for the necessary application; and (3) integrating the machine into an existing environment. Also, an attempt is made to clear up any misconceptions there might be about 19 mm tape recorders.

Atkinson, Steve



Transistor & IC design for Sub-mm-Wave & THz ICs  

E-print Network

Transistor & IC design for Sub-mm-Wave & THz ICs 805-893-3244 Plenary, 2012-300 GHz far-IR (sub-mm) 0.3-3THz mid-IR 3-30 THz near-IR 30-450 THz optical 450-900THz How high-Terabit optical fiber links 1982: ~13 GHz 2012: 820 GHz ~2030: 3THz #12;100-1000 GHz Systems #12;100-1000 GHz

Rodwell, Mark J. W.


Urine pH test  


A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your body's acid levels.It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).


MM Caregiver Grief Inventory Thomas M. Meuser, Ph.D., University of Missouri St. Louis Samuel J. Marwit, Ph.D., University of Missouri-St. Louis (Emeritus)  

E-print Network

about what this disease has done. 1 2 3 4 5 B 32 I feel severe depression. 1 2 3 4 5 C #12;ANSWER KEY 1 you know doctors can't cure this disease, so things only get worse. 1 2 3 4 5 B 38 I've lost other


40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...



40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...



40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

... true Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...



40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...



P-2000 SAMPLE PROGRAMS QUARTZ 1.0 mm O.D. x 0.7 mm LD.  

E-print Network

-plated connector pin Polymide T u b i n g Parylene-C Insulation Clue Joint 5 mm Typical Pure iridium or 75 um diameter Pt/lr Electrode with stainless steel tubing for added length Cold plated connector pin Polymide tubing 29 gauge SS 0.46 mm O.D. tubingShrink tubing Clue Joint ^il* ^'««» Parylene-C Insulated Pt

Kleinfeld, David


The Properties of Sub-mm Galaxies in Hierarchical Models  

E-print Network

We use the combined GALFORM semi-analytical model of galaxy formation and GRASIL spectrophotometric code to investigate the properties of galaxies selected via their sub-mm emission. Our fiducial model has previously been shown to fit the properties of local ULIRGs, as well as the number counts of faint sub-mm galaxies. Here, we test the model in detail by comparing the SEDs and stellar, dynamical, gas and halo masses of sub-mm galaxies against observational data. We precisely mimic the sub-mm and radio selection function of the observations and show that the predicted far-infrared properties of model galaxies with S_850>5mJy and S_1.4>30uJy are in good agreement with observations. Although the dust emission model does not assume a single dust temperature, the far-infrared SEDs are well described by single component modified black-body spectrum with characteristic temperature 32+/-5K. We also find evidence that the observations may have uncovered evolution in the far-infrared--radio relation in ULIRGs out to z~2. We show that the predicted redshift distribution of sub-mm galaxies provides a reasonable fit to the observational data with a median redshift z=2.0, with the radio-selected subset predicted to make up approximately 75% of the population. However, the predicted K-band and mid-infrared (3--8um) flux densities of the sub-mm galaxies (and LBGs) are up to a factor 10x fainter than observed. This discrepancy may indicate that the stellar masses of the sub-mm galaxies in the model are too low: M~10^10Mo, while observations suggest more massive systems, M~10^11Mo. Finally, we discuss the potential modifications to the models which may improve the fit to the observational data. [Abridged

Mark Swinbank; Cedric Lacey; Ian Smail; Carlton Baugh; Carlos Frenk; Andrew Blain; Scott Chapman; Kristen Coppin; Rob Ivison; Laura Hainline; Juan Gonzalez



Particle trackers based on 1 mm and 0.7 mm scintillating fibers readout by a multi-anode photomultiplier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype particle tracking detector was constructed at LNF with 1 mm and 0.7 mm plastic scintillating fibers with a 64 channel Hamamatsu H7546A-200 Ultra-bialkali flat-panel multi-anode photomultiplier readout. Cosmic ray tracks from an array of 11 gas-filled drift tubes were matched to signals in the scintillating fibers in order to measure the resolution and efficiency of tracks reconstructed in the fiber-based tracker. The fibers allow for two possible readout methods, a hit-based (digital) and an amplitude-based (analog) mode. A GEANT4 detector simulation was also developed to compare cosmic ray data with Monte Carlo results. These fiber tracker designs are suggested as a way to meet the resolution and efficiency goals of modern detectors, such as an upgraded LHCb Outer Tracker. Resolutions for the fiber trackers were found to be 0.236 mm and 0.175 mm for the 1 mm and 0.7 mm trackers, respectively, in analog mode.

Leverington, Blake; Rosellini, Rossano; Anelli, Mario; Campana, Pierluigi



Heavy water around the L1448-mm protostar  

E-print Network

Context: L1448-mm is the prototype of a low-mass Class 0 protostar driving a high-velocity jet. Given its bright H2O spectra observed with ISO, L1448-mm is an ideal laboratory to observe heavy water (HDO) emission. Aims: Our aim is to image the HDO emission in the protostar surroundings, the possible occurrence of HDO emission also investigating off L1448-mm, towards the molecular outflow. Methods: We carried out observations of L1448-mm in the HDO(1_10-1_11) line at 80.6 GHz, an excellent tracer of HDO column density, with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Results: We image for the first time HDO emission around L1448-mm. The HDO structure reveals a main clump at velocities close to the ambient one towards the the continuum peak that is caused by the dust heated by the protostar. In addition, the HDO map shows tentative weaker emission at about 2000 AU from the protostar towards the south, which is possibly associated with the walls of the outflow cavity opened by the protostellar wind. Conclusions: U...

Codella, C; Nisini, B; Bachiller, R; Cernicharo, J; Gueth, F; Fuente, A; Lefloch, B



The same-source parallel MM{sub 5}.  

SciTech Connect

The set of architectures available to users of the Penn State/NCAR MM5 has been expanded to included distributed-memory parallel computers, providing cost-effective scalable performance and memory capacity for large problem sizes. The same-source approach uses high-level parallel library and source-translation technology for adapting MM5, simplifying maintenance and allowing new physics modules to be incorporated without modification. The approach facilitates maintenance of the DM-parallel option to MM5 as an option within the official version, rather than as a separate stand-alone version. As a result, the DM-parallel option to MM5 (now at Version 3.1) has been a part of six subsequent model releases since MM5 Version 2.8 in March 1998. The same-source approach is applicable to other, similarly constructed codes when there is a need or desire to develop the code for distributed memory parallel machines without impacting the pre-existing source code. The approach is also compatible with pre-existing loop-level multithreading directives so that the code will run in distributed-memory/shared-memory mode on SMP clusters.

Michalakes, J.



QM/MM X-ray Refinement of Zinc Metalloenzymes  

PubMed Central

Zinc metalloenzymes play an important role in biology. However, due to the limitation of molecular force field energy restraints used in X-ray refinement at medium or low resolutions, the precise geometry of the zinc coordination environment can be difficult to distinguish from ambiguous electron density maps. Due to the difficulties involved in defining accurate force fields for metal ions, the QM/MM (Quantum-Mechanical /Molecular-Mechanical) method provides an attractive and more general alternative for the study and refinement of metalloprotein active sites. Herein we present three examples that indicate that QM/MM based refinement yields a superior description of the crystal structure based on R and Rfree values and on the inspection of the zinc coordination environment. It is concluded that QM/MM refinement is a useful general tool for the improvement of the metal coordination sphere in metalloenzyme active sites. PMID:20116858

Li, Xue; Hayik, Seth A.; Merz, Kenneth M.



(ISLiM) 2011 (2011.12.21-22) Platypus MM/CG  

E-print Network

#12;15 (ISLiM) 2011 (2011.12.21-22) 1 Platypus MM/CG 1982 3 1982 8 Cornell 1986 2 1988 4 1996 4 2001 4 2006 10 2011 4 HPCI #12;16 (ISLiM) 2011 (2011.12.21-22) 2 Platypus MM/CG 1. QM MM MM CG QM-MM-CG 3 QM MM QM/MM MM CG MM/CG 2. 2.1 ProteinDF QM DFT B3LYP 8,000 6 c 2.2 Platypus-QM/MM QM/MM QM MM QM

Fukai, Tomoki


(Sub-)mm interferometry in massive star-forming regions  

E-print Network

(Sub-)mm interferometry is the most favorable technique to investigate the earliest stages of massive star formation. I will outline general applications in that field and discuss results of different sub-topics (hot core chemistry and massive molecular outflows). Furthermore, recent data obtained with the Submillimeter Array will be shown to present the unique capabilities of this new instrument. Finally, I will give a short outlook on the main physical topics of massive star formation to be tackled with (sub-)mm interferometry within the next decade.

H. Beuther



Performance evaluation of 4.75-mm NMAS superpave mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Superpave asphalt mixture with 4.75-mm nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) is a promising, low-cost pavement preservation treatment for agencies such as the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT). The objective of this research study is to develop an optimized 4.75-mm NMAS Superpave mixture in Kansas. In addition, the study evaluated the residual tack coat application rate for the 4.75-mm NMAS mix overlay. Two, hot-in-place recycling (HIPR) projects in Kansas, on US-160 and K-25, were overlaid with a 15- to 19-mm thick layer of 4.75-mm NMAS Superpave mixture in 2007. The field tack coat application rate was measured during construction. Cores were collected from each test section for Hamburg wheel tracking device (HWTD) and laboratory bond tests performed after construction and after one year in service. Test results showed no significant effect of the tack coat application rate on the rutting performance of rehabilitated pavements. The number of wheel passes to rutting failure observed during the HWTD test was dependent on the aggregate source as well as on in-place density of the cores. Laboratory pull-off tests showed that most cores were fully bonded at the interface of the 4.75-mm NMAS overlay and the HIPR layer, regardless of the tack application rate. The failure mode during pull-off tests at the HMA interface was highly dependent on the aggregate source and mix design of the existing layer material. This study also confirmed that overlay construction with a high tack coat application rate may result in bond failure at the HMA interface. Twelve different 4.75-mm NMAS mix designs were developed using materials from the aforementioned but two binder grades and three different percentages of natural (river) sand. Laboratory performance tests were conducted to assess mixture performance. Results show that rutting and moisture damage potential in the laboratory depend on aggregate type irrespective of binder grade. Anti-stripping agent affects moisture sensitivity test results. Fatigue performance is significantly influenced by river sand content and binder grade. Finally, an optimized 4.75-mm NMAS mixture design was developed and verified based on statistical analysis of performance data.

Rahman, Farhana


Coping with PH over the Long Term  


... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video PATIENTS Patients Newly Diagnosed Request an Envelope ... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video Help spread PH awareness and share PH ...


Author s note: Marie F. Smith, CRA;Valerie T. Eviner, PhD; Kathie Weathers, PhD; Maria Uriarte, PhD; Holly Ewing, PhD; Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD; Peter Groffman, PhD; Clive G. Jones, PhD; Institute of Ecosystem Studies, 65 Sharon Turnpike (PO  

E-print Network

Uriarte, PhD; Holly Ewing, PhD; Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD; Peter Groffman, PhD; Clive G. Jones, Ph. Eviner, PhD Kathie C. Weathers, PhD Maria Uriarte, PhD Holly A. Ewing, PhD Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD Peter

Berkowitz, Alan R.


Guide to Films (16 mm) About Ecology, Adaptation and Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synopses of 350 films (16 mm.) on ecology, adaptation of plants and animals to their environment, and environmental pollution are listed alphabetically by title in this guide. It specifies whether the film is black-and-white or color, its running time, and its source. An abbreviated subject index and a directory of sources are also provided. The…



Guide to Free-Loan Sports Films (16mm).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog provides information on free 16 mm films dealing with a wide variety of individual and team sports, such as football, golf, water sports, snow sports, racing, and baseball, as well as on general sports competition and safety. Unless otherwise noted, the films are in color and with sound. Titles are listed alphabetically under their…



Future mmVLBI Research with ALMA: A European vision  

E-print Network

Very long baseline interferometry at millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths (mmVLBI) offers the highest achievable spatial resolution at any wavelength in astronomy. The anticipated inclusion of ALMA as a phased array into a global VLBI network will bring unprecedented sensitivity and a transformational leap in capabilities for mmVLBI. Building on years of pioneering efforts in the US and Europe the ongoing ALMA Phasing Project (APP), a US-led international collaboration with MPIfR-led European contributions, is expected to deliver a beamformer and VLBI capability to ALMA by the end of 2014 (APP: Fish et al. 2013, arXiv:1309.3519). This report focuses on the future use of mmVLBI by the international users community from a European viewpoint. Firstly, it highlights the intense science interest in Europe in future mmVLBI observations as compiled from the responses to a general call to the European community for future research projects. A wide range of research is presented that includes, amongst others: - Imagin...

Tilanus, R P J; Zensus, J A; Baudry, A; Bremer, M; Falcke, H; Giovannini, G; Laing, R; van Langevelde, H J; Vlemmings, W; Abraham, Z; Afonso, J; Agudo, I; Alberdi, A; Alcolea, J; Altamirano, D; Asadi, S; Assaf, K; Augusto, P; Baczko, A-K; Boeck, M; Boller, T; Bondi, M; Boone, F; Bourda, G; Brajsa, R; Brand, J; Britzen, S; Bujarrabal, V; Cales, S; Casadio, C; Casasola, V; Castangia, P; Cernicharo, J; Charlot, P; Chemin, L; Clenet, Y; Colomer, F; Combes, F; Cordes, J; Coriat, M; Cross, N; D'Ammando, F; Dallacasa, D; Desmurs, J-F; Eatough, R; Eckart, A; Eisenacher, D; Etoka, S; Felix, M; Fender, R; Ferreira, M; Freeland, E; Frey, S; Fromm, C; Fuhrmann, L; Gabanyi, K; Galvan-Madrid, R; Giroletti, M; Goddi, C; Gomez, J; Gourgoulhon, E; Gray, M; di Gregorio, I; Greimel, R; Grosso, N; Guirado, J; Hada, K; Hanslmeier, A; Henkel, C; Herpin, F; Hess, P; Hodgson, J; Horns, D; Humphreys, E; Kramer, B Hutawarakorn; Ilyushin, V; Impellizzeri, V; Ivanov, V; Julião, M; Kadler, M; Kerins, E; Klaassen, P; Klooster, K van 't; Kording, E; Kozlov, M; Kramer, M; Kreikenbohm, A; Kurtanidze, O; Lazio, J; Leite, A; Leitzinger, M; Lepine, J; Levshakov, S; Lico, R; Lindqvist, M; Liuzzo, E; Lobanov, A; Lucas, P; Mannheim, K; Marcaide, J; Markoff, S; Martí-Vidal, I; Martins, C; Masetti, N; Massardi, M; Menten, K; Messias, H; Migliari, S; Mignano, A; Miller-Jones, J; Minniti, D; Molaro, P; Molina, S; Monteiro, A; Moscadelli, L; Mueller, C; Müller, A; Muller, S; Niederhofer, F; Odert, P; Olofsson, H; Orienti, M; Paladino, R; Panessa, F; Paragi, Z; Paumard, T; Pedrosa, P; Pérez-Torres, M; Perrin, G; Perucho, M; Porquet, D; Prandoni, I; Ransom, S; Reimers, D; Rejkuba, M; Rezzolla, L; Richards, A; Ros, E; Roy, A; Rushton, A; Savolainen, T; Schulz, R; Silva, M; Sivakoff, G; Soria-Ruiz, R; Soria, R; Spaans, M; Spencer, R; Stappers, B; Surcis, G; Tarchi, A; Temmer, M; Thompson, M; Torrelles, J; Truestedt, J; Tudose, V; Venturi, T; Verbiest, J; Vieira, J; Vielzeuf, P; Vincent, F; Wex, N; Wiik, K; Wiklind, T; Wilms, J; Zackrisson, E; Zechlin, H



Pervasive integrated material handling in 300 mm semiconductor manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semiconductor industry's transition to 300 mm manufacturing has created many new challenges for factory automation. The increased wafer size has introduced ergonomic concerns and operational challenges leading companies to pursue a pervasive automated lot delivery infrastructure capable of supporting lot movement and processing scenarios in both technology development and high volume manufacturing. This paper will trace the evolution in

Ross A. Giddings; Jeffrey C. Hunter




E-print Network

^^ FISHERY STATISTICS I OF THE UNITED STATESmmmMM 'f^ gjIP^Ws^WI'l STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 25 Fish Statistical Digest 25 FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1949 BY A. W. ANDERSON and C. E. PETERSON UNITED. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. - - - Price $1.25 (paper) #12;Fishery Statistics


Advisory List of Instructional Media--16MM Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two advisory lists include information on 16mm films appropriate for the K-12 instructional program. In both bibliographies films are listed in the following categories: communication skills; guidance; health, physical education, safety, and sports; science; and social studies. The list for the 1982-1983 school year also includes categories…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Educational Media.


Coverage and Capacity Analysis of mmWave Cellular Systems  

E-print Network

of Texas at Austin Joint work with Tianyang Bai #12;(c) Robert W. Heath Jr. 2013-time Affiliates provide real world context 12 Industrial Affiliates20 Faculty #12;(c) Robert W. Heath Jr:// #12;Introduction #12;(c) Robert W. Heath Jr. 2013 Why mm

Heath Jr., - Robert W.


Needlescopic urology: incorporating 2-mm instruments in laparoscopic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To report the initial experience with incorporation of needlescopic (2 mm) instruments and optics in various therapeutic minimally invasive urologic procedures.Methods. Needlescopic techniques were used to successfully perform a variety of urologic surgeries including adrenalectomy, nephrectomy, renal cyst marsupialization, orchiopexy, lymphocele marsupialization, and pelvic lymph node dissection.Results. To date we have performed 42 needlescopic procedures in 39 patients (14

Jon J Soble; Inderbir S Gill



RF and mm-Wave Photonics at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

RF and mm-wave photonic devices and circuits have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories for applications ranging from RF optical data links to optical generation of mm-wave frequencies. This talk will explore recent high-speed photonics technology developments at Sandia including: (1) A monolithic optical integrated circuit for all-optical generation of mm-waves. Using integrated mode-locked diode lasers, amplifiers, and detectors, frequencies between 30 GHz and 90 GHz are generated by a single monolithic (Al,Ga)As optical circuit less than 2mm in its largest dimension. (2) Development of polarization-maintaining, low-insertion-loss, low v-pi, Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulators with DC-to-potentially-K-band modulation bandwidth. New low-loss polarization-maintaining waveguide designs using binary alloys have been shown to reduce polarization crosstalk in undoped (Al,Ga)As waveguides, yielding high extinction ratio (>40dB) and low on-chip loss (<6dB) in Mach-Zehnder interferometers. RF drive voltage is reduced through use of 45rnrn-active length devices with modulator sensitivity, v-pi, less than 3V.

Vawter, G.A.; Sullivan, C.



ECM and MM algorithms for normal mixtures with constrained parameters  

E-print Network

ECM and MM algorithms for normal mixtures with constrained parameters Didier Chauveau1 David R as an ECM algorithm. For certain types of variance constraints, yet another generalization of EM, known of these algorithms in the mixtools package for the R statistical software. Keywords: generalized EM algorithms, ECM

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Chiral Discrimination in Dimers of Diphosphines PH2 ?PH2 and PH2 ?PHF.  


A theoretical study of the conformational profile of two diphosphines, PH2 ?PH2 and PH2 ?PHF, is carried using second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) computational methods. The chiral minima found are used to build homo- and heterochiral dimers. Six minima are found for the (PH2 ?PH2 )2 dimers and 27 for the (PH2 ?PHF)2 dimers. Pnicogen and hydrogen bonds, the non-covalent forces that stabilize the complexes, are characterized by Atoms in Molecules (AIM) and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) methodologies. Those with several pnicogen bonds are more stable than those with hydrogen bonds. The chirodiastaltic energies amount to a total of 1.77 kJ?mol(-1) for the Ra :Ra versus Ra :Sa (PH2 ?PH2 )2 dimers, 0.81 kJ?mol(-1) for the RSa :RSa versus RSa :SRa (PH2 ?PHF)2 dimers, and 2.93 kJ?mol(-1) for the RRa :RRa versus RRa :SSa (PH2 ?PHF)2 dimers. In the first and second cases, the heterochiral complex is favored whereas in the third case, the homochiral complex is favored. PMID:24838830

Azofra, Luis M; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José



Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Analysis Model Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the Mineralogic Model (MM), Version 3.0 (MM3.0) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.0 and previous versions. A three-dimensional (3-D) Mineralogic Model was developed for Yucca Mountain to support the analyses of hydrologic properties, radionuclide transport, mineral health hazards, repository performance, and repository design. Version 3.0 of the MM was developed from mineralogic data obtained from borehole samples. It consists of matrix mineral abundances as a function of x (easting), y (northing), and z (elevation), referenced to the stratigraphic framework defined in Version 3.1 of the Geologic Framework Model (GFM). The MM was developed specifically for incorporation into the 3-D Integrated Site Model (ISM). The MM enables project personnel to obtain calculated mineral abundances at any position, within any region, or within any stratigraphic unit in the model area. The significance of the MM for key aspects of site characterization and performance assessment is explained in the following subsections. This work was conducted in accordance with the Development Plan for the MM (CRWMS M&O 2000). The planning document for this Rev. 00, ICN 02 of this AMR is Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The purpose of this ICN is to record changes in the classification of input status by the resolution of the use of TBV software and data in this report. Constraints and limitations of the MM are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow. The MM is one component of the ISM, which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed stratigraphy and structural features of the site into a 3-D model that will be useful in primary downstream models and repository design. These downstream models include the hydrologic flow models and the radionuclide transport models. All the models and the repository design, in turn, will be incorporated into the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of the potential nuclear waste repository block and vicinity to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a host for a repository. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 1. The lateral boundaries of the ISM and its three component models are shown in Figure 2.

C. Lum



Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat ( lon( Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scan  

E-print Network

Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat ( lon( Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM;Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat ( lon( Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat ( lon( Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scan

Hickey, Barbara


Charpy impact test results on five materials and NIST verification specimens using instrumented 2-mm and 8-mm strikers  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is involved in two cooperative projects, with international participants, both of which involve Charpy V-notch impact tests with instrumented strikers of 2mm and 8mm radii. Two heats of A 533 grade B class I pressure vessel steel and a low upper-shelf (LUS) submerged-arc (SA) weld were tested on the same Charpy machine, while one heat of a Russian Cr-Mo-V forging steel and a high upper-shelf (HUS) SA weld were tested on two different machines. The number of replicate tests at any one temperature ranged from 2 to 46 specimens. Prior to testing with each striker, verification specimens at the low, high, and super high energy levels from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were tested. In the two series of verification tests, the tests with the 2mm striker met the requirements at the low and high energy levels but not at the super high energy. For one plate, the 2mm striker showed somewhat higher average absorbed energies than those for the 8-mm striker at all three test temperatures. For the second plate and the LUS weld, however, the 2mm striker showed somewhat lower energies at both test temperatures. For the Russian forging steel and the HUS weld, tests were conducted over a range of temperatures with tests at one laboratory using the 8mm striker and tests at a second laboratory using the 2mm striker. Lateral expansion was measured for all specimens and the results are compared with the absorbed energy results. The overall results showed generally good agreement (within one standard deviation) in energy measurements by the two strikers. Load-time traces from the instrumented strikers were also compared and used to estimate shear fracture percentage. Four different formulas from the European Structural Integrity Society draft standard for instrumented Charpy test are compared and a new formula is proposed for estimation of percent shear from the force-time trace.

Nanstad, R.K.; Sokolov, M.A.



Heavy water around the L1448-mm protostar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. L1448-mm is the prototype of a low-mass Class 0 protostar driving a high-velocity jet. Given its bright H2O spectra observed with ISO, L1448-mm is an ideal laboratory to observe heavy water (HDO) emission. Aims: Our aim is to image the HDO emission in the protostar surroundings, the possible occurrence of HDO emission also investigating off L1448-mm, towards the molecular outflow. Methods: We carried out observations of L1448-mm in the HDO(110-111) line at 80.6 GHz, an excellent tracer of HDO column density, with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Results: We image for the first time HDO emission around L1448-mm. The HDO structure reveals a main clump at velocities close to the ambient one towards the the continuum peak that is caused by the dust heated by the protostar. In addition, the HDO map shows tentative weaker emission at ?2000 AU from the protostar towards the south, which is possibly associated with the walls of the outflow cavity opened by the protostellar wind. Conclusions: Using an LVG code, modelling the density and temperature profile of the hot-corino, and adopting a gas temperature of 100 K and a density of 1.5 × 108 cm-3, we derive a beam diluted HDO column density of ~7 × 1013 cm-2, corresponding to a HDO abundance of ~4 × 10-7. In addition, the present map supports the scenario where HDO can be efficiently produced in shocked regions and not uniquely in hot corinos heated by the newly born star.

Codella, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Nisini, B.; Bachiller, R.; Cernicharo, J.; Gueth, F.; Fuente, A.; Lefloch, B.



Ph.D. Physics Program Ph.D. in Physics  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Physics Program Ph.D. in Physics Department(s) Physics and Astronomy College Sciences Program Assessment Coordinator Michael Pravica 895-1723 Five-Year Implementation Dates (2010 for physics at the graduate level 4. understand statistical physics at the graduate level 5. perform

Hemmers, Oliver


Ph.D. Astronomy Program Ph.D. in Astronomy  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Astronomy Program Ph.D. in Astronomy Department(s) Physics and Astronomy College Sciences 1 physics at the graduate level 4. understand observational astronomy techniques 5. understand astrophysics strong background of knowledge and expertise in physics and astronomy #12;2. Curriculum Alignment

Hemmers, Oliver


Measurement of the Dipole Moment of the Cosmic Background Radiation at MM and Sub-Mm Wavelengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitive measurements of a dipole anisotropy of the Cosmic Background Radiation at wavelengths of 1.7 and 0.8 mm are presented. Under the assumption that the dipole moment is caused by a doppler shift, these measurements are of sufficient precision to constrain spectral distortions of the CBR at short wavelengths. Measurements of the brightness and shape of diffuse galactic emission are

M. Halpern



The sub-mm/radio correlation in spiral galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis reports the study of the dust and cosmic ray content of three edge- on spiral galaxies, NGC 3044, NGC 4157 and NGC 5775, to an unprecedented level. Observations in the sub-mm were made with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Metre- length radio continuum emission observations were conducted with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We have produced multi-wavelength maps of the galaxies in our study at high resolution and good signal-to-noise in both the halo and disk. These maps are the basis for the rest of the study. Based on 450 and 850 mm observations of galaxies in our sample, we recalculated their gas-to-dust ratio which now agrees with our Galaxy's value. To our knowledge, we have produced the first spatially resolved cold-dust temperature map of any galaxy, for each galaxy in our sample. We have also produced a technique to calculate the spatial distribution of potential energy of the high-latitude dust, giving the lower limit energy required to transport dust from the disk to its current location. It is likely that one or more processes, such as perturbations in the galactic magnetic field, play a role in the ejection of the ISM, alongside supernovae. Finally, we show that a sub-mm/radio correlation exists spatially within the disks and haloes of NGC 3044, NGC 4157 and NGC 5775 and globally between these galaxies. This sub-mm/radio correlation is observational evidence that the conventional explanation for the famous FIR-radio correlation is incomplete or perhaps simply incorrect. An explanation, based on a review of the literature, is proposed for both the sub-mm/radio correlation and the FIR-radio correlation. The sub-mm/radio correlation, which includes emission from the dominant cold dust component, appears to be a more fundamental phenomenon than the specific case that results in the FIR/radio correlation, because the FIR picks out only a tiny fraction of the dust mass. We find that models that link magnetic fields to dust and cosmic rays as the origin of this correlation are the most promising in explaining the correlation in diverse galactic regions.

Brar, Rupinder Singh



Measurement of ionic calcium, pH, and soluble divalent cations in milk at high temperature.  


Dialysis and ultrafiltration were investigated as methods for measuring pH and ionic calcium and partitioning of divalent cations of milk at high temperatures. It was found that ionic calcium, pH, and total soluble divalent cations decreased as temperature increased between 20 and 80 degrees C in both dialysates and ultrafiltration permeates. Between 90 and 110 degrees C, ionic calcium and pH in dialysates continued to decrease as temperature increased, and the relationship between ionic calcium and temperature was linear. The permeabilities of hydrogen and calcium ions through the dialysis tubing were not changed after the tubing was sterilized for 1h at 120 degrees C. There were no significant differences in pH and ionic calcium between dialysates from raw milk and those from a range of heat-treated milks. The effects of calcium chloride addition on pH and ionic calcium were measured in milk at 20 degrees C and in dialysates collected at 110 degrees C. Heat coagulation at 110 degrees C occurred with addition of calcium chloride at 5.4mM, where pH and ionic calcium of the dialysate were 6.00 and 0.43mM, respectively. Corresponding values at 20 degrees C were pH 6.66 and 2.10mM. PMID:20105523

On-Nom, N; Grandison, A S; Lewis, M J



Disruption of the transmembrane pH gradient--a possible mechanism for the antibacterial action of azelaic acid in Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis.  


The effect of the topical acne treatment azelaic acid on the transmembrane proton gradient (delta pH) of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis was studied in vitro at external pH values found on human skin (pH 4.0-6.0). Bacteria were grown in defined media using continuous culture and delta pH was estimated by measuring the accumulation of [14C] benzoic by the cells using flow dialysis. In both P. acnes and S. epidermidis the addition of 30 mM azelaic acid and the membrane active inhibitors nigericin (150 microM) and CCCP (150 microM) resulted in a rapid release of [14C] label into the dialysate indicating the dissipation of delta pH between external pH values of 4.0-6.0. The addition of 60 mM NaCl as an iso-osmotic control and 150 microM valinomycin did not induce the release of [14C] label. The addition of 30 mM azelaic acid reduced the delta pH of P. acnes by 44% at external pH 4.0 and 28% at external pH 6.0. In S. epidermidis 30 mM azelaic acid reduced delta pH by 88% at external pH 5.0 and 20% at external pH 6.0. Rapid loss of viability occurred in suspensions of P. acnes and S. epidermidis containing 30 mM azelaic acid at pH 4.0 with no viable cells recovered after 60 min incubation. At pH 6.0 little change in viable numbers of P. acnes and S. epidermidis were observed over a 2 h incubation period. The results indicate that the antibacterial activity of azelaic acid is associated with the perturbation of intracellular pH. PMID:7829407

Bojar, R A; Cunliffe, W J; Holland, K T



PH as a stress signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH of the xylem sap of plants experiencing a range of environmental conditions can increase by over a whole pH unit. This results in an increased ABA concentration in the apoplast adjacent to the stomatal guard cells in the leaf epidermis, by reducing the ability of the mesophyll and epidermal symplast to sequester ABA away from this compartment. As

Sally Wilkinson



Visualization Of Ignition Phenomena In A 20 mm Ignition Simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aims of this work were to demonstrate the feasibility of the visualization of the ignition phenomena in a translucent case, simulating a 20 mm ammunition case and to study the instrumentation, including the data processing, suitable for this kind of experiments. We observed many conventional and experimental 20 mm ignition systems, in order to test the maximum of possible configurations, with two cameras, a classical HITACHI and an electronic HADLAND camera. Pressure was measured with a KISTLER piezoelectric gauge, and a few tubes were fitted with strain gauges to check case deformation. These tests allowed the setting of the experimental methods and to consider several types of data processing, keeping in mind a number of ideas for further experimentations.

Lombard, Jean M.



Sub-mm clues to elliptical galaxy formation  

E-print Network

There is growing evidence that, at the S(850) 2.5, with a mean redshift z = 3.5. While radio selection raises concerns about bias, I argue that our current knowledge of the brightest (S(850) ~ 10 mJy) sub-mm sources detected in unbiased SCUBA imaging surveys indicates that they are also largely confined to this same high-z regime. Consequently, while the most recent number counts imply such extreme sources can contribute only 5-10% of the sub-mm background, their comoving number density (in the redshift band 3 < z < 5) is 1-2 x 10^{-5} per cubic megaparsec, sufficient to account for the formation of all ellipticals of comparable mass to radio galaxies (~4L-star) in the present-day universe.

James S. Dunlop



Study of 5 and 10 mm thick CZT strip detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report progress in the study of 5 and 10 mm thick CdZnTe strip detectors featuring orthogonal coplanar anode contacts. This novel anode geometry combines the advantages of pixel detectors with those of double-sided strip detectors. Like pixel detectors. these are electron-only devices that perform well as hard X-ray and ?-ray spectrometers and imagers even in the thicker configurations required

J. R. Macril; P. Dufour; L. A. Hamel; M. Julien; M. L. McConnelll; M. McClishl; J. M. Ryan; M. Widholm



Simple spectral Representations for the M\\/M\\/1 Queue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that certain basic descriptions of the time-dependent behavior of the M\\/M\\/1 queue have very simple representations as mixtures of exponentials. In particular, this is true for the busy-period density, the probability that the server is busy starting at zero, the expected queue length starting at zero and the autocorrelation function of the stationary queue-length process. In each

Joseph Abate; Ward Whitt



2000-fps digital imager for replacing 16-mm film cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years 16 mm film cameras have been used in severe environments. These film cameras are used on Hy-G automotive sleds, airborne weapon testing, range tracking, and other hazardous environments. The companies and government agencies using these cameras are in need of replacing them with a more cost-effective solution. Film-based cameras still produce the best resolving capability. However, film

Kris S. Balch



Advances in process overlay on 300-mm wafers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay budgets are getting tighter within 300 mm volume production and as a consequence the process effects on alignment and off-line metrology becomes more important. In a short loop experiment, with cleared reference marks in each image field, the isolated effect of processing was measured with a sub-nanometer accuracy. The examined processes are Shallow Trench Isolation (STI), Tungsten-Chemical Mechanical Processing

Jens Staecker; Stefanie Arendt; Karl Schumacher; Evert C. Mos; Richard J. van Haren; Maurits van der Schaar; Remi Edart; Wolfgang Demmerle; Hoite Tolsma



MM Transmission Arrangement Requirements for Conventional Automotive Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An automotive vehicle’s transmission arrangement comprises the whole of the components concerned with transmitting ECE or\\u000a ICE power as well as F-M, P-M or E-M motor power to the road wheels, that is, the M-M clutch and manual transmission (MT), termed the ‘gearbox’, semi-automatic transmission (SAT), fully-automatic transmission (FAT) or continuously-variable transmission (CVT), the propeller shaft (driveshaft), and final drive

B. T. Fijalkowski


1.2 mm emission from Cen A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Centaurus A is the closest active radio galaxy at a distance of around 3.5 Mpc. New 1.2 mm imaging performed with SIMBA at the Swedish ESO Submillimetre Telesco pe (SEST) in Chile gives an insight into the distribution of thermal and non-the rmal emission. Apart from extended synchrotron emission in the radio lobes we ha ve detected the unresolved AGN core and the characteristic dust lane.

Banhidi, Z.; Chini, R.; Albrecht, M.



Explore a Fine Resolution MM5 for Reservoir Temperature Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TVA's three nuclear plants and some fossil plants rely on reservoir water for cooling. When weather is hot during summer, variable meteorological conditions such as wind and cloud cover often affect reservoir water and make its temperature prediction particularly challenging. A critical point is occasionally reached when a decision must be made on whether to derate a generating unit to comply with thermal discharge restrictions. The decision to derate can depend on differences of a few tenths of a degree in the water temperature prediction. Predicted reservoir temperatures for cooling of a TVA nuclear plant, for example, is produced by hydrodynamic models with input meteorological condition for the entire lake approximated by a National Weather Service Forecast Office (NWSFO) forecast issued for the closest airport to the water discharge location. One of the potential areas for improving reservoir temperature prediction is the non-homogeneous meteorological forcing over the body of water. A high resolution PSU/NCAR MM5 model was explored for improving reservoir temperature forecasting. Three summer periods representing extremely hot weather conditions were selected for MM5 simulations over the cooling water source of one TVA nuclear plant. The MM5 was configured with five concentric modeling domains. Grid resolution ranged from 27 km for the coarsest to 0.3 km for the finest modeling domain. Model results from the finest resolution domain were evaluated and analyzed with observations from a meteorological tower of the plant and reservoir temperature profiles from permanent buoys near the plant. Preliminary results indicate that the fine resolution MM5 model is capable of simulating large air temperature variations resulting from extreme weather events. The model can also simulate non-homogeneous weather conditions and produce different wind patterns across the reservoir that can affect water temperature through wind induced turbulent mixing. Detailed modeling results and analyses will be presented at the joint assembly.

Mao, Q.; Mueller, S. F.



[Cataract surgery via 1.5 mm microincisions].  


A new technique of cataract surgery via two microincisions of 1.5 mm and a phacotip without silicone sleeve is described in this paper. The irrigation is performed via a service incision (port) with a supporting device of the diameter of 20 G. Main problems of this method are discussed: the risk of the wound burns, and the insufficient stability of the anterior chamber. Based on author's own experience from 80 operations performed, and on the data in the literature, the suggestions how to perform this surgery safely using the conventional phaco machine are outlined. The author uses microtip--micro Kelman, pulse mode 5-10 pulses/sec, flow ratio about 20 mL/min, vacuum up to 200 mm Hg, an overpressure cuff to increase the irrigation volume, and a thin walled supporting irrigation device of the inner diameter of 0.7 mm minimum. In the conclusion, it is discussed, if this may be regarded as a progressive method and if it will be widely used. A precondition for its extended use is the wider commercial offer of intraocular lenses, which could be easily implanted trough the micro-incision just described. PMID:15369265

Mazal, Z



Size Structure and Catch Rates of White Crappie, Black Crappie, and Bluegill in Trap Nets with 13-mm and 16-mm Mesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared catch rates and size structure of white crappie Pomoxis annularis, black crappie P. nigromaculatus, and bluegill Lepomis macrochirus captured in trap nets with mesh sizes of 13 and 16 mm. We found that trap nets with 13-mm mesh caught significantly more white crappies less than 130 mm total length (TL) and bluegills less than 80 mm TL than

Jeffrey J. Jackson; Daryl L. Bauer



PhD-Buddy-Programme A PhD-buddy is an experienced PhD-student  

E-print Network

and their services available to you. Win great prizes at our Hannover Quiz and meet fellow PhD Students. FoodPhD-Buddy-Programme A PhD-buddy is an experienced PhD-student who will help a newly arrived PhD-student 14.03. Pub Night // Stammtisch 19.03. Workshop "Working effectively in intercultural settings" April

Nejdl, Wolfgang


Transient blood-brain barrier passage of polar compounds at low pH.  


The brain uptake index (BUI) of polar 14C-labeled test compounds with molecular weights (MWs) of 79-70,000 was examined using the single-pass carotid injection technique in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Compounds were injected in 40 mM malonate, pH 2.5, and 10 mM N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid, pH 7.4. BUI is defined as (14C-labeled test compound/[3H]H2O in brain)/(14C-labeled test compound/[3H]H2O in injectate) x 100 at a 5-s decapitation time. Increased BUIs of compounds in pH 2.5 buffer were MW dependent with a threshold < 5,000. BUI, extraction, and permeability-surface area product (PS) were significantly greater at pH 2.5 compared with pH 7.4 (P < 0.05). Washouts of [14C]butanol and [3H]H2O at pH 2.5 and pH 7.4 were calculated. Cerebral blood flow and PS increased at low pH. Other buffers, oxalate, glycine, and lactate were used at low pH and also increased BUIs. The duration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening at pH 2.5 was 60 s as estimated by penetrance of the normally excluded dye fluorescein. A plot of BUI or PS at pH 2.5 vs. (MW)1/2 suggests that transient BBB tight junction opening contributed to the passage of polar compounds at low pH. PMID:7810722

Oldendorf, W H; Stoller, B E; Tishler, T A; Williams, J L; Oldendorf, S Z



EMITTANCE MEASUREMENTS AT THE TTF PHOTOINJECTOR Ph. Piot, S. Schreiber, D. Sertore, K. Flottmann, DESY, 22603 Hamburg, Germany,  

E-print Network

EMITTANCE MEASUREMENTS AT THE TTF PHOTOINJECTOR Ph. Piot, S. Schreiber£, D. SertoreÝ, K. Fl. Abstract The TTF Free Electron Laser requires high current elec- tron bunches with small emittances nC, a bunch length in the mm range, and a normalized transverse emittance approaching 1 mm mrad


The pH dependence of dihydroorotic acid synthesis catalyzed by zinc and cobalt dihydroorotase  

E-print Network

of dihydro- 3 -1 -1 orotate at 230 nm, = 1. 17 x 10 N on (4). Reaction mix- tures for dihydroorotate synthesis contained 40 mN MES-NaOH buffer in the pH range 4. 75 to 7. 45, or 75 mN Tris-acetate buffer in the pH range 7. 11 to 9. 35 and 4 mM L... of dihydro- 3 -1 -1 orotate at 230 nm, = 1. 17 x 10 N on (4). Reaction mix- tures for dihydroorotate synthesis contained 40 mN MES-NaOH buffer in the pH range 4. 75 to 7. 45, or 75 mN Tris-acetate buffer in the pH range 7. 11 to 9. 35 and 4 mM L...

Roy Choudhury, Rita



The redshifts of bright sub-mm sources  

E-print Network

One of the key goals in observational cosmology over the next few years will be to establish the redshift distribution of the recently-discovered sub-mm source population. In this brief review I discuss and summarize the redshift information which has been gleaned to date for the ~ 50 bright sub-mm sources which have been uncovered via the six main classes of survey performed with SCUBA on the JCMT over the last 2-3 years. Despite the biases inherent in some of these surveys, and the crudeness of the redshift information available in others, I conclude that all current information suggests that only 10-15 % of luminous sub-mm sources lie at z < 2, and that the median redshift of this population is z ~ 3. I suggest that such a high median redshift is arguably not unexpected given current theories designed to explain the correlation between black-hole mass and spheroid mass found at low redshift. In such scenarios, peak AGN emission is expected to correspond to, or even to cause termination of major star-formation activity in the host spheroid. In contrast, maximum dust emission is expected to occur roughly half-way through the star-formation process. Given that optical emission from bright quasars peaks at z = 2.5, dust-emission from massive ellipticals might be reasonably expected to peak at some point in the preceding ~ 1 Gyr, at z ~ 3. Confirmation or refutation of this picture requires significantly-improved redshift information on bright samples of SCUBA sources.

James S. Dunlop



S-I-S mm-Wave mixers and detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program is part of an ongoing effort to fabricate all-refractory S-I-S devices for use as mm-wave detectors and mixers in the quantum regime, and operating in the temperature range of 8-10 K. There are four ongoing approaches to achieve this goal: (1) Development of high-quality NbN-barrier-Nb S-I-S junctions as an intermediate goal towards fabricating all-NbN junctions; (2) Actual development of all-NbN junctions using the results of (1) above as a guide; (3) Development of an in-house NbN deposition capability in order to speed the progress on (2) above; and (4) The use of existing all-NB digital circuit fabrication capability to design and fabricate mm-wave mixers to operate at T less than or approx. 4.2 K, thus gaining valuable experience that can be applied to the eventual design of all-NbN mixers. Sputtered NbN-a:Si-NB Josephson tunnel junctions fabricated using SRC's SNAP process (Selective Niobium Anodization Process) have been developed. All-NbN devices using the plain a:Si barrier have been developed to the point where they exhibit S-I-S tunnelling characteristics. Fourteen types of mm-wave mixer chips have been designed in collaboration with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies using the existing all -NB digital circuit fabrication process. Masks were fabricated, and a trial fabrication proved the integrity of the process. The viability of the proposed mounting scheme has been experimentally ascertained.

Jillie, D. W.; Kroger, H.; Smith, L. N.



Entropy estimation for M/M/1 queueing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to estimate the entropy of Markovian queueing systems. The marginal entropy and entropy rate of a stochastic process are well-known to measure its uncertainty. When only observations of the process are available, the need to estimate themarises. Regnault [5, 6] provide estimators with good asymptotic properties of the entropy of continuous-time ergodic Markov processes. We specialize these results in the context of birth-death processes used in continuous-time M/M/1 queueing systems. Links with maximum entropy arguments are used to characterize the asymptotic behavior of the estimators.

Regnault, Philippe



Wideband mm-wave log-periodic antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wideband mm-wave end-fire and planar log-periodic antennas compatible with a recently developed surface micromachined process known as PolyStratatrade are discussed in this paper. Two embodiments of each log-periodic type are developed. Specifically, an instantaneous 2-110 GHz and a dual-band 18-50 GHz and 75-110 GHz planar log-periodic antennas with integrated rectangular micro-coaxial feeds\\/impedance transformers and VSWR < 2.5:1 are designed. An

Joseph Mruk; Zhou Hongyu; Manseok Uhm; Yuya Saito; Dejan Filipovic



Living with Omniback and the 8mm drive  

SciTech Connect

Apollo's OmniBack backup system provides a convenient and effective way of storing network backup information on 8mm tape. In addition it has a journaling facility to write extensive log files, recording the backup process in almost any degree of detail desired. The directory structure and file names used are logical and well-defined. Summary files announce the degree of success of the backup as specified in the work file. The system will run unattended under the UNIX cron command, allowing the backup to be performed during the night when user demands on the network are small and most user files are free.

Jones, M.C.



Pratt dilators: resistance at 9 mm is an instrumentation artifact.  


A previous study reported frequent resistance of the cervix at 9 mm during dilation and interpreted the resistance as the beginning of a tear of the internal os. A more recent identical study did not indicate such tears. Measurement of the dilators revealed that the set used in the previous study had uneven increments in diameter with a wide variation between size 25 and size 27 dilators. Increments of newer dilators are more even, and newer dilators reveal a more even progression of cervical resistance with increasing diameter. PMID:3177540

Hulka, J F



Averaging Techniques for Reaction Barriers in QM/MM Simulations.  


Herein, we test and compare different techniques to obtain averaged reaction barriers from quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations based on snapshots taken from molecular dynamics. Reasonable values can be obtained from a fairly small sample of well-chosen snapshots if an exponential averaging, also called Boltzmann averaging, is used. Snapshots with geometries close to the expected transition state are to be picked preferentially. Exponential averaging, arithmetic averaging, and simply taking the minimum barrier are compared to free-energy calculations from umbrella sampling. Three reactions within a protein in a water environment are used as test cases. PMID:25195924

Cooper, April M; Kästner, Johannes



Philip Prorok, PhD

Philip Prorok, PhD, mirum est notare quam littera gothica, quam nunc putamus parum claram, anteposuerit litterarum formas humanitatis per seacula quarta decima et quinta decima. Eodem modo typi, qui nunc nobis videntur parum clari, fiant sollemnes in futurum.


David Cheresh, PhD

Meetings & Events Home Agenda Speaker Biosketches Abstracts Logistics Contact Speaker Biosketches David Cheresh, PhD(University of California, San Diego) Dr. David Cheresh studies the mechanism of action of signaling networks that regulate


Resonant biaxial 7-mm MEMS mirror for omnidirectional scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-cost automotive laser scanners for environment perception are needed to enable the integration of advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) into all automotive vehicle segments, a key to reducing the number of traffic accidents on roads. An omnidirectional 360 degree laser scanning concept has been developed based on combination of an omnidirectional lens and a biaxial large aperture MEMS mirror. This omnidirectional scanning concept is the core of a small sized low-cost time-of-flight based range sensor development. This paper describes concept, design, fabrication and first measurement results of a resonant biaxial 7mm gimbal-less MEMS mirror that is electrostatically actuated by stacked vertical comb drives. Identical frequencies of the two resonant axes are necessary to enable the required circle scanning capability. A tripod suspension was chosen since it allows minimizing the frequency splitting of the two resonant axes. Low mirror curvature is achieved by a thickness of the mirror of more than 500 ?m. Hermetic wafer level vacuum packaging of such large mirrors based on multiple wafer bonding has been developed to enable to achieve a large mechanical tilt angle of +/- 6.5 degrees in each axis. The 7mm-MEMS mirror demonstrates large angle circular scanning at 1.5kHz.

Hofmann, U.; Aikio, M.; Janes, J.; Senger, F.; Stenchly, V.; Weiss, M.; Quenzer, H.-J.; Wagner, B.; Benecke, W.



Experimental demonstration of a 120-mm ram accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ram acceleration is an emerging propulsion technology in which a projectile similar in shape to the centerbody of a ramjet aircraft engine is injected at high speed into a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture. As the projectile moves into the tube, under supersonic conditions, shocks occur on and around the projectile. If the gases are then ignited either by the energy in the shock system or an external mechanism, the combustion around or behind the projectile can be self-sustaining. The net effect is to generate a localized high pressure region around and/or behind the projectile which produces acceleration. Work at the University of Washington, Seattle, has demonstrated velocities in excess of 2.6 km/s in 38-mm caliber, while theory predicts velocities above 7 km/s may be obtainable. A program was initiated at the Weapons Technology Directorate of the US Army Research Laboratory (formerly Ballistic Research Laboratory) to examine the scaling potential of ram acceleration for use as a high velocity, high mass, (i.e., high kinetic energy) launcher. Data from initial gas mixing tests and first firings through a 120-mm bore diameter ram accelerator with both inert and live fuel gases are presented. Initial comparisons with ram accelerators of smaller scale are made. Discussions of scaling parameters as currently understood will be presented.

Kruczynski, David L.



QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Studies of Metal Binding Proteins  

PubMed Central

Mixed quantum-classical (quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM)) simulations have strongly contributed to providing insights into the understanding of several structural and mechanistic aspects of biological molecules. They played a particularly important role in metal binding proteins, where the electronic effects of transition metals have to be explicitly taken into account for the correct representation of the underlying biochemical process. In this review, after a brief description of the basic concepts of the QM/MM method, we provide an overview of its capabilities using selected examples taken from our work. Specifically, we will focus on heme peroxidases, metallo-?-lactamases, ?-synuclein and ligase ribozymes to show how this approach is capable of describing the catalytic and/or structural role played by transition (Fe, Zn or Cu) and main group (Mg) metals. Applications will reveal how metal ions influence the formation and reduction of high redox intermediates in catalytic cycles and enhance drug metabolism, amyloidogenic aggregate formation and nucleic acid synthesis. In turn, it will become manifest that the protein frame directs and modulates the properties and reactivity of the metal ions. PMID:25006697

Vidossich, Pietro; Magistrato, Alessandra



Filtration behaviors of giardia and c ryptosporidium—ionic strength and pH effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laboratory-scale filtration tests of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in both 2mm-?glass beads and 2mm-? polystyrene beads filters were conducted to investigate their filtration behaviors. The protozoan parasites were used as target particles, while the chemical system altered by changing the electrolyte concentration and pH. The results significantly indicate that ionic strength have a positive effect on the removal

Bing-Mu Hsu; Chihpin Huang; Jill Ruhsing Pan



The Apollo 15 coarse fines (4-10 mm)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new catalog of the Apollo 15 coarse fines particles is presented. Powell's macroscopic descriptions, resulting from his 1972 particle by particle binocular examination of all of the Apollo 15 4 to 10 mm fines samples, are retained. His groupings are also retained, but petrographic, chemical, and other data from later analyses are incorporated into this catalog to better characterize individual particles and describe the groups. A large number of particles have no characterization beyond that done by Powell. Complete descriptions of the particles and all known references are provided. The catalog is intended for anyone interested in the rock types collected by Dave Scott and Jim Irwin in the Hadley-Appenine region, and particularly for researchers requiring sample allocations.

Ryder, Graham; Sherman, Sarah Bean



A densitometric analysis of commercial 35mm films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IIaO films have been subjected to various sensitometric tests. The have included thermal and aging effects and reciprocity failure studies. In order to compare the special IIaO film with popular brands of 35 mm films and their possible use in astrophotography, Agfa, Fuji and Kodak print and slide formats, as well as black and white and color formats, were subjected to sensitometric, as well as densitometric analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to analyze grain structure size, and shape as a function of both speed and brand. Preliminary analysis of the grain structure using an ISI-SS40 scanning electron microscope indicates that the grain sizes for darker densities are much larger than the grain size for lighter densities. Researchers analyze the scanning electron microscope findings of the various grains versus densities as well as enhancement of the grains, using the IP-8500 Digital Image Processor.

Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Ruffin, Christopher, III



40 mm bore Nb-Ti model dipole magnet  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary R and D has been started on magnets for a next-generation high-energy-physics accelerator, the 20 TeV Superconducting Supercollider (SSC). One design now being developed at LBL is described in this paper. The design is based on two layers of flattened Nb-Ti cable, a 40 mm ID winding with flared ends, and an operating field of 6.5 T. Experimental results are presented on several one-meter-long models tested at both He I and He II temperature. Measurement of field, residual magnetization, quench propagation velocity, and winding prestress are presented. (A 2-in-1 magnet based on this coil design is being jointly developed by LBL and Brookhaven National Laboratory, and 15 ft. long models are being constructed at BNL).

Taylor, C.; Gilbert, W.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meuser, R.; Peters, C.; Rechen, J.; Scanlan, R.



120-mm supercondcting quadrupole for interaction regions of hadron colliders  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic and mechanical designs of a Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnet with 120-mm aperture suitable for interaction regions of hadron colliders are presented. The magnet is based on a two-layer shell-type coil and a cold iron yoke. Special spacers made of a low-Z material are implemented in the coil mid-planes to reduce the level of radiation heat deposition and radiation dose in the coil. The quadrupole mechanical structure is based on aluminum collars supported by an iron yoke and a stainless steel skin. Magnet parameters including maximum field gradient and field harmonics, Nb3Sn coil pre-stress and protection at the operating temperatures of 4.5 and 1.9 K are reported. The level and distribution of radiation heat deposition in the coil and other magnet components are discussed.

Zlobin, A.V.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Mokhov, N.V.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab



Lunar polarization studies at 3.1 mm wavelength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of the distribution of linearly polarized lunar thermal emission were made at a wavelength of 3.1 mm with The University of Texas 4.88 m parabolic reflector (0.042 deg HPBW). A shadow corrected, rough surface, thermal emission model for a homogeneous moon was least-squares-fitted to the polarization data. Results indicate an effective lunar dielectric constant of 1.34 plus or minus 0.04 with surface roughness characterized by a standard deviation of 17 (plus or minus 5) deg for surface slopes with a normal probability density, independent of lunar phase. A comparison of these results with published values at other wavelengths suggests that the effective lunar dielectric constant, as obtained by lunar emission measurements, decreases with decreasing wavelength of observation. This wavelength dependence may be interpreted in terms of an inhomogeneous surface and/or a surface that possesses intermediate scale surface roughness.

White, T. L.; Cogdell, J. R.



300mm pilot line DSA contact hole process stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) is today a credible alternative lithographic technology for semiconductor industry [1]. In the coming years, DSA integration could be a standard complementary step with other lithographic techniques (193nm immersion, e-beam, extreme ultraviolet). Its main advantages are a high pattern resolution (down to 10nm), a capability to decrease an initial pattern edge roughness [2], an absorption of pattern guide size variation, no requirement of a high-resolution mask and can use standard fab-equipment (tracks and etch tools). The potential of DSA must next be confirmed viable for high volume manufacturing. Developments are necessary to transfer this technology on 300mm wafers in order to demonstrate semiconductor fab-compatibility [3-7]. The challenges concern especially the stability, both uniformity and defectivity, of the entire process, including tools and Blok Co-Polymer (BCP) materials. To investigate the DSA process stability, a 300mm pilot line with DSA dedicated track (SOKUDO DUO) is used at CEALeti. BCP morphologies with PMMA cylinders in a PS matrix are investigated (about 35nm natural period). BCP selfassembly in unpatterned surface and patterned surface (graphoepitaxy) configurations are considered in this study. Unpatterned configuration will initially be used for process optimization and fix a process of record. Secondly, this process of record will be monitored with a follow-up in order to validate its stability. Steps optimization will be applied to patterned surface configurations (graphoepitaxy) for contact hole patterning application. A process window of contact hole shrink process will be defined. Process stability (CD uniformity and defectivity related to BCP lithography) will be investigated.

Argoud, M.; Servin, I.; Gharbi, A.; Pimenta Barros, P.; Jullian, K.; Sanche, M.; Chamiot-Maitral, G.; Barnola, S.; Tiron, R.; Navarro, C.; Chevalier, X.; Nicolet, C.; Fleury, G.; Hadziioannou, G.; Asai, M.; Pieczulewski, C.



Microenvironments of pH in biofilms grown on dissolving silicate surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in pH between silicate–biofilm interfaces and bulk medium (?pH=pHinterface?pHbulk) were detectable with commercial microelectrodes in cultures grown in unbuffered medium (|?pH|=0.27–1.08) for an arthrobacter species, but were generally beneath detection (?pH<0.04) for a streptomyces species. Biofilm half-thicknesses developed by Arthrobacter ranged from 1.2 to 11.5 mm, and were highly variable even for replicates. In buffered medium, neither bacterium produced

Laura J. Liermann; Amy S. Barnes; Birgitta E. Kalinowski; Xiangyang Zhou; Susan L. Brantley



1.5 mM MgCl2, 420 mM KCl, 25% glycerol and 0.2 mM EDTA) Both buffers contained 1 mM dithiothreitol, 1 mM phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, 0.5 mg ml21  

E-print Network

, 1 mM phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, 0.5 mg ml21 leupeptin and 1 mM pepstatin. Each brain was homogenised in 5 ml of buffer A; nuclear proteins were eluted in 1 ml of buffer C. Extracts were not dialyzed amounts of CBP or p300 precipitated from mutant and wild-type extracts (data not shown). We used equal

Schuler, Ben


The pH dependency of relative ion permeabilities in the crayfish giant axon.  


The dependence of the membrane potential on potassium, chloride, and sodium ions, was determined at the pH's of 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 for the resting and depolarized crayfish ventral nerve cord giant axon. In normal saline (external potassium = 5.4 mM), the dependence of the membrane potential on the external potassium ions decreased with lowered pH while that for chloride increased. In contrast, in the potassium depolarized axon (external potassium = 25 mM), the dependence of the membrane potential on external potassium was minimum around pH 7.5 and increased in either more acidic or basic pH. In addition, the dependence of the membrane potential on external chloride in the depolarized axon was maximum at pH 7.5 and decreased in either more acidic or basic pH. The sodium dependency of the membrane potential was small and relatively unaffected by pH or depolarization. The data are interpreted as indicating a reversible surface membrane protein-phospholipid conformation change which occurs in the transition from the resting to the depolarized axon. PMID:5791546

Strickholm, A; Wallin, B G; Shrager, P



The pH Dependency of Relative Ion Permeabilities in the Crayfish Giant Axon  

PubMed Central

The dependence of the membrane potential on potassium, chloride, and sodium ions, was determined at the pH's of 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 for the resting and depolarized crayfish ventral nerve cord giant axon. In normal saline (external potassium = 5.4 mM), the dependence of the membrane potential on the external potassium ions decreased with lowered pH while that for chloride increased. In contrast, in the potassium depolarized axon (external potassium = 25 mM), the dependence of the membrane potential on external potassium was minimum around pH 7.5 and increased in either more acidic or basic pH. In addition, the dependence of the membrane potential on external chloride in the depolarized axon was maximum at pH 7.5 and decreased in either more acidic or basic pH. The sodium dependency of the membrane potential was small and relatively unaffected by pH or depolarization. The data are interpreted as indicating a reversible surface membrane protein-phospholipid conformation change which occurs in the transition from the resting to the depolarized axon. PMID:5791546

Strickholm, Alfred; Wallin, B. Gunnar; Shrager, Peter



Laryngopharyngeal pH measurement  

PubMed Central

Methods: Cohorts of unconscious adult ED and elective surgical patients were recruited. The posterior pharyngeal wall pH was measured immediately before and after intubation. Pharyngeal pH was used to indicate risk of aspiration, and pH change to assess the efficacy of cricoid pressure. Results: Eight ED and 48 control patients were recruited. In the ED cohort, pH ranged from 6.0 to 8.0 before intubation and 4.7 to 8.0 after intubation: a mean decrease of 0.3 (95% CI 1.5 decrease to 0.9 increase). In the control cohort pH ranged from 5.8 to 8.0 before intubation and 6.0 to 8.0 after intubation: a mean increase of 0.4 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.6 increase). Conclusions: This is a simple, cheap, and repeatable technique for assessing aspiration risk in emergency intubations. A larger study is required to assess the efficacy of cricoid pressure. PMID:15208239

Spurrier, E; Clancy, M; Deakin, C



77 FR 75850 - Regulated Navigation Area; Upper Mississippi River MM 0.0 to MM 185.0; Cairo, IL to St. Louis, MO  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...waters of the Upper Mississippi River between miles...conditions on the Upper Mississippi River. Any deviation...COTP) (COTP Ohio Valley for MM 0.0 to MM 109.9 or COTP Upper Mississippi River for MM, type the docket number...



Experimental characteristics of a high-gain free-electron laser amplifier operating at 8-mm and 2-mm wavelengths  

SciTech Connect

The Electron Laser Facility (ELF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses a high-current induction linac (3.5 MeV, 1000 A), in conjunction with a pulsed electromagnetic wiggler (4.0 M, 4000 G), to operate a free electron laser (FEL) that produces intense radiation in the microwave regime (2 to 8 mm). ELF is a high-gain, single-pass amplifier, using a commercial microwave source as an oscillator input (200 W-50 kW). Previous experiments at 35 GHz produced exponential gains of 40 dB/m, peak powers exceeding 1 GW, and beam-to-rf conversion efficiencies of 34%. Recent experiments at 140 GHz have demonstrated exponential gains of 22 dB/m, peak powers exceeding 50 MW, and total gains of 65 dB. In this paper, we describe the experimental results at these two frequencies and compare then with the predictions of simulation codes.

Throop, A.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Anderson, B.R.; Chambers, F.W.; Clark, J.C.; Fawley, W.M.; Jong, R.A.; Halbach, K.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.



Stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) in glucose solutions at different concentrations and pH values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability at room temperature (25°C) of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv), expressed by Escherichia coli cells and isolated by three-phase partitioning extraction with hydrophobic interaction column, was studied. The GFPuv was\\u000a diluted in buffered (each 10 mM: Tris-HCl, pH 8.0; phosphate, pH 6.0 and 7.0 and acetate, pH 5.0) and in unbuffered (water for injection [WFI]; pH 6.70 ±

Thereza Christina Vessoni Penna; Marina Ishii; Juliana Sayuri Kunimura; Olivia Cholewa



Stability of Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (GFPuv) in Glucose Solutions at Different Concentrations and pH Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability at room temperature (25°C) of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv), expressed by Escherichia coli cells and isolated by three-phase partitioning extraction with hydrophobic interaction column, was studied. The GFPuv was\\u000a diluted in buffered (each 10 mM: Tris-HCl, pH 8.0; phosphate, pH 6.0 and 7.0 and acetate, pH 5.0) and in unbuffered (water\\u000a for injection [WFI]; pH 6.70 ±

THEREZA CHRISTINA VESSONI PENNAr; Marina Ishii; Juliana Sayuri Kunimura; Olivia Cholewa


Advances in process overlay on 300-mm wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay budgets are getting tighter within 300 mm volume production and as a consequence the process effects on alignment and off-line metrology becomes more important. In a short loop experiment, with cleared reference marks in each image field, the isolated effect of processing was measured with a sub-nanometer accuracy. The examined processes are Shallow Trench Isolation (STI), Tungsten-Chemical Mechanical Processing (W-CMP) and resist spinning. The alignment measurements were done on an ASML TWINSCANT scanner and the off-line metrology measurements on a KLA Tencor. Mark type and mark position dependency of the process effects are analyzed. The mean plus 3 (sigma) of the maximum overlay after correcting batch average wafer parameters is used as an overlay performance indicator (OPI). 3 (sigma) residuals to the wafer-model are used as an indicator of the noise that is added by the process. The results are in agreement with existing knowledge of process effects on 200 mm wafers. The W-CMP process introduces an additional wafer rotation and scaling that is similar for alignment marks and metrology targets. The effects depend on the mark type; in general they get less severe for higher spatial frequencies. For a 7th order alignment mark, the OPI measured about 12 nm and the added noise about 12 nm. For the examined metrology targets the OPI is about 20 nm with an added noise of about 90 nm. Two different types of alignment marks were tested in the STI process, i.e., zero layer marks and marks that were exposed together with the STI product. The overlay contribution due to processing on both types of alignment marks is very low (smaller than 5 nm OPI) and independent on mark type. Some flyers are observed fot the zero layer marks. The flyers can be explained by the residues of oxide and nitride that is left behind in the spaces of the alignment marks. Resist spinning is examined on single layer resist and resist with an organic Bottom Anti-Reflective Coating (BARC) underneath. Single layer resist showed scaling on unsegmented marks that disappears using higher diffraction orders and/or mark segmentation. Resist with a planarizing BARC caused additional effects on the wafer edge for measurements with the red laser signal. The effects disappear using the green laser of ATHENAT.

Staecker, Jens; Arendt, Stefanie; Schumacher, Karl; Mos, Evert C.; van Haren, Richard J. F.; van der Schaar, Maurits; Edart, Remi; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Tolsma, Hoite



pH Meter Calibration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into pH Meter Calibration, where visitors practice performing a three point calibration of a pH meter using buffer solutions.



Radka Stoyanova, PhD

Dr. Radka Stoyanova, PhD has extensive background in developing approaches to best utilize imaging techniques in cancer research, diagnosis and treatment, as well as in developing approaches for the analysis, mining, and interpretation of "big data" generated by high-throughput approaches such as genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. She received her Masters Degree in Mathematics from the University of Sofia, Bulgaria. Dr. Stoyanova obtained her doctoral training and PhD degree at the Imperial College London, under the mentorship of Profs.


PhET: Masses & Springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation provides a realistic virtual mass-and-spring laboratory. Users can explore spring motion by manipulating stiffness of the spring and mass of the hanging weight. Concepts of Hooke's Law and elastic potential energy are further clarified through charts showing kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring. This item is part of a larger collection of simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET). The simulations are animated, interactive, and game-like environments in which students learn through exploration. All of the sims are freely available from the PhET website for incorporation into classes.



results as the samples with small pH variations, thus indicating that the small variations in the effective net charge have no measurable influence on the cluster formation mechanism  

E-print Network

results as the samples with small pH variations, thus indicating that the small variations Information). We also checked the temperature dependence of the pH for a concentrated lysozyme solution by diluting the stock solution with buffer at pH 7.8. The samples with 50 mM NaCl were obtained by diluting

Zachos, James


Development of in situ CO2 and pH sensor for AUVs and ROVs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has been developing two-type autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs): a cruising AUV and a working AUV, since October 2010. These vehicles will perform carbon dioxide (CO2) and pH observations to explore hydrothermal plume on seabed mineral resources and to monitor a leak of CO2 in carbon capture and storage (CCS) up to depth of 3,000 meters. We here have been developing the compact in situ CO2 and pH sensor (Hybrid CO2-pH sensor: HCS) for the AUVs to obtain vertical and horizontal distributions of CO2 and pH. The HCS consists of an aluminum pressure housing (diameter 84 mm, length 570 mm, weight 4 kg) and an acrylic silicon-oil filled, pressure-compensated vessel (diameter 90 mm, length 355 mm, weight 2 kg) containing valves and pump unit. The HCS is also useful for the observation by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The measured data were transmitted to the AUVs or ROVs by serial communications. We can monitor the data of in situ pCO2, pH and so on in real time on board. The measurement principle for the CO2 sensor is based on spectrophotometry. The pCO2 is calculated from the optical absorbance of the pH indicator solution equilibrated with CO2 in seawater through a gas permeable membrane. On the other hand, we adopt potentiometric analysis using original glass and reference electrodes as a pH sensor because of the most commonly used technique for sea water pH measurements and high-speed response (within 20 seconds). From simultaneously measured data of in situ pCO2 and pH, we can also calculate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) as other carbonate species in the ocean. The resolutions of HCS are 1 ?atm for pCO2 and 0.001 pH. In the laboratory experiment, the HCS obtained precisions within 3 ?atm and within 0.01 pH, respectively. Our first in situ observational test of the HSC with cruising AUV was made in the coast of the Japan Sea last August. And also first in situ test of the HCS with ROV was performed at Okinawa Trough last September. The data obtained from each tests are consistent with predictions based on past studies.

Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Kimoto, Hideshi; Miwa, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hiroshi



[The dangerousness of revolvers cal 4 mm, long (author's transl)].  


Different models of revolvers (cal 4mm, long), which are obtainable without special permission in Germany, were examinated as to their dangerousness. Both measurements of the kinetic energy of the missiles and investigations on cadavers were performed. Firing of the weapon in its original state yielded kinetic energies of the missiles well below the legal limit of 7,5 Joule. However, even then, fatal injuries of lung and heart could be demonstrated (In one case the os temporale was penetrated). Alteration of the revolver by closing the gas pressure releasing channels with expoxy resin yielded an increase by 45% of the kinetic energy of the missiles. If, in addition, the propelling charge of the ammunition was augmented with some more gun powder the kinetic energy of the missiles rose by 220 %, while such altered ammunition alone caused an increase of 75 %. In every case fatal injuries on head and thorax could be produced. Based on the results of this investigation proposals to amend the existing laws were made. PMID:961067

Tausch, D; Sattler, W; Wehrfritz, K; Wehrfritz, G; Wagner H-J



MEMS Fabricated MM-Wave Slow Wave Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the fabrication and test of a MEMS slow wave structure designed for a > 40 GHz bandwidth centered on 220 GHz operation, that slows radiation down to group velocity of 8.16 x 10^7 ms-1 where the velocity matches the speed of electrons from a 20 keV source. The slow wave device uses a 40 mm long staggered interdigitated vane structure within a waveguide [1]. Ultimately, such a device will be integrated with an electron beam to become part of a sheet beam travelling wave tube (SBTWT) amplifier. A gold coated deep reactive ion etched (DRIE) silicon test structure was fabricated to test the RF properties of the design. This MEMS structure was coupled to WR-4 waveguide in a metal fixture and the S-parameters measured using a vector network analyzer, allowing extraction of the insertion loss and signal delay as a function of frequency. A further MEMS structure with just 10 cells of the vane structure within a cavity were fabricated which allows points on the dispersion curve to be directly measured as resonances of the structure. Extraction of the dispersion curve verifies the group velocity measurement of the device. [4pt] [1] Y-M. Shin & L.R. Barnett, Appl.Phys. Lett. 2008, 92 pp. 091501.

Field, Mark; Borwick, Robert; Shin, Young-Min; Barnett, Larry; Luhmann, Neville; Kimura, Takuji; Atkinson, John



The LMT Galaxies' 3 mm Spectroscopic Survey: First Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular phase of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies offers fundamental insight for understanding star-formation processes and how stellar feedback affects the nuclear activity of certain galaxies. We present here Large Millimeter Telescope spectra obtained with the Redshift Search Receiver, a spectrograph that covers simultaneously the 3 mm band from 74 to 111 GHz with a spectral resolution of around 100 km/s. Our selected galaxies, have been detected previously in HCN, and have different degrees of nuclear activity — one normal galaxy (NGC 6946), the starburst prototype (M82) and two %ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, IRAS 17208-0014 and Mrk 231). We plotted our data in the HCO+/HCN vs. HCN/13CO diagnostic diagram finding that NGC 6946 and M82 are located close to other normal galaxies; and that both IRAS 17208-0014 and Mrk 231 are close to the position of the well known ULIRG Arp 220 reported by Snell et al. (2011). We found that in Mrk 231 – a galaxy with a well known active galactic nucleus – the HCO+/HCN ratio is similar to the ratio observed in normal galaxies.

Rosa González, D.; Schloerb, P.; Vega, O.; Hunt, L.; Narayanan, G.; Calzetti, D.; Yun, M.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Mayya, Y. D.; Chávez, M.; Montaña, A.; Pérez García, A. M.



ALMA reveals VYCMa's sub-mm maser and dust distribution  

E-print Network

Cool, evolved stars have copious, enriched winds. The structure of these winds and the way they are accelerated is not well known. We need to improve our understanding by studying the dynamics from the pulsating stellar surface to about 10 stellar radii, where radiation pressure on dust is fully effective. Some red supergiants have highly asymmetric nebulae, implicating additional forces. We retrieved ALMA Science Verification data providing images of sub-mm line and continuum emission from VY CMa. This enables us to locate water masers with milli-arcsec precision and resolve the dusty continuum. The 658-, 321- and 325-GHz masers lie in irregular, thick shells at increasing distances from the centre of expansion. For the first time this is confirmed as the stellar position, coinciding with a compact peak offset to the NW of the brightest continuum emission. The maser shells (and dust formation zone) overlap but avoid each other on tens-au scales. Their distribution is broadly consistent with excitation models...

Richards, A M S; Humphreys, E M; Vlahakis, C; Vlemmings, W; Baudry, A; De Beck, E; Decin, L; Etoka, S; Gray, M D; Harper, G M; Hunter, T R; Kervella, P; Kerschbaum, F; McDonald, I; Melnick, G; Muller, S; Neufeld, D; O'Gorman, E; Parfenov, S Yu; Peck, A B; Shinnaga, H; Sobolev, A M; Testi, L; Uscanga, L; Wootten, A; Yates, J A; Zijlstra, A



Keiji TANAKA, Ph.D. Hitoshi OKAMOTO, M.D., Ph.D.  

E-print Network

Keiji TANAKA, Ph.D. Hitoshi OKAMOTO, M.D., Ph.D. Atsushi MIYAWAKI, M.D., Ph.D. Tadaharu TSUMOTO, M.D., Ph.D. Shin OHKOUCHI Masao ITO, M.D., Ph.D. Shun-ichi AMARI, D.Eng. Susumu TONEGAWA, Ph.D Committee Senior Advisor Charles YOKOYAMA, Ph.D. Neural Circuit Function Developmental Gene Regulation

Kazama, Hokto


Divergent regulation of aflatoxin production at acidic pH by two Aspergillus strains  

E-print Network

with 50 mM sodium citrate at either pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 or 5.5. Aflatoxin yields, dry weights of mycelia calculations were performed using Fisher's protected LSD test in the program Statistica version 4.5 (Statsoft

Cotty, Peter J.


Paper Offer #: 031CES-216 PlanarArray REDOX Cells and pH Sensors  

E-print Network

of the metabolic- surrogate, PMS (phenazine-methosulphate).Finally, four types of pH sensors were fabricated produced by biofilms to better understand their life-cycle activities. In pursuing these goals a number are shown in Fig. 1. The sensors are fabricated on a 1.25-mm thick An overview of the E-Tongue 3 apparatus

Kounaves, Samuel P.


Karl Krueger, PhD

Dr. Karl Krueger received a PhD in biochemistry from Vanderbilt University and continued his research training at NIH as a postdoctoral fellow before joining the faculty at Georgetown University School of Medicine. His research throughout this period focused on different aspects of drug receptors and their role in the nervous system.


Making pH Tangible.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a laboratory exercise in which students test the pH of different substances, study the effect of a buffer on acidic solutions by comparing the behavior of buffered and unbuffered solutions upon the addition of acid, and compare common over-the-counter antacid remedies. (MKR)

McIntosh, Elizabeth; Moss, Robert



Determination of preservatives in food products by cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis with multiwavelength detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance capillary electrophoretic method with multiwavelength detection was developed to analyze frequently used preservatives. The effects of ?-cyclodextrin and ?-cyclodextrin on migration behaviours of nine preservatives were investigated. The preservatives were successfully separated within 9 min using a borax-NaOH buffer (pH 10.0) modified with 2 mM ?-cyclodextrin. In optimized separation conditions, the reproducibilities of the migration times of the

Kuang-Lung Kuo; You-Zung Hsieh



Influence of five neutralizing products on intra-oral pH after rinsing with simulated gastric acid.  


The aetiology of dental erosion may be of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. The aim of the present study was to test the ability of various neutralizing products to raise the low intra-oral pH after an erosive exposure, in this case to gastric acid, which was simulated using hydrochloric acid (HCl). Eleven adults participated. They rinsed with 10 ml of 10 mM HCl (pH 2) or 10 ml of 100 mM HCl (pH 1) for 1 min, after which the pH was measured intra-orally for up to 30 min at four sites (two approximal, one buccal, and the dorsum of the tongue). After rinsing with the two acid solutions (pH 1 and pH 2), the following products were used: (i) antacid tablet; (ii) gum arabic lozenge; (iii) mineral water; (iv) milk; and (v) tap water (positive control). The negative control was no product use. The five test products were used for 2 min after the erosive challenge. All the products produced an initially higher pH compared with the negative control. The antacid tablet resulted in the greatest and most rapid increase in pH, followed by the lozenge. In dental practice, the use of any of the neutralizing products tested, especially the antacid tablet, could be recommended in order to increase the intra-oral pH after an erosive challenge. PMID:21726291

Lindquist, Birgitta; Lingström, Peter; Fändriks, Lars; Birkhed, Dowen



Cem Kaner, Ph.D., J.D. Pat Bond, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

Cem Kaner, Ph.D., J.D. Professor Director Pat Bond, Ph.D. Associate Professor Scott Tilley, Ph.D. Associate Professor Mike Andrews, Ph.D. Assistant Professor James Whittaker, Ph.D. Professor MISSION Create is active investigation of a product by an outsider who is more focused on the acceptability of the product


Online preconcentration of arsenic compounds by dynamic pH junction-capillary electrophoresis.  


An online preconcentration technique by dynamic pH junction was studied to improve the detection limit for anionic arsenic compounds by CE. The main target compound is roxarsone, or 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, which is being used as an animal feed additive. The other inorganic and organoarsenic compounds studied are the possible biotransformation products of roxarsone. The arsenic species were separated by a dynamic pH junction in a fused-silica capillary using 15 mM phosphate buffer (pH 10.6) as the BGE and 15 mM acetic acid as the sample matrix. CE with UV detection was monitored at a wavelength of 192 nm. The influence of buffer pH and concentration on dynamic pH junction were investigated. The arsenic species focusing resulted in LOD improvement by a factor of 100-800. The combined use of C18 and anion exchange SPE and dynamic pH junction to CE analysis of chicken litter and soils helps to increase the detection sensitivity. Recoveries of spiked samples ranged between 70 and 72%. PMID:17396598

Jaafar, Jafariah; Irwan, Zildawarni; Ahamad, Rahmalan; Terabe, Shigeru; Ikegami, Tohru; Tanaka, Nobuo



Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque  

SciTech Connect

The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with {sup 125}I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained.

Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics and IFIC, University of Valencia-CSIC, Dr. Moliner 50, E46100 Burjassot (Spain); Medical Physics Section, University Hospital, Av. Ramon y Cajal 3, E47011 Valladolid (Spain)



PhET Simulation: Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation provides a highly visual, intuitive way for students to explore how density is related to an object's mass and volume. Using a virtual water tank, users drop various objects to see what floats and what sinks. Use the mouse to submerge the object and see how much fluid it displaces. A scale is provided to measure the mass of the objects, with a density table available for view. Students can easily see why the density formula works, especially when they identify the "mystery" objects. Editor's Note: Scroll down on the page for exemplary lesson plans for grades 6-12 developed by the PhET project specifically to accompany the "Density" simulation. This item is part of a larger collection of simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET).



Effect of pH on characteristics of low-moisture Mozzarella cheese during refrigerated storage.  


This study evaluated the effect of cheese pH on proteolysis, calcium distribution, and functional characteristics of Mozzarella cheese. On 4 occasions, cultured low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella cheeses were obtained from a commercial producer on the day after manufacture. Cheese blocks were randomly assigned to 2 groups. One group was shredded, subdivided, and exposed to either ammonia vapor to increase the pH or HCl vapor to decrease the pH. Samples were vacuum packaged, stored at 4 degrees C, and analyzed for pH 4.6 and 12% TCA soluble nitrogen, apparent viscosity, free oil, and water-soluble calcium on days 5, 12, 22, and 40. The 2nd group was sectioned into 23-mm thick slabs and similarly exposed to either ammonia vapor to increase the pH or HCl vapor to decrease the pH. The slabs were vacuum packaged, stored at 4 degrees C, and analyzed for pH 4.6 and 12% TCA soluble nitrogen, TPA hardness, springiness and cohesiveness, and meltability on days 17, 29, and 41. Data were analyzed by ANOVA according to a spilt-plot design. Experimentally induced pH differences persisted and significantly affected TPA hardness, apparent viscosity, meltability, and water-soluble calcium throughout 40 d of storage, but did not affect soluble nitrogen changes. Thus, cheese pH affected functional characteristics and calcium distribution but did not affect proteolysis rates. Higher cheese pH resulted in a harder cheese that required longer aging to develop desirable melting characteristics, whereas cheese with lower pH developed desirable melting characteristics more quickly but had a shorter functional shelf life. PMID:19021819

Cortez, M A S; Furtado, M M; Gigante, M L; Kindstedt, P S



The pH of antiseptic cleansers  

PubMed Central

Background Daily bathing with antiseptic cleansers are proposed by some physicians as an adjunctive management of atopic dermatitis (AD). As atopic skin is sensitive, selection of cleansing products becomes a topic of concern. Objective Our purpose is to evaluate the pH of various antiseptic body cleansers to give an overview for recommendation to patients with AD. Methods Commonly bar and liquid cleansers consisted of antiseptic agents were measured for pH using pH meter and pH-indicator strips. For comparison, mild cleansers and general body cleansers were also measured. Results All cleansing bars had pH 9.8-11.3 except syndet bar that had neutral pH. For liquid cleansers, three cleansing agents had pH close to pH of normal skin, one of antiseptic cleansers, one of mild cleansers and another one of general cleansers. The rest of antiseptic cleansers had pH 8.9-9.6 while mild cleansers had pH 6.9-7.5. Syndet liquid had pH 7 and general liquid cleansers had pH 9.6. Conclusion The pH of cleanser depends on composition of that cleanser. Adding antiseptic agents are not the only factor determining variation of pH. Moreover, benefit of antiseptic properties should be considered especially in cases of infected skin lesions in the selection of proper cleansers for patients with AD. PMID:24527408

Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Varothai, Supenya; Nuchkull, Piyavadee



Comparison of Surgically-induced Astigmatism after Combined Phacoemulsification and 23-Gauge Vitrectomy: 2.2-mm vs. 2.75-mm Cataract Surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose The 2.2-mm microincision cataract surgery and small-gauge vitrectomy system is known to result in less surgically-induced astigmatism (SIA) in comparison to conventional surgical methods. We compared the amounts of SIA after combined phacoemulsification and 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (23G-TSV) using the 2.2-mm microincision and 2.75-mm standard incision methods. Methods We studied 59 patients (61 eyes) who underwent combined phacoemulsification and 23G-TSV from November 2008 to September 2012. Twenty-eight patients (28 eyes) underwent 2.2-mm microincision coaxial phacoemulsification, and 31 patients (33 eyes) underwent 2.75-mm standard incision phacoemulsification. SIA was evaluated using Naeser's polar method with the simulated keratometric values obtained from corneal topography. Preoperative and 1-week and 1-month postoperative KP (Naeser's polar value along the specific axis) and ?KP values were compared between the 2.2-mm microincision and 2.75-mm standard incision groups. Results One week after surgery, both groups exhibited similar amounts of SIA (-?KP[120], 0.40 ± 0.41 vs. 0.51 ± 0.56 diopters [D]; p = 0.390). One month after surgery, however, the amount of SIA was significantly smaller in the 2.2-mm microincision group as compared to the 2.75-mm standard incision group (-?KP[120], 0.31 ± 0.54 vs. 0.56 ± 0.42 D; p = 0.045). Conclusions In combined phacoemulsification with 23G-TSV, 2.2-mm microincision coaxial phacoemulsification induces less SIA than does 2.75-mm standard coaxial phacoemulsification. PMID:24688255

Kim, Yong-Kyu; Kim, Yong Woo; Park, Kyu Hyung



Rabring7 Degrades c-Myc through Complex Formation with MM-1  

PubMed Central

We have reported that a novel c-Myc-binding protein, MM-1, repressed E-box-dependent transcription and transforming activities of c-Myc and that a mutation of A157R in MM-1, which is often observed in patients with leukemia or lymphoma, abrogated all of the repressive activities of MM-1 toward c-Myc, indicating that MM-1 is a novel tumor suppressor. MM-1 also binds to the ubiquitin-proteasome system, leading to degradation of c-Myc. In this study, we identified Rabring7, a Rab7-binding and RING finger-containing protein, as an MM-1-binding protein, and we found that Rabring7 mono-ubiquitinated MM-1 in the cytoplasm without degradation of MM-1. Rabring7 was also found to bind to c-Myc and to ubiquitinate c-Myc in a threonine 58-dependent manner. When c-Myc was co-transfected with MM-1 and Rabring7, c-Myc was degraded. Furthermore, it was found that c-Myc was stabilized in MM-1-knockdown cells even when Rabring7 was transfected and that Rabring7 was bound to and co-localized with MM-1 and c-Myc after MM-1 and Rabring7 had been translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. These results suggest that Rabring7 stimulates c-Myc degradation via mono-ubiquitination of MM-1. PMID:22844532

Torii, Ayako; Tashiro, Erika; Miyazawa, Makoto; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.



Gastric pH and motility in a porcine model of acute lung injury using a wireless motility capsule  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Evaluation of gastric pH and motility in a porcine model of acute lung injury using a novel, wireless motility capsule. Material/Methods A motility capsule was applied into the stomach of 7 Pietrain pigs with acute lung injury induced by high volume saline lavage. Wireless transmission of pH, pressure and temperature data was performed by a recorder attached to the animal’s abdomen. Gastric motility was evaluated using pH and pressure values, and capsule location was confirmed by autopsy. Results Gastric pH values were statistically significantly different (P<0.003) in the animals over time and ranged from 1.15 to 9.94 [5.73±0.47 (mean ±SD)] with an interquartile range of 0.11 to 2.07. The capsule pressure recordings ranged from 2 to 4 mmHg [2.6±0.5 mmHg (mean ±SD)]. There was no change in pressure patterns or sudden rise of pH >3 pH units during 24 hours. All animals had a gastroparesis with the capsules located in the stomach as indicated by the pressure and pH data and confirmed by necropsy. Conclusions The preliminary data show that Pietrain pigs with acute lung injury have a high variability in gastric pH and severely disturbed gastric motility. PMID:21709625

Rauch, Stefan; Muellenbach, Ralf M.; Johannes, Amelie; Zollhofer, Bernd; Roewer, Norbert



pH Wave-Front Propagation in the Urea-Urease Reaction  

PubMed Central

The urease-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea displays feedback that results in a switch from acid (pH ?3) to base (pH ?9) after a controllable period of time (from 10 to >5000 s). Here we show that the spatially distributed reaction can support pH wave fronts propagating with a speed of the order of 0.1?1 mm min?1. The experimental results were reproduced qualitatively in reaction-diffusion simulations including a Michaelis-Menten expression for the urease reaction with a bell-shaped rate-pH dependence. However, this model fails to predict that at lower enzyme concentrations, the unstirred reaction does not always support fronts when the well-stirred reaction still rapidly switches to high pH. PMID:22947878

Wrobel, Magdalena M.; Bansagi, Tamas; Scott, Stephen K.; Taylor, Annette F.; Bounds, Chris O.; Carranza, Arturo; Pojman, John A.



77 FR 76408 - Safety Zone, Upper Mississippi River MM 35.0 to MM 55.0; Thebes, IL and Cape Girardeau, MO, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Zone, Upper Mississippi River MM 35.0 to MM...waters of the Upper Mississippi River, extending the...pinnacles from the Upper Mississippi River. Removal of the...Captain of the Port Ohio Valley or a designated, type the docket number...



Draft Genomes of Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Strain MM66 and MM66 Derivatives with Altered Vancomycin Resistance Levels  

PubMed Central

The draft genomes of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) strain MM66 and MM66 isolates demonstrating altered vancomycin resistance levels were produced in an effort to provide information on mutations contributing to the vancomycin resistance levels observed in these strains. PMID:25013145

Matyi, Stephanie A.; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Sundararajan, Anitha; Lindquist, Ingrid E.; Devitt, Nicolas P.; Schilkey, Faye D.; Lamichhane-Khadka, Reena; Hoyt, Peter R.; Mudge, Joann



Feasibility of converting hi-speed processor for processing Kodak film types 7381/7271 (16mm) and 5381/5271 (35mm) using Kodak ECP chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing conducted to determine the feasibility of converting the 16/35/70 hi-speed processor to process Kodak film types 7381/7271 (16mm) and 5381/5271 (35mm) color negative films using Kodak ECP chemistry is described.

Weinstein, M. S.



Administration Noma Bennett Anderson, PhD  

E-print Network

D Department of Occupational Therapy Chair (Interim) Ann Nolen, PsyD Vice Chair Lawrence Faulkner, PhAdministration Dean Noma Bennett Anderson, PhD Assistant Deans Faculty and Academic Affairs RebeccaD Department of Physical Therapy Chair and Program Director CarolCountLikens,PT,PhD,MBA Department of Physician

Cui, Yan


Ph.D. Assessment Form Student Name  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Assessment Form Student Name: Major Advisor: Date: Outcome 1: Graduates will be able to successfully design and conduct original research in their specialty areas. Criterion: Ph.D. candidates related disciplinary areas. Criterion: Ph.D. students will pass their initial preliminary examination


Roland Badeau, Ph.D. French Nationality  

E-print Network

;Scientific production · Habilitation and Ph.D. Theses · 19 peer reviewed journal papers · 50 peer reviewedRoland Badeau, Ph.D. French Nationality Born August 28, 1976 in Marseille, France Associate-negative decompositions with application to music signal processing". 2001-2005 : Ph.D. degree from the �cole Nationale

Badeau, Roland


Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH…

Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily



0.030" Alum T Wire 140 mm Length of No. 12 Wire  

E-print Network

of T Wire 122mm Long; Form and Solder to N-Connector ~"--I Centerline of Driven Element to Rear Face of N-Connector Brocket Balun: Make from UT-141 Copper-Shielded Coax 340mm All Elements 3/16" Diam 6061 -T6 Solder Lug Front Boom Section 7/8"OD x D.049" Wall 6061- T6 Tubing 1530 mm (60-1/4'') Long L~412 mm I.. (55

Allen, Gale


High field performance tests for Bi2212 magnets with 30 mm bore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of compact superconducting magnet with 30mm inner bore have been fabricated in a wind and react process by using Bi-2212\\/Ag multifilamentary tapes. One is a double pancake type coil of 78mm outer diameter and 11mm height. The other is composed of three double pancake coils of 88mm outer diameter. As for a reinforcement against large magnetoelectric force, the

H Kitaguchi; H Kumakura; K Togano; M Okada; K Tanaka; J Sato



Total Knee Arthroplasty With 4.4 mm of Tibial Polyethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hundred eighty-seven one-piece, 8-mm tibial components were implanted in 313 patients. All tibial prostheses were manufactured with 4.4 mm of polyethylene. From this group, 116 patients underwent simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty with an 8-mm tibial component on one side and a tibial component with at least 6.4 mm of polyethylene on the other side. Follow-up averaged 11.8 years.

John B. Meding; Jennifer T. Wing; Merrill A. Ritter



Draft, 07 Sep 2010 The Science Case for the GBT 4mm Receiver  

E-print Network

all telescopes operating at 3 mm, ALMA band-3 (84­116 GHz) will only cover the high frequency end fronts. ALMA currently lacks "band-2" (67­90 GHz) receivers. The early science results from the 4 mm a traditional dual- beam feed-horn receiver which operates at the lower frequency end of the 3- 4 mm atmospheric

Groppi, Christopher


Spontaneous luminal disequilibrium pH in S3 proximal tubules. Role in ammonia and bicarbonate transport.  

PubMed Central

We determined whether a spontaneous luminal disequilibrium pH, pHdq (pH measured - pH equilibrium), was present in isolated perfused rabbit S2 and S3 proximal tubules. Luminal pH was measured by perfusing with the fluorescent pH probe 1,4-DHPN, and the equilibrium pH was calculated from the measured collected total CO2 and dissolved CO2 concentrations. S2 tubules failed to generate a spontaneous pHdq. S3 tubules generated a spontaneous acidic pHdq of -0.46 +/- 0.15 (P less than 0.05), which was obliterated following the addition of carbonic anhydrase (0.1 mg/ml) to the perfusate. In S3 tubules perfused and bathed in 4 mM total ammonia, luminal total ammonia rose from 4.08 +/- 0.05 mM (perfusate) to 4.95 +/- 0.20 mM (collected fluid) (P less than 0.02). Carbonic anhydrase added to the perfusate prevented the rise in the collected total ammonia concentration. We conclude that the rabbit S3 proximal tubule lacks functional luminal carbonic anhydrase. The acidic pHdq in the S3 segment enhances the diffusion of NH3 into the lumen. In contrast, the S2 segment has functional luminal carbonic anhydrase. Images PMID:3760195

Kurtz, I; Star, R; Balaban, R S; Garvin, J L; Knepper, M A



PhD in Sustainable Development PhD in Sustainable Development  

E-print Network

PhD in Sustainable Development PhD in Sustainable Development 2013-2014 Handbook John Colin Mutter Director of Graduate Studies 212-854-0716 #12;2 PhD in Sustainable................................................................................................ 39 #12;3 PhD in Sustainable Development I. About the Program The sustainability of development

Qian, Ning


Agilent HP5 19091J-413 30mx0.32mm(0.25um)  

E-print Network

Agilent HP5 19091J-413 30mx0.32mm(0.25um) HP1 19091Z-413E 30mx0.32mm(0.25um) CYCLODEX-B 112-2532 30mx0.25mm(0.25um) VF-WAXms CP9206 30mx0.25mm(1.0um) DB-624 128-1324 25mx0.20mm(1.12um) HP-PLOT-Q 19091P-Q04 30mx0.32mm(20um) DB5-MS Ultra Inert 122-5532UI 30mx0.25mm(0.25um) DB5-MS Ultra Inert 122

Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto


Short communication The effect of pH on gel structures produced using proteinepolysaccharide phase  

E-print Network

; 5%, w/v, 100 mM NaCl) by pH change (5.5, 6.0, and 6.5), and addition of k-carrageenan (0e0.3%, w/ w-phase separated at pH 5.5. Addition of 0.075% k-carrageenan to WPI solutions caused the microstructure of the gel to inversion of the continuous network from protein to k-carrageenan. Protein solutions containing 0.075% (w

Khan, Saad A.


Comparison of compact gamma cameras with 1.3 mm and 2.0 mm quantized elements for dedicated emission mammotomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to image smaller breast lesions, two compact gamma cameras with different intrinsic NaI(Tl) pixel sizes are evaluated for use in the application specific emission tomography system for mammotomographic emission imaging. Comparison measurements were made with two scintillator arrays with 1.3×1.3×6mm3 or 2.0×2.0×6mm3 elements on exactly the same set of PMTs, electronics and control\\/processing hardware. Uniformity, sensitivity and

Martin P. Tornai; Caryl N. Archer; M. L. Bradshaw; James E. Bowsher; Bradley E. Patt; Jan S. Iwanczyk; Joshua Li; Lawrence R. MacDonald



Development and application of specially-focused ultrasonic transducers to location and sizing of defects in 75 mm- to 127 mm-thick austenitic stainless steel weld metals  

SciTech Connect

Special UT transducer parts, capable of focusing incident signals within a 25 mm {times} 25 mm {times} 25 mm volume in an austenitic stainless weld metal at depths that varied from 25 mm to 127 mm, were developed and demonstrated to be capable of detecting a defect with cross section equivalent to that of a 4.76 mm-dia flat-bottom hole. Defect length sizing could be accomplished to {plus_minus}50% for 100% of the time and to {plus_minus}25% on selected defect types as follows: porosity groups, 100%; cracks, 67%; combined slag and porosity, 60%; and linear slag indications, 59%. Extensive linear elastic-fracture-mechanics analyses were performed to establish allowable defect sizes at functions of stress, based on a cyclic-life criterion of 10{sup 3} full power cycles of the MFTF-B magnet system. These defect sizes were used to determine which UT indicating were to be removed and repaired and which were to be retained and their recorded sizes and locations.

Dalder, E.N.C.; Benson, S.; McKinley, B.J.; Carodiskey, T.



PhET Simulation: Sound  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive simulation allows users to analyze the properties of sound waves. Frequency and amplitude can be controlled, and users can enable audio tones to explore how pitch is related to frequency. Other options allow users to experiment with constructive and destructive interference by moving positions of speakers and listeners. Tools are also provided to measure wavelengths of various frequencies. Experimenting with interference from a wall and exploring sound in environments without air pressure are also possible. This simulation is part of a large and growing collection developed by the Physics Educational Technology Project using research-based principles. See the Related Materials below for a link to clicker questions and tutorials designed specifically for this simulation by the PhET team.



Ovalbumin-gum arabic interactions: effect of pH, temperature, salt, biopolymers ratio and total concentration.  


The formation of soluble and insoluble complexes between ovalbumin (OVA) and gum arabic (GA) polysaccharide was investigated under specific conditions (pH 1.0-7.0; temperature 4-55 °C; NaCl concentration 0-60mM; total biopolymer concentration 0.05-3.0 wt%) by turbidimetric analysis. For the 2:1 OVA:GA ratio and in the absence of NaCl, soluble and insoluble complexes were observed at pH 4.61 (pH?1) and 4.18 (pH?2), respectively, with optimal biopolymer interactions occurring at pH 3.79 (pHopt). Under the same conditions, OVA alone gave only a weak turbidity intensity (turbidity <0.03), whereas GA had none. As the temperature increased, critical pH values shifted toward lower pH, and the maximum turbidity value occurred at 25 °C. The region between pH?1 and pH?2 was narrowed and the electrostatic interactions became weaker with increasing NaCl concentration. The maximum turbidity value increased as the total biopolymer concentration increased until reaching a critical value (2.0%), afterwards becoming a constant value. PMID:24149009

Niu, Fuge; Su, Yujie; Liu, Yuntao; Wang, Guanchao; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Yanjun



Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH  


... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video Families Patients Newly Diagnosed Request an Envelope ... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video Help spread PH awareness and share PH ...


In Vivo Model to Test Implanted Biosensors for Blood pH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biosensors for monitoring physiologic data continuously through telemetry are available for heart rate, respiration, and temperature but not for blood pH or ions affected by hydrogen ion concentration. A telemetric biosensor for monitoring blood pH on-line could be used to identify and manage problems in fluid and electrolyte metabolism, cardiac and respiratory function during space flight and the acid-base status of patients without the need for venipuncture in patients on Earth. Critical to the development of biosensors is a method for evaluating their performance after implantation. Mature rats, prepared with jugular, cannulas for repeated blood samples, were exposed to a gas mixture containing high levels of carbon dioxide (7%) in a closed environment to induce mild respiratory acidosis. Serial blood gas and pH measurements in venous blood were compared with electrical responses from sensors implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals became slightly tachypneic after exposure to excess CO2, but remained alert and active. After 5 minutes, basal blood pH decreased from 7.404 +/- 0.013 to 7.289 +/- 0.010 (p less than 0.001)and PC02 increased from 45 +/- 6 to 65 +/- 4 mm. Hg (p les than 0.001). Thereafter pH and blood gas parameters remained stable. Implanted sensors showed a decrease in millivolts (mV) which paralleled the change in pH and averaged 5-6 mV per 0.1 unit pH. Implanted sensors remained sensitive to modest changes in tissue pH for one week. A system for inducing acidosis in rats was developed to test the in vivo performance of pH biosensors. The system provides a method which is sensitive, rapid and reproducible in the same and different animals with full recovery, for testing the performance of sensors implanted in subcutaneous tissues.

Arnaud, Sara B.; Somps, Chris J.; Madou, Marc; Hines, John; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)



Effects of pH indicators on various activities of chromatophroes of Rhodospirillum rubrum.  


1. The effects of pH indicators on activities for ATP hydrolysis in the dark and ATP-Pi exchange in the dark were examined with chromatophores from Rhodospirillum rubrum. Of thirty-one pH indicators tested, eleven (metanil yellow, 2, 4-dinitrophenol, ethyl orange, bromocresol green, resazurin, neutral red, bromthymol blue, alpha-naphtholphthalein, o-cresolphthalein, phenolphthalein, and alizarin yellow G) almost completely inhibited the activities for ATP formation and ATP-Pi exchange at concentrations of 1 mM, and were studied in detail. 2. Of the eleven pH indicators, those other than alpha-naptholphthalein, o-cresolphthalein and phenolphthalein, when assayed at appropriate concentrations, inhibited ATP-Pi exchange, but not ATP hydrolysis. In ATP-Pi exchange, these eight pH indicators at the concentrations described above were competitive against Pi, and non-competitive against ATP. The remaining three kinds of pH indicators were non-competitive against either Pi or ATP, when assayed at concentrations of the dyes that inhibited both activities. 3. The amounts of pH indicators bound with chromatophores were measured. No correlation was found between the amounts of the bound dyes and the extents of their inhibition of either ATP formation or ATP-Pi exchange. 4. Ethyl orange (pKa=4.1) and 2, 4-dinitrophenol (pKa=3.9) stimulated ATP hydrolysis to the greatest extent. The latter dye was hardly bound with chromatophores. 5. The stimulatory effects of pH indicators on ATP hydrolysis were hardly affected by extraction of quinones from chromatophores. 6. Most of the pH indicators stimulated both succinate-cytochrome c2 and NADH-cytochrome c2 reductions in the dark. 7. The mechanism of uncoupling of the electron transfer system and the phosphorylation system by pH indicators and the mechanism of the coupling are discussed. PMID:5425

Hosoi, K; Soe, G; Kakuno, T; Horio, T



Dynamic pH junction-sweeping capillary electrophoresis for online preconcentration of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Chinese herbal medicine.  


There is a need to develop simple yet effective preconcentration methods to enhance concentration sensitivity for CE analysis of trace level analytes in real samples, particularly when commonly available but less sensitive detection methods, e.g., UV detection, are used. In this report, a hyphenated online preconcentration strategy combining dynamic pH junction with sweeping (i.e., dynamic pH junction-sweeping) was employed for the analysis of four toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) of senkirkine, senecionine, retrorsine, and seneciphylline in Chinese herbal medicine (Kuan donghua). Direct electrokinetically focusing of a large sample volume injection (up to 20% of capillary length) on the capillary was performed using the dynamic pH junction-sweeping method. A sample matrix consisting of 10 mM phosphate with 20% methanol at pH 4.0 and a BGE containing 20 mM borate, 30 mM SDS, and 20% methanol at pH 9.1 were utilized to realize dynamic pH junction-sweeping for PAs. This online preconcentration strategy resulted in sensitivity enhancement factors ranging from 23.8- to 90.0-fold for the four toxic PAs, giving an LOD as low as 30 ppb for the PAs. Critical factors such as sample matrix type, pH, and salt concentration were also examined to achieve higher sensitivity enhancement, shorter analysis time, and better resolution. The results indicate that the proposed dynamic pH junction-sweeping technique is a powerful alternative approach for identification and determination of trace levels of these toxic PAs and other hydrophobic, protonatable compounds in real samples. PMID:16240296

Yu, Lijun; Li, Sam Fong Yau



Mid-term results of 17-mm St. Jude Medical Regent prosthetic valves in elder patients with small aortic annuli: comparison with 19-mm bioprosthetic valves.  


This study was designed to compare the mid-term outcomes after aortic valve replacement (AVR) between 17-mm mechanical heart valves (MV) and 19-mm bioprosthetic valves (BV) in elderly patients with small aortic annuli. Between 2000 and 2011, 127 consecutive patients (mean age 79 years; 87 % female) underwent AVR for aortic valve stenosis with a small aortic annulus. 19-mm BV (n = 67) was implanted. When the 19-mm BV did not fit the annulus, 17-mm St. Jude Medical Regent prosthetic mechanical valve (n = 60) was used instead of an aortic root-enlargement procedure. The follow-up rate was 94.0 % in the BV group, and 98.5 % in the MV group. No significant differences in survival rate and valve-related complications were found between the 2 groups. In-hospital mortality rates were 1.5 % (n = 1) in the BV group and 5.0 % (n = 3) in the MV group. Late mortality rates were 3.9 % per patient-years (p-y; n = 8) in the BV group, and 6.0 % per p-y (n = 10) in the MV group. Five-year Kaplan-Meier survival rates were 62 % in the BV group, and 72 % in the MV group (log-rank P = 0.280). Freedom from major adverse valve-related stroke and cerebral bleeding events was 92.5 and 98.5 % in the BV group, and 94.7 and 100 % in the MV group. AVR using 17-mm MV in elder patients with small aortic annuli provided equivalent mid-term clinical results to that with 19-mm BV. PMID:24878870

Teshima, Hideki; Ikebuchi, Masahiko; Sano, Toshikazu; Tai, Ryuta; Horio, Naohiro; Irie, Hiroyuki



Evaluating the 300 mm wafer-handling task in semiconductor industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semiconductor industry is moving from the production of 200mm wafers to 300mm wafers. With the increase in wafer size, the workload of wafer handling tasks is also increasing. This study evaluated the operator's handling capability, and the risk of having musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) for handling 300mm wafers. Twenty-four female operators from a semiconductor manufacturing company participated in the experiment.

Mao-Jiun J. Wang; Hsiu-Chen Chung; Hsin-Chieh Wu



Growth and characterization of 200 mm SI GaAs crystals grown by the VGF method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been demonstrated that 200 mm diameter semi-insulating (SI) GaAs single crystals can be grown by an upscaled proprietary VGF method successfully used for commercial crystal growth up to 150 mm in the past. First results of structural and electrical characterization of wafers made from these crystals will be presented. They are similar to those known for state-of-the-art 150 mm SI GaAs VGF/VB crystals.

Stenzenberger, J.; Bünger, T.; Börner, F.; Eichler, S.; Flade, T.; Hammer, R.; Jurisch, M.; Kretzer, U.; Teichert, S.; Weinert, B.



Growth and characterization of 200 mm SI GaAs crystals grown by the VGF method  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that 200mm diameter semi-insulating (SI) GaAs single crystals can be grown by an upscaled proprietary VGF method successfully used for commercial crystal growth up to 150mm in the past. First results of structural and electrical characterization of wafers made from these crystals will be presented. They are similar to those known for state-of-the-art 150mm SI GaAs

J. Stenzenberger; T Bünger; F Börner; S Eichler; T Flade; R Hammer; M Jurisch; U Kretzer; S Teichert; B Weinert



Doxorubicin physical state in solution and inside liposomes loaded via a pH gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined doxorubicin’s (DOX) physical state in solution and inside EPC\\/cholesterol liposomes that were loaded via a transmembrane pH gradient. Using cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) we noted that DOX loaded to 200–300 mM internal concentrations in citrate containing liposomes formed linear, curved, and circular bundles of fibers with no significant interaction\\/perturbation of the vesicle membrane. The individual DOX fibers

Xingong Li; Donald J. Hirsh; Donna Cabral-Lilly; Achim Zirkel; Sol M. Gruner; Andrew S. Janoff; Walter R. Perkins



Composition of the benthos in relation to pH in the LaCloche lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the LaCloche Mountains of Ontario, 11 lakes spanning the pH range 4.8 to 6.7 were sampled for benthic organisms. Sixty sediment cores were collected from each lake, organisms >0.5 mm were separated and 25 taxa were identified. The number of taxa present was correlated negatively with [H+]: Y=23.2-4.27 × 105 ×, r2=0.61, p<0.005. The density of all organisms was

H. H. Harvey; J. M. McArdle



Mechanisms of Reoxygenation-Induced Calcium Overload in Cardiac Myocytes: Dependence on pH i  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the selective effects of intracellular (pHi) or extracellular change in pH on reoxygenation-induced Ca2+ overload in simulated myocardial hypoxia. Experiments were performed in cultured cardiomyocytes isolated from the ventricle of neonatal ICR mouse. A model of chemical hypoxia with 2 mM sodium cyanide was developed to mimic the ATP depletion of hypoxia. This chemical hypoxia was \\

Naruto Matsuda; Tohru Mori; Hiroshi Nakamura; Munekazu Shigekawa



QM/MM study of electron addition on protein disulfide bonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The one-electron addition on the disulfide bond of thioredoxin was studied by a QM/MM procedure. Three methodological aspects were considered: the presence of a MM surrounding, the choice of the QM method and the QM/MM partitioning. We show that the environment has a relatively small effect on geometry but it strongly influences electronic affinity (EA). Even with the MM part, B3LYP and HF methods are still inadequate and at least MP2 is needed for the treatment of the (2c-3e) bond. However, a relatively restrained QM part seems to be sufficient for modelling this electronic property.

Bergès, J.; Rickards, G.; Rauk, A.; Houée-Levin, C.



Conventional metrizamide myelography (MM) and computed tomographic metrizamide myelography (CTMM) in scoliosis: a comparative study  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective examination was performed to assess the accuracy of metrizamide myelography (MM) and computed tomographic metrizamide myelography (CTMM) in scoliosis. Of 81 consecutive scoliotic children studied by myelography, 30 had only MM while the remaining 51 had CTMM immediately afterward. CTMM added esential diagnostic information in 13 cases of dysraphism and 4 cases, both methods gave the same imformation. The outhors conclude that in patients with severe scoliosis, dysraphism, and scoliosis with localized neurological disturbances, CTMM should always be added to MM or be the only examination; while in idiopathic scoliosis with vague neurological disturbances a survey of the entire spine is essential, preferably with MM.

Pettersson, H.; Harwood-Nash, D.C.; Fitz, C.R.; Chuang, H.S.; Armstrong, E.



Kinetic equivalence of transmembrane pH and electrical potential differences in ATP synthesis.  


ATP synthase is the key player of Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory, converting the energy of transmembrane proton flow into the high energy bond between ADP and phosphate. The proton motive force that drives this reaction consists of two components, the pH difference (?pH) across the membrane and transmembrane electrical potential (??). The two are considered thermodynamically equivalent, but kinetic equivalence in the actual ATP synthesis is not warranted, and previous experimental results vary. Here, we show that with the thermophilic Bacillus PS3 ATP synthase that lacks an inhibitory domain of the ? subunit, ?pH imposed by acid-base transition and ?? produced by valinomycin-mediated K(+) diffusion potential contribute equally to the rate of ATP synthesis within the experimental range examined (?pH -0.3 to 2.2, ?? -30 to 140 mV, pH around the catalytic domain 8.0). Either ?pH or ?? alone can drive synthesis, even when the other slightly opposes. ?? was estimated from the Nernst equation, which appeared valid down to 1 mm K(+) inside the proteoliposomes, due to careful removal of K(+) from the lipid. PMID:22253434

Soga, Naoki; Kinosita, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Masasuke; Suzuki, Toshiharu



Effects of pH and elevated glucose levels on the electrochemical behavior of dental implants.  


Implant failure is more likely to occur in persons with medically compromising systemic conditions, such as diabetes related to high blood glucose levels and inflammatory diseases related to pH levels lower than those in healthy people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lower pH level and simulated- hyperglycemia on implant corrosion as these effects are critical to biocompatibility and osseointegration. The electrochemical corrosion properties of titanium implants were studied in four different solutions: Ringer's physiological solution at pH = 7.0 and pH = 5.5 and Ringer's physiological solution containing 15 mM dextrose at pH = 7 and pH = 5.5. Corrosion behaviors of dental implants were determined by cyclic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Surface alterations were studied using a scanning electron microscope. All test electrolytes led to apparent differences in corrosion behavior of the implants. The implants under conditions of test exhibited statistically significant increases in I(corr) from 0.2372 to 1.007 ?Acm(-2), corrosion rates from 1.904 to 8.085 mpy, and a decrease in polarization resistances from 304 to 74 ?. Implants in dextrose-containing solutions were more prone to corrosion than those in Ringer's solutions alone. Increasing the acidity also yielded greater corrosion rates for the dextrose-containing solutions and the solutions without dextrose. PMID:24779948

Tamam, Evsen; Turkyilmaz, Ilser



The Role of Cytosolic Potassium and pH in the Growth of Barley Roots1  

PubMed Central

In an earlier paper we showed that in fully developed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root epidermal cells a decrease in cytosolic K+ was associated with an acidification of the cytosol (D.J. Walker, R.A. Leigh, A.J. Miller [1996] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 10510–10514). To show that these changes in cytosolic ion concentrations contributed to the decreased growth of K+-starved roots, we first measured whether similar changes occurred in cells of the growing zone. Triple-barreled ion-selective microelectrodes were used to measure cytosolic K+ activity and pH in cells 0.5 to 1.0 mm from the root tip. In plants growing from 7 to 21 d after germination under K+-replete conditions, the mean values did not change significantly, with values ranging from 80 to 84 mm for K+ and 7.3 to 7.4 for pH. However, in K+-starved plants (external [K+], 2 ?m), the mean cytosolic K+ activity and pH had declined to 44 mm and 7.0, respectively, after 14 d. For whole roots, sap osmolality was always lower in K+-starved than in K+-replete plants, whereas elongation rate and dry matter accumulation were significantly decreased after 14 and 16 d of K+ starvation. The rate of protein synthesis in root tips did not change for K+-replete plants but declined significantly with age in K+-starved plants. Butyrate treatment decreased cytosolic pH and diminished the rate of protein synthesis in K+-replete roots. Procaine treatment of K+-starved roots gave an alkalinization of the cytosol and increased protein synthesis rate. These results show that changes in both cytosolic pH and K+ can be significant factors in inhibiting protein synthesis and root growth during K+ deficiency. PMID:9808740

Walker, David J.; Black, Colin R.; Miller, Anthony J.



Evaluation of pH at the bacteria-dental cement interface.  


Physiochemical assessment of the parasite-biomaterial interface is essential in the development of new biomaterials. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to evaluate pH at the bacteria-dental cement interface and to demonstrate physiochemical interaction at the interface. The experimental apparatus with a well (4.0 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm deep) was made of polymethyl methacrylate with dental cement or polymethyl methacrylate (control) at the bottom. Three representative dental cements (glass-ionomer, zinc phosphate, and zinc oxide-eugenol cements) were used. Each specimen was immersed in 2 mM potassium phosphate buffer for 10 min, 24 hrs, 1 wk, or 4 wks. The well was packed with Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449, and a miniature pH electrode was placed at the interface between bacterial cells and dental cement. The pH was monitored after the addition of 1% glucose, and the fluoride contained in the cells was quantified. Glass-ionomer cement inhibited the bacteria-induced pH fall significantly compared with polymethyl methacrylate (control) at the interface (10 min, 5.16 ± 0.19 vs. 4.50 ± 0.07; 24 hrs, 5.20 ± 0.07 vs. 4.59 ± 0.11; 1 wk, 5.34 ± 0.14 vs. 4.57 ± 0.11; and 4 wks, 4.95 ± 0.27 vs. 4.40 ± 0.14), probably due to the fluoride released from the cement. This method could be useful for the assessment of pH at the parasite-biomaterial interface. PMID:21933936

Mayanagi, G; Igarashi, K; Washio, J; Nakajo, K; Domon-Tawaraya, H; Takahashi, N



Effect of temperature, pH, and ions on sweet taste.  


The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of temperature (50 degrees C and 6 degrees C), pH (pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6. 0, and 7.0) and the addition of monovalent and divalent cations (5 mM Na(+), 5 mM K(+), and 5 mM Ca(2)+ ) on the sweetness intensity ratings of sweeteners ranging widely in chemical structure. A trained panel provided intensity evaluations for prototypical tastes (sweet, bitter, sour, and salty) as well as aromatic and mouth-feel attributes. The following sweeteners were included in this experiment: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), three terpenoid glycosides (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), two N-sulfonylamides (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin), one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate), one protein (thaumatin), one dihydrochalcone (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone), and one chlorodeoxysugar (sucralose). Two to five levels of each sweetener reflecting a range of sweetness intensities were tested, using formulae developed by DuBois et al. The main finding from this three-part study was that temperature, pH, and ions had little effect on perceived sweetness intensity. Even when significant differences were found in the temperature study, the effects were very small. PMID:10713286

Schiffman, S S; Sattely-Miller, E A; Graham, B G; Bennett, J L; Booth, B J; Desai, N; Bishay, I



Quantification of iopamidol multi-site chemical exchange properties for ratiometric chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging of pH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

pH-sensitive chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI holds great promise for in vivo applications. However, the CEST effect depends on not only exchange rate and hence pH, but also on the contrast agent concentration, which must be determined independently for pH quantification. Ratiometric CEST MRI normalizes the concentration effect by comparing CEST measurements of multiple labile protons to simplify pH determination. Iopamidol, a commonly used x-ray contrast agent, has been explored as a ratiometric CEST agent for imaging pH. However, iopamidol CEST properties have not been solved, determination of which is important for optimization and quantification of iopamidol pH imaging. Our study numerically solved iopamidol multi-site pH-dependent chemical exchange properties. We found that iopamidol CEST MRI is suitable for measuring pH between 6 and 7.5 despite that T1 and T2 measurements varied substantially with pH and concentration. The pH MRI precision decreased with pH and concentration. The standard deviation of pH determined from MRI was 0.2 and 0.4 pH unit for 40 and 20?mM iopamidol solution of pH 6, and it improved to be less than 0.1 unit for pH above 7. Moreover, we determined base-catalyzed chemical exchange for 2-hydrooxypropanamido (ksw = 1.2*10pH?4.1) and amide (ksw = 1.2*10pH?4.6) protons that are statistically different from each other (P < 0.01, ANCOVA), understanding of which should help guide in vivo translation of iopamidol pH imaging.

Zhe Sun, Phillip; Livio Longo, Dario; Hu, Wei; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua



Electrolyte and pH dependence of heart rate during hemodialysis: a computer model analysis.  


The influence of hemodialysis-induced modifications in extracellular fluid characteristics on heart rate was investigated by using a detailed computer model of sinus-node electrical activity. Changes similar to those occurring in the course of hemodialysis in extracellular concentrations of sodium (from 138 to 140 mM), potassium (from 6 to 3.3 mM), and calcium (from 1.2 to 1.5 mM) ions as well as in pH (from 7.31 to 7.4) and intracellular volume were simulated. The model predicted that such changes may largely influence the rhythm of the sinoatrial node pacemaker, causing the heart rate to range from 69 to 86 bpm. Heart rate increases after removing potassium (up to 7 bpm) and also after calcium perfusion (up to 11 bpm) whereas restoring pH slows heart beat (up to 6 bpm). Extracellular sodium has no significant influence, but the heart rate strictly depends on intracellular sodium concentration (5 bpm/mM). A complex dependence of heart rate on electrolytes and pH was also recognized. Providing extracellular potassium concentration is maintained above 5 mM, heart rate exhibits low sensitivity to changes in calcium and potassium. When potassium concentration is reduced below 4.5 mM, heart rate sensitivity to calcium and potassium increases significantly to 10 and 30 bpm/mM, respectively. A sustained increase in heart rate always corresponds to an increase in intracellular sodium concentration. PMID:10816197

Severi, S; Cavalcanti, S



Effect of pH and cation concentrations on spermatozoan motility of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.).  


Environmental conditions during external fertilization in fish have a significant effect on spermatozoan motility (MOT) and fertilization ability. Even in the same family of fish, spermatozoa might differ in sensitivity to ions present in the external medium. Elucidation of such differences within a species would help to understand spermatozoan biology and to determine external conditions that would optimize spermatozoan MOT and successful fertilization. Objectives of the current study were to determine the effects of pH and of sodium, potassium, and calcium ion concentrations in the activation solution on sea trout spermatozoan MOT. Six parameters characterizing MOT (MOT, curvilinear velocity [VCL], linearity, amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, and duration of MOT) in spermatozoa activated in prepared buffers were traced by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Sea trout spermatozoa were motile over a wide range of pH values, and increasing pH did influence MOT, VCL, linearity, amplitude of lateral head displacement, and MOT duration. The optimum pH for sperm MOT was established at approximately 10. Increasing K(+) ion concentration within the observed range caused a decrease in MOT and VCL. Spermatozoan movement ceased at 8 mM KCl concentrations. In Ca(2+) buffers, sperm were motile within the range of 0 to 70 mM CaCl(2) concentration; although beyond 8 mM concentration, VCL and MOT gradually declined. Spermatozoan aggregation was observed at the highest ion concentrations tested. Increasing CaCl(2) concentration affected MOT pattern from initiation to termination of spermatozoan movement in a similar manner as changes associated with increasing pH. At concentrations of CaCl(2) higher than 0.5 mM and in buffers with pH values 10 to 11, movement of spermatozoa was characterized by high initial linearity followed by its gradual reduction. In contrast to the effects of KCl and CaCl(2), increasing NaCl concentration up to 90 mM Na(+) concentration prolonged the duration of spermatozoan movement and, up to 60 mM Na(+) concentration, slightly increased sperm velocity as well. Above the concentration of 90 mM NaCl, these parameters decreased; and at 240 mM of Na(+), spermatozoa did not activate. PMID:23102847

Dziewulska, Katarzyna; Domaga?a, Józef



pH- and concentration-programmable electrodialytic buffer generator.  


We have presented in a companion paper a suppressor-based electrodialytic buffer generator (EBG) that can produce programmable pH gradients. Here we demonstrate a three-electrode EBG. In this three-compartment flow-through device, the central compartment is separated from the outer compartments with a cation-exchange membrane (CEM) and an anion-exchange membrane (AEM), respectively. One platinum electrode is disposed in each compartment. The flows through each compartment are independent. With appropriate solutions in each compartment, independent potentials are applied to the CEM and AEM electrodes with respect to the grounded central electrode. The CEM current and the AEM current can be independently manipulated to generate buffers with variable concentration and pH in the central compartment. Both the CEM and AEM currents can be positive or negative. For the CEM, a positive current (i(cat)(in)) indicates that cations are coming in from the CEM channel to the center. A negative current (i(cat)(out)) takes cations out of the center to the CEM channel. Similarly for the AEM, currents governing anion transport into the center channel from the AEM channel (AEM electrode negative) or the reverse (AEM electrode positive) are respectively denoted by i(an)(in) or i(an)(out). Most examples herein involve inward ion transport, referred to as the additive mode. Depending on whether i(cat)(in) i(an)(in), H(+)/O(2) and OH(-)/H(2) are respectively produced at the central electrode to maintain electroneutrality. Any gas formed is subsequently removed by a gas removal device. The pH of the central channel effluent is related to the ratio of the currents through the two membranes, while the generated concentration is controlled by the absolute value of the currents. The buffer concentration and pH can be varied in a controlled predictable manner. A pH span of 3-12 was attained and a phosphate buffer concentration up to 140 mM was generated. We demonstrate a variety of combined pH/concentration gradients from a mixture of ethylenediamine, citrate, and phosphate by manipulating i(cat)(in), which controls introduction of the ethylenediammonium ion, and i(an)(in), which controls the introduction of citrate and phosphate ions. We also demonstrate an additive-subtractive mode of operation where both inward and outward currents are used to add one type of ion while removing another type of ion to reproducibly generate pH/concentration gradients. PMID:22148285

Chen, Yongjing; Edwards, Brian L; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Srinivasan, Kannan



pH sensitivity of the basolateral membrane of the rabbit proximal tubule.  


Conventional microelectrodes were used to study the effects of bath pH and bicarbonate concentrations on the basolateral membrane potential (Vbl) of cells from the superficial proximal convoluted (PCT) and proximal straight (PST) tubules of the rabbit kidney perfused in vitro. Bathing solution pH was varied over the range of 5.9-7.4 using either control (22-25 mM) or low bicarbonate (5.0-6.6 mM) Ringer solutions and the appropriate CO2 tensions. The results show a strong pH dependence of the steady-state values of Vbl in both the convoluted and straight tubule segments. The pH-dependent depolarization was approximately 35 mV/pH unit change of the bathing solution in the acid direction and could be demonstrated in CO2-free HEPES-buffered solutions. A depolarizing response to increased bath potassium concentration (HK) was observed that was linearly related to the absolute value of the Vbl under control conditions. Under acidotic conditions, reduced HK depolarizations indicate that a decrease in the relative potassium permeability of the basolateral membrane is the principle mechanism underlying the effects of bath pH on Vbl. PMID:3946603

Biagi, B A; Sohtell, M




E-print Network

NEUROPSYCHOLOGIST Louis Costa Ph.D. I obtained my Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from Teachers at the Bronx VA Medical Center. On the day I deposited copies of my doctoral dissertation with my mentor, Dr intelligence, energy, enthusiasm, and charisma. I eagerly accepted the fellowship when it was offered. I

Brown, Lucy L.


Parametric Pumping with pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separations of aqueous solutions of Na and K have been obtained using a recuperative pH parametric pumping system. A chromatographic column of cation exchange resin was subjected simultaneously to an alternating axial displacement of solution and to an alternating pH gradient. The synchronous coupling of these two actions produced a concentration enrichment of 15–80% above the feed.

J. E. Sabadell; N. H. Sweed



Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Saliva contains a variety of host defense factors. It influences calculus formation and periodontal disease. Different studies have been done to find exact correlation of salivary biomarkers with periodontal disease. With a multitude of biomarkers and complexities in their determination, the salivary pH may be tried to be used as a quick chairside test. The aim of this study was to analyze the pH of saliva and determine its relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Study Design: The study population consisted of 300 patients. They were divided into three groups of 100 patients each: Group A had clinically healthy gingiva, Group B who had generalized chronic gingivitis and Group C who had generalized chronic periodontitis. The randomized unstimulated saliva from each patient was collected and pH was tested. Data was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance technique. Results: The salivary pH was more alkaline for patients with generalized chronic gingivitis as compared with the control group (P = 0.001) whereas patients with generalized chronic periodontitis had more acidic pH as compared with the control group (P = 0.001). Conclusion: These results indicate a significant change in the pH depending on the severity of the periodontal condition. The salivary pH shows significant changes and thus relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Salivary pH may thus be used as a quick chairside diagnostic biomarker. PMID:24174725

Baliga, Sharmila; Muglikar, Sangeeta; Kale, Rahul



Nursing PhD 2010 Edition  

E-print Network

Nursing PhD Handbook 2010 Edition 107 Wiggins Rd, Saskatoon SK S7N 5E5 Phone: (306) 966-8239 Fax: (306) 966-6703 Email: #12;Welcome to the College of Nursing Graduate Program & Continuing Nursing Education #12;PhD Manual 2 Table of Contents General Information

Saskatchewan, University of


Middle School and pH?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. After sorting through a multitude of information about pH, a…

Herricks, Susan



Curriculum Vitae ANNE ZISSU, PH.D.  

E-print Network

) The Effect of Probabilistic vs. Deterministic Valuation of Securitized Senior Life Settlements on the LevelCurriculum Vitae ANNE ZISSU, PH.D. CHAIRPERSON New York City College of Technology Department AND UNIVERSITY CENTER OF THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK Ph.D. in Economics (Concentration in Finance

Aronov, Boris



EPA Science Inventory

Two new expressions for the pH of saturation (pH subs) were derived. One is a simplified equation developed from an aqueous carbonate equilibrium system in which correction for ionic strength was considered. The other is a more accurate quadratic formula that involves computerize...


PhD Studentships Biomedical Cell Biology  

E-print Network

The Division of Biomedical Cell Biology at Warwick Medical School seeks applications from candidates for Ph edge of medically relevant cell biology, preparing students for careers in academia, industryPhD Studentships Biomedical Cell Biology Funding available for UK and non-UK applicants

Goldschmidt, Christina


A survey of automated material handling systems in 300-mm SemiconductorFabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast-paced developments and technological breakthroughs in the semiconductor manufacturing industry elevates the importance of optimum utilization of resources. The newer 300-mm wafers fabs place a high level of emphasis on increasing yield and reducing cycle times. Automated material handling systems are importanttools that help us achieve these objectives. In addition, due to the increased weight and size of 300-mm

Gaurav K. Agrawal; Sunderesh S. Heragu




E-print Network

P1.37 HES SIMULATION STUDY USING CUBE DATA FROM MM5 Fengying Sun * , Jun Li * , Timothy J. Schmit and spatial resolutions. The atmospheric cube data from the output of PSU/NCAR MM5 version 3.5 (Grell etc to simulate HES top of atmosphere clear sky radiances by a fast forward model (Hannon et al. 1996). These cube

Li, Jun


Project Summary MRI: Development of a Chirped-Pulse, Fourier-Transform mm-Wave Pulsed  

E-print Network

Project Summary MRI: Development of a Chirped-Pulse, Fourier-Transform mm-Wave Pulsed Uniform technologies: chirped-pulse Fourier-transform mm-wave spectroscopy and pulsed uniform supersonic flows: The instrument will leverage the ultra-broadband Chirped-pulse Fourier-transform Microwave (CP

Baskaran, Mark


Rosmarinic acid production by Lavandula vera MM cell-suspension culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time courses of growth and rosmarinic acid production by Lavandula vera MM cell suspension were investigated. The uptake of the main nutrients (sucrose, nitrogen, phosphorus, K, Ca, Mg) was followed\\u000a during cultivation and the data on the physiology of the L. vera MM cell culture are presented. It was established that the cell culture synthesizes rosmarinic acid during the

M. Ilieva; A. Pavlov



Mountain Lion 'MmJUN7-r946 WQDOS HOLE, MASS  

E-print Network

mm ^m' ''AzM. Mountain Lion 'MmJUN7-r946 WQDOS HOLE, MASS CIRCULAR 6 FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE U. S For sale by the Superintendent of Documents Washinston 25, D. C. : Price 5 cents #12;MOUNTAIN LION TRAPPING Service nPHE AMERICAN MOUNTAIN LION (Felis concolor) is one of J- the largest predatory animals


Analysis of polarization in QM/MM modelling of biologically relevant hydrogen bonds  

PubMed Central

Combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are increasingly important for the study of chemical reactions and systems in condensed phases. Here, we have tested the accuracy of a density functional theory-based QM/MM implementation (B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)/CHARMM27) on a set of biologically relevant interactions by comparison with full QM calculations. Intermolecular charge transfer due to hydrogen bond formation is studied to assess the severity of spurious polarization of QM atoms by MM point charges close to the QM/MM boundary. The changes in total electron density and natural bond orbital atomic charges due to hydrogen bond formation in selected complexes obtained at the QM/MM level are compared with full QM results. It is found that charge leakage from the QM atoms to MM atomic point charges close to the QM/MM boundary is not a serious problem, at least with limited basis sets. The results are encouraging in showing that important properties of key biomolecular interactions can be treated well at the QM/MM level employing good-quality levels of QM theory. PMID:18782723

Senthilkumar, Kittusamy; Mujika, Jon I.; Ranaghan, Kara E.; Manby, Frederick R.; Mulholland, Adrian J.; Harvey, Jeremy N.



HYDRA-MM: Learning Multiple Descriptions to Improve Classi cation Accuracy  

E-print Network

HYDRA-MM: Learning Multiple Descriptions to Improve Classi#12;cation Accuracy Kamal Ali Michael of relations if it can be succintly described using those relations. In this paper we present HYDRA-MM which extends the relational learning algorithm HYDRA ([1, 2, 3]) to learn more than one model (#12;gure 1

Pazzani, Michael J.


Increasing of the efficiency of interference suppression in mm-band Doppler radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical characteristics of terrain clutters backscattering in mm-band are presented. It is shown that the signals, reflected from deciduous trees are nonstationary in most cases. This phenomenon is due to high spatial resolution of mm-band radars. The influence of signal, reflected from vegetation, on MTI systems operation is analyzed.

Yuriy V. Goncharenko; Volodimir Gorobets; Viktor Gutnik



Unsedated peroral wireless pH capsule placement vs. standard pH testing: A randomized study and cost analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Wireless capsule pH-metry (WC) is better tolerated than standard nasal pH catheter (SC), but endoscopic placement is expensive. Aims: to confirm that non-endoscopic peroral manometric placement of WC is as effective and better tolerated than SC and to perform a cost analysis of the available esophageal pH-metry methods. Methods Randomized trial at 2 centers. Patients referred for esophageal pH testing were randomly assigned to WC with unsedated peroral placement or SC after esophageal manometry (ESM). Primary outcome was overall discomfort with pH-metry. Costs of 3 different pH-metry strategies were analyzed: 1) ESM?+?SC, 2) ESM?+?WC and 3) endoscopically placed WC (EGD?+?WC) using publicly funded health care system perspective. Results 86 patients (mean age 51?±?2?years, 71% female) were enrolled. Overall discomfort score was less in WC than in SC patients (26?±?4?mm vs 39?±?4?mm VAS, respectively, p?=?0.012) but there were no significant group differences in throat, chest, or overall discomfort during placement. Overall failure rate was 7% in the SC group vs 12% in the WC group (p?=?0.71). Per patient costs ($Canadian) were $1475 for EGD?+?WC, $1014 for ESM?+?WC, and $906 for ESM?+?SC. Decreasing the failure rate of ESM?+?WC from 12% to 5% decreased the cost of ESM?+?WC to $991. The ESM?+?SC and ESM?+?WC strategies became equivalent when the cost of the WC device was dropped from $292 to $193. Conclusions Unsedated peroral WC insertion is better tolerated than SC pH-metry both overall and during placement. Although WC is more costly, the extra expense is partially offset when the higher patient and caregiver time costs of SC are considered. Trial registration Identifier NCT01364610 PMID:22650250




E-print Network



Colorimetric determination of pH  

SciTech Connect

There is a need for a simple, rapid, reliable means for determining pH values of concentrated, high salt solutions without reliance on human eye and ambient light. The method comprises the steps of preparing a set of reference solutions, measuring the light absorption by each reference solution, adding indicator dye to each reference solution, measuring the light absorption by each such reference mixture, comparing the two solutions to determine the dye color at each pH, normalizing the spectra of mixture to the isosbestic point, and matching the color of the pH of the solution to one of the colors of the pHs in the reference solution set. In this way, the pH can be determined to within 0.1 pH unit, a far more precise method than using the human eye.

Baumann, E.W.; Buchanan, B.R.



Changes in protein expression in Burkholderia vietnamiensis PR1 301 at pH 5 and 7 with and without nickel.  


Burkholderia vietnamiensis PR1(301) (PR1) exhibits pH-dependent nickel (Ni) tolerance, with lower Ni toxicity observed at pH 5 than at pH 7. The Ni tolerance mechanism in PR1 is currently unknown, and traditional mechanisms of Ni resistance do not appear to be present. Therefore, 2D gel electrophoresis was used to examine changes in protein expression in PR1 with and without Ni (3.4 mM) at pH 5 and 7. Proteins with both a statistically significant and at least a twofold difference in expression level between conditions (pH, Ni) were selected and identified using MALDI-TOF-MS or LC-MS. Results showed increased expression of proteins involved in cell shape and membrane composition at pH 5 compared with pH 7. Scanning electron microscopy indicated elongated cells at pH 5 and 6 compared with pH 7 in the absence of Ni. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis showed a statistically significant difference in the percentages of long- and short-chain fatty acids at pH 5 and 7. These findings suggest that changes in membrane structure and function may be involved in the ability of PR1 to grow at higher concentrations of Ni at pH 5 than at pH 7. PMID:19047749

Van Nostrand, Joy D; Arthur, John M; Kilpatrick, Lisa E; Neely, Benjamin A; Bertsch, Paul M; Morris, Pamela J



Sensitization of Listeria monocytogenes to Low pH, Organic Acids, and Osmotic Stress by Ethanol  

PubMed Central

The killing of Listeria monocytogenes following exposure to low pH, organic acids, and osmotic stress was enhanced by the addition of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol. At pH 3, for example, the presence of this agent stimulated killing by more than 3 log units in 40 min of exposure. The rate of cell death at pH 3.0 was dependent on the concentration of ethanol. Thus, while the presence 10% (vol/vol) ethanol at pH 3.0 stimulated killing by more than 3 log units in just 5 min, addition of 1.25% (vol/vol) ethanol resulted in less than 1 log unit of killing in 10 min. The ability of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol to stimulate killing at low pH and at elevated osmolarity was also dependent on the amplitude of the imposed stress, and an increase in the pH from 3.0 to 4.0 or a decrease in the sodium chloride concentration from 25 to 2.5% led to a marked reduction in the effectiveness of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol as an augmentative agent. Combinations of organic acids, low pH, and ethanol proved to be particularly effective bactericidal treatments; the most potent combination was pH 3.0, 50 mM formate, and 5 % (vol/vol) ethanol, which resulted in 5 log units of killing in just 4 min. Ethanol-enhanced killing correlated with damage to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:11282610

Barker, Clive; Park, Simon F.



Role of pH on dimeric interactions for DENV envelope protein: an insight from molecular dynamics study.  


The entry of dengue viruses is mediated by pH triggering in the host cells. Here we have studied the DENV E protein stability and binding of its units at low and normal pH using MD and MM-PB/SA method for the first time. To investigate the role of pH in dissociation of dimeric protein, we have performed a concise study of hydrogen bonding and other interactions between units of dimer at low and normal pH. The Generalized Born calculation connotes that dimeric unit was relatively less stable and less proned for dimerisation at low pH. Our results provide a theoretical verification for previous assumptions of pH triggering mechanism of dengue envelope protein. During the pH alteration, we found a large decrement in salt bridges which were observed at normal pH. We also compared the flexibility of each unit and found that they exhibit different fluctuations during molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:22005292

Dubey, Kshatresh Dutta; Chaubey, Amit Kumar; Ojha, Rajendra Prasad



Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes  

SciTech Connect

Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes were investigated experimentally. The experimental condensing temperature is 40 C, and nominal oil concentration range is from 0% to 5%. The test results indicate that the presence of oil deteriorates the heat transfer. The deterioration effect is negligible at nominal oil concentration of 1%, and becomes obvious with the increase of nominal oil concentration. At 5% nominal oil concentration, the heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture is found to have a maximum reduction of 25.1% and 23.8% for 5 mm and 4 mm tubes, respectively. The predictabilities of the existing condensation heat transfer correlations were verified with the experimental data, and Yu and Koyama correlation shows the best predictability. By replacing the pure refrigerant properties with the mixture's properties, Yu and Koyama correlation has a deviation of -15% to + 20% in predicting the local condensation heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture. (author)

Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yifeng [International Copper Association Shanghai Office, Shanghai 200020 (China); Deng, Bin [Institute of Heat Transfer Technology, Golden Dragon Precise Copper Tube Group Inc., Shanghai 200135 (China)



Effectiveness of 2.0 mm Standard and 2.0 mm Locking Miniplates in Management of Mandibular Fractures: A Clinical Comparative Study.  


To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of 2.0 mm locking miniplates versus 2.0 mm standard miniplates in treatment of mandible fractures. Sixty randomly selected patients who sustained mandibular fractures were selected for this study. The fractured fragments were stabilized using 2.0 mm locking miniplates in 30 cases and in the remaining 30 cases the fractured fragments were fixed with conventional 2.0 mm miniplates. Post-operative stability was assessed with radiographs at 7th day, 1st, and 3rd months. The stability of the reduced fracture was assessed clinically and both the types of plates were assessed with an OPG or conventional radiographs. This study shows favorable results on use of locking miniplates in mandibular fractures. The results show that there were no significant differences in the post-operative complications between the conventional and the locking plate/screw mandibular systems. The locking plate/screw system was more rigid than conventional plate/screw system, thereby reducing the need and duration of intermaxillary fixation (IMF). PMID:24644396

Shaik, Mahaboob; Subba Raju, T; Rao, N Koteswara; Reddy, Chandra Kiran



Should the definition of preeclampsia include a rise in diastolic blood pressure of ?15 mm Hg to a level <90 mm Hg in association with proteinuria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to compare baseline characteristics and pregnancy outcomes between normotensive women who did and those who did not have a rise in diastolic blood pressure of ?15 mm Hg in association with proteinuria. Study Design: We studied 4302 healthy nulliparous women from the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention trial who were delivered at ?20 weeks’ gestation. We

R. J. Levine; M. G. Ewell; J. C. Hauth; L. B. Curet; P. M. Catalano; C. D. Morris; G. Choudhary; B. M. Sibai



Mega Binti Abang PhD Candidate  

E-print Network

or satellites. · Electromagnetic spectrum ­ 2 i.e. optical and microwave wavelength regions. · Optical remote sensing : wavelengths 0.4-14 mm. · Microwave remote sensing : wavelengths 1mm-1m. #12;8/21/13 2 and ground surface) Basic of remote sensing: Limita6ons of microwave sensor image

Gray, Matthew


Acidification due to microbial dechlorination near a trichloroethene DNAPL is overcome with pH buffer or formate as electron donor: experimental demonstration in diffusion-cells.  


Acidification due to microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) can limit the bio-enhanced dissolution of TCE dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). This study related the dissolution enhancement of a TCE DNAPL to the pH buffer capacity of the medium and the type of electron donor used. In batch systems, dechlorination was optimal at pH7.1-7.5, but was completely inhibited below pH6.2. In addition, dechlorination in batch systems led to a smaller pH decrease at an increasing pH buffer capacity or with the use of formate instead of lactate as electron donor. Subsequently, bio-enhanced TCE DNAPL dissolution was quantified in diffusion-cells with a 5.5 cm central sand layer, separating a TCE DNAPL layer from an aqueous top layer. Three different pH buffer capacities (2.9 mM-17.9 mM MOPS) and lactate or formate as electron donor were applied. In the lactate fed diffusion-cells, the DNAPL dissolution enhancement factor increased from 1.5 to 2.2 with an increase of the pH buffer capacity. In contrast, in the formate fed diffusion-cells, the DNAPL dissolution enhancement factor (2.4±0.3) was unaffected by the pH buffer capacity. Measurement of the pore water pH confirmed that the pH decreased less with an increased pH buffer capacity or with formate instead of lactate as electron donor. These results suggest that the significant impact of acidification on bio-enhanced DNAPL dissolution can be overcome by the amendment of a pH buffer or by applying a non acidifying electron donor like formate. PMID:23500838

Philips, Jo; Maes, Nele; Springael, Dirk; Smolders, Erik



The near-infrared Hubble diagram for sub-mm galaxies  

E-print Network

Determing the nature of the bright sub-mm sources and their role in the process of galaxy formation is likely to be a major focus of extra-galactic research over the next few years. In particular, we would like to know if these sources are the progenitors of today's massive elliptical galaxies, or alternatively arise from short-lived, albeit spectacular starbursts within haloes of unexceptional mass. This question can be addressed from a number of different directions, one of which is to compare the masses of sub-mm host galaxies with those of other known massive high-redshift objects. Here I make a first attempt to do this by exploring whether the few well-studied sub-mm/mm sources are consistent with the well-established K-z relation for powerful radio galaxies. Out to z = 3 this appears to be the case, providing evidence that bright sub-mm sources are indeed destined to be massive ellipticals. At higher redshifts there is a suggestion that sub-mm galaxies are signficantly fainter at K than their radio-selected counterparts, but at present it is unclear whether this indicates a significant difference in stellar mass or the increasing impact of dust obscuration on the rest-frame light from the sub-mm hosts.

James S. Dunlop



The Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey: SPIRE-mm Photometric Redshifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate the potential of submm-mm and submm-mm-radio photometric redshifts using a sample of mm-selected sources as seen at 250, 350 and 500 micron by the SPIRE instrument on Herschel. From a sample of 63 previously identified mm sources with reliable radio identifications in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North and Lockman Hole North fields, 46 (73 per cent) are found to have detections in at least one SPIRE band. We explore the observed submm/mm color evolution with redshift, finding that the colors of mm sources are adequately described by a modified blackbody with constant optical depth Tau = (Nu/nu(sub 0))(exp Beta), where Beta = +1.8 and nu(sub 0) = c/100 micron. We find a tight correlation between dust temperature and IR luminosity. Using a single model of the dust temperature and IR luminosity relation, we derive photometric redshift estimates for the 46 SPIRE-detected mm sources. Testing against the 22 sources with known spectroscopic or good quality optical/near-IR photometric redshifts, we find submm/mm photometric redshifts offer a redshift accuracy of (absolute value of Delta sub (z))/(1 + z) = 0.16 (absolute value of Delta sub (z)) = 0.51). Including constraints from the radio-far-IR correlation, the accuracy is improved to (absolute value of Delta sub (z))/(1 + z) = 0.14 (((absolute value of Delta sub (z))) = 0.45). We estimate the redshift distribution of mm-selected sources finding a significant excess at Z > 3 when compared to approx 8S0 micron selected samples.

Roseboom, I. G.; Ivison, R. J.; Greve, T. R.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Auld, R.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; Block, J.; Boselli, A.; Brisbin, D.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodriquez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Dowell, C. D.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dwek, E.



G11.92–0.61-MM2: A Bonafide Massive Prestellar Core?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Core accretion models of massive star formation require the existence of stable massive starless cores, but robust observational examples of such objects have proven elusive. We report subarcsecond-resolution Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.3 mm, 1.1 mm, and 0.88 mm and Very Large Array 1.3 cm observations of an excellent massive starless core candidate, G11.92–0.61-MM2, initially identified in the course of studies of GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs). Separated by ~7.''2 from the nearby MM1 protostellar hot core, MM2 is a strong, compact dust continuum source (submillimeter spectral index ? = 2.6 ± 0.1), but is devoid of star formation indicators. In contrast to MM1, MM2 has no masers, no centimeter continuum, and no (sub)millimeter wavelength line emission in ~24 GHz of bandwidth observed with the SMA, including N2H+(3-2), HCO+(3-2), and HCN(3-2). Additionally, there is no evidence for an outflow driven by MM2. The (sub)millimeter spectral energy distribution of MM2 is best fit with a dust temperature of ~17-19 K and luminosity of ~5-7 L ?. The combined physical properties of MM2, as inferred from its dust continuum emission, are extreme: M >~ 30 M ? within a radius <1000 AU, N_H2 \\gt 1025 cm–2 and n_H_2\\gt 109 cm–3. Comparison of the molecular abundance limits derived from our SMA observations with gas-grain chemical models indicates that extremely dense (n(H) Gt 108 cm–3), cold (<20 K) conditions are required to explain the lack of observed (sub)millimeter line emission, consistent with the dust continuum results. Our data suggest that G11.92–0.61-MM2 is the best candidate for a bonafide massive prestellar core found to date, and a promising target for future higher-sensitivity observations.

Cyganowski, C. J.; Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.; Graninger, D.; Öberg, K. I.; Vasyunin, A.; Zhang, Q.; Friesen, R.; Schnee, S.



Flocculation of Chlorella vulgaris induced by high pH: role of magnesium and calcium and practical implications.  


Microalgae hold great potential as a feedstock for biofuels or bulk protein or treatment of wastewater or flue gas. Realising these applications will require the development of a cost-efficient harvesting technology. Here, we explore the potential of flocculation induced by high pH for harvesting Chlorella vulgaris. Our results demonstrate that flocculation can be induced by increasing medium pH to 11. Although both calcium and magnesium precipitated when pH was increased, only magnesium (?0.15 mM) proved to be essential to induce flocculation. The costs of four different bases (sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide and sodium carbonate) were calculated and evaluated and the use of lime appeared to be the most cost-efficient. Flocculation induced by high pH is therefore a potentially useful method to preconcentrate freshwater microalgal biomass during harvesting. PMID:22182473

Vandamme, Dries; Foubert, Imogen; Fraeye, Ilse; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Muylaert, Koenraad



How to explain a PaO2 of 140 mmHg in a venous line?  


Metformin is a commonly used oral antidiabetic drug which can cause lactic acidosis. Although rare, this condition carries a high mortality risk. Correction of metabolic acidaemia is essential for treatment and dialysis with bicarbonate replacement is the gold standard approach. A 53-year-old man with diabetes on metformin therapy was admitted to the intensive care unit with severe lactic acidosis and acute renal failure suggesting metformin intoxication. The lactic acidosis was treated with bicarbonate haemodialysis and his pH normalized after 10 hours, but he died because of myocardial infarction due to severe hypotension. At ICU admission an aortic dissection was also hypothesized but TEE did not evidence aortic dissection. The dilemma in this patient was represented by the abnormal PaO2 value (140 mmHg) in the venous blood gas analysis. Considering that metformin acts on mitochondrial respiration, the dilemma may be explained by hypothesizing a cellular respiration block caused by metformin or severe acidosis. ( PMID:20578420

Mizzi, Anna; Landoni, Giovanni; Corno, Laura; Fichera, Mariano; Nuzzi, Massimiliano; Zangrillo, Alberto



Arsenic bioremediation potential of a new arsenite-oxidizing bacterium Stenotrophomonas sp. MM-7 isolated from soil.  


A new arsenite-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from a low arsenic-containing (8.8 mg kg(-1)) soil. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the strain was closely related to Stenotrophomonas panacihumi. Batch experiment results showed that the strain completely oxidized 500 ?M of arsenite to arsenate within 12 h of incubation in a minimal salts medium. The optimum initial pH range for arsenite oxidation was 5-7. The strain was found to tolerate as high as 60 mM arsenite in culture media. The arsenite oxidase gene was amplified by PCR with degenerate primers. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest identity (69.1 %) with the molybdenum containing large subunit of arsenite oxidase derived from Bosea sp. Furthermore the amino acids involved in binding the substrate arsenite, were conserved with the arsenite oxidases of other arsenite oxidizing bacteria such as Alcaligenes feacalis and Herminnimonas arsenicoxydans. To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first report on arsenite oxidation using Stenotrophomonas sp. and the strain has great potential for application in arsenic remediation of contaminated water. PMID:22760225

Bahar, Md Mezbaul; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi



Chalcogen-Rich Lanthanide Clusters: Compounds with Te2-, (TeTe)2-, TePh, TeTePh, (TeTeTe(Ph)TeTe)5-, and [(TeTe)4TePh]9-Ligands; Single  

E-print Network

ion by pyridine, to give the pentaanion (µ-2 -2 -Te2Te(Ph)Te2).5- In the Tm compound, the displaced Te with PhTeTePh and elemental Te in pyridine to give (py)yLn4(Te)(TeTe)2(TeTeTe(Ph)- TeTe)(TexTePh) (Ln ) Sm

Lawson, Catherine L.


Influence of Acidic pH on Hydrogen and Acetate Production by an Electrosynthetic Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (?5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at ?600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ?5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ?6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at ?765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at ?800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying ?800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (?2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate (?=?4.7 kg CO2 captured). PMID:25333313

LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.



Isolation of a keratinolytic proteinase from Trichophyton mentagrophytes with enzymatic activity at acidic pH.  

PubMed Central

A keratinolytic proteinase with enzyme activity at acidic pH was isolated from culture filtrates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, a major pathogenic fungus of dermatophytosis. The molecular weight of the proteinase was estimated to be 41,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 38,000 by gel filtration. The isoelectric point was determined to be 3.9. The proteinase had a pH optimum of 4.5 for keratin and 5.5 for hemoglobin. This enzyme hydrolyzed the synthetic chymotrypsin substrate Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-MCA (Km, 0.59 mM), and its activity was strongly inhibited by chymostatin. Previously reported proteinases from dermatophytes have had enzyme activities in neutral or alkaline pH; however, healthy skin has a weakly acidic pH. Thus, the purified proteinase which has an optimal activity at acidic pH and hydrolyzes skin constituents could be an important virulence factor in dermatophytosis. Images PMID:2478474

Tsuboi, R; Ko, I; Takamori, K; Ogawa, H



Algal and Bacterial Activities in Acidic (pH 3) Strip Mine Lakes  

PubMed Central

Reservoir 29 and Lake B are extremely acid lakes (epilimnion pHs of 2.7 and 3.2, respectively), because they receive acidic discharges from coal refuse piles. They differ in that the pH of profundal sediments in Reservoir 29 increased from 2.7 to 3.8 during the period of thermal stratification, whereas permanently anoxic sediments in Lake B had a pH of 6.2. The pH rise in Reservoir 29 sediments was correlated with a temporal increase in H2S concentration in the anaerobic hypolimnion from 0 to >1 mM. The chlorophyll a levels in the epilimnion of Reservoir 29 were low, and the rate of primary production was typical of an oligotrophic system. However, there was a dense 10-cm layer of algal biomass at the bottom of the metalimnion. Production by this layer was low owing to light limitation and possibly H2S toxicity. The specific photosynthetic rates of epilimnetic algae were low, which suggests that nutrient availability is more important than pH in limiting production. The highest photosynthetic rates were obtained in water samples incubated at pH 2.7 to 4. Heterotrophic bacterial activity (measured by [14C]glucose metabolism) was greatest at the sediment/water interface. Bacterial production (assayed by thymidine incorporation) was as high in Reservoir 29 as in a nonacid mesotrophic Indiana lake. PMID:16347430

Gyure, Ruth A.; Konopka, Allan; Brooks, Austin; Doemel, William



Effect of pH on contractile state and transsarcolemmal Ca flux in cultured heart cells  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of pH-induced changes in cardiac contractile state was investigated using spontaneously beating cultured chick embryo ventricular cells. Cells were equilibrated in HEPES-buffered medium at pH 7.4 and then exposed to pH 6.0, 7.4 or 8.8 medium. pH-induced changes in Ca uptake were insensitive to 1 verapamil but were sensitive to changes in Na gradient. pH 6.0 inhibited and pH 8.8 stimulated Na/sub i/-dependent Ca uptake. Replacement of Na in the efflux medium with choline during /sup 45/Ca efflux did not affect the pH-induced changes in Ca efflux, suggesting that pH alters Ca efflux via sarcolemmal Ca-ATPase. Intracellular alkalinization or acidification produced by NH/sub 4/Cl (20 mM) altered contractile state by +140% or -60%, respectively, but failed to alter significantly the /sup 45/Ca influx or efflux rates. The authors conclude that pH-induced alteration in contractile state is due in part to changes in transsarcolemmal Ca movement via Na/Ca exchange as well as sarcolemmal Ca pump activity. pH/sub i/-induced alteration in contractile state is due to changes in Ca movements within the cell and/or in Ca sensitivity of myofibrils.

Kim, D.; Smith, T.W.



[Sequence-specific interaction of pyrimidine oligonucleotides with double-stranded DNA at acidic pH complexes of different types].  


The interaction of pyrimidine oligonucleotides (OLN(15) and OLN(6)) and their alkylating derivatives bearing 4-(3-amino)-N-methyl and N-2-chloroethyl (RCl) aniline residues at the 5'-phosphate with a fragment of the human gamma-interferon gene was studied. In the presence of 150 mM NaCl at pH 5.4, the yield of dsDNA alkylation was 60% for RCl-OLN(15) and 10% for RCl-OLN(6); at pH 4.0 in the presence of 150 mM NaCl and 10 mM MgCl2, the yield of the dsDNA modification product was 100% for RCl-OLN(6) and 50% for RCl-OLN(15). It was shown by native electrophoresis that OLN(15) could form with the target dsDNA complexes of two types in the presence of magnesium ions at pH 4.0. One of the complexes was stable at pH 5.4 in the presence of magnesium ions, whereas the other was not. We found that only the complex stable in 10 mM Mg(OAc)2, pH 5.4, was effectively alkylated. PMID:19915644

Brossalina, E B; Demchenko, E N; Demchenko, Iu N; Vlassov, V V



Barium recovery by crystallization in a fluidized-bed reactor: effects of pH, Ba/P molar ratio and seed.  


The effects of process conditions, including upward velocity inside the column, the amount of added seed and seed size, the pH value of the precipitant or the phosphate stream and the Ba/P molar ratio in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) were studied with a view to producing BaHPO? crystals of significant size and maximize the removal of barium. XRD were used to identify the products that were collected from the FBR. Experimental results show that an upward velocity of 48 cmmin(-1) produced the largest BaHPO? crystals with a size of around 0.84-1.0mm. The addition of seed crystals has no effect on barium removal. The use of a seed of a size in the ranges unseeded<0.149-0.29 mm<0.149 mm<0.29-0.42 mm produced increasing amounts of increasingly large crystals. The largest BaHPO? crystals were obtained at pH 8.4-8.8 with a Ba/P molar ratio of 1.0. In the homogeneous and heterogeneous processes, around 98% of barium was removed at pH 8.4-8.6 and [Ba]/[P]=1.0. The XRD results show that a significant amount of barium phosphate (Ba?(PO?)?) was obtained at pH 11. The compounds BaHPO? and BaO were present at a pH of below 10. PMID:24462085

Su, Chia-Chi; Reano, Resmond L; Dalida, Maria Lourdes P; Lu, Ming-Chun



Forces of interactions between bare and polymer-coated iron and silica: effect of pH, ionic strength, and humic acids.  


The interactions between a silica substrate and iron particles were investigated using atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy (AFM). The micrometer- and nanosized iron particles employed were either bare or coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), a polymer utilized to stabilize iron particle suspensions. The effect of water chemistry on the forces of interaction was probed by varying ionic strength (with 100 mM NaCl and 100 mM CaCl?) or pH (4, 5.5, and 8) or by introducing 10 mg/L of humic acids (HA). When particles were uncoated, the forces upon approach between silica and iron were attractive at pH 4 and 5.5 and in 100 mM CaCl? at pH 8, but they were negligible in 100 mM NaCl buffered to pH 8 and repulsive in water buffered to pH 8 and in HA solutions. HA produced electrosteric repulsion between iron particles and silica, likely due to its sorption to iron particles. HA sorption to silica was excluded on the basis of experiments conducted with a quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Repulsion with CMC-coated iron was attributed to electrosteric forces, which were damped at high ionic strength. An extended DLVO model and a modified version of Ohshima's theory were successfully utilized to model AFM data. PMID:23163600

Pensini, Erica; Sleep, Brent E; Yip, Christopher M; O'Carroll, Denis



The Effect of Acidic pH on Microleakage of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-Enriched Mixture Apical Plugs  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate the effect of acidic pH on the sealing ability of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plugs. Methods and Materials: Seventy single-rooted human maxillary anterior teeth were recruited. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n=15), and 1 negative and 1 positive control groups of 5. The root canals were cleaned and shaped and the terminal 3 mm of the roots were resected. Then MTA and CEM cement plugs were condensed in apical region with 3 mm thicknesses. The samples were exposed to pH values of 5.5 and 7.4. Leakage was evaluated by the fluid filtration technique at 1, 7, 14, 30 day intervals. Data were analyzed by the repeated measures MANOVA, one-way ANOVA and MANOVA/Bonferroni test. Results: Acidic pH significantly reduced the sealing ability of MTA after 1, 14 and 30 days (P<0.05). The rate of microleakage in CEM cement samples in acidic pH was significantly greater than that in neutral pH in day 30 (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the sealing property of MTA and CEM cement at both pH levels (P>0.05). Conclusion: It can be concluded that the CEM cement exhibited similar sealing ability as MTA at both pH levels. In addition, an acidic pH environment reduced the sealing ability of MTA and CEM cement after 30 days.

Mirhadi, Hossein; Moazzami, Fariborz; Safarzade, Sareh



18. Southeast end room; view to northeast, 65mm lens plus ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Southeast end room; view to northeast, 65mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. Failed south wall at right. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA


17. Oblique view, typical room; view to south, 65mm lens ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Oblique view, typical room; view to south, 65mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA


19. Southeast end room; view to southeast, 65mm lens plus ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Southeast end room; view to southeast, 65mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. Note extent of failure; figure for scale. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA


16. Oblique view, typical room; view to north, 65mm lens ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Oblique view, typical room; view to north, 65mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA


Parameters of tensile strength, elongation, and tenacity of 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film was tested to determine its tensile strength, elongation, and breaking strength, using an Instron (strength and compression) 4201 Test Instrument. These data provide information leading to the upper and lower limits of the above parameters for 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film. This film will be developed by a commercial developing machine after the Ultraviolet Telescope Space Shuttle Mission returns to the Earth in the early 1990's; thus, it is necessary to understand these force parameters. Several test strips of approximately 200mm in length were used. The results indicate that when a stress load of 100 kg was applied, the film elongated approximately 1.06mm and the break strength was 19.45 kilograms.

Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Peters, Kevin A.



5. East portal of Tunnel 26, view to southwest, 135mm ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. East portal of Tunnel 26, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Tunnel 25 (HAER CA-201) is visible in the distance. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 26, Milepost 133.29, Applegate, Placer County, CA


7. Detail, east portal of Tunnel 34/Snowshed 33, 135mm lens. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Detail, east portal of Tunnel 34/Snowshed 33, 135mm lens. Tall signal mast necessary in order to be seen above winter snows. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 41, Milepost 193.3, Donner, Placer County, CA


Building 810, oblique view to northwest, 90mm lens. KC10 tanker ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Building 810, oblique view to northwest, 90mm lens. KC-10 tanker aircraft in hangar bay for maintenance. - Travis Air Force Base, B-36 Hangar, Between Woodskill Avenue & Ellis, adjacent to Taxiway V & W, Fairfield, Solano County, CA


Connecting Concepts with Procedures in Equilibrium Instruction: Evaluating the Majority and Minority (M&M)  

E-print Network

and Minority (M&M) Strategy Journal: Journal of Chemical Education Manuscript ID: ed-2013-000684 Manuscript of Psychology Karabinos, Michael; Carnegie Mellon University, Chemistry Yaron, David; Carnegie Mellon University: First-Year Undergraduate / General

Yaron, David


Feasibility Tests for 400m Offset Zeroing the 25mm Gun of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers developed a short-range zeroing procedure and target for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle's 25mm gun to minimize the negative impact of factors such as inaccurate boresight equipment, ammunition dispersion, and poor feedback of hit location, which...

C. S. Wilkinson, M. S. Perkins



Power supply switching for a mm-wave asymmetric multilevel outphasing power amplifier system  

E-print Network

This thesis demonstrates power switches to be used in our new Asymmetric Multilevel Outphasing (AMO) transmitter architecture at mm-wave frequencies. The AMO topology breaks the linearity vs. efficiency design objective ...

Spaulding, Jonathon David



Fetal scalp pH testing  


... continue labor, or if a forceps delivery or cesarean section might be the best route of delivery. ... be delivered quickly, either by forceps or by cesarean section. Fetal scalp pH testing may need to ...


Ilsoon Lee, Ph. D. AssociateProfessor  

E-print Network

applications Teaching Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, Molecular Engineering, Molecular Self Chemical Reaction Engineering CHE 802: Research Methods CHE 311: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer1 Ilsoon Lee, Ph. D. AssociateProfessor 2527EngineeringBuilding DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

Lee, Ilsoon


Ph.D. Handbook Department of English  

E-print Network

for their Ph.D. studies-- Literary and Cultural Studies, Film and Media Studies Maun Kay Stone Interim Director of Graduate Studies Graduate Program degrees. Our program is designed around three primary concentrations--Literary

Berdichevsky, Victor


Grit Denker, Ph.D. SRI International  

E-print Network

Grit Denker, Ph.D. SRI International Senior Computer Scientist Computer Science Laboratory and a machine -- "the last meter bandwidth." bRIGHT will increase efficiency to Lockheed Martin in DARPA's Behavioral Learning for Adaptive Electronic Warfare (BLADE

Denker, Grit


Colorimetric Determination of pH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which the pH of a solution can be quantitatively measured using a spectrophotometer. The theory, experimental details, sample preparation and selection, instrumentation, and results are discussed. (CW)

Tucker, Sheryl; And Others



Mary Fennell, PhD Chair

NCI Community Cancer Centers Program Evaluation Oversight Committee Roster CHAIR Mary Fennell, Ph.D. Chair, Department of Sociology and Community Health Brown University Box 1916, 211 Maxcy Hall 112 George Street Providence, RI 02912


Nadarajen A. Vydelingum, PhD

Division of Cancer Prevention Staff Nadarajen A. Vydelingum, PhD Biologist and Program DirectorCancer Biomarkers Research Group Location Division of Cancer PreventionNational Cancer Institute9609 Medical Center Drive, Room 5E604 Rockville, MD


PhD Studentships Biomedical Cell Biology  

E-print Network

applicants ONLY The Division of Biomedical Cell Biology at Warwick Medical at the cuCng edge of medically relevant cell biology, preparing studentsPhD Studentships Biomedical Cell Biology Funding available for UK and EU

Davies, Christopher


Curriculum Vitae Andrs Guerra, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

Design client, Elementary School Science Fair judge, Youth Track and Youth Softball volunteer coach: Richard Huggins, PhD candidate (2013), Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Colorado School


Development of pH measurement system for legal traceability of pH standard solutions.  


The best reproducible technology of pH measurement for precise pH buffer solutions regulated by Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) was studied. A pH meter was devised with a high resolution of +/- 0.0001 pH. An 18-bit analog-to-digital converter is used, one-bit resolution corresponding to 0.0019 mV (ca. 0.000032 pH) against an input electrode potential +/- 500 mV. Digital data were treated smoothly for some types of noise, a reproducibility of +/- 0.0002 pH being obtained with a potentiometer. A flow cell was devised to attain temperature control within +/- 0.03 degrees C and air-tight measurement prevented contamination with carbon dioxide. Also, the flow cell has a structure such that potassium chloride (KCl) inner solution effused from a ceramic junction of the reference electrode designed so as not to touch the glass membrane. A combination pH electrode (a glass electrode and a reference electrode) was assembled to minimize the dead volume of sample solution. This highly sensitive pH measuring system, consisting of a pH meter, a flow cell, a combination pH electrode, a circulating water thermostat and a peristaltic pump, was used for the certification of pH standard solutions in Japanese metrological law. The performance of this system was within +/- 0.0006 pH reproducibility and 20-30 min response time (5 min within +/- 0.0002 pH) at a sample flow rate of 3 ml min (-1). PMID:18966620

Ito, S; Hachiya, H; Baba, K; Eto, M; Asano, Y; Wada, H



An autonomous 16 mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 16 mm3 autonomous solar-powered sensor node with bidirectional optical communication for distributed sensor networks has been demonstrated. The device digitizes integrated sensor signals and transmits\\/receives data over a free-space optical link. The system consists of three die - a 0.25 ?m CMOS ASIC, a 2.6 mm2 SOI solar cell array, and a micromachined four-quadrant corner-cube retroreflector (CCR), allowing it

Brett A. Warneke; Michael D. Scott; Brian S. Leibowitz; Lixia Zhou; Colby L. Bellew; J. Alex Chediakt; Joseph M. Kahn; Bernhard E. Boser; Kristofer S. J. Pister



Semi-quantitative analysis of cytokines in MM THR tissues and their relationship to metal particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines associated with osteolysis have been demonstrated in tissues surrounding failed metal–metal (MM) total hip replacements (THRs). The objective of the present study was to semi-quantify the amounts of inflammatory cytokines in tissues from 28 failed MM THRs, and determine their relationship with the quantity of metal particles. Paraffin sections were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal antibodies: anti-IL-1-?, anti-IL-6 and anti-TNF-?.

Isabelle Catelas; Pat A Campbell; Frederick Dorey; Angelica Frausto; Barbara G Mills; Harlan C Amstutz



Differentiated preemptive dispatching for automatic materials handling services in 300 mm semiconductor foundry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly automated materials handling in 300 mm semiconductor manufacturing is one of the biggest concerns to foundry practitioners\\u000a because effective coordination among efficient manual operations has been the core competence in their 200 mm manufacturing\\u000a successful stories. It is still very challenging to provide almost no-wait transport to hot lots (high priority lots) in an\\u000a automatic materials handling production environment. This paper

Da-Yin Liao; Chia-Nan Wang



Studies of a mispaired DNA recognized by a rhodium intercalator based on the ABEEM ??\\/MM method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mispaired DNA bound by a rhodium intercalator was simulated based on the newly constructed ABEEM??\\/MM fluctuating charge model. The RMSD of atomic coordinates between the simulated structure and crystal structure fell in a range of 0.07–0.14Å. It indicates that, the present ABEEM??\\/MM method is able to well simulate the system of mispaired DNA and metal complex. Then we studied

Fang-Fang Wang; Dong-Xia Zhao; Zhong-Zhi Yang; Yong Jiao; Pin Yang


ICoNOs MM: The IT-Enabled Collaborative Networked Organizations Maturity Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper is to introduce a comprehensive model for assessing and improving maturity of business-IT alignment\\u000a (B-ITa) in collaborative networked organizations (CNOs): the ICoNOs MM. This two dimensional maturity model (MM) addresses\\u000a five levels of maturity as well as four domains to which these levels apply: partnering structure, information system (IS)\\u000a architecture, process architecture and coordination. The

Roberto Santana Tapia



Optical design and evaluation of a 4 mm cost-effective ultra-high-definition arthroscope  

PubMed Central

High definition and magnification rigid endoscope plays an important role in modern minimally invasive medical surgery and diagnosis. In this paper, we present the design and evaluation methods of a high definition rigid endoscope, specifically an arthroscope, with a large depth of field (DOF). The incident heights and exit angles of the sampled rays on the relay lens are controlled during the optimization process to ensure an effective field view (70°) and a normal ray path within the limited lens diameter of 2.7 mm. The lens is set up as a multi-configuration system with two extreme and one middle object distances to cover a large DOF. As a result, an entrance pupil of 0.3 mm is achieved for the first time, to bring the theoretical resolution to 23.1 lps/mm in the object space at a working distance of 20 mm, with the wavelength of 0.532 um. The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves approach diffraction limit, and the values are all higher than 0.3 at 160 line pairs/mm (lps/mm) in the image space. Meanwhile, stray light caused by total internal reflection on the inner wall of the rod lenses and the objective lens is eliminated. The measured resolution in the object space at a 20 mm working distance is 22.3 lps/mm, and test results show that other performance characteristics also fulfill design requirements. The relay lenses are designed with only one type of the spacer and two types of lenses to greatly reduce the fabrication and assembly cost. The design method has important research and application values for lens systems used in modern minimally invasive medical surgery and industrial non-destructive testing area. PMID:25136495

Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Yu, Lu; Liu, Xiaohua



Process performance comparisons on 300-mm i-line steppers, DUV stepper, and DUV scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEMICONDUCTOR300 was the first pilot production facility for 300mm wafers in the world. This company, a joint venture between Infineon Technologies and Motorola, is working to develop a manufacturable 300mm wafer tool set. The lithography tools include I-line steppers, a DUV stepper, and two DUV scanners. These tools are used to build 64M DRAM devices and aggressive test vehicles. Data

Thorsten Schedel; Alain B. Charles; Dietmar Ganz; Steffen R. Hornig; Guenther Hraschan; Wolfram Koestler; John G. Maltabes; Karl E. Mautz; Thomas Metzdorf; Ralf Otto; Sebastian Schmidt; Ralf Schuster



Ozone sensitivity analysis with the MM5-CMAQ modeling system for Shanghai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone has become one of the most important air pollution issues around the world. This article applied both O3\\/(NOy-NOx) and H2O2\\/HNO3 indicators to analyze the ozone sensitivity in urban and rural areas of Shanghai, with implementation of the MM5-CMAQ modeling system in July, 2007. The meteorological parameters were obtained by using the MM5 model. A regional emission inventory with spatial

Li Li; Changhong Chen; Cheng Huang; Haiying Huang; Gangfeng Zhang; Yangjun Wang; Minghua Chen; Hongli Wang; Yiran Chen; D. G. Streets; Jiamo Fu



32mm alumina on alumina hip replacement for femoral neck fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hip replacement is considered the best option for treatment of displaced intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck (FFN).\\u000a The size of the femoral head is an important factor that influences the outcome when a total hip arthroplasty (THA) is performed:\\u000a implants with a 28mm femoral head are prone to dislocate more than ones with a 32mm. Obviously a large head

G. Solarino; A. Piazzolla; N. Tartaglia; L. Scialpi


Polar MM5 Simulations of the Winter Climate of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at the LGM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimized regional climate simulations are conducted using the Polar MM5, a version of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5), with a 60-km horizontal resolution domain over North America during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 000 calendar years ago), when much of the continent was covered by the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). The objective is to describe the

David H. Bromwich; E. Richard Toracinta; Helin Wei; Robert J. Oglesby; James L. Fastook; Terence J. Hughes



Polar MM5 Simulations of the Winter Climate of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at the LGM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimized regional climate simulations are conducted using the Polar MM5, a version of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5), with a 60-km horizontal resolution domain over North America during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21000 calendar years ago), when much of the continent was covered by the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). The objective is to describe the

David H. Bromwich; E. Richard Toracinta; Helin Wei; Robert J. Oglesby; James L. Fastook; Terence J. Hughes




E-print Network

336 INTERRUPTEUR A MERCURE POUR LES FORTES BOBINES DE RUHMKORFF ; Par MM. E. DUCRETET et L. LEJEUNE étroite et les dimensions restreintes don- nées généralement au godet contenant le mercure et l ceux décrits par MM. Gordon et Londe. Le mercure est contenu dans la partie étroite du godet 10 à i5

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Optical rotation in RbTiOAsO4 (point group mm2) W. Kaminsky*, I  

E-print Network

Optical rotation in RbTiOAsO4 (point group mm2) W. Kaminsky*, I , P. A. ThomasII and A. M. Glazer, UK Received March 5, 2001; accepted September 13, 2001 Abstract. Measurement of optical rotation in RbTiOAsO4 (RTA) with the tilter method resulted in an optical rotation of r12 ¼ þ17ð3� /mm

Kaminsky, Werner


Optical design and evaluation of a 4 mm cost-effective ultra-high-definition arthroscope.  


High definition and magnification rigid endoscope plays an important role in modern minimally invasive medical surgery and diagnosis. In this paper, we present the design and evaluation methods of a high definition rigid endoscope, specifically an arthroscope, with a large depth of field (DOF). The incident heights and exit angles of the sampled rays on the relay lens are controlled during the optimization process to ensure an effective field view (70°) and a normal ray path within the limited lens diameter of 2.7 mm. The lens is set up as a multi-configuration system with two extreme and one middle object distances to cover a large DOF. As a result, an entrance pupil of 0.3 mm is achieved for the first time, to bring the theoretical resolution to 23.1 lps/mm in the object space at a working distance of 20 mm, with the wavelength of 0.532 um. The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves approach diffraction limit, and the values are all higher than 0.3 at 160 line pairs/mm (lps/mm) in the image space. Meanwhile, stray light caused by total internal reflection on the inner wall of the rod lenses and the objective lens is eliminated. The measured resolution in the object space at a 20 mm working distance is 22.3 lps/mm, and test results show that other performance characteristics also fulfill design requirements. The relay lenses are designed with only one type of the spacer and two types of lenses to greatly reduce the fabrication and assembly cost. The design method has important research and application values for lens systems used in modern minimally invasive medical surgery and industrial non-destructive testing area. PMID:25136495

Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Yu, Lu; Liu, Xiaohua



Effects of buffer pH and phosphate concentration on the droplet size and EYP hydrolysis of perflubron/EYP emulsions.  


Oil-in-water emulsions containing perflubron (perfluorooctyl bromide; PFOB) and stabilized with egg yolk phospholipid (EYP) have potential applications as contrast agents and oxygen carriers. In this study, the effects of buffer pH and total phosphate concentration on the emulsion droplet size and EYP hydrolysis were evaluated. 90% w/v perflubron emulsions with NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4 buffers of different pH (4.7-8.7) and phosphate concentrations (30 and 60 mM) were prepared with a high-pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were stored at 40 degrees C and tested at 0, 1, 2 and 3 months. The pH dropped quickly in emulsions with pH 8.7 buffer whereas acidic and neutral buffered emulsions exhibited minor pH drops. The concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) vs emulsion pH can be fitted to a parabolic curve with a minimum at about pH 6.0. The droplet growth rates in emulsions with the pH 4.7 buffer were about 2.5 times of those in emulsions with the pH 8.7 buffer. Total phosphate concentration had only a minor effect. This study emphasizes the importance of the careful selection of buffer pH and capacity to control EYP hydrolysis and possibly emulsion droplet size. PMID:7849937

Song, D; Pelura, T J; Liu, J; Ni, Y



MM + MSE Student Initiated Dual Degree Information Pg. 1 of 4 Master of Management (Ross School of Business)  

E-print Network

of Financial Accounting 2.25 Law and Ethics 1.5 World Economy 1.5 Total Core: 24.75 Credits Business Elective of Business) + Master of Science in Engineering (Mechanical Engineering) Student Initiated Dual Degree Program Normal MM Program Requirements 24.75cr MM Business Core + 6cr MM Business Electives = 30.75cr MM Core

Awtar, Shorya


Measurement of soil pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of experimental results are presented which show the variation of the pH values of several soils when samples of each are shaken with CaClâ solutions of different concentrations. These results are then interpreted on the basis of the ratio law-derived from the Gouy theory of the electrical double layer - and it is shown that the pH values

R. K. Schofield; A. Wormald Taylor



Traceable measurements of pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary method for pH is based on the measurement of the potential difference of an electrochemical cell containing a\\u000a platinum hydrogen electrode and a silver\\/silver chloride reference electrode, often called a Harned cell. Assumptions must\\u000a be made to relate the operation of this cell to the thermodynamic definition of pH. National metrology institutes use the\\u000a primary method to assign

Petra Spitzer



Mechanisms of Intragastric pH Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luminal amino acids and lack of luminal acidity as a result of acid neutralization by intragastric foodstuffs are powerful\\u000a signals for acid secretion. Although the hormonal and neural pathways underlying this regulatory mechanism are well understood,\\u000a the nature of the gastric luminal pH sensor has been enigmatic. In clinical studies, high pH, tryptic peptides, and luminal\\u000a divalent metals (Ca2+ and

Tyralee Goo; Yasutada Akiba; Jonathan D. Kaunitz



Regulation of intracellular pH in cnidarians: response to acidosis in Anemonia viridis.  


The regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) is a fundamental aspect of cell physiology that has received little attention in studies of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes ecologically important sea anemones and reef-building corals. Like all organisms, cnidarians must maintain pH homeostasis to counterbalance reductions in pHi, which can arise because of changes in either intrinsic or extrinsic parameters. Corals and sea anemones face natural daily changes in internal fluids, where the extracellular pH can range from 8.9 during the day to 7.4 at night. Furthermore, cnidarians are likely to experience future CO?-driven declines in seawater pH, a process known as ocean acidification. Here, we carried out the first mechanistic investigation to determine how cnidarian pHi regulation responds to decreases in extracellular and intracellular pH. Using the anemone Anemonia viridis, we employed confocal live cell imaging and a pH-sensitive dye to track the dynamics of pHi after intracellular acidosis induced by acute exposure to decreases in seawater pH and NH?Cl prepulses. The investigation was conducted on cells that contained intracellular symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium sp.) and on symbiont-free endoderm cells. Experiments using inhibitors and Na?-free seawater indicate a potential role of Na?/H? plasma membrane exchangers (NHEs) in mediating pHi recovery following intracellular acidosis in both cell types. We also measured the buffering capacity of cells, and obtained values between 20.8 and 43.8 mM per pH unit, which are comparable to those in other invertebrates. Our findings provide the first steps towards a better understanding of acid-base regulation in these basal metazoans, for which information on cell physiology is extremely limited. PMID:24256552

Laurent, Julien; Venn, Alexander; Tambutté, Éric; Ganot, Philippe; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie



Effect of pH of amine fluoride containing toothpastes on enamel remineralization in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background One of the important factors of the demineralization and remineralization equilibrium of enamel is the pH of the surrounding solutions. Effort has been laid in the formulation of different fluoride compounds and the fluoride content in toothpastes but much less is known about the influence of the pH of the toothpastes on their effectiveness. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the influence of different pH levels on enamel remineralization in an in vitro experiment using polarization light microscopy and EDX quantitative element analysis. Methods A 5 × 5 mm window on the enamel surface of 40 caries free extracted human premolars was demineralized in a hydroxyethylcellulose solution at pH 4.8. The teeth were divided into 8 groups and the lower half of the window was covered with varnish serving as control. Each group was then immersed in toothpaste slurry containing amine fluoride (1400 ppm) at pH 4.1, 4.5, 5.1 and 6.9 or control toothpaste slurry without fluoride at pH 4.3, 4.7, 5.3 and 7.0. Serial sections were cut through the lesions and investigated with polarization light microscopy and quantitative EDX element analysis. Results The PLM results showed a decreased porous volume of the body of the lesion after incubation with fluoridated toothpaste at pH 4.53 and 5.16. No differences between the experimental window and the control window were found in the other groups. The quantitative element analysis showed no differences in the element content of any of the groups. Conclusion From the results it can be concluded that slightly acidified fluoridated dentifrices may have a certain positive effect on enamel remineralization. PMID:17941981

Arnold, Wolfgang H; Haase, Anabel; Hacklaender, Julia; Gintner, Zeno; Banoczy, Jolan; Gaengler, Peter



A novel optical mm-wave generation scheme based on three parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel optical mm-wave generation scheme based on three parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) for the first time. First, the scheme is investigated theoretically, which suggests that it can be used for sextupling, 12-tupling, and 18-tupling mm-wave generation. Then simulation results are given, 60 GHz mm-wave is generated from 5 GHz, or 10 GHz RF oscillator based on frequency 12-tupling or sextupling, and 90 GHz mm-wave is generated from 5 GHz RF oscillator based on frequency 18-tupling. The optical sideband suppression ratio (OSSR) and the radio frequency spurious suppression ratio (RFSSR) are analyzed by simulation, in which several non-ideal factors are taken into consideration. Results indicate that all the three mm-wave generation methods are practical and very good performance can be obtained when the extinction ratio of the MZM is 30 dB, even if the extinction ratio of the MZM is 20 dB, the performance is still good, especially for the sextupling mm-wave generation method, whose performance is excellent and insensitive to the extinction ratio of MZM, the non-ideal RF driving voltage and the non-ideal DC bias. At last, we set up a RoF system by simulation to verify the transmission performance of the scheme. The BER performance and eye diagrams are given.

Chen, Yang; Wen, Aijun; Guo, Jingjing; Shang, Lei; Wang, Yong



Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) docking: an evaluation for known test systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) docking approach for the investigation of protein-inhibitor complexes is presented. Starting points for QM/MM optimizations are generated with AutoDock. The subsequent semiempirical AM1 QM/MM optimization of the complex obtained by the docking procedure gives a more detailed description of the binding mode and the electronic properties of the ligand. As we use a flexible protein environment in the QM/MM optimizations, we are able to simulate limited structural changes of the enzyme upon binding a ligand, even within a simple geometry optimization. The method was validated using a set of structurally known protein-inhibitor complexes, whose crystallographic data were taken from the Protein Data Bank. In addition to protein structures taken directly from complexes with the inhibitors, structures of uncomplexed HIV-1-protease and thrombin were also used successfully for QM/MM docking experiments. By comparing the resulting structures with those obtained using protein structures from protein-inhibitor complexes, we find that the method is able to simulate the effect of the induced fit when a simple optimization is adequate to reproduce the protein movement. Describing the ligand quantum mechanically gives a detailed view of its electronic properties, for example its polarization within the active site of the enzyme. This study suggests strongly that a QM/MM molecular dynamics approach will be able to simulate the induced fit in general cases.

Beierlein, Frank; Lanig, Harald; Schürer, Gudrun; Horn, Anselm H. C.; Clark, Timothy


IR spectra of flavins in solution: DFT/MM description of redox effects.  


The functional reactions in blue light photoreceptors generally involve transiently reduced flavins exhibiting characteristic infrared (IR) spectra. To approach a theoretical understanding, here we apply density functional theory (DFT) to flavin radicals embedded in a molecular mechanics (MM) model of an aqueous solution. Combining a DFT/MM approach with instantaneous normal-mode analyses (INMA), we compute the IR solution spectra of anionic and neutral flavin radicals. For a set of mid-IR marker bands, we identify those changes of spectral locations, intensities, and widths, which are caused by sequentially adding an electron and a proton to the oxidized flavin. Comparisons with experimental IR solution spectra of flavin radicals show the accuracy of our DFT/MM-INMA approach and allow us to assign the observed bands. The room temperature ensembles of solvent cages required for the INMA calculations of the IR spectra are generated in an MM setting from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. For the solvated flavin radicals, these MD simulations employ MM force fields derived from DFT/MM calculations. PMID:21309580

Rieff, Benjamin; Bauer, Sebastian; Mathias, Gerald; Tavan, Paul



CRCHD Principal Investigator: Campbell, Janis, Ph.D.

CRCHD Principal Investigator: Campbell, Janis, Ph.D.  Back to CRCHD Ongoing Research CNP Project Listing Janis Campbell, Ph.D. CNP Project Listing CNP Pilot Projects Project Investigator Biography Campbell, Janis, Ph.D. University of


CRCHD Principal Investigator: Paula A. Espinoza, Ph.D.

CRCHD Principal Investigator: Paula A. Espinoza, Ph.D.  Back to CRCHD Ongoing Research CNP Project Listing Paula A. Espinoza, Ph.D. CNP Project Listing CNP Pilot Projects Project Investigator Biography Paula A. Espinoza, Ph.D. University


M.S. and Ph.D. in Environmental  

E-print Network

, Ph.D. Marine Biotechnology Richard Johnson, Ph.D. Contaminant Hydrology Joseph Needoba, Ph.D. Marine. The EOS track is focused on multidisciplinary approachs to understanding marine systems. M.S. students can

Chapman, Michael S.


Effects of pH, Chloride, and Bicarbonate on Cu(I) Oxidation Kinetics at Circumneutral pH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The redox chemistry of copper species in the upper water column plays a significant role in its speciation, transport and bioavailability. Most previous studies have focused primarily on Cu(II), principally because Cu(I) is easily oxidized to Cu(II) by oxygen or other oxidants. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that a number of potentially important reactions may lead to Cu(I) formation and result in a significant steady-state concentration of Cu(I) in natural waters. Redox reactions of Cu(I) could result in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydroxyl radical, that may subsequently induce a cascade of radical-promoted reactions with other constituents in natural waters. As such, a better understanding of copper-catalysed processes that produce and consume O2- is important in furthering our insight into factors contributing to global biogeochemical cycles. In this study, the oxidation kinetics of nanomolar concentrations of Cu(I) in NaCl solutions have been investigated over the pH range 6.5-8.0.The overall apparent oxidation rate constant was strongly affected by chloride, moderately by bicarbonate and, and to a lesser extent, by pH. In the absence of bicarbonate, an equilibrium-based speciation model indicated that Cu+ and CuClOH- were the most kinetically reactive species, while the contribution of other Cu(I) species to the overall oxidation rate was minor. A kinetic model based on recognized key redox reactions for these two species further indicated that oxidation of Cu(I) by oxygen and superoxide were important reactions at all pH values and [Cl-] considered, but back reduction of Cu(II) by superoxide only became important at relatively low chloride concentrations. Bicarbonate concentrations from 2-5 mM substantially accelerated Cu(I) oxidation. Kinetic analysis over a range of bicarbonate concentrations revealed that this was due to the formation of CuCO3-, which reacts relatively rapidly with oxygen, and not due to inhibition of the back reduction of Cu(II) by formation of Cu(II)-carbonate complexes. We conclude that the simultaneous oxygenation of Cu+, CuClOH- and CuCO3- is the rate-limiting step in the overall oxidation of Cu(I) under these conditions. Determination of values for apparent and intrinsic rate constants for the oxidation of those critical Cu(I) species by O2 over the pH range 6.5-8.0 should greatly assist in understanding and predicting inorganic Cu(I) and Cu(II) transformations in natural waters.

Yuan, X.; Pham, A.; Waite, T.; Xing, G.; Rose, A.



Synergistic and antagonistic effects of salinity and pH on germination in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).  


The effects of salt-alkaline mixed stress on switchgrass were investigated by evaluating seed germination and the proline, malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble sugar contents in three switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars in order to identify which can be successfully produced on marginal lands affected by salt-alkaline mixed stress. The experimental conditions consisted of four levels of salinity (10, 60, 110 and 160 mM) and four pH levels (7.1, 8.3, 9.5 and 10.7). The effects of salt-alkaline mixed stress with equivalent coupling of the salinity and pH level on the switchgrass were explored via model analyses. Switchgrass was capable of germinating and surviving well in all treatments under low-alkaline pH (pH?8.3), regardless of the salinity. However, seed germination and seedling growth were sharply reduced at higher pH values in conjunction with salinity. The salinity and pH had synergetic effects on the germination percentage, germination index, plumular length and the soluble sugar and proline contents in switchgrass. However, these two factors exhibited antagonistic effects on the radicular length of switchgrass. The combined effects of salinity and pH and the interactions between them should be considered when evaluating the strength of salt-alkaline mixed stress. PMID:24454834

Liu, Yuan; Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Yunwei; Cui, Jian; Chen, Guo; Xie, Bao; Wu, Chunhui; Liu, Haitao



Synergistic and Antagonistic Effects of Salinity and pH on Germination in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)  

PubMed Central

The effects of salt-alkaline mixed stress on switchgrass were investigated by evaluating seed germination and the proline, malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble sugar contents in three switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars in order to identify which can be successfully produced on marginal lands affected by salt-alkaline mixed stress. The experimental conditions consisted of four levels of salinity (10, 60, 110 and 160 mM) and four pH levels (7.1, 8.3, 9.5 and 10.7). The effects of salt-alkaline mixed stress with equivalent coupling of the salinity and pH level on the switchgrass were explored via model analyses. Switchgrass was capable of germinating and surviving well in all treatments under low-alkaline pH (pH?8.3), regardless of the salinity. However, seed germination and seedling growth were sharply reduced at higher pH values in conjunction with salinity. The salinity and pH had synergetic effects on the germination percentage, germination index, plumular length and the soluble sugar and proline contents in switchgrass. However, these two factors exhibited antagonistic effects on the radicular length of switchgrass. The combined effects of salinity and pH and the interactions between them should be considered when evaluating the strength of salt-alkaline mixed stress. PMID:24454834

Liu, Yuan; Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Yunwei; Cui, Jian; Chen, Guo; Xie, Bao; Wu, Chunhui; Liu, Haitao



IMPEE PhD Opportunity Project title: LightFoot PhD A PhD Investigation Lightning Protection of HV Overhead Lines with Non-Ideal  

E-print Network

IMPEE PhD Opportunity Project title: LightFoot PhD ­ A PhD Investigation Lightning Protection of Abstract LightFoot PhD ­ A PhD Investigation Lightning Protection of HV Overhead Lines with Non-Ideal Tower to the understanding of the effect of lightning strikes on an overhead transmission line in terms of its electrical

Greenaway, Alan


Bioelectricity production from food waste leachate using microbial fuel cells: effect of NaCl and pH.  


Microbial fuel cells are a promising technology for simultaneous treatment and energy recovery from food waste leachate. This study evaluates the effects of NaCl (0-150 mM) and pH on the treatment of food waste leachate using microbial fuel cells. The food waste leachate amended with 100mM NaCl enabled the highest maximum power density (1000 mW/m(3)) and lowest internal resistance (371?). Increasing the anodic pH gradually from acidic to alkaline conditions (pH 4-9) resulted in a gradual increase in maximum power density to 9956 mW/m(3) and decrease in internal cell resistance to 35.3?. The coulombic efficiency obtained under acidic conditions was only 17.8%, but increased significantly to 60.0% and 63.4% in the neutral and alkaline pH's MFCs, respectively. Maintaining a narrow pH window (6.3-7.6) was essential for efficient bioelectricity production and COD removal using microbial fuel cells for the treatment of food waste leachate. PMID:24140849

Li, Xiao Min; Cheng, Ka Yu; Wong, Jonathan W C



Doxorubicin physical state in solution and inside liposomes loaded via a pH gradient.  


We have examined doxorubicin's (DOX) physical state in solution and inside EPC/cholesterol liposomes that were loaded via a transmembrane pH gradient. Using cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) we noted that DOX loaded to 200-300 mM internal concentrations in citrate containing liposomes formed linear, curved, and circular bundles of fibers with no significant interaction/perturbation of the vesicle membrane. The individual DOX fibers are putatively comprised of stacked DOX molecules. From end-on views of bundles of fibers it appeared that they are aligned longitudinally in a hexagonal array with a separation between fibers of approx. 3-3.5 nm. Two distinct small angle X-ray diffraction patterns (oblique and simple hexagonal) were observed for DOX-citrate fiber aggregates that had been concentrated from solution at either pH 4 or 5. The doxorubicin fibers were also present in citrate liposomes loaded with only one-tenth the amount of doxorubicin used above (approx. 20 mM internal DOX concentration) indicating that the threshold concentration at which these structures form is relatively low. In fact, from cryo-EM and circular dichroism spectra, we estimate that the DOX-citrate fiber bundles can account for the vast majority (>99%) of DOX loaded via a pH gradient into citrate buffered liposomes. DOX loaded into liposomes containing lactobionic acid (LBA), a monoanionic buffer to control the internal pH, remained disaggregated at internal DOX concentrations of approx. 20 mM but formed uncondensed fibers (no bundles) when the internal DOX concentration was approx. 200 mM. This finding suggests that in the citrate containing liposomes the citrate multianion electrostatically bridged adjacent fibers to form the observed bundles. 13C-NMR measurements of [1,5-13C]citrate inside liposomes suggested that citrate 'bound' to the DOX complex and 'free' citrate rapidly exchange indicating that the citrate-DOX interaction is quite dynamic. DOX release into buffer was relatively slow (<4% at 1 h) from liposomes containing DOX fibers (in citrate loaded to a low or high DOX concentration or in LBA liposomes loaded to a high internal DOX concentration). LBA containing liposomes loaded with disaggregated DOX, where the internal DOX concentration was only approx. 20 mM, experienced an osmotic stress induced vesicle rupture with as much as 18% DOX leakage in less than 10 min. The possible implications for this in vivo are discussed. PMID:9858673

Li, X; Hirsh, D J; Cabral-Lilly, D; Zirkel, A; Gruner, S M; Janoff, A S; Perkins, W R



Rhizosphere pH gradient controls copper availability in a strongly acidic soil.  


Using a root mat approach, we quantified how root-induced alkalization controlled the establishment of copper (Cu) gradients in the rhizosphere of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum L.) cropped in a strongly acidic, Cu-contaminated soil. Rhizosphere pH increased over 6 mm in soil, reaching up to +2.8 units close to root mat surface. Conversely, free Cu2+ activity decreased by 3 orders of magnitude and total Cu concentration by 3-fold in the rhizosphere solution, while labile Cu assessed by DGT (diffusive gradients in thin films) was halved. The DIFS (DGT-induced flux in soils and sediments) model failed to adequately simulate Cu depletion in the rhizosphere solution, showing that root-induced alkalization almost entirely explained Cu depletion while plant uptake had little impact. We modeled the observed pH gradient to recalculate its radial extension around a single root. The gradient of free Cu2+ activity in solution, deduced from pH modeling, extended over 1-4 mm in the rhizosphere depending on root radius and OH- efflux from root. Rhizosphere alkalization dramatically decreased root exposure to Cu, substantiating that root-induced chemical changes in the rhizosphere should be better accounted for to assess metal bioavailability to plants. PMID:19731663

Bravin, M N; Tentscher, P; Rose, J; Hinsinger, P



Influence of cation type, ionic strength, and pH on solubilization and mobilization of residual hydrocarbon by a biosurfactant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effect of cation type, ionic strength, and pH on the performance of an anionic monorhamnolipid biosurfactant for solubilization and removal of residual hexadecane from sand. Three common soil cations, Na +, Mg 2+, and Ca 2+, were used in these experiments and hexadecane was chosen to represent a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) less dense than water. Results showed that hexadecane solubility in rhamnolipid solution was significantly increased by the addition of Na + and Mg 2+. Addition of up to 0.2 mM Ca 2+ also increased hexadecane solubility. For Ca 2+ concentrations greater than 0.2 mM there was little effect on hexadecane solubility due to competing effects of calcium-induced rhamnolipid precipitation and enhanced hexadecane solubilization. Efficiency of NAPL solubilization can be expressed in terms of molar solubilization ratios (MSR). The results showed that MSR values for hexadecane in rhamnolipid solutions increased 7.5-fold in the presence of 500 mM Na +, and 25-fold in the presence of 1 mM Mg 2+. The presence of cations also reduced the interfacial tension between rhamnolipid solutions and hexadecane. For example, an increase in Na + from 0 to 800 mM caused a decrease in interfacial tension from 2.2 to 0.89 dyn cm -1. Similarly, decreasing pH caused a reduction in interfacial tension. The lowest interfacial tension value observed in this study was 0.02 dyn cm -1 at pH 6 in the presence of 320 mM Na +. These conditions were also found to be optimal for removal of hexadecane residual from sand columns, with 58% of residual removed within three pore volumes. The removal of residual NAPL from the packed columns was primarily by mobilization, even though solubilization was significantly increased in the presence of Na +.

Bai, Guiyun; Brusseau, Mark L.; Miller, Raina M.


pH Dependence of Sphingosine Aggregation  

PubMed Central

Sphingosine and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are sphingolipid metabolites that act as signaling messengers to activate or inhibit multiple downstream targets to regulate cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. The amphiphilic nature of these compounds leads to aggregation above their critical micelle concentrations (CMCs), which may be important for understanding lysosomal glycosphingolipid storage disorders. We investigated the aggregation of sphingosine and S1P over a comprehensive, physiologically relevant range of pH values, ionic strengths, and lipid concentrations by means of dynamic light scattering, titration, and NMR spectroscopy. The results resolve discrepancies in literature reports of CMC and pKa values. At physiological pH, the nominal CMCs of sphingosine and S1P are 0.99 ± 0.12 ?M (pH 7.4) and 14.35 ± 0.08 ?M (pH 7.2), respectively. We find that pH strongly affects the aggregation behavior of sphingosine by changing the ionic and hydrogen-bonding states; the nominal critical aggregation concentrations of protonated and deprotonated sphingosine are 1.71 ± 0.24 ?M and 0.70 ± 0.02 ?M, respectively. NMR measurements revealed that the NH3+–NH2 transition of sphingosine occurs at pH 6.6, and that there is a structural shift in sphingosine aggregates caused by a transition in the predominant hydrogen-bonding network from intramolecular to intermolecular that occurs between pH 6.7 and 9.9. PMID:19348755

Sasaki, Hirotaka; Arai, Hiromi; Cocco, Melanie J.; White, Stephen H.



Diatoms and pH Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palaeolimnological diatom data comprise counts of many species expressed as percentages for each sample. Reconstruction of past lake-water pH from such data involves two steps; (i) regression, where responses of modern diatom abundances to pH are modelled and (ii) calibration where the modelled responses are used to infer pH from diatom assemblages preserved in lake sediments. In view of the highly multivariate nature of diatom data, the strongly nonlinear response of diatoms to pH, and the abundance of zero values in the data, a compromise between ecological realism and computational feasability is essential. The two numerical approaches used are (i) the computationally demanding but formal statistical approach of maximum likelihood (ML) Gaussian logit regression and calibration and (ii) the computationally straightforward but heuristic approach of weighted averaging (WA) regression and calibration. When the Surface Water Acidification Project (SWAP) modern training set of 178 lakes is reduced by data-screening to 167 lakes, WA gives superior results in terms of lowest root mean squared errors of prediction in cross-validation. Bootstrapping is also used to derive prediction errors, not only for the training set as a whole but also for individual pH reconstructions by WA for stratigraphic samples from Round Loch of Glenhead, southwest Scotland covering the last 10 000 years. These reconstructions are evaluated in terms of lack-of-fit to pH and analogue measures and are interpreted in terms of rate of change by using bootstrapping of the reconstructed pH time-series.

Birks, H. J. B.; Line, J. M.; Juggins, S.; Stevenson, A. C.; Ter Braak, C. J. F.



MRF with adjustable pH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterministic final polishing of high precision optics using sub-aperture processing with magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is an accepted practice throughout the world. A wide variety of materials can be successfully worked with aqueous (pH 10), magnetorheological (MR) fluids, using magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) and either ceria or nanodiamond nonmagnetic abrasives. Polycrystalline materials like zinc sulfide (ZnS) and zinc selenide (ZnSe) are difficult to polish at pH 10 with MRF, due to their grain size and the relatively low stiffness of the MR fluid lap. If microns of material are removed, the grain structure of the material begins to appear. In 2005, Kozhinova et al. (Appl. Opt. 44 4671-4677) demonstrated that lowering pH could improve MRF of ZnS. However, magnetic CI particle corrosion rendered their low pH approach unstable and unsuitable for commercial implementation. In 2009, Shafrir et al. described a sol-gel coating process for manufacturing a zirconia-coated CI particle that protects the magnetic core from aqueous corrosion (Appl. Opt .48 6797-6810). The coating process produces free nanozirconia polishing abrasives during the coating procedure, thereby creating an MR polishing powder that is "self-charged" with the polishing abrasive. By simply adding water, it was possible to polish optical glasses and ceramics with good stability at pH 8 for three weeks. The development of a corrosion resistant, MR polishing powder, opens up the possibility for polishing additional materials, wherein the pH may be adjusted to optimize effectiveness. In this paper we describe the CI coating process, the characterization of the coated powder, and procedures for making stable MR fluids with adjustable pH, giving polishing results for a variety of optical glasses and crystalline ceramics.

Jacobs, Stephen D.



Version 3.0 SOP 6a --pH October 12, 2007 pH (total hydrogen  

E-print Network

Version 3.0 SOP 6a -- pH October 12, 2007 117 SOP 6a pH - / 1. pH (total hydrogen ion concentration pH scale) . , [H+ ] 1 kg . 2. . F T S F 4 [H ] [H ] (1 / ) [H ] [HSO ] S K+ + + - = + + (1) [H+ ]F (free concentration), ST ([HSO4 - ]+[SO4 2- ]) KS [HSO4 - ] . pH . 10 1 [H ] pH



E-print Network

are sensitive to changes in pH, the gut pH of the honey bee must be maintained at a fairly constant level maintain the gut and hemolymph pH at levels critical for survival because changes in pH could resultEFFECT OF DIET pH ON THE CONSUMPTION, BROOD REARING, AND pH OF WORKER JELLY PRODUCED BY CAGED HONEY

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


QM/MM Minimum Free Energy Path: Methodology and Application to Triosephosphate Isomerase  

PubMed Central

Structural and energetic changes are two important characteristic properties of a chemical reaction process. In the condensed phase, studying these two properties is very challenging because of the great computational cost associated with the quantum mechanical calculations and phase space sampling. Although the combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach significantly reduces the amount of the quantum mechanical calculations and facilitates the simulation of solution phase and enzyme catalyzed reactions, the required quantum mechanical calculations remain quite expensive and extensive sampling can be achieved routinely only with semiempirical quantum mechanical methods. QM/MM simulations with ab initio QM methods, therefore, are often restricted to narrow regions of the potential energy surface such as the reactant, product and transition state, or the minimum energy path. Such ab initio QM/MM calculations have previously been performed with the QM/MM-Free Energy (QM/MM-FE) method of Zhang et al.1 to generate the free energy profile along the reaction coordinate using free energy perturbation calculations at fixed structures of the QM subsystems. Results obtained with the QM/MM-FE method depend on the determination of the minimum energy reaction path, which is based on local conformations of the protein/solvent environment and can be difficult to obtain in practice. To overcome the difficulties associated with the QM/MM-FE method and to further enhance the sampling of the MM environment conformations, we develop here a new method to determine the QM/MM minimum free energy path (QM/MM-MFEP) for chemical reaction processes in solution and in enzymes. Within the QM/MM framework, we express the free energy of the system as a function of the QM conformation, thus leading to a simplified potential of mean force (PMF) description for the thermodynamics of the system. The free energy difference between two QM conformations is evaluated by the QM/MM free energy perturbation method. The free energy gradients with respect to the QM degrees of freedom are calculated from molecular dynamics simulations at given QM conformations. With the free energy and free energy gradients in hand, we further implement chain-of-conformation optimization algorithms in the search for the reaction path on the free energy surface without specifying a reaction coordinate. This method thus efficiently provides a unique minimum free energy path for solution and enzyme reactions, with structural and energetic properties being determined simultaneously. To further incorporate the dynamic contributions of the QM subsystem into the simulations, we develop the reaction path potential of Lu, et al.2 for the minimum free energy path. The combination of the methods developed here presents a comprehensive and accurate treatment for the simulation of reaction processes in solution and in enzymes with ab initio QM/MM methods. The method has been demonstrated on the first step of the reaction of the enzyme triosephosphate isomerase with good agreement with previous studies. PMID:19079734

Hu, Hao; Lu, Zhenyu; Yang, Weitao



Ultra-Compact Multitip Scanning Probe Microscope with an Outer Diameter of 50 mm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a multitip scanning tunneling microscope (STM) where four independent STM units are integrated on a diameter of 50 mm. The coarse positioning of the tips is done under the control of an optical microscope or an SEM in vacuum. The heart of this STM is a new type of piezoelectric coarse approach called Koala Drive which can have a diameter greater than 2.5 mm and a length smaller than 10 mm. Alternating movements of springs move a central tube which holds the STM tip or AFM sensor. This new operating principle provides a smooth travel sequence and avoids shaking which is intrinsically present for nanopositioners based on inertial motion with saw tooth driving signals. Inserting the Koala Drive in a piezo tube for xyz-scanning integrates a complete STM inside a 4 mm outer diameter piezo tube of <10 mm length. The use of the Koala Drive makes the scanning probe microscopy design ultra-compact and accordingly leads to a high mechanical stability. The drive is UHV, low temperature, and magnetic field compatible. The compactness of the Koala Drive allows building a four-tip STM as small as a single-tip STM with a drift of <0.2 nm/min and lowest resonance frequencies of 2.5 (xy) and 5.5 kHz (z). We present examples of the performance of the multitip STM designed using the Koala Drive.

Cherepanov, Vasily; Zubkov, Evgeny; Junker, Hubertus; Korte, Stefan; Blab, Marcus; Coenen, Peter; Voigtländer, Bert


The local sub-mm luminosity functions and predictions from ASTRO-F/SIRTF to Herschel  

E-print Network

We present new determinations of the local sub-mm luminosity functions. We find the local sub-mm luminosity density converging to 7.3+/-0.2 x 10^19 W/Hz/Mpc^3 /h_65 at 850um solving the ``sub-mm Olbers' Paradox.'' Using the sub-mm colour temperature relations from the SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey, and the discovery of excess 450um excess emission in these galaxies, we interpolate and extrapolate the IRAS detections to make predictions of the SEDs of all 15411 PSC-z galaxies from 50-3000um. Despite the long extrapolations we find excellent agreement with (a) the 90um luminosity function of Serjeant et al. (2001), (b) the 850um luminosity function of Dunne et al. (2000), (c) the mm-wave photometry of Andreani & Franceschini (1996); (d) the asymptotic differential and integral source count predictions at 50-3000um by Rowan-Robinson (2001). Remarkably, the local luminosity density and the extragalactic background light together strongly constrain the cosmic star formation history for a wide class of evolutionary assumptions. We find that the extragalactic background light, the 850um 8mJy source counts, and the Omega_* constraints all independently point to a decline in the comoving star formation rate at z>1.

Stephen Serjeant; Diana Harrison



Rehabilitation of the atrophic posterior mandible with short (4-mm) implants: a case report.  


This case report describes a successful implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of an atrophic posterior mandible with 4-mm-long implants. The patient refused to undergo any reconstructive surgery, and because the available bone up to the inferior alveolar nerve was only 5 mm or less, the patient received four implants of 4-mm length. Four months after implant placement, a provisional prosthesis was put in place; after another 4 months, this was then in turn replaced with a definitive prosthesis. The use of such short implants allows a fixed prosthetic solution without the need for vertically augmenting the mandibular bone. This procedure considerably reduces intra- and postoperative patient discomfort compared with reconstructive surgery for the placement of longer implants. The follow-up time was 1 year after implant loading. PMID:25171043

Pistilli, Roberto; Barausse, Carlo; Checchi, Luigi; Felice, Pierto



New Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Temperature at3.3 mm Wavelength  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the temperature of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at 3.3 mm wavelength in 1982, 1983, and 1984 as part of a larger project to determine the CBR temperature at five wavelengths from 12 cm to 3.3 mm (Smoot et al. 1985). The 3.3-mm measurements yield a brightness temperature of 2.57 K with a 1{sigma} uncertainty of 20.12 K. This paper describes the instrument, the measurement techniques, and the data-analysis procedures used. Our result is in good agreement with recent measurements at comparable wavelengths by Meyer and Jura (1985) and by Peterson, Richards, and Timusk (1985), but it disagrees with the temperatures reported by Woody and Richards (1981).

Witebsky, C.; Smoot, G.; De Amici, G.; Friedman, S.D.



GTKDynamo: a PyMOL plug-in for QC/MM hybrid potential simulations  

PubMed Central

Hybrid quantum chemical (QC)/molecular mechanical (MM) potentials are very powerful tools for molecular simulation. They are especially useful for studying processes in condensed phase systems, such as chemical reactions, that involve a relatively localized change in electronic structure and where the surrounding environment contributes to these changes but can be represented with more computationally efficient functional forms. Despite their utility, however, these potentials are not always straightforward to apply since the extent of significant electronic structure changes occurring in the condensed phase process may not be intuitively obvious. To facilitate their use we have developed an open-source graphical plug-in, GTKDynamo, that links the PyMOL visualization program and the pDynamo QC/MM simulation library. This article describes the implementation of GTKDynamo and its capabilities and illustrates its application to QC/MM simulations. PMID:24137667

Bachega, Jose Fernando R.; Timmers, Luis Fernando S.M.; Assirati, Lucas; Bachega, Leonardo R.; Field, Martin J.; Wymore, Troy



A 5mm catheter for constant resolution probing in Fourier domain optical coherence endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 5mm biophotonic catheter was conceived for optical coherence tomography (OCT) with collimation optics, an axicon lens, and custom design imaging optics, yielding a 360 degree scan aimed at imaging within concave structures such as lung lobes. In OCT a large depth of focus is necessary to image a thick sample with a constant high transverse resolution. There are two approaches to achieving constant lateral resolution in OCT: Dynamic focusing or Bessel beam forming. This paper focuses on imaging with Bessel beams. A Bessel beam can be generated in the sample arm of the OCT interferometer when axicon optics is employed instead of a conventional focusing lens. We present a design for a 5mm catheter that combines an axicon lens with imaging optics and the coupling of a MEMS mirror attached to a micromotor that allow 360 degree scanning with a resolution of about 5 microns across a depth of focus of about 1.2mm.

Lee, Kye-Sung; Wu, Lei; Xie, Huikai; Ilegbusi, Olusegun; Costa, Marco; Rolland, Jannick P.



A study on friction stir welding of 12mm thick aluminum alloy plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the investigations regarding friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloy plates have been limited to about 5 to 6 mm thick plates. In prior work conducted the various aspects concerning the process parameters and the FSW tool geometry were studied utilizing friction stir welding of 12 mm thick commercial grade aluminum alloy. Two different simple-to-manufacture tool geometries were used. The effect of varying welding parameters and dwell time of FSW tool on mechanical properties and weld quality was examined. It was observed that in order to achieve a defect free welding on such thick aluminum alloy plates, tool having trapezoidal pin geometry was suitable. Adequate tensile strength and ductility can be achieved utilizing a combination of high tool rotational speed of about 2000 r/min and low speed of welding around 28 mm/min. At very low and high dwell time the ductility of welded joints are reduced significantly.

Kumar, Deepati Anil; Biswas, Pankaj; Tikader, Sujoy; Mahapatra, M. M.; Mandal, N. R.



Dust emissivity in the submm/mm. SCUBA and SIMBA observations of Barnard 68  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed the dark cloud Barnard 68 with SCUBA at 850 mu m and with SIMBA at 1.2 mm. The submillimetre and millimetre dust emission correlate well with the extinction map of Alves et al. (\\cite{AlvesNature2001}). The AV/850 mu m correlation is clearly not linear and suggests lower temperatures for the dust in the inner core of the cloud. Assuming a model for the temperature gradient, we derive the cloud-averaged dust emissivities (normalised to the V-band extinction efficiency) at 850 mu m and 1.2 mm. We find kappa850 mum/ kappaV =4.0+/- 1.0x 10-5 and kappa1.2 mm/ kappaV =9.0+/- 3.0x 10-6. These values are compared with other determinations in this wavelength regime and with expectations for models of diffuse dust and grain growth in dense clouds.

Bianchi, S.; Gonçalves, J.; Albrecht, M.; Caselli, P.; Chini, R.; Galli, D.; Walmsley, M.



Recording and wear characteristics of 4 and 8 mm helical scan tapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance data of media on helical scan tape systems (4 and 8 mm) is presented and various types of media are compared. All measurements were performed on a standard MediaLogic model ML4500 Tape Evaluator System with a Flash Converter option for time based measurements. The 8 mm tapes are tested on an Exabyte 8200 drive and 4 mm tapes on an Archive Python drive; in both cases, the head transformer is directly connected to a Media Logic Read/Write circuit and test electronics. The drive functions only as a tape transport and its data recover circuits are not used. Signal to Noise, PW 50, Peak Shift and Wear Test data is used to compare the performance of MP (metal particle), BaFe, and metal evaporate (ME). ME tape is the clear winner in magnetic performance but its susceptibility to wear and corrosion, make it less than ideal for data storage.

Peter, Klaus J.; Speliotis, Dennis E.



Large-area Reflective Infrared Filters for Millimeter/sub-mm Telescopes  

E-print Network

Ground-based millimeter and sub-millimeter telescopes are attempting to image the sky with ever-larger cryogenically-cooled bolometer arrays, but face challenges in mitigating the infrared loading accompanying large apertures. Absorptive infrared filters supported by mechanical coolers scale insufficiently with aperture size. Reflective metal-mesh filters placed behind the telescope window provide a scalable solution in principle, but have been limited by photolithography constraints to diameters under 300 mm. We present laser etching as an alternate technique to photolithography for fabrication of large-area reflective filters, and show results from lab tests of 500 mm-diameter filters. Filters with up to 700 mm diameter can be fabricated using laser etching with existing capability.

Ahmed, Z; Thompson, K L; Kuo, C L; Brooks, G; Pothoven, T



OpenMM 4: A Reusable, Extensible, Hardware Independent Library for High Performance Molecular Simulation  

PubMed Central

OpenMM is a software toolkit for performing molecular simulations on a range of high performance computing architectures. It is based on a layered architecture: the lower layers function as a reusable library that can be invoked by any application, while the upper layers form a complete environment for running molecular simulations. The library API hides all hardware-specific dependencies and optimizations from the users and developers of simulation programs: they can be run without modification on any hardware on which the API has been implemented. The current implementations of OpenMM include support for graphics processing units using the OpenCL and CUDA frameworks. In addition, OpenMM was designed to be extensible, so new hardware architectures can be accommodated and new functionality (e.g., energy terms and integrators) can be easily added. PMID:23316124

Eastman, Peter; Friedrichs, Mark S.; Chodera, John D.; Radmer, Randall J.; Bruns, Christopher M.; Ku, Joy P.; Beauchamp, Kyle A.; Lane, Thomas J.; Wang, Lee-Ping; Shukla, Diwakar; Tye, Tony; Houston, Mike; Stich, Timo; Klein, Christoph; Shirts, Michael R.; Pande, Vijay S.



Rapid Ti(III) reduction of perchlorate in the presence of ?-alanine: Kinetics, pH effect, complex formation, and ?-alanine effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ti(III) reduction of perchlorate might be a useful method for the treatment of highly perchlorate-contaminated water. Though the reaction rate was usually low, we observed that ?-alanine (HOOCCH2CH2NH2) could significantly promote the reaction. A complete (>99.9%) perchlorate removal was obtained in a solution containing [ClO4?]=1.0mM, [Ti(III)]=40mM, and [?-alanine]=120mM after 2.5h of reaction under 50°C. The effects of both pH and

Chao Wang; Zhengdao Huang; Lee Lippincott; Xiaoguang Meng



XMM-Newton Surveys of the CFRS Fields - I: The Sub-mm/X-ray relation  

E-print Network

First results from XMM-Newton observations of the Canada France Redshift Survey (CFRS) 3hr, 10hr and 14hr fields are presented. Limited regions of two of the XMM surveys (3 and 14hr) are compared to the Canada UK Deep sub-mm Surveys (CUDSS) undertaken with SCUBA. None of the 27 SCUBA sources in the 3hr field are detected by XMM, while one of the 23 SCUBA sources in the 14hr field is found to coincide with an X-ray source. The SCUBA population as a whole is not significantly detected in either the 0.5-2 keV or the 2-10 keV X-ray bands, even after coadding the X-ray flux at the SCUBA positions, in both fields. The 18 X-ray sources within the CUDSS 3hr map yield a mean sub-mm flux of 0.48+-0.27 mJy after coadding the sub-mm flux at the X-ray positions. Using this result we place an upper limit on the contribution of AGN to the sub-mm background at 850 microns of ~7 per cent. Conversely we estimate the contribution of sub-mm sources to the 0.5-2 keV X-ray background to be 2.3. The ratio of the X-ray to sub-mm flux for the X-ray sources however, implies that even when a galaxy does contain an AGN, most of the energy heating the dust is from young stars and not from the active nucleus.

Timothy J. Waskett; Stephen A. Eales; Walter K. Gear; Elizabeth M. Puchnarewicz; Simon Lilly; Hector Flores; Tracy Webb; David Clements; Jason A. Stevens; Trinh X. Thuan



The local sub-mm luminosity functions and predictions from Spitzer to Herschel  

E-print Network

We present new determinations of the local sub-mm luminosity functions, solving the ``sub-mm Olbers' Paradox.'' We also present predictions of source counts and luminosity functions in current and future far-infrared to sub-mm surveys. Using the sub-mm colour temperature relations from the SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey, and the discovery of excess 450 micron excess emission in these galaxies, we interpolate and extrapolate the IRAS detections to make predictions of the SEDs of all 15411 PSC-z galaxies from 50-1300 microns. Despite the long extrapolations we find excellent agreement with (a) the 90 micron luminosity function of Serjeant et al. (2001), (b) the 850 micron luminosity function of Dunne et al. (2000), (c) the mm-wave photometry of Andreani & Franceschini (1996); (d) the asymptotic differential and integral source count predictions at 50-1300 microns by Rowan-Robinson (2001). We find the local 850 micron sub-mm luminosity density converges to (7.3+/-0.2)x10^{19} h_{65} W/Hz/Mpc^3. Remarkably, the local spectral luminosity density and the extragalactic background light together strongly constrain the cosmic star formation history for a wide class of evolutionary assumptions. We find that the extragalactic background light, the 850 micron 8mJy source counts, and the Omega_* constraints all independently point to a decline in the comoving star formation rate at z>1. In order to reconcile this with direct determinations, we suggest either there is a top-heavy initial mass function at high redshifts, and/or there is stronger evolution in the more luminous far-infrared galaxies than seen in the population as a whole.

Stephen Serjeant; Diana Harrison



Differential genotoxicity of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2.  


Organoselenium compounds have been pointed out as therapeutic agents. In contrast, the potential therapeutic aspects of tellurides have not yet been demonstrated. The present study evaluated the comparative toxicological effects of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2 in mice after in vivo administration. Genotoxicity (as determined by comet assay) and mutagenicicity were used as end-points of toxicity. Subcutaneous administration of high doses of (PhSe)2 or (PhTe)2 (500 µmol/kg) caused distinct genotoxicity in mice. (PhSe)2 significantly decreased the DNA damage index after 48 and 96 h of its injection (p < 0.05). In contrast, (PhTe) caused a significant increase in DNA damage (p < 0.05) after 48 and 96 h of intoxication. (PhSe)2 did not cause mutagenicity but (PhTe)2 increased the micronuclei frequency, indicating its mutagenic potential. The present study demonstrated that acute in vivo exposure to ditelluride caused genotoxicity in mice, which may be associated with pro-oxidant effects of diphenyl ditelluride. In addition, the use of this compound and possibly other related tellurides must be carefully controlled. PMID:24711962

Meinerz, Daiane Francine; Allebrandt, Josiane; Mariano, Douglas O C; Waczuk, Emily P; Soares, Felix Antunes; Hassan, Waseem; Rocha, João Batista T



PH 222-3A Spring 2007PH 222 3A Spring 2007 ELECTRIC CHARGE  

E-print Network

PH 222-3A Spring 2007PH 222 3A Spring 2007 ELECTRIC CHARGE Lecture 1 Chapter 21 (Halliday/Resnick/Walker, Fundamentals of Physics 8th edition) 1 #12;Chapter 21 Electric Charge In this chapter we will introduce a new

Mirov, Sergey B.


Electron emission from PH 2 produced via fast dissociation of core-excited PH 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed resonant Auger electron emission following P 2p ? 3e (?*) excitation of PH3 and, with the help of ab initio calculations, assigned some fine structure to the emission from the P 2p core-excited PH2 fragment produced via fast dissociation.

K. Ueda; Y. Muramatsu; H. Chiba; Y. Sato; E. Shigemasa



arXiv:hep-ph/0302030v215May2003 hep-ph/0302030  

E-print Network

was that a fraction of the photons emitted by a super- nova could convert into axions in the presencearXiv:hep-ph/0302030v215May2003 hep-ph/0302030 CITA-2003-03 Super-GZK Photons from Photon facilitates the survival of super-GZK photons most efficiently with a photon-axion coupling scale M > 1011 Ge

Terning, John


PhD in Management The PhD program in Management is  

E-print Network

PhD in Management The PhD program in Management is designed to provide advanced education currently features two distinct, focused tracks: (1) Supply Chain and Operations Management, and (2) Information Systems. With globalization and technological progress, supply chain management and global

Stuart, Steven J.


Outline PhD Research Plan D-ERDW PhD Research Plan Outline  

E-print Network

research: field work, laboratory work, modeling technique, interdisciplinary collaboration, etc. 5 WorkOutline PhD Research Plan D-ERDW PhD Research Plan ­ Outline Doctoral students compile a research plan outlining the goals, type of work and the responsibilities they have. The research plan

Gilli, Adrian


Patricia A . Grady, Ph .D ., R .N . Ph.D.: (Physiology)  

E-print Network

National Institute of Nursing Research Patricia A . Grady, Ph .D ., R .N . Director EDUCATION Ph. Research is as an investment in the future. MENTORING & WORK/LIFE BALANCE Mentoring is vital in nursing with their professional interests. We must always strive to maintain this balance, to develop both our own personal

Bandettini, Peter A.


Differential genotoxicity of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2  

PubMed Central

Organoselenium compounds have been pointed out as therapeutic agents. In contrast, the potential therapeutic aspects of tellurides have not yet been demonstrated. The present study evaluated the comparative toxicological effects of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2 in mice after in vivo administration. Genotoxicity (as determined by comet assay) and mutagenicicity were used as end-points of toxicity. Subcutaneous administration of high doses of (PhSe)2 or (PhTe)2 (500 µmol/kg) caused distinct genotoxicity in mice. (PhSe)2 significantly decreased the DNA damage index after 48 and 96 h of its injection (p < 0.05). In contrast, (PhTe) caused a significant increase in DNA damage (p < 0.05) after 48 and 96 h of intoxication. (PhSe)2 did not cause mutagenicity but (PhTe)2 increased the micronuclei frequency, indicating its mutagenic potential. The present study demonstrated that acute in vivo exposure to ditelluride caused genotoxicity in mice, which may be associated with pro-oxidant effects of diphenyl ditelluride. In addition, the use of this compound and possibly other related tellurides must be carefully controlled. PMID:24711962

Meinerz, Daiane Francine; Allebrandt, Josiane; Mariano, Douglas O.C.; Waczuk, Emily P.; Soares, Felix Antunes



PhET Teacher Activities: Hooke's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-hour activity for high school physics was created to accompany the PhET simulation Masses & Springs. In the first lesson, students will use the simulation to explore how displacement of a spring is mathematically related to the load applied to it. In the next day's exploration, learners analyze the energy of a mass oscillating on a spring by observing distribution and transfer of kinetic, elastic potential, and gravitational potential energy. Materials include learning goals, explicit directions for use of the simulation, homework problems, and answer key. The spring motion simulation (which is required to complete this activity) is available from PhET at: Masses & Springs. This lesson is part of the PhET (Physics Education Technology Project), a large collection of free interactive science simulations.

Mullins, Jessica


Chemical accuracy in QM/MM calculations on enzyme-catalysed reactions  

PubMed Central

Combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) modelling has the potential to answer fundamental questions about enzyme mechanisms and catalysis. Calculations using QM/MM methods can now predict barriers for enzyme-catalysed reactions with unprecedented, near chemical accuracy, i.e. to within 1 kcal/mol in the best cases. Quantitative predictions from first-principles calculations were only previously possible for very small molecules. At this level, quantitative, reliable predictions can be made about the mechanisms of enzyme-catalysed reactions. This development signals a new era of computational biochemistry. PMID:17880750

Mulholland, Adrian J



Design and construction of planar mm-wave accelerating cavity structures  

SciTech Connect

Feasibility studies on the planar millimeter-wave cavity structures have been made. The structures could be used for linear accelerators, free electron lasers, mm-wave amplifiers, or mm-wave undulators. The cavity structures are intended to be manufactured by using DXL (deep x-ray lithography) microfabrication technology. The frequency of operation can be about 30GHz to 300GHz. For most applications, a complete structure consists of two identical planar half structures put together face-to-face. Construction and properties of constant gradient structures that have been investigated so far will be discussed. These cavity structures have been designed for 120GHz 2{pi}/3-mode operation.

Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Nassiri, A.; Song, J.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Systems Div.; Feineman, A.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Systems Div.]|[Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science



Ionization Measurements of SuperCDMS SNOLAB 100 mm Diameter Germanium Crystals  

SciTech Connect

Scaling cryogenic Germanium-based dark matter detectors to probe smaller WIMP-nucleon cross-sections poses significant challenges in the forms of increased labor, cold hardware, warm electronics and heat load. The development of larger crystals alleviates these issues. The results of ionization tests with two 100 mm diameter, 33 mm thick cylindrical detector-grade Germanium crystals are presented here. Through these results the potential of using such crystals in the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) SNOLAB experiment is demonstrated.

Chagani, H.; /Minnesota U.; Bauer, D.A.; /Fermilab; Brandt, D.; Brink, P.L.; /SLAC; Cabrera, B.; Cherry, M.; /Stanford U.; Silva, E.Do Couto e; Godfrey, G.G.; /SLAC; Hall, J.; Hansen, S.; /Fermilab; Hasi, J.; Kelsey, M.; Kenney, C.J.; /SLAC; Mandic, V.; /Minnesota U.; Nagasawa, D.; Novak, L.; /Stanford U.; Mirabolfathi, N.; /UC, Berkeley; Partridge, R.; /SLAC; Radpour, R.; /Minnesota U.; Resch, R.; /SLAC; Sadoulet, B.; /UC, Berkeley /Stanford U. /SLAC /Stanford U. /Santa Clara U. /Minnesota U.



Fe/Al2O3 C2H4 Hata mm/10 min  

E-print Network

Fe/Al2O3 C2H4 () () () () () () () * () 1. (SWNT) SWNT (CVD) (CNT)[1] Hata mm/10 min SWNT (Super Growth)[2]Al2O3 Fe C2H4 SWNT Fe/Al2O3 C2H4 CVD SWNT CNT CNT 2 SiO2 Al2O3 20 nm Fe Fe - [3] CNT25 mmCVD 820 500 sccmC2H4 60 Torr, H2 200 Torr, H2O 100 ppmv, Ar 500 Torr 0 min

Maruyama, Shigeo


Additional atmospheric opacity measurements at lambda = 1.1 mm from Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric opacity values in the zenith direction are given for a wavelength of 1.1 mm (278 GHz) at the summit of Mauna Kea in the Hawaiian Islands. A total of 75 days is covered during the period 1983-1986. Observations were made on a quasi-continuous basis, with opacity measured every 20 minutes around the clock for significant periods of time. A conversion from opacity at lambda = 1.1 mm to the equivalent precipitable water vapor column is given from the measurements of Zammit and Ade (1981), from which opacities at other wavelengths may be derived.

Parrish, A.; De Zafra, R. L.; Barrett, J. W.; Solomon, P.; Connor, B.



PhET Simulation: Projectile Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this simulation, students can fire various objects out of a cannon, including a golf ball, football, pumpkin, human being, a piano, and a car. By manipulating angle, initial speed, mass, and air resistance, concepts of projectile motion come to light in a fun and game-like environment. Can you set the initial conditions so that you hit the target? This item is part of a larger collection of interactive simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET), all freely available from the PhET web site for incorporation into classes.



PhEt - Physics Education Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PhEt is a free website of over sixty interactive simulations that provides opportunities for students to learn physics and chemistry through exploration and virtual labs. A browsable teacher-contributed collection of homework assignments, lectures, activities, and concept questions is available. Additional contributions designed to be used in conjunction with the PhET simulations may be submitted. Simulations can be run in three different ways: on line, by downloading one or more simulations at a time, or by a download of the entire website to your computer. Many simulations have been translated into different languages.


Somatic embryogenesis of carrot in hormone-free medium: external pH control over morphogenesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cultures of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs) were initiated from mechanically wounded mature zygotic embryos of carrot, Daucus carota, on a hormone-free, semisolid medium. These PGSPs have been maintained and multiplied for extended periods without their progression into later embryo stages on the same hormone-free medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Sustained maintenance of cultures comprised exclusively of PGSPs was dependent on medium pH throughout the culture period. Best growth and multiplication of PGSP cultures occurred when the pH of unbuffered, hormone-free medium fell from 4.5 to 4 over a 2-week period or when buffered medium was titrated to pH 4. If the hormone-free medium was buffered to sustain a pH at or above 4.5, PGSPs developed into later embryo stages. Maintenance with continuous multiplication of PGSPs occurred equally well on medium containing NH4+ or NH4+ and NO3-, but growth was poor with NO3- alone. Additional observations on the effects of medium components such as various nitrogen sources and levels, sucrose concentration, semisolid supports, type of buffer, borate concentration, activated charcoal, and initial pH that permit optimum maintenance of the PGSPs or foster their continued developmental progression into mature embryos and plantlets are reported. The influence of the pH of the hormone-free medium as a determinant in maintaining cultures as PGSPs or allowing their continued embryonic development are unequivocally demonstrated by gross morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and histological preparations.

Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.



Third-body abrasive wear challenge of 32 mm conventional and 44 mm highly crosslinked polyethylene liners in a hip simulator model.  


Hip simulator studies have shown that wear in the polyethylene liners used for total hip replacements increased with the larger-diameter femoral balls and could also be exacerbated by third-body abrasion. However, they also indicated that the more highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXPE) bearings were more wear resistant than conventional polyethylene (CXPE) bearings. Unfortunately the HXPE bearings appeared to be particularly sensitive to adverse wear conditions. One simulator study in particular indicated that poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) debris increased wear sixfold by means of two-body abrasive interactions rather than the supposed third-body abrasion or roughening effects of the Co-Cr surfaces. There has been no confirmation of such novel theories. Therefore the goal of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of large-diameter HXPE bearings to the third-body PMMA wear challenge in a hip simulator model. An orbital hip simulator was used in standard test mode with a physiological load profile. The 32 mm control liners were machined from moulded GUR1050 and gamma irradiated to 35 kGy under nitrogen (CXPE). The 44 mm liners were also from moulded blanks, gamma irradiated to 75 kGy, machined to shape, given a proprietary heat treatment, and sterilized by gas plasma (HXPE). As in the published simulator model, the study was conducted in three phases. In phase 1, all cups were run in standard ('clean') lubricant for 1.5 x 10(6) cycles duration. In phase 2, three CXPE cups and six HXPE cups were run for 2 x 10(6) cycles with a slurry of PMMA particles added to the lubricant. In phase 3, the implants were again run in 'clean' lubricant for 2 x 10(6) cycles duration. In addition, three HXPE cups were run as wear controls for 5.5 x 10(6) cycles duration in clean lubricant. In phase-1, the HXPE liners demonstrated twelvefold reduced wear compared with the CXPE controls. The 32 mm and 44 mm Co-Cr balls were judged of comparable roughnesses. However, the surface finish of HXPE liners was superior to that of CXPE liners. In phase-2 abrasion, wear rates increased sixfold and eighty-fold for CXPE and HXPE bearings respectively. These data confirmed that HXPE bearings were particularly sensitive to 'severe' test modes. The Co-Cr balls revealed numerous surface patches representing transferred PMMA with average transient roughness increased to 25 nm and 212 nm for the 32 mm and 44 mm balls respectively. These PMMA patches produced an aggressive two-body abrasion wear of the polyethylene. After cleaning, the ball roughness returned to near normal. Therefore the Co-Cr roughness was not an issue in this severe test mode. In phase 3, the wear decreased to near the index values of phase 1, while liner roughness dropped by more than 90 per cent. The control CXPE liners now demonstrated twice the wear of the HXPE, as would be predicted comparing the diameter and cross-linking algorithms. No previous study has correlated polyethylene roughness profiles to wear performance. In phase 2, PMMA abrasion created significant damage to the polyethylene surfaces. The average roughness Sa of CXPE liners increased to 3.6 microm, a twenty-four-fold increase with some scratches up to 40 microm deep. The HXPE roughness also increased but only to 1.5 microm, a ninefold increase. The scratch indices Sz and Sp for HXPE surfaces were also 50 per cent less severe than on CXPE surfaces. However, within 2 x 10(6) cycles duration of phase 3, all liners had recovered to virtually their original surface finish in phase 1. In all test phases, the surface finish of the HXPE liners remained superior to control liners. These experimental data confirmed many of the results from the previous simulator study with the PMMA abrasion models. Thus the 44 mm liners appeared an excellent clinical alternative to the smaller ball designs used in total hip replacements. PMID:19623913

Sorimachi, T; Clarke, I C; Williams, P A; Gustafson, A; Yamamoto, K



PH 100-MG Summer 2008 Page 1 of 4  

E-print Network

, Physics (7th Ed.) if you plan to take Physics 201 (PH 201) · Halliday, Resnick and Walker, Physics (7th EdPH 100-MG Summer 2008 Page 1 of 4 Preparatory Physics: PH 100-MG Summer Term 2008 Class meetings.) if you plan to take Physics 221 (PH 221). Last Day to Withdraw with "W": July 7 Course Web Page: http

Camata, Renato P.


Effect of pH and organic acids on nitrogen transformations and metal dissolution in soils  

SciTech Connect

The effect of pH (4, 6, and 8) on nitrogen mineralization was evaluated in three Iowa surface soils treated with crop residues (corn (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)) and incubated in leaching columns under aerobic conditions at 30C for 20 weeks. In general, N mineralization was significantly depressed at soil pH 4, compared with pH 6 or 8. The types of crop residues added influenced the pattern and amount of N mineralization. A study on the effect of 19 trace elements on the nitrate red activity of four Iowa surface soils showed that most trace elements inhibited this enzyme in acid and neutral soils. The trace elements Ag(I), Cd(II), Se(IV), As(V), and W(VI) were the most effective inhibitors, with >75% inhibition. Mn(II) was the least effective inhibitor, with <10% inhibition. Other trace elements included Cu(I), Co(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Al(III), As(III), Cr(III), Fe(III), V(IV), Mo(VI), and Se(VI). The application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that, when coupled to a refractive index detector, it is a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for determining organic acids in soils. Three organic acids, acetic (2-20 mM), propionic (0-3 mM), and n-butyric (0-1.4 mM), were identified with HPLC and confirmed by gas chromatography in crop-residue-treated soils incubated under waterlogged conditions at 25C for 72 h. No organic acids were detected under aerobic conditions. Four mineral acids and 29 organic acids were studied for their effect on N mineralization and metal dissolution in soils incubated under waterlogged conditions at 30C for 10 days.

Fu, Minhong.



Hydrogen-bond network and pH sensitivity in human transthyretin  

PubMed Central

Transthyretin (TTR) is a tetrameric protein. TTR misfolding and aggregation are associated with human amyloid diseases. Dissociation of the TTR tetramer is believed to be the rate-limiting step in the amyloid fibril formation cascade. Low pH is known to promote dissociation into monomer and the formation of amyloid fibrils. In order to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying pH sensitivity and structural stabilities of TTR, neutron diffraction studies were conducted using the IBARAKI Biological Crystal Diffractometer with the time-of-flight method. Crystals for the neutron diffraction experiments were grown up to 2.5?mm3 for four months. The neutron crystal structure solved at 2.0?Å revealed the protonation states of His88 and the detailed hydrogen-bond network depending on the protonation states of His88. This hydrogen-bond network is involved in monomer–monomer and dimer–dimer interactions, suggesting that the double protonation of His88 by acidification breaks the hydrogen-bond network and causes the destabilization of the TTR tetramer. Structural comparison with the X-ray crystal structure at acidic pH identified the three amino acid residues responsible for the pH sensitivity of TTR. Our neutron model provides insights into the molecular stability related to amyloidosis. PMID:24121323

Yokoyama, Takeshi; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Nabeshima, Yuko; Kusaka, Katsuhiro; Yamada, Taro; Hosoya, Takaaki; Ohhara, Takashi; Kurihara, Kazuo; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo



Effects of pH shifts, bile salts, and glucose on sporulation of Clostridium perfringens NCTC 8798.  

PubMed Central

The sporulation of Clostridium perfringens NCTC 8798 was studied after exposing vegetative cells to: pH values of 1.5 to 8.0 in fluid thioglycolate broth (for 2h) and then transferring them to Duncan-Strong (DS) sporulation medium; sodium cholate or sodium deoxycholate (0.3 to 6.5 mM) in DS medium; or Rhia-Solberg medium with 0.4% (wt/wt) starch, glucose, or both added at 0 to 55 mM. At pH 1.5, no culturable heat-resistant spores were formed. For cells exposed to pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, or 6.0, increases in heat-resistant spores were not seen until after a lag of 12 to 13 h, whereas the lag was only 2 to 3 h for cells exposed to pH 7.0 or 8.0. Maximal spore crops were produced after only 6 to 8 h for cells exposed to pH 7 or 8, but 16 to 18 h was required for production of maximal spore crops by cells exposed to the lower-pH media. The addition of sodium cholate (3.5 to 6.5 mM) to DS medium only slightly reduced the culturable heat-resistant spore count from 1.9 X 10(7) to 3 X 10(6)/ml. The addition of 1.8 mM or more sodium deoxycholate reduced the culturable heat-resistant spore count to less than 10/ ml. When either starch or glucose alone was added to Rhia-Solberg medium there was no production of culturable heat-resistant spores, but a combination of 0.4% (wt/wt) starch and 4.4 mM glucose yielded 6 X 10(5) spores/ml. The spore production remained at this level for glucose concentrations of 6 to 22 mM, but then declined to about 3 X 10(3) spores per ml at higher concentrations. PMID:6261681

Hickey, C S; Johnson, M G


411 Cite this article: Turcotte MM, Davies TJ,  

E-print Network Research Cite this article: Turcotte MM, Davies TJ, Thomsen CJM and macroevolutionary patterns of leaf herbivory across vascular plants Martin M. Turcotte1, T. Jonathan Davies2-Mississauga, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6 2 Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A

Davies, Jonathan


The Media with a Great Future: 8mm Single Concept Loop Films  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The single-concept loop film is usually a one to five minute film involving a concept, information, or skill. The 8mm loop films are short, silent, continuous loops that offer advantages of economy and simplicity, and can result in a high degree of student involvement. (Author)

Heaney, Donald S.



Producing the 8mm Self-Instructional Film: A Demonstration Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does one conduct a workshop in self-instructional film production? A demonstration kit was put together to enable a teacher to do this. It consists of five monographs' ("Programing the Instructional Film", "Stating Objectives", "Developing The Instructional Specification", "An Introduction to Programing", and "Lighting Fundamentals"), one 8mm…

Gerlach, Vernon S.


The Applications of Plasma Diagnostic and Simulation in the Development of 300mm Etch Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma uniformity and reactant delivery in plasma etch chamber have become challenging issues as wafer size increased to 300mm. In order to design a process chamber capable of performing uniform etch across large area wafer substrate in an inductive-coupled high density plasma etch chamber, the generation and transport of charged and neutral species in the chamber need to be understood

Tom Q. Ni; Wenli Z. Collison; Michael S. Barnes




E-print Network

ALUMINUM SITING IN THE ZSM-22 AND THETA-1 ZEOLITES REVISITED: A QM/MM STUDY Stepan SKLENAKa1 structure was investigated analyzing already published 27 Al 3Q MAS NMR experimental data using QM with the majority of Al at- oms in the TON structure exhibit a significantly limited reaction space. The 27 Al NMR

Sklenak, Stepan


Multiple flare-angle horn feeds for sub-mm astronomy and cosmic microwave background experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. The use of large-format focal plane imaging arrays employing multiple feed horns is becoming increasingly important for the next generation of single dish sub-mm telescopes and cosmology experiments. Such receivers are being commissioned on both general purpose, common user telescopes and telescopes specifically designed for mapping intensity and polarisation anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Telescopes are currently

J. Leech; B. K. Tan; G. Yassin; P. Kittara; S. Wangsuya; J. Treuttel; M. Henry; M. L. Oldfield; P. G. Huggard



Breakdown of 2mm symmetry in electron diffraction from multiwalled carbon nanotubes  

E-print Network

direction. Due to the finite size of carbon nano- tubes in the radial directions, the electron diffraction nano- tube of chiral indices (u,v), formed by wrapping up seamlessly a graphene about a chosen axisBreakdown of 2mm symmetry in electron diffraction from multiwalled carbon nanotubes Zejian Liu

Qin, Lu-Chang


Neural-network-based delivery time estimates for prioritized 300-mm automatic material handling operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with lot delivery estimates in a 300-mm automatic material handling system (AMHS), which is composed of several intrabay loops. We adopt a neural network approach to estimate the delivery times for both priority and regular lots. A network model is developed for each intrabay loop. Inputs to the proposed neural network model are the combination of transport

Da-Yin Liao; Chia-Nan Wang



Optimal Resources Allocation for a Hybrid Material Handling System in a 300mm Wafer Fab  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the issue of the optimal resources allocation of automated material handling systems (AMHS) and operators for a hybrid material handing system in a 300-mm wafer fab. The proposed methodology exploits the colored timed Petri nets (CTPN) to model the hybrid material handing system, and then the CTPN model is further transformed into a three-phase discrete event simulation

Chih-Ming Liu; Chung-Jen Kuo; Pei-Lun Chang



The evaluation of manual FOUP handling in 300-mm wafer fab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconductor manufacturing industry is moving into the production of 300-mm wafers. To solve the increased workload problem in manual wafer handling, some personal guided vehicles (PGVs) have been developed to help in the transfer of front opening unified pods (FOUP). This study compares two kinds of PGVs with a traditional cart and evaluates the feasibility of using them for manual

Mao-Jiun J. Wang; Hsiu-Chen Chung; Hsin-Chieh Wu



Development of buffer layers on 30 mm wide textured metal substrates for REBCO coated conductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been studying REBa 2Cu 3O x (RE: rare earth elements) coated conductors on clad-type substrates. We developed coated conductors on the 10 mm wide clad-type tape, and succeeded in obtaining the maximum critical current of 380 A/cm with the 2.0 ?m thick GdBa 2Cu 3O x superconducting film. At present, we are trying to widen the tape width from 10 mm to 30 mm in order to increase production throughput. We report our recent progress on scaling-up of the buffer layers and their properties. The buffer layers consisted of three layers; CeO 2 as the seed layer, yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the diffusion barrier layer and CeO 2 as the lattice matching layer. They were grown by the RF-sputtering method and the electron beam evaporation technique (EB). EB deposition has possibility of higher throughput compared with the RF-sputtering. The intensity ratio of (2 0 0) to (2 0 0) + (1 1 1) for the lattice matching layer showed as high as 98%. The uniform properties of 40 m long and 30 mm wide substrates were successfully produced by all sputtering method. Additionally, the tape travel speed of the seed layer can be increased from 7 m/h (RF-sputtering deposition) to 10 m/h (EB deposition) on short sample (0.3 m long).

Yamaguchi, T.; Ota, H.; Ohki, K.; Konishi, M.; Ohmatsu, K.



2. West portal of Tunnel 1, view to northeast, 135mm ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. West portal of Tunnel 1, view to northeast, 135mm lens. Like the new tunnels built during this period, Tunnel 1 received a new concrete portal face with granite masonry voussoirs and coping. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 1, Milepost 164.34, Blue Canyon, Placer County, CA


1. East portal of Tunnel 3, view to west, 135mm ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. East portal of Tunnel 3, view to west, 135mm lens. This tunnel was photographed to provide context, because even though somewhat enlarged, it illustrates the nature of the unlined hard rock tunnels typical of the original Central Pacific construction in 1868. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 3, Milepost 180.65, Cisco, Placer County, CA


5. East portal of Tunnel 28, view to southsouthwest, 135mm ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. East portal of Tunnel 28, view to south-southwest, 135mm lens. Shed above portal appears to have housed machinery connected with a counterweighted curtain mechanism used to help dissipate smoke from this 3,209-foot tunnel during the days of steam locomotive use - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA


3. East portal of Tunnel 34, view to southsouthwest, 135mm ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. East portal of Tunnel 34, view to south-southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. Note the shift, in these later tunnels east of Colfax, to concrete portal faces with granite masonry voussoirs and coping. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 34, Milepost 145.4, Colfax, Placer County, CA


3. West portal of Tunnel 18, view to northeast, 135mm ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. West portal of Tunnel 18, view to northeast, 135mm lens. Note the use of concrete face and wingwalls, with dressed stone voussoirs, wingwall coping, parapet with stone belt course and coping, and coursed stone masonry slope protection flanking the portal. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel No. 17, Milepost 408, Dorris, Siskiyou County, CA


,""",", mm", ro, w,", 'C"" ","" quantities of water. Such procedures were advocated by Maass, et al.  

E-print Network

reliability indices for water supply systems that are easily implemented, yet characterize the 564 #12,""",", mm", ro, w,", 'C"" ","" """"'""' #12;quantities of water. Such procedures were advocated curve) to the historical streamflow record. While this approach is still advocated in recent text- books

Vogel, Richard M.


Short Communication Thickness vibration of piezoelectric plates of 6 mm crystals with tilted six-fold  

E-print Network

(ZnO) both belong to crystals of 6 mm symmetry. Thin AlN and ZnO plates are of current and growing research interest because of the development of thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators (FBAR), e.g., [1. This fact also needs to be included in the analysis for an accurate description of a thin film resonator

Wang, Ji


Role of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Patients With Thin (<1 mm) Primary Melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Thin melanomas have become increasingly prevalent, and lesions 1 mm in thickness are frequently diagnosed. They are considered highly curable when treated solely with wide local excision, with reported 5-year disease-free survivals of 95% to 98%. However, thin Clark level III and IV melanomas may have increased potentials for metastasizing and late recurrences because of dermal lymphatics located at

Ira A. Jacobs; C. K. Chang; Tapas K. DasGupta; George I. Salti



Beam test results of ion-implanted silicon strip detectors on a 100 mm wafer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of planar silicons trip detectors in both position sensitive and energy dispersive applications has rapidly increased. Detector systems of large angular coverage unavoidably consist of a large number of individual detector plates traditionally processed on 3 inch silicon wafers. The effective wafer processing area is almost doubled by the use of 100 mm wafers, enabling detector designs with

Iiro Hietanen; Jukka Lindgren; Risto Orava; Tuure Tuuva; R. Brenner; Mikael Andersson; Kari Leinonen; Hannu Ronkainen; L. Hubbeling; Michal Turala; W. Dulinski; D. Husson; A. Lounis; M. Schaeffer; R. Turchetta; J. Chauveau



STS-30 MS Lee, wearing sunglasses, uses 70mm camera on aft flight deck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-30 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Mark C. Lee, wearing sunglasses and light blue flight coveralls, holds a 70mm camera on aft flight deck. Lee prepares to take pictures of the Earth surface outside overhead window W8. Aft flight deck viewing window W10 and onorbit station control panels appear behind him.




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



A field study of a hypervelocity solid propellant electrothermal 105 mm launcher  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of a Solid Propellant Electrothermal Chemical (SPETC) launcher was tested extensively in support of the US Army Space and Strategic Defence Command (USA SSDC) requirement for integrated field tests for a propsed Hypervelocity Weapon System (HVWS). Efforts were undertaken to translate ballistic results obtained earlier with a 105 mm SPETC launcher at Soreq NRC Israel for field use.

Zvi Kaplan; David Melnik; Morris Sudai; Daphne Plotnik; Gabriel Appelbaum; David Kimhe; Roger Alimi; Lior Perlmutter; Arpad Juhasz; Phuong Tran; Jere Brown



QM/MM-PB/SA scoring of the interaction strength between Akt kinase and apigenin analogues.  


Identification of small-molecule compounds that can bind specifically and stably to protein targets of biological interest is a challenge task in structure-based drug design. Traditionally, several fast approaches such as empirical scoring functions and free energy analysis have been widely used to fulfill for this purpose. In the current study, we raised the rigorous quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics in combination with semi-empirical Poisson-Boltzmann/surface area (QM/MM-PB/SA) as an efficient strategy to characterize the intermolecular interaction between Akt kinase and its small-molecule ligands, although this hybrid approach is computationally expensive as compared to those empirical methods. In a round of experimental activity reproduction test based on a set of known Akt-inhibitor complexes, QM/MM-PB/SA has been shown to perform much better than two widely used scoring functions as well as the sophisticated MM-PB/SA analysis with or without improvement by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Next, the QM/MM-PB/SA was employed to screen for strong Akt binders from an apigenin analogue set. Consequently, four compounds, namely apigenin, quercetin, gallocatechin and myricetin, were suggested to have high binding potency to Akt active site. A further kinase assay was conducted to determine the inhibitory activity of the four promising candidates against Akt kinase, resulting in IC50 values of 38.4, 67.5, 157.1 and 25.5nM, respectively. PMID:25179857

Lu, Jian; Zhang, Zhuyi; Ni, Zhong; Shen, Haijun; Tu, Zhigang; Liu, Hanqing; Lu, Rongzhu



Fabrication of mm-wave undulator cavities using deep x-ray lithography  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of fabricating mm-wave radio frequency cavities (100-300 GHz) using deep x-ray lithography (DXRL) is being investigated. The fabrication process includes manufacture of precision x-ray masks, exposure of positive resist by x-ray through the mask, resist development, and electroforming of the final microstructure. Highly precise, two-dimensional features can be machined onto wafers using DXRL. Major challenges are: fabrication of the wafers into three-dimensional rf structures; alignment and overlay accuracy of structures; adhesion of the PMMA on the copper substrate; and selection of a developer to obtain high resolution. Rectangular cavity geometry is best suited to this fabrication technique. A 30- or 84-cell 108-GHz mm-wave structure can serve as an electromagnetic undulator. A mm-wave undulator, which will be discussed later, may have special features compared to the conventional undulator. First harmonic undulator radiation at 5.2 KeV would be possible using the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac system, which provides a low-emittance electron beam by using an rf thermionic gun with an energy as high as 750-MeV. More detailed rf simulation, heat extraction analysis, beam dynamics using a mm-wave structure, and measurements on lOx larger scale models can be found in these proceedings.

Song, J.J.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Lai, B.; Nassiri, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Feinerman, A.D. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); White, V.; Well, G.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Center for X-Ray Lithography



A mm-wave planar microcavity structure for electron linear accelerator system  

SciTech Connect

The muffin-tin cavity structure is planar and well suited for mm-wave accelerator with silicon etching techniques. A constant impedance traveling-wave structure is considered for design simplicity. The RF parameters are calculated and the shunt impedance is compared with the shunt impedance of a disk loaded cylindrical structure.

Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.; Mills, F.; Mavrogenes, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Henke, H. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Elektrotechnik



Hans Peter Schwefel Wireless Networks III, Fall 2005: MM2, Wireless TCP  

E-print Network

Schwefel Wireless Networks III, Fall 2005: MM2, Wireless TCP Background: IP Protocol Stack Network Layer Name Service), Streaming media, VoIP, ... Application TCP/UDP IP Link-Layer L5-7 L4 L3 L2 #12;Page 3 · IP, Transport Layer Protocols 2. Quick review of TCP · Connection set-up, flow/congestion control 3

Schwefel, Hans-Peter


Press Advertising 39x3col (390mm x 3 cols)  

E-print Network

Press Advertising 39x3col (390mm x 3 cols) Total cost of ad Canberra Times $1,682.49 HES $4. 200 words Canberra Times $1,037.29 HES $2,785.00 STANDALONE Press advertising describes job advertisements in a printed medium such as newspapers, magazines and journals. We currently primarily advertised

Botea, Adi


Temperature measurement in spherically conveying detonation waves. Experimental results with an 800 mm apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas temperature in spherically converging detonation waves in a stoichiometric propane-oxygen mixture in a hemisphere of inner diameter 800 mm was spectroscopically investigated. For the temperature measurement 5% Ar was added to the mixture and the intensity of Ar lines was determined as a function of time. The measured peak temperature behind the detonation front shows the same radial

Kunio Terao



MM5 Contrail Forecasting in Alaska Martin Stuefer, Xiande Meng and Gerd Wendler  

E-print Network

air. Algorithm input data are MM5 forecasted temperature and humidity values at defined pressure for forecasting the atmospheric layers of aircraft condensation trail (contrail) formation. Contrail forecasts are based on a conventional algorithm describing the adiabatic mixing of aircraft exhaust with environmental

Stuefer, Martin


Experimental Ballistic Improvement in a Pure Electrothermal (ET) 25-mm Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soreq Propulsion Physics Division has recently initiated the development of a small-caliber pure electrothermal (ET) weapon. This paper reports the promising results obtained with a 25-mm ET gun. The currently mature gun technology based on conventional ballistic process is mostly limited because: 1) the propellant burning features dictate a curve that is entirely determined by the grain geometry and

Roger Alimi; Lior Bakshi; Eran Kot; Noam Shafir; Daniel Forte; Moris Sudai




EPA Science Inventory

Efforts have been underway since MM5v3 was released in July 1999 to set up air-quality simulations using Eta analyses as background fields. Our previous simulations used a one-way quadruple-nested set of domains with horizontal grid spacing of 108, 36, 12 and 4 km. With Eta a...


Index to 16mm Educational Films. Fourth Edition, 1973, Volume II. Alphabetical Guide (M-Z).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Containing over 70,000 entries, this index to 16mm educational films was compiled at the National Information Center for Educational Media from a computerized data base. Information about each entry, alphabetically listed by title, includes size and physical description, length, series title reference when applicable, description of the contents,…

University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.


Development of optical ground verification method for mum to sub-mm reflectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large reflectors and antennas for the IR to mm wavelength range are being planned for many Earth observation and astronomical space missions and for commercial communication satellites as well. Scientific observatories require large telescopes with precisely shaped reflectors for collecting the electro-magnetic radiation from faint sources. The challenging tasks of on-ground testing are to achieve the required accuracy in the

Y. Stockman; C. Thizy; P. Lemaire; M. Georges; E. Mazy; A. Mazzoli; Y. Houbrechts; P. Rochus; S. Roose; D. Doyle; G. Ulbrich



The M&M Approach: Using Mental and Mechanical Strategies in Teaching and Coaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental and mechanical (M&M) techniques are very useful in teaching and coaching. Mental techniques are strategies that enhance movement through psychological preparation, such as using imagery to practice a skill. Mechanical techniques are strategies that enhance the physical side of the movement, such as correcting the biomechanics of a golf…

Rhea, Chris K.; Wisdom, Stacey



The Reaction Mechanism of Paraoxon Hydrolysis by Phosphotriesterase from Combined QM/MM Simulations  

E-print Network

ion. We suggest that the proton of this water molecule is taken up by His254, and, the resulting, Austin model 1; AMBER, assisted model building with energy refinement; B3LYP, Becke-3-Lee dynamics; MEP, minimum energy path; MM, molecular mechanics; PDB, protein data bank; PMF, potential of mean

Minnesota, University of


Combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods in computational enzymology.  


Computational enzymology is a rapidly maturing field that is increasingly integral to understanding mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and their practical applications. Combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are important in this field. By treating the reacting species with a quantum mechanical method (i.e., a method that calculates the electronic structure of the active site) and including the enzyme environment with simpler molecular mechanical methods, enzyme reactions can be modeled. Here, we review QM/MM methods and their application to enzyme-catalyzed reactions to investigate fundamental and practical problems in enzymology. A range of QM/MM methods is available, from cheaper and more approximate methods, which can be used for molecular dynamics simulations, to highly accurate electronic structure methods. We discuss how modeling of reactions using such methods can provide detailed insight into enzyme mechanisms and illustrate this by reviewing some recent applications. We outline some practical considerations for such simulations. Further, we highlight applications that show how QM/MM methods can contribute to the practical development and application of enzymology, e.g., in the interpretation and prediction of the effects of mutagenesis and in drug and catalyst design. PMID:23557014

van der Kamp, Marc W; Mulholland, Adrian J



Proton and hydride transfers in solution: hybrid QMmm/MM free energy perturbation study  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free energy perturbation (FEP) method is implemented in the context of molecular dynamics (MD). The semiempirical quantum mechanical (QM) Hamiltonian (Austin Model 1) represents solute molecules, and the molecular mechanical (MM) CHARMM force field describes the water solvent. The QM/MM FEP method is used to calculate the free energy changes in aqueous solution for (1) a proton transfer from methanol to imidazole and (2) a hydride transfer from methoxide to nicotinamide. The QM/MM interaction energies between the solute and solvent arc calibrated to emulate the solute-solvent interaction energies determined at the Hartee-Fock 6-31G(d) level of ab initio theory. The free energy changes for the proton and hydride transfers are calculated to be 15.1 and {minus}6.3 kcal/mol, respectively, which compare favorably with the corresponding experimental values of 12.9 and {minus}7.4 kcal/mol. An estimate of the reliability of the calculations is obtained through the computation of the forward (15.1 and {minus}6.3 kcal/mol) and backward ({minus}14.1 and 9.1 kcal/mol)free energy changes. The reasonable correspondence between these two independent calculations suggests that adequate phase space sampling is obtained along the reaction pathways chosen to transform the proton and hydride systems between their respective reactant and product states.

Ho, L. Lawrence [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Gibbs Lab.]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bash, P.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kerell, A.D., Jr [Maryland University, Baltimore, MD (United States). School of Pharmacy



Discrete Lens Array Modeling and Design for Optimum MIMO Communications at mm-wave  

E-print Network

Discrete Lens Array Modeling and Design for Optimum MIMO Communications at mm-wave John Brady for meeting the exploding capacity re- quirements of communications networks. In particular, Multiple- Input-of-sight links, as an attractive alternative to fiber-based wired backhaul. A key limiting factor

Sayeed, Akbar M.


The three-dimensional structure of Saturn's E ring M.M. Hedman a,  

E-print Network

The three-dimensional structure of Saturn's E ring M.M. Hedman a, , J.A. Burns a,b , D.P. Hamilton Accepted 2 November 2011 Available online 19 November 2011 Keywords: Planetary rings Saturn, Rings Disks a b s t r a c t Saturn's diffuse E ring consists of many tiny (micron and sub-micron) grains of water

Hamilton, Douglas P.


The Radio-2 mm Spectral Index of the Crab Nebula Measured with Gismo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of 2 mm observations of the Crab Nebula, obtained using the Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer (GISMO) bolometer camera on the IRAM 30 m telescope. Additional 3.3 mm observations with the MUSTANG bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope are also presented. The integrated 2 mm flux density of the Crab Nebula provides no evidence for the emergence of a second synchrotron component that has been proposed. It is consistent with the radio power-law spectrum, extrapolated up to a break frequency of log (? b [GHz]) = 2.84 ± 0.29 or ? b = 695+651 - 336 GHz. The Crab Nebula is well resolved by the ~16farcs7 beam (FWHM) of GISMO. Comparison to radio data at comparable spatial resolution enables us to confirm significant spatial variation of the spectral index between 21 cm and 2 mm. The main effect is a spectral flattening in the inner region of the Crab Nebula, correlated with the toroidal structure at the center of the nebula that is prominent in the near-IR through X-ray regime. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

Arendt, R. G.; George, J. V.; Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Fixsen, D. J.; Irwin, K. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Korngut, P. M.; Kovács, A.; Maher, S. F.; Mason, B. S.; Miller, T. M.; Moseley, S. H.; Navarro, S.; Sievers, A.; Sievers, J. L.; Sharp, E.; Wollack, E. J.



Application for Withdrawal (Doctoral Students) Date of Submission: ____/____/20____ (MM/DD/YYYY)  

E-print Network

with a status of residence of "College Student" will be required to return to their home country or acquire Status Change (Doctoral Students) 1. Type of Change (Circle the applicable type) Leave of Absence / Study1 Application for Withdrawal (Doctoral Students) Date of Submission: ____/____/20____ (MM

Kaji, Hajime


Small-bore hollow waveguides for delivery of 3-mm laser radiation  

E-print Network

Small-bore hollow waveguides for delivery of 3-mm laser radiation Rebecca L. Kozodoy, Antonio T. Pagkalinawan, and James A. Harrington Flexible hollow glass waveguides with bore diameters as small as 250 µm achieved with dielectric- coated metallic hollow waveguides,2,8­13 but the large bore diameters


A mm-sized wirelessly powered and remotely controlled locomotive implantable device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully autonomous implantable systems with locomotion can revolutionize medical technology, and include applications ranging from diagnostics to minimally invasive surgery. However, the extreme power requirements of fluid locomotion impose significant design challenges. Using highly efficient and scalable electromagnetic propulsion systems [1], these locomotive devices become possible. Recent work shows that mm-sized antennas in tissue achieve optimal power transfer efficiency in

Anatoly Yakovlev; Daniel Pivonka; Teresa Meng; Ada Poon




E-print Network

600 UNE MODIFICATION DU THERMOM�TRE A MERCURE; Par MM. JACQUES DUCLAUX et A. HAMELIN. Tous ceux qui se sont servis de thermomètres à mercure pour des recherches de précision savent quels' sont les les variations de l'angle de raccordement du mercure et du verre dans le tube capillaire. Ces

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


16mm Film and Videotape Lectures and Demonstrations. 1976/1977 Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology provides a catalog of 16mm filmed and videotaped lectures and demonstrations. Each listing includes title, short description, length of presentation, catalog number, purchase and rental prices, and indications as to whether the item is film or videotape and black-and-white or color. The catalog is divided…

Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Center for Advanced Engineering Study.


Evaluation of MM5 Simulations With HTSVS With and Without Inclusion of Soil-Frost Parameterization  

E-print Network

Evaluation of MM5 Simulations With HTSVS With and Without Inclusion of Soil-Frost Parameterization and seasonally frozen ground are important surface features in high- latitudes. Because of this, a soil-frost and observations of precipitation were used to evaluate the importance of the soil-frost parameterization

Moelders, Nicole


Absorbing Frequency-Selective-Surface for the mm-Wave Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a millimeter-wave (mm-wave) absorber based on the frequency selective surface. It consists of a periodic array of resistive patches on a grounded dielectric layer. By varying the shape of the patches and the distance between them, the device can be tuned to absorb in a given frequency band. We designed and fabricated several devices consisting of square

Fadi Sakran; Yair Neve-Oz; Amichai Ron; Michael Golosovsky; Dan Davidov; Avraham Frenkel



A mm-sized wirelessly powered and remotely controlled locomotive implant.  


A wirelessly powered and controlled implantable device capable of locomotion in a fluid medium is presented. Two scalable low-power propulsion methods are described that achieve roughly an order of magnitude better performance than existing methods in terms of thrust conversion efficiency. The wireless prototype occupies 0.6 mm × 1 mm in 65 nm CMOS with an external 2 mm × 2 mm receive antenna. The IC consists of a matching network, a rectifier, a bandgap reference, a regulator, a demodulator, a digital controller, and high-current drivers that interface directly with the propulsion system. It receives 500 ?W from a 2 W 1.86 GHz power signal at a distance of 5 cm. Asynchronous pulse-width modulation on the carrier allows for data rates from 2.5-25 Mbps with energy efficiency of 0.5 pJ/b at 10 Mbps. The received data configures the propulsion system drivers, which are capable of driving up to 2 mA at 0.2 V and can achieve speed of 0.53 cm/sec in a 0.06 T magnetic field. PMID:23853253

Pivonka, Daniel; Yakovlev, Anatoly; Poon, Ada S Y; Meng, Teresa




E-print Network

analysis, which led to an integral representation of the survivor probability distribution function that the computation of the sojourn time distribution can be formulated as a spectral problem for a selfANALYSIS OF THE M=M=1 QUEUE WITH PROCESSOR SHARING VIA SPECTRAL THEORY FABRICE GUILLEMIN

Guillemin, Fabrice


2. West portal of Snowshed 29, view to east, 135mm ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. West portal of Snowshed 29, view to east, 135mm lens. Note the heavy timber frame, with battered posts to carry the tremendous snow loads of winter. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 41, Milepost 193.3, Donner, Placer County, CA


Quenching experiments inside 6.0 mm tube at reduced gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the experimental results of quenching in tubes under microgravity conditions. The objective of the experiment is to obtain quantitative data and observations of the rewetting phenomenon under low gravity level and compare results with the equivalent terrestrial gravity ones. Test tube is made of Pyrex with 6.0mm in diameter. Tests are performed with FC-72, a fluorinert liquid,

G. P. Celata; M. Cumo; M. Gervasi; G. Zummo



Introduction to NaCoMM-2003 papers for publication in the MMT Journal  

E-print Network

Conference on Machines and Mechanisms (NaCoMM-2003) was held at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT and Manipulators, Mechatronics, Noise and Vibration, Dynamics, Machines, Analysis, and Rural and Textile of Technology, Hauz Khas IIT New Delhi 110 016, India Tel.: +91 11 2659 1135; fax: +91 11 2658 2053 E

Saha, Subir Kumar


14. Main room; view no southwest, 65mm lens with electronic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Main room; view no southwest, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. The mountain visible through the windows was a landmark for the camp population. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA


(ISLiM) 2011 (2011.12.21-22) M-1: Platypus-MM/CG  

E-print Network

#12;169 (ISLiM) 2011 (2011.12.21-22) M-1: Platypus-MM/CG ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Apps Core ­ ­ ­ Amber Charmm (qj)-U n (qi)) m = 1/(kB Tm), Tm: , kB: Platypus-REIN PC M-2: Platypus-REIN Introduction K. Hukushima

Fukai, Tomoki


Laser-Assisted Stir Welding of 25-mm-Thick HSLA65 Plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser-assisted stir welding is a hybrid process that combines energy from a laser with functional heating and mechanical energy to join materials in the solid state. The technology is an adaptation of friction stir welding which is particularly suited for joining thick plates. Aluminum plates up to 75 mm thick have been successfully joined using friction stir welding. Since joining

Keith M. Williamson



The role of transmembrane pH gradients in the lactic acid induced swelling of astrocytes.  


The swelling of astrocytes is an important component of the morbidity and mortality associated with ischemic brain trauma. In the ischemic brain, lactic acid levels rise dramatically with a concomitant acidification of the extracellular fluid. In this study we have measured the effects of elevated extracellular lactate and reduced extracellular pH (pHo) on astrocyte volume using the human astrocyte-derived cell line UC-11MG. Neither elevated lactate nor reduced pHo alone increased cell volume, but swelling of about 25% was measured when the cells were exposed simultaneously to 20 mM lactic acid and a reduced pHo of 6. The swelling was correlated with an approximately 4-fold increase in intracellular lactate as pHo was decreased from 8.0 to 6.0. As pHo was decreased intracellular pH also decreased, but much more slowly so that at acidic extracellular pH there was an inwardly directed proton gradient. The measured intracellular lactate concentrations closely followed the theoretical levels predicted by a model in which lactate transport is coupled to the inwardly directed proton gradient. Kinetic studies indicated that lactate transport is saturable with a Km of 3.8 mM, consistent with the model for facilitated cotransport of lactate with a proton or exchange of lactate for a hydroxyl ion. These data suggest that an important mechanism of postischemic astrocytic swelling is a proton driven, active accumulation of lactate to levels that result in a significant osmotic gradient of lactate at acidic pH. PMID:2207691

Lomneth, R; Medrano, S; Gruenstein, E I



Evaluation of the kinetic performance of new prototype 2.1mm×100mm narrow-bore columns packed with 1.6?m superficially porous particles.  


The mass transfer mechanism in three prototype narrow-bore columns (2.1mm×100mm format) packed with 1.6?m superficially porous particles was investigated using different instruments. The heights equivalent to a theoretical plate of three small molecules were measured using a mixture of acetonitrile and water as the eluent. The values reported include the contributions of longitudinal diffusion, eddy dispersion, and the solid-liquid mass transfer resistance. The bulk diffusion coefficients of the analytes were measured using the capillary method, calibrated with thiourea in pure water. The reduced longitudinal diffusion coefficient was determined from the results of a series of peak parking experiments. The solid-liquid mass transfer resistance coefficient and the intra-particle diffusivities of the analytes in the porous region of the particles were estimated from Garnett-Torquato's model of effective diffusion in dense beds packed with core-shell particles. The eddy dispersion term, mostly due to trans-column and border effects, was obtained by subtracting the longitudinal diffusion and the solid-liquid mass transfer resistance terms from the total HETP obtained from the first and second central peak moments calculated by numerical integration (Simpson's approach) after baseline correction and systematic left and right cuts of the peak profiles. The results show that the eddy dispersion controls at least 66% of the overall column HETP for small molecules beyond the optimum velocity. This work illustrates how important it is to use ultra-low dispersive very high pressure liquid chromatography (vHPLC) systems to properly measure and to practically use the high efficiencies of narrow-bore columns packed with 1.6?m core-shell particles since these columns provide intrinsic efficiencies higher than 400,000 plates per meter. PMID:24572546

Gritti, Fabrice; Shiner, Stephen J; Fairchild, Jacob N; Guiochon, Georges



Role of bicarbonate as a pH buffer and electron sink in microbial dechlorination of chloroethenes  

PubMed Central

Background Buffering to achieve pH control is crucial for successful trichloroethene (TCE) anaerobic bioremediation. Bicarbonate (HCO3?) is the natural buffer in groundwater and the buffer of choice in the laboratory and at contaminated sites undergoing biological treatment with organohalide respiring microorganisms. However, HCO3? also serves as the electron acceptor for hydrogenotrophic methanogens and hydrogenotrophic homoacetogens, two microbial groups competing with organohalide respirers for hydrogen (H2). We studied the effect of HCO3? as a buffering agent and the effect of HCO3?-consuming reactions in a range of concentrations (2.5-30 mM) with an initial pH of 7.5 in H2-fed TCE reductively dechlorinating communities containing Dehalococcoides, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and hydrogenotrophic homoacetogens. Results Rate differences in TCE dechlorination were observed as a result of added varying HCO3? concentrations due to H2-fed electrons channeled towards methanogenesis and homoacetogenesis and pH increases (up to 8.7) from biological HCO3? consumption. Significantly faster dechlorination rates were noted at all HCO3? concentrations tested when the pH buffering was improved by providing 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) as an additional buffer. Electron balances and quantitative PCR revealed that methanogenesis was the main electron sink when the initial HCO3? concentrations were 2.5 and 5 mM, while homoacetogenesis was the dominant process and sink when 10 and 30 mM HCO3? were provided initially. Conclusions Our study reveals that HCO3? is an important variable for bioremediation of chloroethenes as it has a prominent role as an electron acceptor for methanogenesis and homoacetogenesis. It also illustrates the changes in rates and extent of reductive dechlorination resulting from the combined effect of electron donor competition stimulated by HCO3? and the changes in pH exerted by methanogens and homoacetogens. PMID:22974059



Monitoring fetal pH by telemetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telemetry unit has been developed for possible use in measuring scalp-tissue pH and heart rate of unborn infant. Unit radius data to receiver as much as 50 ft. away. Application exists during hours just prior to childbirth to give warning of problems that might require cesarean delivery.

Blum, A.; Donahoe, T.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Ryan, W.



Ph. D. in Engineering Engineering Physics Track  

E-print Network

SCH) PHYS 510/ENGR 641 Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (Fall) STAT 505 Statistics Mathematical Modeling MEEN 549 Computational Fluid Dynamics MEMT 508 Finite Element Methods * CoursesPh. D. in Engineering Engineering Physics Track Recommended Plan of Study (09/2007) Degree Codes

Selmic, Sandra


Semantic Social Network Ph.D. thesis  

E-print Network

Semantic Social Network Analysis Ph.D. thesis Defended on the 11th of April 2011 by Guillaume, with an original contribution that leverages Social Network Analysis with Semantic Web frameworks. Social Network-based representations, (2) to conduct a social network analysis that takes advantage of the rich semantics

Boyer, Edmond


Jianlin Cheng, PhD Associate Professor  

E-print Network

Jianlin Cheng, PhD Associate Professor Computer Science Department Informatics Institute University / 4 groups #12;Group 1 · Badri Adhikari · Renzhi Cao · Chenfeng He · Jilong Li · Debswapna MWLKKFGINLLIGQSV... CCCCHHHHHCCCSSSSS... Cheng, Randall, Sweredoski, Baldi. Nucleic Acid Research, 2005 Neural

Cheng, Jianlin Jack


Ph.D. Program in Machine Learning  

E-print Network

Page 1 Ph.D. Program in Machine Learning Student Handbook Revised 7/20/12 #12;Page 2 Table Machine Learning Journal Club...................................................................................................17 #12;Page 3 Introduction The field of machine learning is concerned with the question of how


Ph.D. PSYCHOLOGY Application Checklist  

E-print Network

Ph.D. PSYCHOLOGY Application Checklist IMPORTANT NOTES 1. Please submit all Application Materials.D. in Psychology must have both a Bachelors and Masters degree, at least one of which must be in Psychology (Maximum 10 pages). GRE Test Scores: Applicants who do not have a Master's degree in Psychology must submit

Northern British Columbia, University of


ARC Discovery (Joint PhD)  

E-print Network

and Security) (Social, Cultural and Political Change) (Social Inclusion) (Centre for Research PhD) (Cotutelle) · 2010(MQRES) 2.252009 10% · 2010 · 1.8 1.32012 (Biomolecular Frontiers) (Australian Proteome Analysis Facility) (Climate Risk) (Cognitive Science

Wang, Yan


Andrew Terranova, Ph.D. Curriculum Vitae  

E-print Network

Courses Taught Additional Courses of Interest Introductory/General Psychology Psychology of Adjustment-based Sample of Boys and Girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. #12;CV ­ Andrew Terranova, Ph.D. Page 3 Professor Department of Psychology Stephen F. Austin State University Box 13046 ­ SFA Station Nacogdoches

Li, X. Rong


November 2013 Wilma Koutstaal, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

insight and non-insight problem solving with brief interventions. British Journal of Psychology, 104, 97. Recipient of the 2012 William James Book award from the American Psychological Association. ] Qin, X. A-1- November 2013 Wilma Koutstaal, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University of Minnesota S247

Koutstaal, Wilma


Soil pH and phosphatase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately twenty years before this study, a site that consisted of a mixed oak forest was harvested, cleared, and divided into three treatment areas consisting of approximately 20 acres each. The three areas were planted to oak (forest), grass (grassland) and corn (agricultural) respectively. The influence of pH on the rate of phosphatase activity was determined over a broad range

S. A. Herbien; J. L. Neal



Biomedical Engineering Cynthia Bir, PhD  

E-print Network

Biomedical Engineering Cynthia Bir, PhD Professor, Department of BME Director of Research, Orthopaedic Surgery #12;What is a Biomedical E i ?Engineer? "A bioengineer is anyoneA bioengineer is anyone who calls himself one." YC Fung #12;What is Biomedical E i i ?Engineering? Biomedical engineering

Berdichevsky, Victor


CURRICULUM VITAE Naveen Chikthimmah, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

/550 Food Processing, (3 cr.); SP 12, SP 13 UW STOUT BIO 406/606 Food Microbiology (lab course) (3 cr.); SP of Practice in Student Engagement, Summer-Fall 2013 · More Effective Assessment by Design: What, at WhatCURRICULUM VITAE Naveen Chikthimmah, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Stout Department of Food

Wu, Mingshen


Richrd Farkas PhD Nationality: Hungarian  

E-print Network

Richárd Farkas PhD Nationality: Hungarian Date of birth: 31. Jan 1980 homepage: www extraction for the [origo] online news archive", sold to the Origo news portal, role: principal investigator Short Business News", Sponsored by the National Office for Research and Technology, role: researcher

Möbius, Bernd


Professions Shannon Anderson, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

230 Science Concepts (Intro Bio I) 1 Biol 240 Introductory Biology II & Lab 5 Sci 240 Science ConceptsHealth Professions at SFSU #12;Shannon Anderson, Ph.D. Instructor, Biology Department Health Assistant Nurse-Practitioner Dental Hygiene Veterinary Medicine Allied Health Careers #12;Sneak



E-print Network

AUTOMNE 2013 PhD EN COMMUNICATION LUNDI MARDI MERCREDI JEUDI VENDREDI 9:00 � 12 Forum Doctoral Prof : Thierry Bardini Et Gaby Hsab UQAM Communication organisationnelle William Buxton (hors campus) Séminaire spécialisé : Médias mobiles et communication : approches

Parrott, Lael


LarkinPowell,Ph.D. Larkin Powell  

E-print Network

LarkinPowell,Ph.D. Larkin Powell is a professor of conservation bio logy and animal ecology in the Uni versity of Nebraska­ Lincoln's School of Natural Resources (SNR) since August 2001.He teaches on projects assessing grazing management,Farm Bill conservation programs, prescribed burning and other

Farritor, Shane


CURRICULUM VITAE Birgitta Johnson, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

300.04, Cultural History of Rap (Spring 2012) --History of Music 400.01, African American Sacred Music, Ethnomusicology "`Oh, For a Thousand Tongues to Sing': Music and Worship in African American Megachurches of Los College, Atlanta, Georgia, Music Post-Ph.D. Employment (See Teaching Experience for course titles taught

Kovalev, Leonid


My PhD Plan Completed Work  

E-print Network

Ideas Motivation Matthew Kelly Hierarchical Biped Control 3 / 34 #12;Background My PhD Plan Completed Work Planned Work Zero Moment Point Capture Point Hybrid Zero Dynamics Other Ideas Motivation Why Work Zero Moment Point Capture Point Hybrid Zero Dynamics Other Ideas Background: Popular Ideas

Ruina, Andy L.



E-print Network

RESEARCHER TRAINING 8. PhD PROGRAMMES 8.1 Initial phase (A) Main aspects Sub-aspects Routines Responsibility Information on research training Perspicuous and updated information on the doctoral programmes admission to the doctoral programme should be available, to be revised as the need arises.. UiO central

Johansen, Tom Henning


Cardiac energetics analysis after aortic valve replacement with 16-mm ATS mechanical valve.  


The 16-mm ATS mechanical valve is one of the smallest prosthetic valves used for aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with a very small aortic annulus, and its clinical outcomes are reportedly satisfactory. Here, we analyzed the left ventricular (LV) performance after AVR with the 16-mm ATS mechanical valve, based on the concept of cardiac energetics analysis. Eleven patients who underwent AVR with the 16-mm ATS mechanical valve were enrolled in this study. All underwent echocardiographic examination at three time points: before AVR, approximately 1 month after AVR, and approximately 1 year after AVR. LV contractility (end-systolic elastance [Ees]), afterload (effective arterial elastance [Ea]), and efficiency (ventriculoarterial coupling [Ea/Ees] and the stroke work to pressure-volume area ratio [SW/PVA]) were noninvasively measured by echocardiographic data and blood pressure measurement. Ees transiently decreased after AVR and then recovered to the pre-AVR level at the one-year follow-up. Ea significantly decreased in a stepwise manner. Consequently, Ea/Ees and SW/PVA were also significantly improved at the one-year follow-up compared with those before AVR. The midterm LV performance after AVR with the 16-mm ATS mechanical valve was satisfactory. AVR with the 16-mm ATS mechanical valve is validated as an effective treatment for patients with a very small aortic annulus. The cardiac energetics variables, coupling with the conventional hemodynamic variables, can contribute to a better understanding of the patients' clinical conditions, and those may serve as promising indices of the cardiac function. PMID:24859744

Ushijima, Tomoki; Tanoue, Yoshihisa; Uchida, Takayuki; Matsuyama, Sho; Matsumoto, Takashi; Tominaga, Ryuji



The SCUBA HAlf Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES) - IV: Radio-mm-FIR photometric redshifts  

E-print Network

We present the redshift distribution of the SHADES galaxy population based on the rest-frame radio-mm-FIR colours of 120 robustly detected 850um sources in the Lockman Hole East (LH) and Subaru XMM-Newton Deep Field (SXDF). The redshift distribution derived from the full SED information is shown to be narrower than that determined from the radio-submm spectral index, as more photometric bands contribute to a higher redshift accuracy. The redshift distribution of sources derived from at least two photometric bands peaks at z ~ 2.4 and has a near-Gaussian distribution, with 50 per cent (interquartile range) of sources at z=1.8-3.1. We find a statistically-significant difference between the measured redshift distributions in the two fields; the SXDF peaking at a slightly lower redshift (median z ~ 2.2) than the LH (median z ~ 2.7), which we attribute to the noise-properties of the radio observations. We demonstrate however that there could also be field-to-field variations that are consistent with the measured differences in the redshift distributions, and hence, that the incomplete area observed by SHADES with SCUBA, despite being the largest sub-mm survey to date, may still be too small to fully characterize the bright sub-mm galaxy population. Finally we present a brief comparison with the predicted, or assumed, redshift distributions of sub-mm galaxy formation and evolution models, and we derive the contribution of these SHADES sources and the general sub-mm galaxy population to the star formation-rate density at different epochs.

Itziar Aretxaga; David H. Hughes; Kristen Coppin; Angela M. J. Mortier; Jeff Wagg; James S. Dunlop; Edward L. Chapin; Stephen A. Eales; Enrique Gaztanaga; Mark Halpern; Rob J. Ivison; Eelco van Kampen; Douglas Scott; Stephen Serjeant; Ian Smail; Thomas Babbedge; Andrew J. Benson; Scott Chapman; David L. Clements; Loretta Dunne; Simon Dye; Duncan Farrah; Matthew J. Jarvis; Robert G. Mann; Alexandra Pope; Robert Priddey; Steve Rawlings; Marc Seigar; Laura Silva; Chris Simpson; Mattia Vaccari



Manufacturing and optical testing of 800 mm lightweight all C/SiC optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to its high specific stiffness and high thermal stability, silicon carbide is one of the materials most suitable for large space-borne optics. Technologies for accurate optical measurements of large optics in the vacuum or cryogenic conditions are also indispensable. Within the framework of the large SiC mirror study program led by JAXA, we manufactured an 800-mm-diameter lightweight telescope, all of which is made of HB-Cesic, a new type of carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) material developed jointly by ECM, Germany and MELCO, Japan. We first fabricated an 800-mm HB-Cesic primary mirror, and measured the cryogenic deformation of the mirror mounted on an HB-Cesic optical bench in a liquid-helium chamber. We observed the cryo-deformation of 110 nm RMS at 18 K with neither appreciable distortion associated with the mirror support nor significant residual deformation after cooling. We then integrated the primary mirror and a high-order aspheric secondary mirror into a telescope. To evaluate its optical performance, we established a measurement system, which consists of an interferometer in a pressure vessel mounted on a 5-axis adjustable stage, a 900-mm auto-collimating flat mirror, and a flat mirror stand with mechanisms of 2-ax