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Sample records for mm borax ph

  1. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae. PMID:15279302

  2. Desulphurization of coal using borax

    SciTech Connect

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    1996-12-31

    In this study, a high sulphur Turkish lignite was mixed with various amounts of solid borax [Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}10H{sub 2}O] and then these mixtures were subjected to various oxydesulphurization processes. Effects of amount of borax, temperature and partial pressure of oxygen on sulphur removal and coal recovery were investigated in the ranges of 0.625--15.000 g for 5 g lignite, 423--498 K, 0.0--1.5 MPa, respectively.

  3. Dry borax applicator operator's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Karsky, Richard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting their roots and eventually killing the trees. The fungus Heterobasidion annosum causes annosum root rot. The fungus colonizes readily on freshly cut stumps. Partially cut stands have a high risk of infestation because the fungus can colonize on each of the stumps and potentially infect the neighboring trees. Wind and rain carry the annosum spores. Spores that land on freshly cut stumps grow down the stump's root system where they can infect living trees through root grafts or root contacts. Once annosum becomes established, it can remain active for many years in the Southern United States and for several decades in the north. About 7% of the trees that become infected die. When thinning, stumps can be treated successfully using a competing fungus, Phlebia gigantea, and with ''Tim-Bor'' in liquid formulations. These liquid products are no longer approved in the United States. Only the dry powder form is registered and approved by the EPA. Stumps can be treated with a dry formula of borax, (Sporax), significantly reducing one of the primary routes by which Heterobasidion annosum infects a stand of trees. Sporax is used by the USDA Forest Service to control annosum root rot. Sporax is now applied by hand, but once the felled trees are skidded it becomes very hard to locate the stumps. A stump applicator will reduce error, labor costs, and hazards to workers.

  4. Assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human developmental and reproductive toxicity of agents

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3BO3 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). The element, boron, does not exist naturally. In dilute aqueous solution and at physiological pH (7.4), the predominant species in undissociated boric acid (greater than 98%), irrespective of whether the initial material was boric acid of borax. Therefore, it is both useful and correct to compare exposures and dosages to boric acid and borax in terms of `boron equivalents`, since both materials form equivalent species in dilute aqueous solution with similar systemic effects. In order to be clear in this document, the term `boron` will refer to `boron equivalents` or percent boron in boric acid and borax.

  5. Crystallization kinetics of the borax decahydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, A. A.; Sahin, Ö.; Bulutcu, A. N.

    2007-03-01

    The growth and dissolution rates of borax decahydrate have been measured as a function of supersaturation for various particle sizes at different temperature ranges of 13 and 50 °C in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed crystallizer. The values of mass transfer coefficient, K, reaction rate constant, kr and reaction rate order, r were determined. The relative importances of diffusion and integration resistance were described by new terms named integration and diffusion concentration fraction. It was found that the overall growth rate of borax decahydrate is mainly controlled by integration (reaction) steps. It was also estimated that the dissolution region of borax decahydrate, apart from other materials, is controlled by diffusion and surface reaction. Increasing the temperature and particle size cause an increase in the values of kinetic parameters ( Kg, kr and K). The activation energies of overall, reaction and mass transfer steps were determined as 18.07, 18.79 and 8.26 kJmol -1, respectively.

  6. 40 CFR 436.130 - Applicability; description of the borax subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... borax subcategory. 436.130 Section 436.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Borax Subcategory § 436.130 Applicability; description of the borax subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of borate minerals. Borax obtained from brine lakes is...

  7. 40 CFR 436.130 - Applicability; description of the borax subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... borax subcategory. 436.130 Section 436.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Borax Subcategory § 436.130 Applicability; description of the borax subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of borate minerals. Borax obtained from brine lakes is...

  8. 40 CFR 415.270 - Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... borax production subcategory. 415.270 Section 415.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.270 Applicability; description of the borax production... borax by the ore-mining process and by the Trona process....

  9. 40 CFR 436.130 - Applicability; description of the borax subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... borax subcategory. 436.130 Section 436.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Borax Subcategory § 436.130 Applicability; description of the borax subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of borate minerals. Borax obtained from brine lakes is...

  10. [Control of the Pharaoh's ant with borax bait formulations].

    PubMed

    Klunker, R; Scheurer, S; Neumann, T

    1990-12-01

    Results are given for the experimental control of Pharaoh ants, Monomorium pharaonis L., with persistent borax baits in the laboratory and the field. DYBH-bait formulations with about 17 per cent borax are very attractive and have a good effectivity. In 5 different objects infested with this ant eradication was proved to be possible with this experimental formulations. The progress of eradication depends essentially on the good organisational preparation of control measures. PMID:2095049

  11. Intracrystalline site preference of hydrogen isotopes in borax

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhananga, T.M.; Matsuo, S.

    1985-01-03

    The total hydrogen involved in borax synthesized at 25/sup 0/C in aqueous solution is enriched in deuterium by 5.3% compared with the mother liquor. There is no change in the value of the D/H fractionation factor between the hydrogen in borax and those in the mother liquor with changes in the degree of supersaturation. The fractionation factor changes slightly with a change in the crystallization temperature of borax in the range from 5 to 25/sup 0/C. The D/H ratio in the different sites of borax was estimated by a fractional dehydration technique. The results show that hydrogen atoms of the polyanionic group (B/sub 4/O/sub 5/(OH)/sub 4/) are much more enriched in deuterium than those of the cationic group (Na/sub 2/ x 8H/sub 2/O). The delta D values, referred to the mother liquor from which the borax was crystallized, for the cationic group (site A) and the polyanionic group (site B) are -35 +/- 3 and 167 +/- 13%, respectively based on the fractional dehydration results obtained at -21/sup 0/C. At -21/sup 0/C, isotopic exchange between different sites during dehydration is assumed not to occur. The mechanism for dehydration of borax is discussed. 48 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Laboratory Measurements of the W-band (3.2 mm) Properties of Phosphine (PH3) and Ammonia (NH3) Under Simulated Conditions for the Outer Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, P. N.; Steffes, P. G.

    2003-05-01

    A model, based on the Van Vleck-Weisskopf lineshape, was developed for the centimeter-wavelength opacity of PH3, which provides an order of magnitude improvement over previous models (Hoffman et al. ICARUS 152, 172-184, 2001). This formalism utilizes line intensities from the JPL (Pickett et al. 1998) catalog which have been selectively weighted to fit the centimeter wavelength laboratory data. The collisionally induced rotational lines which are lower in frequency than the first rotational line of J = 1 to 0 (267 GHz) have not been measured directly, thus in order to fit the data, weightings were given to those lines below 40 GHz. New laboratory measurements are currently being conducted to investigate whether this model is also accurate at 94 GHz (3.2 mm) under conditions for the outer planets. Preliminary measurements at room temperature agree well with this centimeter-wave formalism for PH3 opacity suggesting that the intensities of only the first 40 lines of the JPL catalog need to be weighted. Further measurements of the opacity and refractivity of PH3 in a hydrogen/helium (H2/He) atmosphere are being conducted at 94 GHz (3.2 mm) at pressures of 0.5, 1 and 2 bars and at temperatures of 210 K and 193 K. Additionally, new high-precision laboratory measurements of the opacity and refractivity of NH3 in an H2/He atmosphere will be conducted under the same frequency, temperature and pressure conditions described for PH3. These new measurements will better constrain the NH3 opacity model for use over a broader wavelength range. Results of measurements of both PH3 and NH3 can be used to better interpret maps of Saturn's emission at this wavelength and can potentially deduce spatial variations in the abundances of both gases in the atmosphere of Saturn. This work is supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program under grant NAG5-12122.

  13. Borax spends $30M for cogeneration system. [US Borax and Chemical Corp

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.

    1982-09-20

    A $30 million natural-gas-fired turbine power plant will provide all the electricity and steam needed at the US Borax and Chemical Corp. plant in Los Angeles. The cogeneration facility will come on line in 1984, and will pay for itself in about five years. The plant will use only half the 46 megawatts produced, the 22 megawatt surplus being sold to Southern California Edison Co. on a 20-year contract at a price pegged to the utility's avoided costs. Natural gas consumption at the plant will remain about the same. (DCK)

  14. 40 CFR 415.270 - Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the borax... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.270 Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory....

  15. 40 CFR 415.270 - Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the borax... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.270 Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory....

  16. 40 CFR 436.130 - Applicability; description of the borax subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... borax subcategory. 436.130 Section 436.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Subcategory § 436.130 Applicability; description of the borax subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 415.270 - Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the borax... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.270 Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory....

  18. 40 CFR 415.270 - Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the borax... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.270 Applicability; description of the borax production subcategory....

  19. 40 CFR 436.130 - Applicability; description of the borax subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... borax subcategory. 436.130 Section 436.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Subcategory § 436.130 Applicability; description of the borax subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. Borax-Loaded PLLA for Promotion of Myogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rico, Patricia; Rodrigo-Navarro, Aleixandre; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Boron is an essential metalloid, which plays a key role in plant and animal metabolisms. It has been reported that boron is involved in bone mineralization, has some uses in synthetic chemistry, and its potential has been only recently exploited in medicinal chemistry. However, in the area of tissue engineering, the use of boron is limited to works involving certain bioactive glasses. In this study, we engineer poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) substrates with sustained release of boron. Then, we analyze for the first time the uniqueness effects of boron in cell differentiation using murine C2C12 myoblasts and discuss a potential mechanism of action in cooperation with Ca(2+). Our results demonstrate that borax-loaded materials strongly enhance myotube formation at initial steps of myogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ca(2+) plays an essential role in combination with borax as chelating or blocking Ca(2+) entry into the cell leads to a detrimental effect on myoblast differentiation observed on borax-loaded materials. This research identifies borax-loaded materials to trigger differentiation mechanisms and it establishes a new tool to engineer microenvironments with applications in regenerative medicine for muscular diseases. PMID:26239605

  1. Photonic crystal borax competitive binding carbohydrate sensing motif†

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Qingzhou; Muscatello, Michelle M. Ward; Asher, Sanford A.

    2009-01-01

    We developed a photonic crystal sensing method for diol containing species such as carbohydrates based on a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel containing an embedded crystalline colloidal array (CCA). The polymerized CCA (PCCA) diffracts visible light. We show that in the presence of borax the diffraction wavelength shifts as the concentration of glucose changes. The diffraction shifts result from the competitive binding of glucose to borate, which reduces the concentration of borate bound to the PVA diols. PMID:19381378

  2. Effect of borax on the crystallization kinetics of boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Ömer

    2002-03-01

    The effect of different borax concentrations on the growth and dissolution rates of boric acid crystals were measured in a fluidized bed crystallizer under well-established conditions of supersaturation and undersaturation and fluidization. It was found that the presence of borax in boric-acid solution decreases the mass-transfer coefficient, kd, the surface-reaction constant, kr and reaction order r pertaining to growth and dissolution rates of boric acid crystals. The effectiveness factors were estimated from the growth rate data to evaluate the relative magnitudes of the two resistances in series, diffusion and integration. The controlling mechanism is mainly by integration for the crystal growth of boric acid in the pure state and in the presence of borax in solution. The kinetic parameters ( kr, kd, r) were determined by a new method which is called trial and error under no assumption. This method gives a high accuracy of determination of the mass-transfer coefficient, kd, the surface-reaction constant, kr and surface-reaction order, r. The relative standard deviation between the equation Rg= kr(( ρα- ρeq)- Rg(1- wα)/ kd) r and those experimentally obtained and represented by the equation Rg= kg( ρα- ρeq) g do not exceed 0.013 for both the growth and dissolution regions.

  3. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives. PMID:23923788

  4. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride... its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride... its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride... its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride... its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride... its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide...

  9. Effect of sodium tetraborate (borax) on the thermal properties of frozen aqueous sugar and polyol solutions.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Rimando, Annie; Aoyagi, Nobuo; Kojima, Shigeo

    2003-06-01

    The effect of sodium tetraborate (Na(2)B(4)O(7), borax) on the thermal property of frozen aqueous sugar and polyol solutions was studied through thermal analysis. Addition of borax raised the thermal transition temperature (glass transition temperature of maximally freeze-concentrated solutes; T(g)') of frozen sucrose solutions depending on the borax/sucrose concentration ratios. Changes in the T(g)' of frozen mono- and disaccharide solutions suggested various forms of complexes, including those of a borate ion and two saccharide molecules. Borax exerted the maximum effect to raise the oligosaccharide and dextran T(g)'s at borax/saccharide molar ratios of approximately 1-2 (maltose and maltooligosaccharides), 2 (dextran 1060), 5 (dextran 4900), and 10 (dextran 10200). Further addition of borax lowered T(g)'s of the saccharide solutions. Borax also raised T(g) and T(g)' temperatures of frozen aqueous glycerol solutions. The decreased solute mobility in frozen solutions by the borate-polyol complexes suggested higher collapse temperature in the freeze-drying process and improved stability of biological systems in frozen solutions. PMID:12808243

  10. Decontamination and decommissioning of the BORAX-V leach pond. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the BORAX-V leach pond located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The leach pond became radioactively contaminated from the periodic discharge of low-level liquid waste during operation of the Boiling Water Reactor Experiments (BORAX) from 1954 to 1964. This report describes work performed to accomplish the D and D objectives of stabilizing the leach pond and preventing the spread of contamination. D and D of the BORAX-V leach pond consisted to backfilling the pond with clean soil, grading and seeding the area, and erecting a permanent marker to identify very low-level subsurface contamination.

  11. Hydrologic data and description of a hydrologic monitoring plan for the Borax Lake area, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Tiffany Rae; McFarland, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Information from field visits was used to develop a monitoring plan. The plan would include monitoring Borax Lake by measuring discharge, stage, evaporation, temperature, and specific conductance; water-quality sampling and analysis; and monitoring shallow ground-water levels near Borax Lake using shallow piezometers. Minimally, one hot spring in North Borax Lake Spring Group 1 would be monitored for temperature and specific conductance and sampled for water-quality analysis. In addition, two flowing wells would be monitored for water levels, temperature, specific conductance, and discharge and sampled for water-quality analysis. The construction characteristics of these wells must be verified before long-term data collection begins. In the future, it may be helpful to monitor shallow and (or) deep observation wells drilled into the thermal aquifer to understand the possible effects of geothermal development on Borax Lake and nearby springs.

  12. Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) on the Growth Rate and Morphology of Borax Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharso; Parkinson, Gordon; Ogden, Mark

    An investigation of the effect of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on both growth rate and morphology of borax crystal has been carried out. This experiment was carried out at temperature of 25°C and relative supersaturation of 0.21 and 0.74 under in situ cell optical microscopy method. The result shows that CTAB inhibits the growth rate and changes the morphology of borax crystal.

  13. Geophysical Characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, Southeastern Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, S.; Paul, C.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Clement, W.; Liberty, L.; Myers, R.; Donaldson, P.

    2003-12-01

    We are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system as part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs, is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. As a result of Basin and Range extension, the Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We are using several geophysical techniques to generate both basin-wide and high-resolution local characterizations of the Alvord Basin and the BLHS. To date we have completed two scales of seismic reflection surveys: an east-west trending basin scale survey and a shallow (~10 - 300 m depth) 3D survey of the BLHS. The basin scale seismic survey consists of 11 km of 2D, 60 fold CMP data acquired with a 200 lb accelerated weight drop. We acquired the 3D survey of the BLHS using a 7.62x39 mm SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The 3D patch covers ~ 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. Additionally, we have completed a regional total-field magnetic survey for a large portion of the Alvord Basin and a 3D transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey of the BLHS. The 3D TEM survey covers the central portion of the 3D seismic survey. Initial results from the regional magnetic and seismic surveys indicate a mid-basin basement high. The basement high appears to correlate with the northeast trending BLHS. Additionally, the cross-basin seismic profile clearly shows that recent deformation has primarily been along an eastward dipping normal fault that bounds the basement high to the east. This suggests that both spatial and temporal characteristics of deformation control hydrothermal activity within the BLHS.

  14. Measurement and analysis of polar stratospheric ClO and N2O by ground-based mm-wave spectroscopy. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Emmons, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis and interpretation of measured spectra of spring-time stratospheric ClO and N2O in Antarctica and Greenland during three field campaigns are presented in this dissertation. Measurements were made at McMurdo Station, Antarctica during September and October in 1992, and at Thule Air Base, Greenland during February and March in 1992 and 1993, using a ground-based mm-wave receiver. Measurements of ClO, a direct product of ozone destruction, were made through the evolution of the Antarctic `ozone hole.` The emission spectrum of ClO at 278.632 GHz was observed and vertical profiles have been determined from measurements both inside and outside the polar vortex and a sharp difference is seen between them. Comparisons are made to coincident balloon and satellite measurements of ozone, and ground-based measurements of NO2. The Arctic polar vortex generally has warmer stratospheric temperatures and is more variable in its position over the pole, consequently no ozone hole has been observed there. However, these measurements, as well as others, show the presence of ClO indicating some ozone depletion has occurred by the same mechanisms at work in the Antarctic. Low altitude mixing ratios of ClO in 1992 were never above 0.2 ppbv, but in 1993 up to 0.5 ppbv was observed in late February. The diurnal variation of the low altitude layer of ClO present in the Antarctic ozone `hole` has also been measured. The mixing ratio increases after sunrise, from less than 0.1 ppbv just before sunrise to approximately 1.5 ppbv at midday, and decreases with increasing solar zenith angle after midday. This diurnal record is unique and is valuable for the validation of photochemical models of the polar stratosphere. N2O is a good tracer of stratospheric dynamics, having only ground sources and having a long chemical lifetime in the atmosphere. N2O spectra at 276.328 GHz were observed at Thule from late February to late March, 1992.

  15. Borax counteracts genotoxicity of aluminum in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of borax (BX) on genotoxicity induced by aluminum (Al) in rat liver, using liver micronucleus assay as an indicator of genotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into six groups and each group had four animals. Aluminum chloride (AlCl₃; 5 mg/kg b.w.) and BX (3.25 and 13 mg/kg b.w.) were injected intraperitoneally to rats. Besides, animals were also treated with Al for 4 consecutive days followed by BX for 10 days. Rats were anesthetized after Al and BX injections and the hepatocytes were isolated for counting the number of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs). AlCl₃ was found to significantly (p < 0.05) increase the number of MNHEPs. Rats treated with BX, however, showed no increase in MNHEPs. Moreover, simultaneous treatments with BX significantly modulated the genotoxic effects of AlCl₃ in rats. It can be concluded that BX has beneficial influences and has the ability to antagonize Al toxicity. PMID:22491726

  16. Response to Thermal Exposure of Ball-Milled Aluminum-Borax Powder Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, Yucel

    2013-04-01

    Aluminum-borax powder mixtures were ball milled and heated above 873 K (600 °C) to produce Al-B master alloys. Ball-milled powder blends reveal interpenetrating layers of deformed aluminum and borax grains that are increasingly refined with increasing milling time. Thermal exposure of the ball-milled powder blends facilitates a series of thermite reactions between these layers. Borax, dehydrated during heating, is reduced by Al, and B thus generated reacts with excess Al to produce AlB2 particles dispersed across the aluminum grains starting at 873 K (600 °C). AlB2 particles start to form along the interface of the aluminum and borax layers. Once nucleated, these particles grow readily to become hexagonal-shaped crystals that traverse the aluminum grains with increasing temperatures as evidenced by the increase in the size as well as in the number of the AlB2 particles. Ball milling for 1 hour suffices to achieve a thermite reaction between borax and aluminum. Ball milling further does not impact the response of the powder blend to thermal exposure. The nucleation-reaction sites are multiplied, however, with increasing milling time and thus insure a higher number of smaller AlB2 particles. The size of the AlB2 platelets may be adjusted with the ball milling time.

  17. Experimental determination of the metastable zone width of borax decahydrate by ultrasonic velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürbüz, H.; Özdemir, B.

    2003-05-01

    The metastable zone width of borax decahydrate (disodium tetraborate decahydrate), represented by the maximum undercooling Δ Tmax, both in pure and impure aqueous solutions were determined according to polythermal method by using the ultrasonic technique. It is found that the metastable zone width of borax decahydrate in pure solutions determined by ultrasonic method fulfills well the linear relation between logΔ Tmax and log(-d T/d t). However, the sensitivity of the method using the ultrasonic technique increases with increasing saturation temperature, probably due to the increase of temperature dependence of solubility with increasing saturation temperature. A comparison of the nucleation temperatures from ultrasonic measurements and from visual determination shows that both detection techniques give almost the same results for borax decahydrate. The results obtained from ultrasonic measurements show, that the presence of Ca 2+ as impurity has only a small effect on the metastable zone width of borax decahydrate as long as the impurity concentrations is in the range of 25-200 ppm. Similar to the effect of Ca 2+, Mg 2+ also has a small effect on the metastable zone width of borax up to the impurity concentration of 100 ppm. However, the presence of 200 ppm Mg 2+ results in a reasonable increase of the metastable zone width.

  18. Prediction of Layer Thickness in Molten Borax Bath with Genetic Evolutionary Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan, Fatih

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the vanadium carbide coating in molten borax bath process is modeled by evolutionary genetic programming (GEP) with bath composition (borax percentage, ferro vanadium (Fe-V) percentage, boric acid percentage), bath temperature, immersion time, and layer thickness data. Five inputs and one output data exist in the model. The percentage of borax, Fe-V, and boric acid, temperature, and immersion time parameters are used as input data and the layer thickness value is used as output data. For selected bath components, immersion time, and temperature variables, the layer thicknesses are derived from the mathematical expression. The results of the mathematical expressions are compared to that of experimental data; it is determined that the derived mathematical expression has an accuracy of 89%.

  19. Effect of borax concentration on the structure of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.; Aswal, V. K.

    2012-06-01

    Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) hydrogels cross-linked with varying concentrations of borax have been studied using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and X-Ray Diffraction. The intensity of scattering increases with borax concentration from 1 mg/ml up to 2 mg/ml and falls thereafter for 4 mg/ml, increasing again for a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The mesoscopic structural changes that cause these trends in the SANS data are in keeping with the variations in the X-ray diffraction patterns pertaining to structures within the PVA chains.

  20. Dispersion of borax in plastic is excellent fire-retardant heat insulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, H.; Hughes, J.; Schmitz, F.

    1967-01-01

    A mix of borax powder and a chlorinated anhydrous polyester resin yields a plastic composition that is fire-retardant, yields a minimum of toxic gases when heated, and exhibits high thermal insulating properties. This composition can be used as a coating or can be converted into laminated or cast shapes.

  1. Borax as flux on sintering of iron Ancor Steel 1000® under glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariza Suarez, H. G.; Sarmiento Santos, A.; Ortiz Otálora, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work studies the flux effect of borax (di sodium tetraborate decahydrate) on sintering of iron Ancor Steel 1000® in abnormal glow discharge. The incidence of the percentage by weight of borax and the sintering temperature in the process were observed. Samples of powder metallurgical iron were prepared with proportions of 0.50%, 2.0%, 4.0% and 6.0% by weight of borax using the procedures of powder metallurgy. The samples were sintered at 800 and 1100°C for 30min, by glow discharge at low pressure in a reducing atmosphere composed of 20% H2+80% Ar. The samples in compact green-state were analyzed by TGA-DSC to determine the fusion process and mass loss during sintering. The analysis of microhardness and density, shows that at a sintering temperature of 800°C the sample density decreases and the sample microhardness increases with respect to sintered samples without borax. Sintered samples were analysed by DRX showing the absence of precipitates.

  2. Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

    2011-03-01

    Ellagic acid (C 14H 6O 8), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0 × 10 -10 to 4.0 × 10 -5 mol L -1; and the detection limits are 3.2 × 10 -10 mol L -1 and 5.9 × 10 -10 mol L -1 excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex.

  3. Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

    2011-03-01

    Ellagic acid (C(14)H(6)O(8)), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0×10(-10) to 4.0×10(-5) mol L(-1); and the detection limits are 3.2×10(-10) mol L(-1) and 5.9×10(-10) mol L(-1) excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex. PMID:21239219

  4. Determination of kinetic parameters of crystal growth rate of borax in aqueous solution by using the rotating disc technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Omer; Aslan, Fevzi; Ozdemir, Mustafa; Durgun, Mustafa

    2004-10-01

    Growth rate of polycrystalline disc of borax compressed at different pressure and rotated at various speed has been measured in a rotating disc crystallizer under well-defined conditions of supersaturation. It was found that the mass transfer coefficient, K, increased while overall growth rate constant, Kg, and surface reaction constant, kr, decreased with increasing smoothness of the disc. It was also determined that kinetic parameters (kr , r , K , g) of crystal growth rate of borax decreased with increasing rotating speed of the polycrystalline disc. The effectiveness factor was calculated from the growth rate data to evaluate the relative magnitude of the steps in series bulk diffusion through the mass transfer boundary layer and the surface integration. At low rotating speed of disc, the crystal growth rate of borax is mainly controlled by integration. However, both diffusion and integration steps affect the growth rate of borax at higher rotating speed of polycrystalline disc.

  5. Characterization of uranium surfaces machined with aqueous propylene glycol-borax or perchloroethylene-mineral oil coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, S.S.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.; Dillon, J.J.; Richards, H.L.; Seals, R.D.; Byrd, V.R.

    1986-12-31

    The use of perchloroethylene (perc) as an ingredient in coolants for machining enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been discontinued because of environmental concerns. A new coolant was substituted in December 1985, which consists of an aqueous solution of propylene glycol with borax (sodium tetraborate) added as a nuclear poison and with a nitrite added as a corrosion inhibitor. Uranium surfaces machined using the two coolants were compared with respects to residual contamination, corrosion or corrosion potential, and with the aqueous propylene glycol-borax coolant was found to be better than that of enriched uranium machined with the perc-mineral oil coolant. The boron residues on the final-finished parts machined with the borax-containing coolant were not sufficient to cause problems in further processing. All evidence indicated that the enriched uranium surfaces machined with the borax-containing coolant will be as satisfactory as those machined with the perc coolant.

  6. Corrosion resistance of inconel 690 to borax, boric acid, and boron nitride at 1100{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    1996-12-12

    Significant general and localized corrosion was observed on Inconel 690 coupons following exposure to borax, boric acid and boron nitride at 1100{degrees}C. Severe localized attack at and below the melt line was observed on coupons exposed to borax. An intergranular attack at and below the melt line was observed on coupons exposed to borax. An intergranular attack (IGA) of the Inconel 690 was also observed. Severe internal void formation and IGA (30 mils penetration after 3 days) was observed in the coupon exposed to boric acid. Both borax and boric acid remove the protective chromium oxide; however, this layer can be reestablished by heating the Inconel 690 to 975 {degrees}C in air for several hours. Inconel 690 in direct contact with boron nitride resulted in the formation of a thick chromium borate layer, a general corrosion rate of 50 to 90 mils per year, and internal void formation of 1 mil per day.

  7. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of the BORAX-V facility turbine building

    SciTech Connect

    Arave, A.E.; Rodman, G.R.

    1992-12-01

    The Boiling Water Reactor Experiment (BORAX)-V Facility Turbine Building Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Project is described in this report. The BORAX series of five National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS) reactors pioneered intensive work on boiling water reactor (BWR) experiments conducted between 1953 and 1964. Facility characterization, decision analyses, and D&D plans for the turbine building were prepared from 1979 through 1990. D&D activities of the turbine building systems were initiated in November of 1988 and completed with the demolition and backfill of the concrete foundation in March 1992. Due to the low levels of radioactivity and the absence of loose contamination, the D&D activities were completed with no radiation exposure to the workers. The D&D activities were performed in a manner that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) remain.

  8. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of the BORAX-V facility turbine building

    SciTech Connect

    Arave, A.E.; Rodman, G.R.

    1992-12-01

    The Boiling Water Reactor Experiment (BORAX)-V Facility Turbine Building Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Project is described in this report. The BORAX series of five National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS) reactors pioneered intensive work on boiling water reactor (BWR) experiments conducted between 1953 and 1964. Facility characterization, decision analyses, and D D plans for the turbine building were prepared from 1979 through 1990. D D activities of the turbine building systems were initiated in November of 1988 and completed with the demolition and backfill of the concrete foundation in March 1992. Due to the low levels of radioactivity and the absence of loose contamination, the D D activities were completed with no radiation exposure to the workers. The D D activities were performed in a manner that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) remain.

  9. Validation of MCNP: SPERT-D and BORAX-V fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Palmer, B.

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses critical experiments involving SPERT-D[sup 1,2] fuel elements and BORAX-V[sup 3-8] fuel which have been modeled and calculations performed with MCNP. MCNP is a Monte Carlo based transport code. For this study continuous-energy nuclear data from the ENDF/B-V cross section library was used. The SPERT-D experiments consisted of various arrays of fuel elements moderated and reflected with either water or a uranyl nitrate solution. Some SPERT-D experiments used cadmium as a fixed neutron poison, while others were poisoned with various concentrations of boron in the moderating/reflecting solution. ne BORAX-V experiments were arrays of either boiling fuel rod assemblies or superheater assemblies, both types of arrays were moderated and reflected with water. In one boiling fuel experiment, two fuel rods were replaced with borated stainless steel poison rods.

  10. Validation of MCNP: SPERT-D and BORAX-V fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Palmer, B.

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses critical experiments involving SPERT-D{sup 1,2} fuel elements and BORAX-V{sup 3-8} fuel which have been modeled and calculations performed with MCNP. MCNP is a Monte Carlo based transport code. For this study continuous-energy nuclear data from the ENDF/B-V cross section library was used. The SPERT-D experiments consisted of various arrays of fuel elements moderated and reflected with either water or a uranyl nitrate solution. Some SPERT-D experiments used cadmium as a fixed neutron poison, while others were poisoned with various concentrations of boron in the moderating/reflecting solution. ne BORAX-V experiments were arrays of either boiling fuel rod assemblies or superheater assemblies, both types of arrays were moderated and reflected with water. In one boiling fuel experiment, two fuel rods were replaced with borated stainless steel poison rods.

  11. Genotoxic effects of boric acid and borax in zebrafish, Danio rerio using alkaline comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Gülsoy, Nagihan; Yavas, Cüneyd; Mutlu, Özal

    2015-01-01

    The present study is conducted to determine the potential mechanisms of Boron compounds, boric acid (BA) and borax (BX), on genotoxicity of zebrafish Danio rerio for 24, 48, 72 and 96-hours acute exposure (level:1, 4, 16, 64 mg/l BA and BX) in semi-static bioassay experiment. For that purpose, peripheral erythrocytes were drawn from caudal vein and Comet assay was applied to assess genotoxicity. Acute (96 hours) exposure and high concentrations of boric acid and borax increases % tail DNA and Olive tail moment. Genotoxicity was found for BA as concentration-dependent and BX as concentration and time dependent manner. In general, significant effects (P < 0,05) on both concentrations and exposure times were observed in experimental groups. DNA damage was highest at 96 h and 24 h for all BX and BA concentrations, respectively in peripheral blood of D. rerio. For the first time, our study demonstrates the effect of waterborne BA and BX exposure on genotoxicity at the molecular level, which may contribute to understanding the mechanism of boric acid and borax-induced genotoxicity in fish. PMID:26862320

  12. Genotoxic effects of boric acid and borax in zebrafish, Danio rerio using alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Gülsoy, Nagihan; Yavas, Cüneyd; Mutlu, Özal

    2015-01-01

    The present study is conducted to determine the potential mechanisms of Boron compounds, boric acid (BA) and borax (BX), on genotoxicity of zebrafish Danio rerio for 24, 48, 72 and 96-hours acute exposure (level:1, 4, 16, 64 mg/l BA and BX) in semi-static bioassay experiment. For that purpose, peripheral erythrocytes were drawn from caudal vein and Comet assay was applied to assess genotoxicity. Acute (96 hours) exposure and high concentrations of boric acid and borax increases % tail DNA and Olive tail moment. Genotoxicity was found for BA as concentration-dependent and BX as concentration and time dependent manner. In general, significant effects (P < 0,05) on both concentrations and exposure times were observed in experimental groups. DNA damage was highest at 96 h and 24 h for all BX and BA concentrations, respectively in peripheral blood of D. rerio. For the first time, our study demonstrates the effect of waterborne BA and BX exposure on genotoxicity at the molecular level, which may contribute to understanding the mechanism of boric acid and borax-induced genotoxicity in fish. PMID:26862320

  13. 8mm/16mm Movie-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provisor, Henry

    The materials, techniques, and attitudes needed to make professional-quality movies using 8mm., super 8mm., and 16mm. amateur equipment are covered in this guide to movie-making. The pros and cons are discussed of the various makes and models of cameras and lenses. Other topics discussed are: exposure and lighting, choosing film, camera speed and…

  14. a Theoretical Analysis of Physical Properties of Aqueous Trehalose with Borax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahara; Aniya, Masaru

    2013-07-01

    The temperature and composition dependence of the viscosity of aqueous trehalose and aqueous trehalose-borax mixtures has been investigated by means of the Bond Strength-Coordination Number Fluctuation (BSCNF) model. The result indicates that the variation in the fragility of the system is very small in the composition range analyzed. The values of the materials parameters determined are consistent with those of the trehalose-water-lithium iodide system which were analyzed in a previous study. Based on the analysis of the obtained parameters of the BSCNF model, the physical interpretation of the WLF parameters reported in a previous study is reconfirmed.

  15. Development of a cleaning process for uranium chips machined with a glycol-water-borax coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1984-12-01

    A chip-cleaning process has been developed to remove the new glycol-water-borax coolant from oralloy chips. The process involves storing the freshly cut chips in Freon-TDF until they are cleaned, washing with water, and displacing the water with Freon-TDF. The wash water can be reused many times and still yield clean chips and then be added to the coolant to make up for evaporative losses. The Freon-TDF will be cycled by evaporation. The cleaning facility is currently being designed and should be operational by April 1985.

  16. Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Robert S.; Boyer, Norman W.

    1980-01-01

    A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  17. Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, N.W.; Taylor, R.S.

    1980-10-28

    A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  18. Precipitation method for barium metaborate (BaB2O4) synthesis from borax solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akşener, Eymen; Figen, Aysel Kantürk; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2013-12-01

    In this study, barium metaborate (BaB2O4, BMB) synthesis from the borax solution was carried out. BMB currently is used in production of ceramic glazes, luminophors, oxide cathodes as well as additives to pigments for aqueous emulsion paints and also β-BaB2O4 single crystals are the best candidate for fabrication of solid-state UV lasers operating at a wavelength of 200 nm due to excellent nonlinear optical properties. In the present study, synthesis was carried out from the borax solution (Na2B4O7ṡ10H2O, BDH) and barium chloride (BaCI2ṡ2H2O, Ba) in the glass-batch reactor with stirring. The effect of, times (5-15 min), molar ratio [stoich.ration (1.0:2.0), 1.25:2.0, 1.5:2.0, 2.5:2:0, 3.0:2.0, 3.5:2.0,4.0:2.0, 5.0:2.0] and also crystallization time (2-6 hour) on the BMB yield (%) was investigated at 80 °C reaction temperature. It is found that, BMB precipitation synthesis with 90 % yield can be performed from 0.50 molar ration (BDH:Ba), under 80 °C, 15 minute, and 6 hours crystallization time. The structural properties of BMB powders were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG instrumental analysis technique.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF BORIC ACID AND BORAX USING THE IEHR EVALUATIVE PROCESS FOR ASSESSING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3803 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decehydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). he element, boron, does not exist naturally. oron always exis...

  20. Comparative antibacterial properties in vitro of seven olivanic acid derivatives: MM 4550, MM 13902, MM 17880, MM 22380, MM 22381, MM 22382 and MM 22383.

    PubMed

    Basker, M J; Boon, R J; Hunter, P A

    1980-08-01

    Streptomyces olivaceus ATCC 31365 produces a family of novel beta-lactam antibiotics collectively referred to as the olivanic acids. Seven such compounds, MM 4550, MM 13902, MM 17880, MM 22380, MM 22381, MM 22382 and MM 22383 have been identified which have the same carbapenem nucleus but with different side chains attached to the nucleus. The compounds with an (8S) hydroxyethyl substituent and cis-orientated beta-lactam protons, MM 22380 and MM 22382, and their sulphate esters, MM 17880 and MM 123902, are potent antibiotic with MIC values against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the range 0.1 3.1 microgram/ml. The corresponding (8S) hydroxyethyl compounds with trans-beta-lactam protons, MM 22381 and MM 22383, also have broad-spectrum activity but are rather less potent than the cis-compound. In addition to their antibiotic activity, the olivanic acids inhibit a number of beta-lactamases and enhance the activity of beta-lactams such as amoxycillin against beta-lactamase-producing bacteria. Significant differences are observed both in antibacterial activities and in beta-lactamase inhibition properties when the olivanic acids are compared with the related thienamycin antibiotics which have (8R) rather than (8S) stereochemistry and trans-beta-lactam protons. PMID:6968745

  1. Total cost of 46-Mw Borax cogen system put at $30M

    SciTech Connect

    de Biasi, V.

    1983-03-01

    The cogeneration system, designed around a W-251B gas turbine power plant exhausting into a Deltak waste heat boiler to produce ''free'' process steam from the gas turbine exhaust, is discussed. The design includes water injection for NO/sub x/ control, self-cleaning inlet air filters, evaporative coolers, supercharger, and supplementary firing of the waste heat boiler. Once the system is operational Borax will be able to generate all of the electricity needed for on-site operations and a large share of process steam needs--plus still have 22-23 Mw surplus electric power to sell, so that the installation should pay for itself in less than 5 years of service.

  2. Experimenting with cameraless photography using turmeric and borax: an introduction to photophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    An alcoholic extract of the spice turmeric can be used to create a light-sensitive dye that can be used to stain paper. On exposure to sunlight, the dyed paper can be used to capture photographic images of flat objects or reproduce existing images through the preferential degradation of the dye in light-exposed areas over a time period of a few hours. The images can be developed and preserved by spraying the exposed paper with a dilute solution of borax, which forms coloured organo-boron complexes that limit further degradation of the dye and enhance the colour of the image. Similar photochemical reactions that lead to the degradation of the turmeric dye can also be used for reducing the organic pollution load in wastewater produced by many industrial processes and in dye-sensitized solar cells for producing electricity.

  3. Preparation and characterization of antimicrobial wound dressings based on silver, gellan, PVA and borax.

    PubMed

    Cencetti, C; Bellini, D; Pavesio, A; Senigaglia, D; Passariello, C; Virga, A; Matricardi, P

    2012-10-15

    Silver-loaded dressings are designed to provide the same antimicrobial activity of topical silver, with the advantages of a sustained silver release and a reduced number of dressing changes. Moreover, such type of dressing must provide a moist environment, avoiding fiber shedding, dehydration and adherence to the wound site. Here we describe the preparation of a novel silver-loaded dressing based on a Gellan/Hyaff(®) (Ge-H) non woven, treated with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/borax system capable to enhance the entrapment of silver in the dressing and to modulate its release. The new hydrophilic non woven dressings show enhanced water uptake capability and slow dehydration rates. A sustained silver release is also achieved. The antibacterial activity was confirmed on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:22939352

  4. Borax in the supraglacial moraine of the Lewis Cliff, Buckley Island quadrangle--first Antarctic occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, J.J.; Muhs, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1987-1988 austral summer field season, membersof the south party of the antarctic search for meteorites south-ern team* working in the Lewis Cliff/Colbert Hills region dis-covered several areas of unusual mineralization within theLewis Cliff ice tongue and its associated moraine field (figure1). The Lewis Cliff ice tongue (84°15'S 161°25'E) is a meteorite-stranding surface of ablating blue ice, about 2.3 by 7.0 kilo-meters, bounded on the west by the Lewis Cliff, on the northand northeast by a large supraglacial moraine, and on the eastby the Colbert Hills. To the south it opens to the Walcott Névé.Because it is a meteorite-stranding surface, the major component of ice motion in the area is believed to be vertical(Whillans and Cassidy 1983). The presence of Thule-Baffinmoraines at the northern terminus of the blue ice tends tosupport the hypothesis that the area underlying the moraineis essentially stagnant and that ice arriving from the south ispiling up against it. Areas containing mineral deposits werefound within the moraine field to the north and east of theblue ice margin and also along the east margins of the blue iceitself. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses of these depositshave shown that they are composed predominantly of nah-colite (NaHCO3), trona [Na3(CO3)(HCO3) · 2H20], borax[Na2B405(OH)4 · 8H20], and a new hexagonal hydrous sulfatespecies. This paper reports the details of the borax occurrence,because it is the first known on the continent.

  5. Compared production behavior of borax and unborax premixed SiC reinforcement Al7Si-Mg-TiB alloys composites with semi-solid stir casting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryono, M. B.; Sulardjaka, Nugroho, Sri

    2016-04-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of borax additive on physical and mechanical properties of Al7Si-Mg-TiB with the reinforcement of silicon carbide. In this case, the different weight percentage from the reinforcement of SiC (10, 15, and 20% wt), and the borax additive (ratio 1:4) were homogenously added into the matrix by employing the semi-solid stir casting method at the temperature of 590°C. Al7Si-Mg-TiB melted in an electric resistance furnace at 800°C for 25 minutes and the holding time of 5 minutes; SiC was stirred with borax inside the chamber and heated at the temperature of 250°C for 25 minutes. Then, it melted by lowing the temperature into 590°C. The SiC-borax mixture was added into the electric resistance furnace, and automatically stirred by the stirrer at a constant speed (500 rpm for 3 minutes) in the composite A17Si-Mg-TiB. It melted when heated at 750°C for 17minutes,then, casting was performed on the prepared mould. The characterizations of Al7Si-Mg-TiB-SiC/borax were porosity, hardness, and microstructure on the Al7Si-Mg-TiB-SiC/ borax. The porosity of AMC tended to increase along with the increaseof the wt% SiC (1.4%-3.6%); however, borax additive underwent a decrease in porosity (0.14%-1.3%). Further, hardness tended to improve along with the increase of wt% SiC. The unboraxmixture had 79,6 HRB up to 94 HRB. Whereas, the borax additive mixture had 105,8 HRB up to 121 HRB.

  6. In vitro studies on chemoprotective effect of borax against aflatoxin B1-induced genetic damage in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Dirican, Ebubekir; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2012-12-01

    A common dietary contaminant, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), has been shown to be a potent mutagen and carcinogen in humans and many animal species. Since the eradication of AFB1 contamination in agricultural products has been rare, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boron compounds like borax (BX) and boric acid are the major components of industry and their antioxidant role has recently been reported. In the present report, we evaluated the capability of BX to inhibit the rate of micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formations induced by AFB1. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in both SCE and MN frequencies of cultures treated with AFB1 (3.12 ppm) as compared to controls. However, co-application of BX (1, 2 and 5 ppm) and AFB1 resulted in decreases of SCE and MN rates as compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone. Borax gave 30-50 % protection against AFB1 induced SCEs and MNs. In conclusion, the support of borax was especially useful in aflatoxin-toxicated blood tissue. Thus, the risk on target tissues of AFB1 could be reduced and ensured early recovery from its toxicity. PMID:22526492

  7. Impact of the propylene glycol-water-borax coolant on material recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, W.K.; Taylor, P.A.

    1983-05-01

    The reaction of the propylene glycol-water-borax coolant with nitric acid has now been studied in some detail. This document is intended to provide a summary of the results. Findings are summarized under nine headings. Tests have also been conducted to determine if the new coolant would have any adverse effects on the uranium recycle systems. Experiments were scientifically designed after observation of the production operations so that accurate response to the immediate production concerns could be provided. Conclusions from these studies are: formation of glycol nitrates is very improbable; the reaction of concentrated (70%) nitric acid with pure propylene glycol is very violent and hazardous; dilution of the nitric acid-glycol mixture causes a drastic decrease in the rate and intensity of the reaction; the mechanism of the nitric acid propylene glycol reaction is autocatalytic in nitrous acid; no reaction is observed between coolant and 30% nitric acid unless the solution is heated; the coolant reacts fairly vigorously with 55% nitric acid after a concentration-dependent induction time; experiments showed that the dissolution of uranium chips that had been soaked in coolant proceeded at about the same rate as if the chips had not previously contacted glycol; thermodynamic calculations show that the enthalpy change (heat liberated) by the reaction of nitric acid (30%) with propylene glycol is smaller than if the same amount of nitric acid reacted with uranium. Each of these conclusions is briefly discussed. The effect of new coolant on uranium recycle operations is then briefly discussed.

  8. Pulsed laser ablation of borax target in vacuum and hydrogen DC glow discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, A. N.; Miotello, A.; Mosaner, P.

    2006-09-01

    The aim of our experiment was to produce a material with B sbnd H bonds for applications in hydrogen storage and generation. By using KrF excimer laser ( λ = 248 nm) ablation of borax (Na 2B 4O 7) target, thin films were deposited on KBr and silicon substrates. Ablation was performed both in vacuum and in hydrogen atmosphere. DC glow discharge technique was utilized to enhance hydrogen gas ionization. Experiments were performed using laser fluence from 5 to 20 J/cm 2. Films were deposited under gas pressure of 1 × 10 -5 to 5 × 10 -2 mbar and substrate temperatures of 130-450 °C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of films showed presence of circular particulates. Film thickness, roughness and particulates number increased with increase in laser fluence. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis shows that sodium content in the particulates is higher than in the target. This effect is discussed in terms of atomic arrangements (both at surface and bulk) in systems where ionic and covalent bonds are present and by looking at the increased surface/bulk ratio of the particulates with respect to the deposited films. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements showed presence of B sbnd O stretching and B sbnd O sbnd B bending bonds. Possible reasons for absence of B sbnd H bonds are attributed to binding enthalpy of the competing molecules.

  9. Characterization of two glycoside hydrolase family 36 α-galactosidases: novel transglycosylation activity, lead-zinc tolerance, alkaline and multiple pH optima, and low-temperature activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junpei; Lu, Qian; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yiyan; Wu, Qian; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Xu, Bo; Ding, Junmei; Huang, Zunxi

    2016-03-01

    Two α-galactosidases, AgaAJB07 from Mesorhizobium and AgaAHJG4 from Streptomyces, were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant AgaAJB07 showed a 2.9-fold and 22.6-fold increase in kcat with a concomitant increase of 2.3-fold and 16.3-fold in Km in the presence of 0.5mM ZnSO4 and 30.0mM Pb(CH3COO)2, respectively. Recombinant AgaAHJG4 showed apparent optimal activity at pH 8.0 in McIlvaine or Tris-HCl buffer and 9.5 in glycine-NaOH or HCl-borax-NaOH buffer, retention of 23.6% and 43.2% activity when assayed at 10 and 20°C, respectively, and a half-life of approximately 2min at 50°C. The activation energies for p-nitrophenyl-α-d-galactopyranoside hydrolysis by AgaAJB07 and AgaAHJG4 were 71.9±0.8 and 48.2±2.0kJmol(-1), respectively. Both AgaAJB07 and AgaAHJG4 exhibited transglycosylation activity, but they required different acceptors and produced different compounds. Furthermore, potential factors for alkaline and multiple pH optima and low-temperature adaptations of AgaAHJG4 were presumed. PMID:26471539

  10. Mg- and K-bearing borates and associated evaporites at Eagle Borax spring, Death Valley, California: A spectroscopic exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Efflorescent crusts at the Eagle Borax spring in Death Valley, California, contain an array of rare Mg and K borate minerals, several of which are only known from one or two other localities. The Mg- and/or K-bearing borates include aristarainite, hydroboracite, kaliborite, mcallisterite, pinnoite, rivadavite, and santite. Ulexite and probertite also occur in the area, although their distribution is different from that of the Mg and K borates. Other evaporite minerals in the spring vicinity include halite, thenardite, eugsterite, gypsum-anhydrite, hexahydrite, and bloedite. Whereas the first five of these minerals are found throughout Death Valley, the last two Mg sulfates are more restricted in occurrence and are indicative of Mg-enriched ground water. Mineral associations observed at the Eagle Borax spring, and at many other borate deposits worldwide, can be explained by the chemical fractionation of borate-precipitating waters during the course of evaporative concentration. The Mg sulfate and Mg borate minerals in the Eagle Borax efflorescent crusts point to the fractionation of Ca by the operation of a chemical divide involving Ca carbonate and Na-Ca borate precipitation in the subsurface sediments. At many other borate mining localities, the occurrence of ulexite in both Na borate (borax-kernite) and Ca borate (ulexite-colemanite) deposits similarly reflects ulexite's coprecipitation with Ca carbonate at an early concentration stage. Such ulexite may perhaps be converted to colemanite by later reaction with the coexisting Ca carbonate - the latter providing the additional Ca2+ ions needed for the conversion. Mg and Ca-Mg borates are the expected late-stage concentration products of waters forming ulexite-colemanite deposits and are therefore most likely to occur in the marginal zones or nearby mud facies of ulexite-colemanite orebodies. Under some circumstances, Mg and Ca-Mg borates might provide a useful prospecting guide for ulexite-colemanite deposits, although the high solubility of Mg borate minerals may prevent their formation in lacustrine settings and certainly inhibits their geologic preservation. The occurrence of Mg borates in borax-kernite deposits is also related to fractionation processes and points to the operation of an Mg borate chemical divide, characterized by Mg borate precipitation ahead of Mg carbonate. All of these considerations imply that Mg is a significant chemical component of many borate-depositing ground waters, even though Mg borate minerals may not be strongly evident in borate orebodies. The Eagle Borax spring borates and other evaporite minerals were studied using spectroscopic and X-ray powder diffraction methods, which were found to be highly complementary. Spectral reflectance measurements provide a sensitive means for detecting borates present in mixtures with other evaporites and can be used to screen samples rapidly for X-ray diffraction analysis. The apparently limited occurrence of Mg and K borate minerals compared to Ca and Na borates may stem partly from the inefficiency of X-ray diffraction methods for delineating the mineralogy of large and complex deposits. Spectral reflectance measurements can be made in the laboratory, in the field, on the mine face, and even remotely. Reflectance data should have an important role in studies of existing deposit mineralogy and related chemical fractionation processes, and perhaps in the discovery of new borate mineral resources.

  11. High-compactness coating grown by plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 magnesium alloy in the solution of silicate-borax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, M. J.; Wang, X. J.; Zhang, M. F.

    2012-10-01

    A ceramic coating was formed on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in the silicate solution with and without borax doped. The composition, morphology, elements and roughness as well as mechanical property of the coating were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reciprocal-sliding tribometer. The results show that the PEO coating is mainly composed of magnesia. When using borax dope, boron element is permeating into the coating and the boron containing phase exist in the form of amorphous. In addition, the microhardness and compactness of the PEO coating are improved significantly due to doped borax.

  12. Influence of Environmental Factors on Bacteriocin Production by Human Isolates of Lactococcus lactis MM19 and Pediococcus acidilactici MM33.

    PubMed

    Turgis, Mélanie; Vu, Khanh Dang; Millette, Mathieu; Dupont, Claude; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-03-01

    The influence of temperature, initial pH, and carbon and nitrogen sources on bacteriocin secreted by Lactococcus lactis MM19 (MM19) and Pediococcus acidilactici MM33 (MM33) was evaluated. It was found that 30 and 45 °C were the growth temperatures for higher nisin and pediocin production by MM19 and MM33, respectively. The initial pH values for higher production of nisin and pediocin were 9 and 6, respectively. Glucose and wheat peptone E430 were found as suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for highest nisin production by MM19 at 30 °C and initial pH of 9. In these conditions, nisin production could be increased by 6.7 times as compared to the control medium (de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe-MRS broth). Similarly, fructose and pea peptone were suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for highest production of pediocin by MM33 at 45 °C and initial pH of 6. In these conditions, pediocin production by MM33 was increased by three times as compared to the control medium (tryptone-glucose-yeast extract-TGE broth). PMID:26686688

  13. Preparing high- and low-aspect ratio AlB2 flakes from borax or boron oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A. C.; Economy, J.

    2000-02-01

    The commercial preparation of aluminum-diboride flakes in aluminum relies on relatively expensive starting materials. A new synthesis has been developed that allows AlB2 to be prepared directly from the reaction of borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O) or boron oxide (B2O3) with aluminum. Aluminum metal at temperatures higher than 900°C has been shown to reduce these boron-containing compounds, producing an Al2O3-containing slag and AlB2. A natural separation occurs, leaving AlB2 in the molten aluminum and Al2O3 as part of a slag that forms at the melt surface. Samples containing up to 10 vol.% AlB2 in an aluminum matrix have been directly prepared using this method.

  14. Precipitation method for barium metaborate (BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}) synthesis from borax solution

    SciTech Connect

    Akşener, Eymen; Figen, Aysel Kantürk; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2013-12-16

    In this study, barium metaborate (BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, BMB) synthesis from the borax solution was carried out. BMB currently is used in production of ceramic glazes, luminophors, oxide cathodes as well as additives to pigments for aqueous emulsion paints and also β−BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} single crystals are the best candidate for fabrication of solid-state UV lasers operating at a wavelength of 200 nm due to excellent nonlinear optical properties. In the present study, synthesis was carried out from the borax solution (Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7⋅}10H{sub 2}O, BDH) and barium chloride (BaCI{sub 2⋅}2H{sub 2}O, Ba) in the glass-batch reactor with stirring. The effect of, times (5-15 min), molar ratio [stoich.ration (1.0:2.0), 1.25:2.0, 1.5:2.0, 2.5:2:0, 3.0:2.0, 3.5:2.0,4.0:2.0, 5.0:2.0] and also crystallization time (2-6 hour) on the BMB yield (%) was investigated at 80 °C reaction temperature. It is found that, BMB precipitation synthesis with 90 % yield can be performed from 0.50 molar ration (BDH:Ba), under 80 °C, 15 minute, and 6 hours crystallization time. The structural properties of BMB powders were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG instrumental analysis technique.

  15. Primeval galaxies in the sub-mm and mm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, J. Richard; Myers, Steven T.

    1993-01-01

    Although the results of COBE's FIRAS experiment 1 constrain the deviation in energy from the CMB blackbody in the 500-5000 micron range to be delta E/E, sub cmb less than 0.005, primeval galaxies can still lead to a brilliant sub-mm sky of non-Gaussian sources that are detectable at 10 inch resolution from planned arrays such as SCUBA on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and, quite plausibly, at sub-arcsecond resolution in planned mm and sub-mm interferometers. Here, we apply our hierarchical peaks method to a CDM model to construct sub-mm and mm maps of bursting PG's appropriate for these instruments with minimum contours chosen to correspond to realistic observational parameters for them and which pass the FIRAS limits.

  16. OpenMM accelerated MMTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kevin P.; Constable, Steve; Faruk, Nabil F.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we provide an interface developed to link the Molecular Modelling toolkit (MMTK) with OpenMM in order to take advantage of the fast evaluation techniques of OpenMM. This interface allows MMTK scripts using the Langevin dynamics integrator, for both classical and path integral simulations, to be executed on a variety of hardware including graphical processing units via OpenMM. The interface has been developed using Python and Cython to take advantage of the high level abstraction thanks to the MMTK and OpenMM software packages. We have tested the interface on a number of systems to observe which systems benefit most from the acceleration libraries of OpenMM.

  17. 3D Seismic and Magnetic characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, southeastern Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, S.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Routh, P.; Liberty, L.; Donaldson, P.

    2004-05-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems, we are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs. BLHS is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. The Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben in the Northern Great Basin bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We conducted a 2D seismic survey to characterize the geologic structure of the basin, a high-resolution 3D seismic survey to characterize the geologic structure of the BLHS, and a high-resolution 3D magnetic survey to characterize any lineaments in the bedrock that might control fluid flow in the BLHS. Previous results from the 2D seismic survey show a mid-basin basement high aligned approximately with the hot springs. In this study we present the results from the high-resolution 3D seismic and magnetic survey of the BLHS. We acquired the 3D seismic data using an SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The seismic survey covers approximately 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. The coincidental magnetic survey was collected using a Geometrics 858G cesium vapor magnetometer. We designed both surveys to span nearly 100 active hydrothermal springs, including an approximately 50 m stepover in the trend of the surface expression of the hot springs. After preliminary processing, the 3D seismic data show continuous reflections up to 300 ms (~ 480 m). The initial interpretation of features seen in the 3D data cube include: normal faults dipping to the east and west, near-surface disturbances that are consistent with the trend of the hot springs, and significant near surface velocity anomalies throughout the survey area. Time slices through the 3D seismic cube show evidence of semi-continuous linear features consistent with the trend of the hot springs. A large scale inversion has been performed on the magnetic data. The fit to the observed data is good given the noise assumption of 3 nT. After more extensive processing, we will compare structures in the inverted magnetic model with features in the seismic data and explore the connection between the subsurface geology and the surface geometry of the hot springs.

  18. Microfibrillated cellulose and borax as mechanical, O2-barrier, and surface-modulating agents of pullulan biocomposite coatings on BOPP.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Carlo A; Campanella, Gaetano; Türe, Hasan; Olsson, Richard T; Farris, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    Multifunctional composite coatings on bi-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) films were obtained using borax and microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) added to the main pullulan coating polymer. Spectroscopy analyses suggested that a first type of interaction occurred via hydrogen bonding between the C6OH group of pullulan and the hydroxyl groups of boric acid, while monodiol and didiol complexation represented a second mechanism. The deposition of the coatings yielded an increase in the elastic modulus of the entire plastic substrate (from ∼2GPa of the neat BOPP to ∼3.1GPa of the P/B+/MFC-coated BOPP). The addition of MFC yielded a decrease of both static and kinetic coefficients of friction of approximately 22% and 25%, respectively, as compared to the neat BOPP. All composite coatings dramatically increased the oxygen barrier performance of BOPP, especially under dry conditions. The deposition of the high hydrophilic coatings allowed to obtain highly wettable surfaces (water contact angle of ∼18°). PMID:27083358

  19. Apollo 12 photography 70 mm, 16 mm, and 35 mm frame index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    For each 70-mm frame, the index presents information on: (1) the focal length of the camera, (2) the photo scale at the principal point of the frame, (3) the selenographic coordinates at the principal point of the frame, (4) the percentage of forward overlap of the frame, (5) the sun angle (medium, low, high), (6) the quality of the photography, (7) the approximate tilt (minimum and maximum) of the camera, and (8) the direction of tilt. A brief description of each frame is also included. The index to the 16-mm sequence photography includes information concerning the approximate surface coverage of the photographic sequence and a brief description of the principal features shown. A column of remarks is included to indicate: (1) if the sequence is plotted on the photographic index map and (2) the quality of the photography. The pictures taken using the lunar surface closeup stereoscopic camera (35 mm) are also described in this same index format.

  20. Confirmatory radiological survey of the BORAX-V turbine building Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.H.; Coleman, R.L.; Jensen, M.K.; Pierce, G.A.; Egidi, P.V.; Mather, S.K.

    1993-07-01

    An independent assessment of the remediation of the BORAX-V (Boiling Water Reactor Experiment) turbine building at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho Falls, Idaho, was accomplished by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pollutant Assessments Group (ORNL/PAG). The purpose of the assessment was to confirm the site`s compliance with applicable Department of Energy guidelines. The assessment included reviews of both the decontamination and decommissioning Plan and data provided from the pre- and post-remedial action surveys and an independent verification survey of the facility. The independent verification survey included determination of background exposure rates and soil concentrations, beta-gamma and gamma radiation scans, smears for detection of removable contamination, and direct measurements for alpha and beta-gamma radiation activity on the basement and mezzanine floors and the building`s interior and exterior walls. Soil samples were taken, and beta-gamma and gamma radiation exposure rates were measured on areas adjacent to the building. Results of measurements on building surfaces at this facility were within established contamination guidelines except for elevated beta-gamma radiation levels located on three isolated areas of the basement floor. Following remediation of these areas, ORNL/PAG reviewed the remedial action contractor`s report and agreed that remediation was effective in removing the source of the elevated direct radiation. Results of all independent soil analyses for {sup 60}Co were below the detection limit. The highest {sup 137}Cs analysis result was 4.6 pCi/g; this value is below the INEL site-specific guideline of 10 pCi/g.

  1. Maser and Flux Monitoring at 3mm, 7mm and 12mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indermuehle, Balthasar; Edwards, Philip

    2014-04-01

    We propose to continue the Mopra maser and flux monitoring program, encompassing all three millimetre receiver systems. We request 24 hours at the beginning of every month. During the 24 hour runs, we will observe all SiO masers used for pointing at 7mm and 3mm, a selection of 12mm H2O masers as well as the four main thermal line sources Orion KL, IRC+10216, M17SW, NGC6334I as well as Jupiter for flux calibration. This project has helped us in providing quality control for the observer's data as well as long term system monitoring. On the science side, it has provided characterisation of the long term variability of these masers as well as a base for quantifying millimetre observing conditions outside the traditional observing periods. Several papers have been published using the data obtained by previous M426 runs, and the database itself from previous observing runs has been published in the CSIRO Data Archives. Because masers are variable on very short timescales, the monthly scheduling of this project will ascertain that an adequate number of pointing sources for all observers remains available. The SiO maser pointing database is updated immediately after every observation when the data is run through the automated data reduction pipeline.

  2. High-water-content mouldable polyvinyl alcohol-borax hydrogels reinforced by well-dispersed cellulose nanoparticles: dynamic rheological properties and hydrogel formation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Han, Jingquan; Lei, Tingzhou; Wu, Qinglin

    2014-02-15

    Cellulose nanoparticle (CNP) reinforced polyvinyl alcohol-borax (PB) hydrogels were produced via a facile approach in an aqueous system. The effects of particle size, aspect ratio, crystal structure, and surface charge of CNPs on the rheological properties of the composite hydrogels were investigated. The rheological measurements confirmed the incorporation of well-dispersed CNPs to PB system significantly enhanced the viscoelasticity and stiffness of hydrogels. The obtained free-standing, high elasticity and mouldable hydrogels exhibited self-recovery under continuous step strain and thermo-reversibility under temperature sweep. With the addition of cellulose I nanofibers, a 19-fold increase in the high-frequency plateau of storage modulus was obtained compared with that of the pure PB. CNPs acted as multifunctional crosslinking agents and nanofillers to physically and chemically bridge the 3D network hydrogel. The plausible mechanism for the multi-complexation between CNPs, polyvinyl alcohol and borax was proposed to understand the relationship between the 3D network and hydrogel properties. PMID:24507286

  3. Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, M. Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. Even though the regulation system of pH is very robust, tissue pH can be altered in many diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Traditional high-resolution optical imaging techniques, such as confocal microscopy, routinely image pH in cells and tissues using pH sensitive fluorescent dyes, which change their fluorescence properties with the surrounding pH. Since strong optical scattering in biological tissue blurs images at greater depths, high-resolution pH imaging is limited to penetration depths of 1mm. Here, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye in tissue phantoms. Using both opticalresolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), and acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM), we explored the possibility of recovering the pH values in tissue phantoms. In this paper, we demonstrate that PAM was capable of recovering pH values up to a depth of 2 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

  4. Application of MM wave therapy in radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, R.S.; Gasparyan, L.V.

    1995-12-31

    The authors studied the effects of MM wave electromagnetic radiation influence on patients, affected by X-ray radiation during the reparation works after Chernobyl nuclear power plant exposure. They compared results of treatment of two groups of patients: (1) control group patients received only basis therapy; (2) testing group, 10 patients received basis therapy and MM wave influence. The authors used the wide band noise generator `Artsakh - 2` for local irradiation on the acupuncture points. Their data proved that low intensity MM waves have immunocorrective, antioxidant effects, and MM wave therapy is a perspective method for treatment of patients with radiological pathology.

  5. Mercury Pollution from Small-Scale Gold Mining Can Be Stopped by Implementing the Gravity-Borax Method--A Two-Year Follow-Up Study from Two Mining Communities in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Westergaard, Maria L; Brasholt, Marie; Gutierrez, Richard; Jørs, Erik; Thomsen, Jane F

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is used globally to extract gold in artisanal and small-scale gold mining. The mercury-free gravity-borax method for gold extraction was introduced in two mining communities using mercury in the provinces Kalinga and Camarines Norte. This article describes project activities and quantitative changes in mercury consumption and analyzes the implementation with diffusion of innovations theory. Activities included miner-to-miner training; seminars for health-care workers, school teachers, and children; and involvement of community leaders. Baseline (2011) and follow-up (2013) data were gathered on mining practices and knowledge about mercury toxicology. Most miners in Kalinga converted to the gravity-borax method, whereas only a few did so in Camarines Norte. Differences in the nature of the social systems impacted the success of the implementation, and involvement of the tribal organization facilitated the shift in Kalinga. In conclusion, the gravity-borax method is a doable alternative to mercury use in artisanal and small-scale gold mining, but support from the civil society is needed. PMID:26463257

  6. A Toddler's Treatment of "Mm" and "Mm Hm" in Talk with a Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipi, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The study to be reported in this paper examined the work accomplished by "mm" and "mm hm" in the interactions of a parent and his daughter aged 0;10-2;0. Using the findings of Gardner (2001) for adults, the analysis shows that "mm" accomplished a range of functions based on its sequential placement and prosodic features, whereas "mm hm" was much…

  7. Resting pulmonary artery pressure of 21-24 mmHg predicts abnormal exercise haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Lau, Edmund M T; Godinas, Laurent; Sitbon, Olivier; Montani, David; Savale, Laurent; Jaïs, Xavier; Lador, Frederic; Gunther, Sven; Celermajer, David S; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc; Chemla, Denis; Herve, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    A resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of 21-24 mmHg is above the upper limit of normal but does not reach criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). We sought to determine whether an mPAP of 21-24 mmHg is associated with an increased risk of developing an abnormal pulmonary vascular response during exercise.Consecutive patients (n=290) with resting mPAP <25 mmHg who underwent invasive exercise haemodynamics were analysed. Risk factors for pulmonary vascular disease or left heart disease were present in 63.4% and 43.8% of subjects. An abnormal pulmonary vascular response (or exercise PH) was defined by mPAP >30 mmHg and total pulmonary vascular resistance >3 WU at maximal exercise.Exercise PH occurred in 74 (86.0%) out of 86 versus 96 (47.1%) out of 204 in the mPAP of 21-24 mmHg and mPAP <21 mmHg groups, respectively (OR 6.9, 95% CI: 3.6-13.6; p<0.0001). Patients with mPAP of 21-24 mmHg had lower 6-min walk distance (p=0.002) and higher New York Heart Association functional class status (p=0.03). Decreasing levels of mPAP were associated with a lower prevalence of exercise PH, which occurred in 60.3%, 38.7% and 7.7% of patients with mPAP of 17-20, 13-16 and <13 mmHg, respectively.In an at-risk population, a resting mPAP between 21-24 mmHg is closely associated with exercise PH together with worse functional capacity. PMID:26965292

  8. Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-10-01

    pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, an imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. In this paper, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of a commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (SNARF-5F carboxylic acid) in tissue phantoms. We demonstrated that PAM is capable of pH imaging in absolute values at tissue depths of up to 2.0 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

  9. Lung lamellar bodies maintain an acidic internal pH

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, A.; Johnson, R.G.; Reicherter, J.; Fisher, A.B.

    1986-05-05

    The internal pH of lung lamellar bodies was investigated with membrane permeable basic amines. Isolated granular pneumocytes and isolated lung lamellar bodies exhibited fluorescence when exposed to 8 microM quinacrine, suggesting accumulation of this dye due to an acidic internal pH. Uptake of (/sup 14/C)methylamine by isolated lung lamellar bodies was measured to quantitate the intralamellar body pH. In KCl-ATP (10 mM) medium (pH 7.0), the accumulation ratio of methylamine (inside/outside) during 2-min incubation was 8.1 +/- 0.47 (mean +/- S.E., n = 8) indicating an internal pH of 6.1. Lamellar bodies accumulated methylamine almost 30-fold in K+-free mannitol medium indicating an internal pH of 5.6. The pH gradient across the lamellar body membrane decreased when external pH was decreased or when ATP was omitted. The pH gradient was also decreased by the addition of 10 mM NH/sub 4/Cl, 2 micrograms/ml nigericin, 0.02 mM N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, or 1 mM N'-ethylmaleimide. These observations indicate that lamellar bodies maintain an acidic interior (pH 6.1 or below) which is generated by an energy-dependent process.

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  15. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Peng, Z; Kronberger, L; Pfeifer, J; Salehi, B

    1998-10-01

    Today, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the method of choice for treatment of symptomatic gallbladder disorders. It minimizes effects of the operation that are independent of the gallbladder, such as trauma to the abdominal wall and other soft tissue. The surgical wounds were even smaller when 2-mm trocars were used. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments was performed in a consecutive series of 14 patients with symptomatic gallstones. The procedure was completed in 12 cases, with conversion to open surgery in two cases. Intraoperative cholangiography was always performed. The postoperative course was always uneventful. The cosmetic effect was highly satisfactory. The procedure using 2-mm instruments could be indicated in selected patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease. PMID:9820716

  16. Microeconomics of 300-mm process module control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chatterjee, Arun K.; Falessi, Georges; Levy, Ady; Stoller, Meryl D.

    2001-08-01

    Simple microeconomic models that directly link metrology, yield, and profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we validate and apply such a model. Using a small number of input parameters, we explain current yield management practices in 200 mm factories. The model is then used to extrapolate requirements for 300 mm factories, including the impact of simultaneous technology transitions to 130nm lithography and integrated metrology. To support our conclusions, we use examples relevant to factory-wide photo module control.

  17. CCM3 to MM5 Data Conversion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-03-02

    The accompanying script (which uses the NCAR Command Language) ready output from the Community Climate Model Code, version 3 (CCM3) and converts it to input format for the Mesoscale Model, version 5 (MM5) code. The script utilizes a Fortran binary write routine.

  18. Mm-wave power meter mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, D. L.; Oltmans, D. A.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1968-01-01

    E-band thermistor mount and a technique for adjusting a temperature compensating thermistor to provide an electrically balanced bridge are used for measuring RF power in the mm-wavelength. The mount is relatively insensitive to temperature effects that cause measurement errors in single ended circuits.

  19. MM-122: High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarest, Bill; Anders, Kurt; Manchec, John; Yang, Eric; Overgaard, Dan; Kalkwarf, Mike

    1992-01-01

    The rapidly expanding Pacific Rim market along with other growing markets indicates that the future market potential for a high speed civil transport is great indeed. The MM-122 is the answer to the international market desire for a state of the art, long range, high speed civil transport. It will carry 250 passengers a distance of 5200 nm at over twice the speed of sound. The MM-122 is designed to incorporate the latest technologies in the areas of control systems, propulsions, aerodynamics, and materials. The MM-122 will accomplish these goals using the following design parameters. First, a double delta wing planform with highly swept canards and an appropriately area ruled fuselage will be incorporated to accomplish desired aerodynamic characteristics. Propulsion will be provided by four low bypass variable cycle turbofan engines. A quad-redundant fly-by-wire flight control system will be incorporated to provide appropriate static stability and level 1 handling qualities. Finally, the latest in conventional metallic and modern composite materials will be used to provide desired weight and performance characteristics. The MM-122 incorporates the latest in technology and cost minimization techniques to provide a viable solution to this future market potential.

  20. Optimizing digital 8mm drive performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schadegg, Gerry

    1993-01-01

    The experience of attaching over 350,000 digital 8mm drives to 85-plus system platforms has uncovered many factors which can reduce cartridge capacity or drive throughput, reduce reliability, affect cartridge archivability and actually shorten drive life. Some are unique to an installation. Others result from how the system is set up to talk to the drive. Many stem from how applications use the drive, the work load that's present, the kind of media used and, very important, the kind of cleaning program in place. Digital 8mm drives record data at densities that rival those of disk technology. Even with technology this advanced, they are extremely robust and, given proper usage, care and media, should reward the user with a long productive life. The 8mm drive will give its best performance using high-quality 'data grade' media. Even though it costs more, good 'data grade' media can sustain the reliability and rigorous needs of a data storage environment and, with proper care, give users an archival life of 30 years or more. Various factors, taken individually, may not necessarily produce performance or reliability problems. Taken in combination, their effects can compound, resulting in rapid reductions in a drive's serviceable life, cartridge capacity, or drive performance. The key to managing media is determining the importance one places upon their recorded data and, subsequently, setting media usage guidelines that can deliver data reliability. Various options one can implement to optimize digital 8mm drive performance are explored.

  1. Optimizing digital 8mm drive performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schadegg, Gerry

    The experience of attaching over 350,000 digital 8mm drives to 85-plus system platforms has uncovered many factors which can reduce cartridge capacity or drive throughput, reduce reliability, affect cartridge archivability and actually shorten drive life. Some are unique to an installation. Others result from how the system is set up to talk to the drive. Many stem from how applications use the drive, the work load that's present, the kind of media used and, very important, the kind of cleaning program in place. Digital 8mm drives record data at densities that rival those of disk technology. Even with technology this advanced, they are extremely robust and, given proper usage, care and media, should reward the user with a long productive life. The 8mm drive will give its best performance using high-quality 'data grade' media. Even though it costs more, good 'data grade' media can sustain the reliability and rigorous needs of a data storage environment and, with proper care, give users an archival life of 30 years or more. Various factors, taken individually, may not necessarily produce performance or reliability problems. Taken in combination, their effects can compound, resulting in rapid reductions in a drive's serviceable life, cartridge capacity, or drive performance. The key to managing media is determining the importance one places upon their recorded data and, subsequently, setting media usage guidelines that can deliver data reliability. Various options one can implement to optimize digital 8mm drive performance are explored.

  2. VLA 7-mm Observations of Massive Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik; Hofner, Peter; Araya, Esteban; Stecklum, Bringfried

    2003-07-01

    The early stages during the formation of massive stars are deeply enshrouded due to the presence of dense and dusty natal material. This prevents observations in the optical and often also in the near-infrared. The emission of the star-forming regions peaks in the far-infrared and sub-mm regime, but at these wavelengths, single-dish observations are restricted in spatial resolution and can give only upper limits on the energetics of the objects of interest. Interferometry at mm wavelengths is one appropriate technique to overcome these limitations. We have started an extensive programme to observe pre-selected massive star-forming regions. Our tool is the VLA and its 7-mm receiver system. The VLA can be operated in several antenna configurations delivering resolutions from 1.5 arcsec down to 0.05 arcsec, which is superior to other current mm-interferometers. Sub-arcsec resolution is strongly needed to disentangle the often crowded regions of high-mass star formation and to clearly separate our objects of interest from the adjacent ultracompact HII regions. At 7 mm we are on the save ground of the Rayleigh-Jeans limit even for emission of cold dust (a fact that is not always true for observations at smaller wavelengths). Almost all circumstellar density configurations are optically thin at 7 mm, thus, the observations will trace the total dust content. However, at 7 mm also the free-free emission from ionised gas (caused by the UV emission of the young massive stars) can contribute to the observed signal. Therefore, we have to identify and remove these "parasitic" constituents by extrapolating interferometric data obtained at cm-wavelengths. The targets are either taken from the list of Molinari (Molinari et al. 2000, A&A, 355, 617) or are well-known massive star-forming complexes, for which we have already acquired additional data at other wavelengths. We have started with observations at lower and medium resolution (1.5 - 0.5 arcsec) to distinguish candidates for follow-up observations with higher resolution. For the majority of our sample targets we have revealed pronounced 7-mm emission. Especially interesting is G31.41+0.31 where we could resolve the 7-mm emission arising from a so-called hot molecular core. For GGD27, we found the 7-mm counterpart of the object that illuminates this region in the near-infrared and that also acts as the driving source of the associated outflow system HH80/81. Consequently, this detection establishes GGD27 as a key candidate regarding the search for an accretion disk around a forming high-mass star. Furthermore, we demonstrate some synergy effects between radio and infrared data concerning the interpretation of the nature of those very young massive stars. H.L. and B.S. are supported by DFG grant Ste 605/17-2. P.H. acknowledges partial support from the Research Corporation grant No CC4996, as well as from NSF grant AST-0098524.

  3. Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coping as a Teenager with PH Coping with High School Speaking of PH... with Teachers Friends, Family and ... Coping as a Teenager with PH Coping with High School Speaking of PH... with Teachers Friends, Family and ...

  4. A New Laboratory for MM-/Sub-MM-Wave Characterization of Cosmic Dust Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsa, Samuel; Do, Huy; Williams, Frederick; Liu, Lunjun; Schonert, Ryan; Perera, Thushara

    2015-01-01

    Most studies conducted with observatories such as ALMA, SOFIA, PLANCK, and Herschel will benefit from knowledge of (1) the predominant cosmic dust species in various environments, in terms of composition and structure and (2) mm/sub-mm optical properties of cosmic dusts, including the temperature dependent-emissivity and spectral index. A new laboratory has been established for producing and characterizing (in the mm/sub-mm) various silicate/carbonaceous dust candidates. In particular, the optical measurement setup was custom designed, specifically for laboratory studies of dusts, using techniques borrowed from observational cosmology. It features novel designs for a compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) and a cold sample holder/exchanger. Construction of this apparatus is now complete; we are currently testing the system. Here, we present the mm/sub-mm measurement scheme and highlight its innovative and aspects.

  5. Comparison between 28 mm and 32 mm ceramic-on-ceramic bearings in total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y K; Ha, Y C; Koo, K H

    2014-11-01

    Large femoral heads have become popular in total hip replacement (THR) as a method of reducing the risk of dislocation. However, if large heads are used in ceramic-on-ceramic THR, the liner must be thinner, which may increase the risk of fracture. To compare the rates of ceramic fracture and dislocation between 28 mm and 32 mm ceramic heads, 120 hips in 109 patients (51 men and 58 women, mean age 49.2 years) were randomised to THR with either a 28 mm or a 32 mm ceramic articulation. A total of 57/60 hips assigned to the 28 mm group and 55/60 hips assigned to the 32 mm group were followed for at least five years. No ceramic component fractures occured in any patient in either group. There was one dislocation in the 32 mm group and none in the 28 mm group (p = 0.464). No hip had detectable wear, focal osteolysis or prosthetic loosening. In our small study the 32 mm ceramic articulation appeared to be safe in terms of ceramic liner fracture. PMID:25371457

  6. Evolutino of Coronal mm-Wave Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, A.; Hildebrandt, J.; Urpo, S.; Pohjolainen, S.

    1994-07-01

    Coronal mm-wave emission at source heights up to the order 100 000 km above the photosphere are sporadically observed as off-limb sources by radio telescopes of medium angular resolution. Previous work showed that coronal mm-wave sources (CMMS) fall into different categories, e.g., explosive burst emission, post- and interflare radiation, and radiation from prominences. The source heights can be checked in the case of behind-limb sources. Systematic knowledge on the evolution of CMMS is still lacking. The present report discusses some general properties of CMMS and considers new observations from the Metsahovi Radio Research Station at 37 GHz of the year 1992 with respect to the effect of temporal evolution.

  7. Terahertz/mm wave imaging simulation software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterman, M. R.; Dougherty, J.; Kiser, W. L., Jr.

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a mm wave/terahertz imaging simulation package from COTS graphic software and custom MATLAB code. In this scheme, a commercial ray-tracing package was used to simulate the emission and reflections of radiation from scenes incorporating highly realistic imagery. Accurate material properties were assigned to objects in the scenes, with values obtained from the literature, and from our own terahertz spectroscopy measurements. The images were then post-processed with custom Matlab code to include the blur introduced by the imaging system and noise levels arising from system electronics and detector noise. The Matlab code was also used to simulate the effect of fog, an important aspect for mm wave imaging systems. Several types of image scenes were evaluated, including bar targets, contrast detail targets, a person in a portal screening situation, and a sailboat on the open ocean. The images produced by this simulation are currently being used as guidance for a 94 GHz passive mm wave imaging system, but have broad applicability for frequencies extending into the terahertz region.

  8. Development of mini-tablets with 1mm and 2mm diameter.

    PubMed

    Tissen, Corinna; Woertz, Katharina; Breitkreutz, Joerg; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2011-09-15

    The feasibility of formulating mini-tablets with 1mm diameter on a rotary-die press in comparison to mini-tablets of 2mm was investigated. To gain insight into the production of 1mm mini-tablets, three model drugs of different compression characteristics were chosen, namely quinine hydrochloride, ibuprofen and spray-dried gentian extract. A high drug load in combination with robust and reproducible mechanical properties was requested. Depending on the individual drug substance, mini-tablets were produced by direct compression or after roll-compaction/dry granulation. The tensile strength, mass, and their variation coefficients were determined to assess the mechanical properties of the tablets. The content uniformity and the dissolution behavior of selected batches were analyzed. For the first time 1mm mini-tablets could be successfully produced by direct compression (90% quinine hydrochloride; 90% dried gentian extract) and after roll compaction (70% ibuprofen). Depending on the applied compression pressure, 1mm mini-tablets with quinine hydrochloride exhibited robust mechanical properties (e.g. median tensile strength of 2.02N/mm(2)) with equal or lower variance of distribution compared to the 2mm compacts. With respect to content uniformity of dosage forms, 1mm mini-tablets containing 80% quinine hydrochloride met the requirements of the European Pharmacopeia (AV=6.8). PMID:21726616

  9. Rotman lens for mm-wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Leonard T.; Hansen, Hedley J.; Abbott, Derek

    2002-11-01

    The 77 GHz band has been reserved for intelligent cruise control in luxury cars and some public transport services in America and the United Kingdom. The Rotman lens offers a cheap and compact means to extend the single beam systems generally used, to fully functional beam staring arrangements. Rotman lenses have been built for microwave frequencies with limited success. The flexibility of microstrip transmission lines and the advent of fast accurate simulation packages allow practical Rotman lenses to be designed at mm-wavelengths. This paper discusses the limitations of the conventional design approach and predicts the performance of a new Rotman lens designed at 77 GHz.

  10. Effect of the borax mass and pre-spray medium temperature on droplet size and velocity vector distributions of intermittently sprayed starchy solutions.

    PubMed

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ariwahjoedi, Bambang

    2015-02-01

    Spray coating technology has demonstrated great potential in the slow release fertilizers industry. The better understanding of the key spray parameters benefits both the environment and low cost coating processes. The use of starch based materials to coat the slow release fertilizers is a new development. However, the hydraulic spray jet breakup of the non-Newtonian starchy solutions is a complex phenomenon and very little known. The aim of this research was to study the axial and radial distributions of the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) and velocity vectors in pulsing spray patterns of native and modified tapioca starch solutions. To meet the objective, high speed imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) techniques were employed to characterize the four compositions of the starch-urea-borax complex namely S0, S1, S2 and S3. The unheated solutions exhibited very high viscosities ranging from 2035 to 3030 cP. No jet breakup was seen at any stage of the nozzle operation at an injection pressure of 1-5 bar. However, at 80 °C temperature and 5 bar pressure, the viscosity was reduced to 455 to 638 cP and dense spray patterns emerged from the nozzle obscuring the PDA signals. The axial size distribution revealed a significant decrease in SMD along the spray centreline. The smallest axial SMD (51 to 79 μm) was noticed in S0 spray followed by S1, S2 and S3. Unlikely, the radial SMD in S0 spray did not vary significantly at any stage of the spray injection. This trend was attributed to the continuous growth of the surface wave instabilities on the native starch sheet. However, SMD obtained with S1, S2 and S3 varied appreciably along the radial direction. The mean velocity vector profiles followed the non-Gaussian distribution. The constant vector distributions were seen in the near nozzle regions, where the spray was in the phase of development. In far regions, the velocity vectors were poly-dispersed and a series of ups and downs were seen in the respective radial distributions. PMID:25557285

  11. SgrA* emission at 7 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaklini, P. P. B.; Abraham, Z.

    2011-10-01

    SgrA* is a compact radio source coincident with the position of the supermassive black hole at the center of our Galaxy. It is surrounded by a complex of HII regions, known as SgrA. SgrA* presents variable emission, from radio to X-rays, with timescales that range from hours to months. Interferometric observations at frequencies up to 22 GHz have detected a 106 days quasi-periodicity in the light curves of SgrA* (Zhao et al. 2001). In our work, we present the result of 43 GHz (7 mm) single dish observations obtained with the Itapetinga radiotelescope, located in Atibaia, Brazil, during several long lasting campaigns starting in 2006, which aimed to detect variability and verify the existence of periodicity.

  12. Prediction of Stereochemistry using Q2MM.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric; Rosales, Anthony R; Tutkowski, Brandon; Norrby, Per-Ola; Wiest, Olaf

    2016-05-17

    The standard method of screening ligands for selectivity in asymmetric, transition metal-catalyzed reactions requires experimental testing of hundreds of ligands from ligand libraries. This "trial and error" process is costly in terms of time as well as resources and, in general, is scientifically and intellectually unsatisfying as it reveals little about the underlying mechanism behind the selectivity. The accurate computational prediction of stereoselectivity in enantioselective catalysis requires adequate conformational sampling of the selectivity-determining transition state but has to be fast enough to compete with experimental screening techniques to be useful for the synthetic chemist. Although electronic structure calculations are accurate and general, they are too slow to allow for sampling or fast screening of ligand libraries. The combined requirements can be fulfilled by using appropriately fitted transition state force fields (TSFFs) that represent the transition state as a minimum and allow fast conformational sampling using Monte Carlo. Quantum-guided molecular mechanics (Q2MM) is an automated force field parametrization method that generates accurate, reaction-specific TSFFs by fitting the functional form of an arbitrary force field using only electronic structure calculations by minimization of an objective function. A key feature that distinguishes the Q2MM method from many other automated parametrization procedures is the use of the Hessian matrix in addition to geometric parameters and relative energies. This alleviates the known problems of overfitting of TSFFs. After validation of the TSFF by comparison to electronic structure results for a test set and available experimental data, the stereoselectivity of a reaction can be calculated by summation over the Boltzman-averaged relative energies of the conformations leading to the different stereoisomers. The Q2MM method has been applied successfully to perform virtual ligand screens on a range of transition metal-catalyzed reactions that are important from both an industrial and an academic perspective. In this Account, we provide an overview of the continued improvement of the prediction of stereochemistry using Q2MM-derived TSFFs using four examples from different stages of development: (i) Pd-catalyzed allylation, (ii) OsO4-catalyzed asymmetric dihydroxylation (AD) of alkenes, (iii) Rh-catalyzed hydrogenation of enamides, and (iv) Ru-catalyzed hydrogenation of ketones. In the current form, correlation coefficients of 0.8-0.9 between calculated and experimental ee values are typical for a wide range of substrate-ligand combinations, and suitable ligands can be predicted for a given substrate with ∼80% accuracy. Although the generation of a TSFF requires an initial effort and will therefore be most useful for widely used reactions that require frequent screening campaigns, the method allows for a rapid virtual screen of large ligand libraries to focus experimental efforts on the most promising substrate-ligand combinations. PMID:27064579

  13. SSC 50 mm dipole cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Morgan, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present the magnetic design of the two dimensional coil and iron cross section, referred to as DSX201/W6733, for the 50 mm aperture main ring dipole magnet for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The computed values of the allowed field harmonics as a function of current, the quench performance predictions, the stored energy calculations, the effect of random errors on the coil placement and the Lorentz forces on the coil will be presented. The yoke has been optimized to reduce iron saturation effects on the field harmonics. We shall present the summary of this design which will include the expected overall performance of this cross section. Prototypes of these dipoles are being built at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). There are slight differences between the cross sections at the two laboratories. 7 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Ph.D. shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The late 1990s will see a shortage of Ph.D. graduates, according to the Association of American Universities, Washington, D.C. AAU's new comprehensive study, The Ph.D. Shortage: The Federal Role, reports that competition for new Ph.D.s is already intense and can only intensify because demand is greater than supply in both academic and nonacademic markets.Doctoral education plays an increasingly important role in U.S. research and development programs. Students have a pivotal part in doing research and enriching it with new ideas. The AAU report says that graduate students are major determinants of the creativity and productivity of U.S. academic research, the source of more than 50% of the nation's basic research. The market for doctoral education extends beyond the university. In 1985, about 43% of all Ph.D.s employed in this country were working outside higher education; the demand for doctorate recipients in nonacademic sectors continues to grow.

  15. pH optrode

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen; Langry, Kevin C.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for forming a long-lasting, stable, pH-sensitive dye-acrylamide copolymer useful as a pH-sensitive material for use in an optrode or other device sensitive to pH. An optrode may be made by mechanically attaching the copolymer to a sensing device such as an optical fiber.

  16. pH Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  17. The MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods to estimate ligand-binding affinities

    PubMed Central

    Genheden, Samuel; Ryde, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The molecular mechanics energies combined with the Poisson–Boltzmann or generalized Born and surface area continuum solvation (MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA) methods are popular approaches to estimate the free energy of the binding of small ligands to biological macromolecules. They are typically based on molecular dynamics simulations of the receptor–ligand complex and are therefore intermediate in both accuracy and computational effort between empirical scoring and strict alchemical perturbation methods. They have been applied to a large number of systems with varying success. Areas covered: The authors review the use of MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods to calculate ligand-binding affinities, with an emphasis on calibration, testing and validation, as well as attempts to improve the methods, rather than on specific applications. Expert opinion: MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA are attractive approaches owing to their modular nature and that they do not require calculations on a training set. They have been used successfully to reproduce and rationalize experimental findings and to improve the results of virtual screening and docking. However, they contain several crude and questionable approximations, for example, the lack of conformational entropy and information about the number and free energy of water molecules in the binding site. Moreover, there are many variants of the method and their performance varies strongly with the tested system. Likewise, most attempts to ameliorate the methods with more accurate approaches, for example, quantum-mechanical calculations, polarizable force fields or improved solvation have deteriorated the results. PMID:25835573

  18. Low-Friction Minilaparoscopy Outperforms Regular 5-mm and 3-mm Instruments for Precise Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Firme, Wood A.; Lima, Diego L.; de Paula Lopes, Vladmir Goldstein; Montandon, Isabelle D.; Filho, Flavio Santos; Shadduck, Phillip P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Therapeutic laparoscopy was incorporated into surgical practice more than 25 y ago. Several modifications have since been developed to further minimize surgical trauma and improve results. Minilaparoscopy, performed with 2- to 3-mm instruments was introduced in the mid 1990s but failed to attain mainstream use, mostly because of the limitations of the early devices. Buoyed by a renewed interest, new generations of mini instruments are being developed with improved functionality and durability. This study is an objective evaluation of a new set of mini instruments with a novel low-friction design. Method: Twenty-two medical students and 22 surgical residents served as study participants. Three designs of laparoscopic instruments were evaluated: conventional 5 mm, traditional 3 mm, and low-friction 3 mm. The instruments were evaluated with a standard surgical simulator, emulating 4 exercises of various complexities, testing grasping, precise 2-handed movements, and suturing. The metric measured was time to task completion, with 5 replicates for every combination of instrument–exercise–participant. Results: For all 4 tasks, the instrument design that performed the best was the same in both the medical student and surgical resident groups. For the gross-grasping task, the 5-mm conventional instruments performed best, followed by the low-friction mini instruments. For the 3 more complex and precise tasks, the low-friction mini instruments outperformed both of the other instrument designs. Conclusion: In standard surgical simulator exercises, low-friction minilaparoscopic instruments outperformed both conventional 3- and 5-mm laparoscopic instruments for precise tasks. PMID:26390530

  19. 17-4 PH and 15-5 PH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Howard T.

    1995-01-01

    17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

  20. How Photoisomerization Drives Peptide Folding and Unfolding: Insights from QM/MM and MM Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shu-Hua; Cui, Ganglong; Fang, Wei-Hai; Thiel, Walter

    2016-02-01

    Photoswitchable azobenzene cross-linkers can control the folding and unfolding of peptides by photoisomerization and can thus regulate peptide affinities and enzyme activities. Using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods and classical MM force fields, we report the first molecular dynamics simulations of the photoinduced folding and unfolding processes in the azobenzene cross-linked FK-11 peptide. We find that the interactions between the peptide and the azobenzene cross-linker are crucial for controlling the evolution of the secondary structure of the peptide and responsible for accelerating the folding and unfolding events. They also modify the photoisomerization mechanism of the azobenzene cross-linker compared with the situation in vacuo or in solution. PMID:26836339

  1. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products... Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table MM-1 Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric...

  2. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... provider may order this test to check for changes in your body's ... stones can form, depending on the acidity level of your urine.

  3. The LLAMA 12 m mm/sub-mm radiotelescope in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepine, Jacques; Edemundo Arnal, Marcelo; de Graauw, Thijs; Abraham, Zulema; Gimenez de Castro, Guillermo; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Morras, Ricardo; Larrarte, Juan; Viramontes, José; Finger, Ricardo; Kooi, Jacob; Reeves, Rodrigo; Beaklini, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    LLAMA (Large Latin American Millimetric Array) is a joint Argentinean-Brazilian project of a 12m mm/sub-mm radio telescope similar to the APEX antenna, to be installed at a site at 4800 m altitude near San Antonio de Los Cobres in the Salta Province in Argentine, at 150 km from ALMA. The scientific cases for single dish and VLBI observations include black holes and accretion disks, the molecular evolution of interstellar clouds, the structure of the Galaxy, the formation of galaxies, and much more. The antenna was ordered to the company Vertex Antennentechnik in June 2014, and the construction is progressing quickly; it will be installed at the site in 2016. The radio telescope will be equipped with up to six receivers covering bands similar to those of ALMA. Cryostats with room for 3 cartridges, constructed by NAOJ (Tokyo,Japan), will be installed in each of the two Nasmyth cabins. Among the first receivers we will have an ALMA band 9 provided by NOVA (Groningen, Holland) and a band 5 from the Chalmers University (Sweden). Other receivers are still being discussed at the time of submission of this abstract,At high frequencies, VLBI observations at high frequencies could be made with ALMA, APEX and ASTE, and Northern radiotelescopes. In this way, LLAMA will be a seed for a Latin-American VLBI network.

  4. Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Genetic Drift and M&M's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Nancy L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity that teaches the mechanism of genetic drift to undergraduates. Illustrates a number of concepts that are critical in developing evolution literacy by sampling M&M milk chocolate candies. (MM)

  5. A sensitivity study on spectroscopic parameter accuracies for a mm/sub-mm limb sounder instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdes, C. L.; Buehler, S. A.; Perrin, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Demaison, J.; Wlodarczak, G.; Colmont, J.-M.; Cazzoli, G.; Puzzarini, C.

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to perform a detailed error analysis for a mm/sub-mm limb sounding instrument with respect to spectroscopic parameters. This is done in order to give some insight into the most crucial spectroscopic parameters and to work out a list of recommendations for measurements that would yield the largest possible benefit for an accurate retrieval. The investigations cover a variety of spectroscopic line parameters, such as line intensity, line position, air and self broadening parameters and their temperature exponents, and pressure shift. The retrieval process is performed with the optimal estimation method (OEM). The OEM allows one to perform an assessment of the total statistical error, as well as of the model parameter error, such as the error coming from spectroscopic parameters. The instrument parameters assumed are those of the MASTER instrument studied by the European Space Agency, one of the candidate instruments for a future atmospheric chemistry mission. However, the same principle and method of analysis can be applied to any other millimeter/sub-millimeter limb sounding instrument, for instance the Japanese instrument JEM/SMILES, the Swedish instrument Odin, and the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder. We find that an uncertainty in the intensity of the strong lines give an error of similar magnitude on the retrieved species to which the lines belong. Uncertainties in the line position have overall a small impact on the retrieval, indicating that the line positions are known with sufficient accuracy. The air broadening parameters and their temperature exponents of a few strong lines dominate the error budget. On the other hand, the self broadening parameters and the pressure shifts are found to have a rather small impact on the retrieval.

  6. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease MM1+2C and MM1 are Identical in Transmission Properties.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Matsuura, Yuichi; Iwaki, Toru; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Mari; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Murayama, Shigeo; Takao, Masaki; Kato, Shinsuke; Yamada, Masahito; Mohri, Shirou; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The genotype (methionine, M or valine, V) at polymorphic codon 129 of the PRNP gene and the type (1 or 2) of abnormal prion protein in the brain are the major determinants of the clinicopathological features of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), thus providing molecular basis for classification of sporadic CJD, that is, MM1, MM2, MV1, MV2, VV1 or VV2. In addition to these "pure" cases, "mixed" cases presenting mixed neuropathological and biochemical features have also been recognized. The most frequently observed mixed form is the co-occurrence of MM1 and MM2, namely MM1+2. However, it has remained elusive whether MM1+2 could be a causative origin of dura mater graft-associated CJD (dCJD), one of the largest subgroups of iatrogenic CJD. To test this possibility, we performed transmission experiments of MM1+2 prions and a systematic neuropathological examination of dCJD patients in the present study. The transmission properties of the MM1+2 prions were identical to those of MM1 prions because MM2 prions lacked transmissibility. In addition, the neuropathological characteristics of MM2 were totally absent in dCJD patients examined. These results suggest that MM1+2 can be a causative origin of dCJD and causes neuropathological phenotype similar to that of MM1. PMID:25851836

  7. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  8. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  9. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  10. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  11. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt....

  12. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric tons/bbl... Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline 0.1120 85.00 0.3490 Special Naphthas 0.1222 84.76 0.3798...

  13. Production and characterization of an extracellular polysaccharide from Streptomyces violaceus MM72.

    PubMed

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Sivasankar, Palaniappan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-08-01

    The isolation, optimization, purification and characterization of an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) from a marine actinobacterium, Streptomyces violaceus MM72 were investigated. Medium composition and culture conditions for the EPS production by S. violaceus MM72 were optimized using two statistical methods: Plackett-Burman design applied to find the key ingredients and conditions for the best yield of EPS production and central composite design used to optimize the concentration of the three significant variables: glucose, tryptone and NaCl. The preferable culture conditions for EPS production were pH 7.0, temperature 35°C and NaCl concentration 2.0% for 120h with fructose and yeast extract as best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The results showed that S. violaceus MM72 produced a kind of EPS having molecular weight of 8.96×10(5)Da. In addition, the EPS showed strong DPPH radical-scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging and metal chelating activities while moderate inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing activities determined in this study. These results showed the great potential of EPS produced by S. violaceus MM72 could be used in industry in place of synthetic compounds. The EPS from S. violaceus MM72 may be a new source of natural antioxidants with potential value for health, food and therapeutics. PMID:23597709

  14. The pH Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  15. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coping as a Teenager with PH Coping with High School Speaking of PH... with Teachers Friends, Family and ... Coping as a Teenager with PH Coping with High School Speaking of PH... with Teachers Friends, Family and ...

  16. Extracellular pH modulates GABAergic neurotransmission in rat hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenglan; Huang, Renqi

    2014-01-01

    Changes in extracellular pH have a modulatory effect on GABAA receptor function. It has been reported that pH sensitivity of the GABA receptor is dependent on subunit composition and GABA concentration. Most of previous investigations focused on GABA-evoked currents, which only reflect the postsynaptic receptors. The physiological relevance of pH modulation of GABAergic neurotransmission is not fully elucidated. In the present studies, we examined the influence of extracellular pH on the GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission in rat hypothalamic neurons. The inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), tonic currents, and the GABA-evoked currents were recorded with whole-cell patch techniques on the hypothalamic slices from Sprague-Dawley rats at 15–26 postnatal days. The amplitude and frequency of spontaneous GABA IPSCs were significantly increased while the external pH was changed from 7.3 to 8.4. In the acidic pH (6.4), the spontaneous GABA IPSCs were reduced in amplitude and frequency. The pH induced changes in miniature GABA IPSCs (mIPSCs) similar to that in spontaneous IPSCs. The pH effect on the postsynaptic GABA receptors was assessed with exogenously applied varying concentrations of GABA. The tonic currents and the currents evoked by sub-saturating concentration of GABA ([GABA]) (10 µM) were inhibited by acidic pH and potentiated by alkaline pH. In contrast, the currents evoked by saturating [GABA] (1 mM) were not affected by pH changes. We also investigated the influence of pH buffers and buffering capacity on pH sensitivity of GABAA receptors on human recombinant α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors stably expressed in HEK 293 cells, The pH influence on GABAA receptors was similar in HEPES- and MES-buffered medium, and not dependent on protonated buffers, suggesting that the observed pH effect on GABA response is a specific consequence of changes in extracellular protons. Our data suggest that the hydrogen ions suppress the GABAergic neurotransmission, which is mediated by both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. PMID:24780768

  17. Is smaller better? Comparison of 3-mm and 5-mm leaf size for stereotactic radiosurgery: A dosimetric study

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, Shyh-shi . E-mail: Richard.Chern@hci.utah.edu; Leavitt, Dennis D.; Jensen, Randy L.; Shrieve, Dennis C.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To perform a dosimetric comparison of a minimal 3-mm leaf width multileaf collimator (MLC) and a minimal 5-mm MLC in dynamic conformal arc stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of intracranial lesions. Methods and Materials: The treatment plans of 23 patients previously treated for intracranial lesions in our institution were redone using the BrainSCAN, version 5.3, stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning system (BrainLAB). For each case, two dynamic conformal arc plans were generated: one using a minimal 3-mm micro-MLC (BrainLAB, Novalis) and one using a minimal 5-mm MLC (Varian Millennium). All arc parameters were the same in each of the two plans, except for the collimator angle settings. The collimator angle settings were optimized for each arc in each plan. A peritumoral rind structure (1 cm) was created to evaluate normal tissue sparing immediately adjacent to the target volume. Conformity indexes (CIs) were calculated for each plan. The dependence of normal tissue sparing and target conformity on target volume (TV) was determined. Results: The TV was 0.14-36.32 cm{sup 3} (median, 5.90). The CI was 1.22-2.60 (median, 1.51) for the 3-mm micro-MLC and 1.23-2.69 (median, 1.60) for the 5-mm MLC. Despite this small difference, it was a statistically significant increase (p < 0.0001) for the 5-mm MLC compared with the 3-mm micro-MLC. Improved normal tissue sparing was demonstrated using the 3-mm micro-MLC compared with the 5-mm MLC by examining the peritumoral rind volumes (PRVs) receiving 50% (PRV{sub 5}), 80% (PRV{sub 8}), and 90% (PRV{sub 9}) of the prescription dose. The reduction in the PRV{sub 5}, PRV{sub 8}, and PRV{sub 9} for the 3-mm micro-MLC compared with the 5-mm MLC was 13.5%, 12.9%, and 11.5%, respectively. The CI decreased with a larger TV, as did the difference in the CIs between the 3-mm micro-MLC and 5-mm MLC. A reduction in the PRV increased with larger TVs. Conclusion: The 3-mm micro-MLC provided better target conformity and greater normal tissue sparing than the 5-mm MLC in stereotactic radiosurgery using dynamic conformal arcs. These differences were small but consistent in the patients examined. Future research is needed to determine whether this small improvement can yield a clinical impact on patient care.

  18. Assessing the performance of MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods. 4. Accuracies of MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methodologies evaluated by various simulation protocols using PDBbind data set.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huiyong; Li, Youyong; Tian, Sheng; Xu, Lei; Hou, Tingjun

    2014-08-21

    By using different evaluation strategies, we systemically evaluated the performance of Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA) and Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA) methodologies based on more than 1800 protein-ligand crystal structures in the PDBbind database. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) for the one-protein-family/one-binding-ligand case which represents the unbiased protein-ligand complex sampling, both MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA methodologies achieve approximately equal accuracies at the interior dielectric constant of 4 (with rp = 0.408 ± 0.006 of MM/GBSA and rp = 0.388 ± 0.006 of MM/PBSA based on the minimized structures); while for the total dataset (1864 crystal structures), the overall best Pearson correlation coefficient (rp = 0.579 ± 0.002) based on MM/GBSA is better than that of MM/PBSA (rp = 0.491 ± 0.003), indicating that biased sampling may significantly affect the accuracy of the predicted result (some protein families contain too many instances and can bias the overall predicted accuracy). Therefore, family based classification is needed to evaluate the two methodologies; (2) the prediction accuracies of MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA for different protein families are quite different with rp ranging from 0 to 0.9, whereas the correlation and ranking scores (an averaged rp/rs over a list of protein folds and also representing the unbiased sampling) given by MM/PBSA (rp-score = 0.506 ± 0.050 and rs-score = 0.481 ± 0.052) are comparable to those given by MM/GBSA (rp-score = 0.516 ± 0.047 and rs-score = 0.463 ± 0.047) at the fold family level; (3) for the overall prediction accuracies, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation may not be quite necessary for MM/GBSA (rp-minimized = 0.579 ± 0.002 and rp-1ns = 0.564 ± 0.002), but is needed for MM/PBSA (rp-minimized = 0.412 ± 0.003 and rp-1ns = 0.491 ± 0.003). However, for the individual systems, whether to use MD simulation is depended. (4) both MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA may be unable to give successful predictions for the ligands with high formal charges, with the Pearson correlation coefficient ranging from 0.621 ± 0.003 (neutral ligands) to 0.125 ± 0.142 (ligands with a formal charge of 5). Therefore, it can be summarized that, although MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA perform similarly in the unbiased dataset, for the currently available crystal structures in the PDBbind database, compared with MM/GBSA, which may be used in multi-target comparisons, MM/PBSA is more sensitive to the investigated systems, and may be more suitable for individual-target-level binding free energy ranking. This study may provide useful guidance for the post-processing of docking based studies. PMID:24999761

  19. Amplitude modulation drive to rectangular-plate linear ultrasonic motors with vibrators dimensions 8 mm x 2.16 mm X 1 mm.

    PubMed

    Ming, Yang; Hanson, Ben; Levesley, Martin C; Walker, Peter G; Watterson, Kevin G

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, to exploit the contribution from not only the stators but also from other parts of miniature ultrasonic motors, an amplitude modulation drive is proposed to drive a miniature linear ultrasonic motor consisting of two rectangular piezoelectric ceramic plates. Using finite-element software, the first longitudinal and second lateral-bending frequencies of the vibrator are shown to be very close when its dimensions are 8 mm x 2.16 mm x 1 mm. So one single frequency power should be able to drive the motor. However, in practice the motor is found to be hard to move with a single frequency power because of its small vibration amplitudes and big frequency difference between its longitudinal and bending resonance, which is induced by the boundary condition variation. To drive the motor effectively, an amplitude modulation drive is used by superimposing two signals with nearly the same frequencies, around the resonant frequency of the vibrators of the linear motor. When the amplitude modulation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the vibrator's surroundings, experimental results show that the linear motor can move back and forward with a maximum thrust force (over 0.016 N) and a maximum velocity (over 50 mm/s). PMID:17186925

  20. Japanese Science Films; a Descriptive and Evaluative Catalog of: 16mm Motion Pictures, 8mm Cartridges, and Video Tapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newren, Edward F., Ed.

    One hundred and eighty Japanese 16mm motion pictures, 8mm cartridges, and video tapes produced and judged appropriate for a variety of audience levels are listed in alphabetical order by title with descriptive and evaluative information. A subject heading list and a subject index to the film titles are included, as well as a sample of the…

  1. Replacing 16 mm film cameras with high definition digital cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    For many years 16 mm film cameras have been used in severe environments. These film cameras are used on Hy-G automotive sleds, airborne gun cameras, range tracking and other hazardous environments. The companies and government agencies using these cameras are in need of replacing them with a more cost effective solution. Film-based cameras still produce the best resolving capability, however, film development time, chemical disposal, recurring media cost, and faster digital analysis are factors influencing the desire for a 16 mm film camera replacement. This paper will describe a new camera from Kodak that has been designed to replace 16 mm high speed film cameras.

  2. The 19 mm data recorders similarities and differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Steve

    1992-09-01

    Confusion over the use of non-video 19 mm data recorders is becoming more pronounced as we enter the world of high performance computing. This paper addresses the following: the differences between ID-1, ID-2, MIL-STD-2179 and DD-2; what the proper machine is for various applications; how the machine can be integrated into an environment; and any misconceptions there might be about 19 mm tape recorders. DD-2 and 19 mm instrumentation recorders have missions for which each is well designed. While the differences may appear subtle, understanding the difference between the two is the key to picking the right recorder for a particular application.

  3. The 19 mm data recorders similarities and differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Confusion over the use of non-video 19 mm data recorders is becoming more pronounced as we enter the world of high performance computing. This paper addresses the following: the differences between ID-1, ID-2, MIL-STD-2179 and DD-2; what the proper machine is for various applications; how the machine can be integrated into an environment; and any misconceptions there might be about 19 mm tape recorders. DD-2 and 19 mm instrumentation recorders have missions for which each is well designed. While the differences may appear subtle, understanding the difference between the two is the key to picking the right recorder for a particular application.

  4. Corneal biomechanical properties changes after coaxial 2.2-mm microincision and standard 3.0-mm phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Hua; Dong, Hui; Wang, Li; Jia, Ya-Ding; Zhang, Su-Hua

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the changes in corneal biomechanics measured by ocular response analyzer (ORA) after 2.2-mm microincision cataract surgery and 3.0-mm standard coaxial phacoemulsification. METHODS The prospective nonrandomized study comprised eyes with cataract that had 2.2-mm coaxial microincision or 3.0-mm standard incision phacoemulsification. The corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were measured by ORA preoperatively and at 1d, 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-week postoperatively. Results were analyzed and compared between groups. RESULTS In both groups, CH decreased in the immediate postoperative period (P<0.05), returned to the preoperative level at one week (P=0.249) in the 2.2-mm group, and at two weeks in the 3.0-mm group (P=0.264); there was no significant change in CRF values. In 2.2-mm group, mean IOPcc and IOPg increased at 1d postoperatively (both P<0.05), and returned to preoperative level at one week (P=0.491 and P=0.923, respectively). In 3.0-mm group, mean IOPcc and IOPg increased at 1d and 1wk postoperatively (P=0.005 and P=0.029, respectively), and returned to preoperative level at 2wk (P=0.347 and P=0.887, respectively). CONCLUSION Significant differences between preoperative and postoperative corneal biomechanical values were found for CH, IOPcc and IOPg. But the recovery time courses were different between the two groups. The 2.2-mm coaxial microincision cataract surgery group seemed recovery faster compared to the 3.0-mm standard coaxial phacoemulsification group. PMID:26949640

  5. PhEDEx Data Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Wildish, Tony; Huang, Chih-Hao

    2010-04-01

    The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the "SiteDB" service for fine-grained access control, providing a safe and secure environment for operations. A plug-in architecture allows server-side modules to be developed rapidly and easily by anyone familiar with the schema, and can automatically return the data in a variety of formats for use by different client technologies. Using HTTP access via the Data Service instead of direct database connections makes it possible to build monitoring web-pages with complex drill-down operations, suitable for debugging or presentation from many aspects. This will form the basis of the new PhEDEx website in the near future, as well as providing access to PhEDEx information and certificate-authenticated services for other CMS dataflow and workflow management tools such as CRAB, WMCore, DBS and the dashboard. A PhEDEx command-line client tool provides one-stop access to all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service interactively, for use in simple scripts that do not access the service directly. The client tool provides certificate-authenticated access to managerial functions, so all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service are available to it. The tool can be expanded by plug-ins which can combine or extend the client-side manipulation of data from the Data Service, providing a powerful environment for manipulating data within PhEDEx.

  6. Influence of pH on Ammonia Accumulation and Toxicity in Halophilic, Methylotrophic Methanogens

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, P. C.; Boone, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the effects of pH and ammonia concentration on the growth of three methanogens. These three halophilic, methylotrophic methanogens, Methanolobus bombayensis, Methanolobus taylorii, and Methanohalophilus zhilinaeae, grew at environmental pH ranges that overlapped with each other and spanned the pH range from 7.0 to 9.5. During growth they had reversed membrane pH gradients ((Delta)pH) at all pH values tested. The (Delta)pH was in the range of -0.4 to -0.9 pH units, with the cytosol being more acidic than the environmental pH. Methanohalophilus zhilinaeae had the most negative (Delta)pH (-0.9 pH units). These negative pH gradients resulted in the accumulation of ammonium (NH(inf4)(sup+)), and when grown at the highest external ammonia concentrations that allowed good growth, cells had cytosolic NH(inf4)(sup+) concentrations as high as 180 mM. The high concentrations of cytosolic NH(inf4)(sup+) were accompanied by greater (Delta)pH and lower concentrations of the major cytosolic cation K(sup+) (compared with cells grown in medium with only 5 mM ammonia). Methanolobus bombayensis and Methanolobus taylorii were more sensitive to total external ammonia at higher external pH values, but the inhibitory concentration of un-ionized ammonia that resulted in a 50% reduction of the growth rate was about 2 to 5 mM, regardless of the pH. This is consistent with growth inhibition by ammonia in other bacteria. However, Methanohalophilus zhilinaeae was more resistant to un-ionized ammonia than any other known organism. It had a 50% inhibitory concentration for un-ionized ammonia of 13 mM at pH 8.5 and 45 mM at pH 9.5. We examined the effects of pH on three ammonia-assimilating activities (glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and alanine dehydrogenase) in cell lysates and found that the pH ranges were consistent with the observed ranges of intracellular pH. PMID:16535465

  7. Voltammetric pH Nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Magdalena; Kurel, Malgorzata; Jedraszko, Justyna; Toczydlowska, Diana; Wittstock, Gunther; Opallo, Marcin; Nogala, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscale pH evaluation is a prerequisite for understanding the processes and phenomena occurring at solid-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-gas interfaces, e.g., heterogeneous catalysis, extraction, partitioning, and corrosion. Research on the homogeneous processes within small volumes such as intracellular fluids, microdroplets, and microfluidic chips also requires nanometer scale pH assessment. Due to the opacity of numerous systems, optical methods are useless and, if applicable, require addition of a pH-sensitive dye. Potentiometric probes suffer from many drawbacks such as potential drift and lack of selectivity. Here, we present a voltammetric nanosensor for reliable pH assessment between pH 2 and 12 with high spatial resolution. It consists of a pyrolytic carbon nanoelectrode obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) inside a quartz nanopipette. The carbon is modified by adsorption of syringaldazine from its ethanolic solution. It exhibits a stable quasi-reversible cyclic voltammogram with nearly Nernstian dependency of midpeak potentials (-54 mV/pH). This sensor was applied as a probe for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in order to map pH over a platinum ultramicroelectrode (UME), generating hydroxide ions (OH(-)) by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at a diffusion-controlled rate in aerated phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results reveal the alkalization of the electrolyte close to the oxygen reducing electrode, showing the insufficient buffer capacity of PBS to maintain a stable pH at the given conditions. PMID:26516786

  8. Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building 933-935 at extreme left. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 5, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  9. A 1.6-mm, metal tube ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Cagatay, Serra; Koc, Burhanettin; Uchino, Kenji

    2003-07-01

    A miniaturized metal tube ultrasonic motor, the dimensions of which are 1.6 mm in diameter and 6 mm in length, was developed. Two flattened surfaces with 90-degrees were ground on the outer surface of the stator. Two PZT-based piezoelectric ceramics were bonded onto these flat surfaces. The asymmetrical surface of the stator developed the split of the two degenerated orthogonal bending modes, resulting in a wobble motion. The working frequency of the 1.6-mm motor with 6 mm in length was 130 kHz. A torque of 0.5 mNm was reached at a maximum power of 45 mW with a speed of 45 rad/sec. The maximum efficiency was 16%. PMID:12894912

  10. Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens Travis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  11. Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  12. Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  13. Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  14. Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  15. Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  16. Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building 908 at extreme right for context. - Travis Air Force Base, Handling Crew Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  17. Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  18. QM/MM investigations of organic chemistry oriented questions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas C; Paasche, Alexander; Grebner, Christoph; Ansorg, Kay; Becker, Johannes; Lee, Wook; Engels, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    About 35 years after its first suggestion, QM/MM became the standard theoretical approach to investigate enzymatic structures and processes. The success is due to the ability of QM/MM to provide an accurate atomistic picture of enzymes and related processes. This picture can even be turned into a movie if nuclei-dynamics is taken into account to describe enzymatic processes. In the field of organic chemistry, QM/MM methods are used to a much lesser extent although almost all relevant processes happen in condensed matter or are influenced by complicated interactions between substrate and catalyst. There is less importance for theoretical organic chemistry since the influence of nonpolar solvents is rather weak and the effect of polar solvents can often be accurately described by continuum approaches. Catalytic processes (homogeneous and heterogeneous) can often be reduced to truncated model systems, which are so small that pure quantum-mechanical approaches can be employed. However, since QM/MM becomes more and more efficient due to the success in software and hardware developments, it is more and more used in theoretical organic chemistry to study effects which result from the molecular nature of the environment. It is shown by many examples discussed in this review that the influence can be tremendous, even for nonpolar reactions. The importance of environmental effects in theoretical spectroscopy was already known. Due to its benefits, QM/MM can be expected to experience ongoing growth for the next decade.In the present chapter we give an overview of QM/MM developments and their importance in theoretical organic chemistry, and review applications which give impressions of the possibilities and the importance of the relevant effects. Since there is already a bunch of excellent reviews dealing with QM/MM, we will discuss fundamental ingredients and developments of QM/MM very briefly with a focus on very recent progress. For the applications we follow a similar strategy. PMID:22392477

  19. The 19 mm date recorders: Similarities and differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Steve

    1991-01-01

    Confusion over the use of non-video 19 mm data recorders is becoming more pronounced in the world of high performance computing. The following issues are addressed: (1) the difference between ID-1, ID-2, MIL-STD-2179, and DD-2; (2) the proper machine for the necessary application; and (3) integrating the machine into an existing environment. Also, an attempt is made to clear up any misconceptions there might be about 19 mm tape recorders.

  20. The 19 mm date recorders: Similarities and differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Steve

    Confusion over the use of non-video 19 mm data recorders is becoming more pronounced in the world of high performance computing. The following issues are addressed: (1) the difference between ID-1, ID-2, MIL-STD-2179, and DD-2; (2) the proper machine for the necessary application; and (3) integrating the machine into an existing environment. Also, an attempt is made to clear up any misconceptions there might be about 19 mm tape recorders.

  1. Spectral Line Survey toward the Young Massive Protostar NGC 2264 CMM3 in the 4 mm, 3 mm, and 0.8 mm Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Furuya, Ryuta; Sakai, Takeshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Su, Yu-Nung; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    Spectral line survey observations are conducted toward the high-mass protostar candidate NGC 2264 CMM3 in the 4, 3, and 0.8 mm bands with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope. In total, 265 emission lines are detected in the 4 and 3 mm bands, and 74 emission lines in the 0.8 mm band. As a result, 36 molecular species and 30 isotopologues are identified. In addition to the fundamental molecular species, many emission lines of carbon-chain molecules such as HC5N, C4H, CCS, and C3S are detected in the 4 and 3 mm bands. Deuterated molecular species are also detected with relatively strong intensities. On the other hand, emission lines of complex organic molecules such as HCOOCH3 and CH3OCH3 are found to be weak. For the molecules for which multiple transitions are detected, rotation temperatures are derived to be 7-33 K except for CH3OH. Emission lines with high upper-state energies (Eu > 150 K) are detected for CH3OH, indicating the existence of a hot core. In comparison with the chemical composition of the Orion KL, carbon-chain molecules and deuterated molecules are found to be abundant in NGC 2264 CMM3, while sulfur-bearing species and complex organic molecules are deficient. These characteristics indicate the chemical youth of NGC 2264 CMM3 in spite of its location at the center of the cluster forming core, NGC 2264 C.

  2. Classical polarization in hybrid QM/MM methods.

    PubMed

    Illingworth, Christopher J R; Gooding, Stuart R; Winn, Peter J; Jones, Garth A; Ferenczy, György G; Reynolds, Christopher A

    2006-05-25

    We have presented a method for modeling polarization in hybrid QM/MM calculations. The method, which expresses the induced dipoles as a set of "induced" charges, is based on the induced dipole approach and methodology for calculating potential-derived point charges from distributed multipole series. The method has the advantage that the same methodology can be used to determine the induced charges and the potential derived charges and so both sets of charges are rigorously defined within the same framework. This underlying link with the wave function makes the method particularly suitable for use in hybrid QM/MM calculations. Here we assess the importance of explicit polarization in the classical part of a QM/MM system with regard to improving the classical description and the consequent effects on the quantum description. The main advantages of the induced charge approach are that the method is readily interfaced with quantum mechanical methods and that induced charges are more readily interpreted than induced dipoles. The ease of interpretation is illustrated by analysis of the charges involved in dimeric and trimeric hydrogen bonded systems. The method for treating the MM polarization has been validated by a regression analysis of the charges induced in both the QM and MM systems against those derived from full quantum mechanical calculations. The method has also been validated using two energy decomposition approaches, which show that MM polarization makes a significant and reliable contribution to the QM - MM interaction energy in a hybrid system. The distance dependency of the induced charges is investigated in calculations on methylsuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala chlormethyl ketone interacting with human neutrophil elastase and propranolol interacting with asparagine residues in a model of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor. PMID:16706406

  3. Brain tissue oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in neurosurgical patients at risk for ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, W E; Charbel, F T; Edelman, G

    1996-03-01

    A sensor that measures oxygen pressure (PO2), carbon dioxide pressure (PCO2), and pH was evaluated in brain tissue of patients at risk for ischemia. The sensor is 0.5 mm in diameter and was inserted into cortex tissue in 14 patients undergoing craniotomy for cerebrovascular surgery. A compromised cerebral circulation was identified in 8 of 14 patients by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan, cerebral angiography, and transient ischemic episodes before surgery. Under baseline conditions with isoflurane anesthesia and normal blood gases, tissue P02 was lower in the eight compromised compared to six noncompromised patients (noncompromised 37 +/- 12 mm Hg, compromised 10 +/- 5 mm Hg; P < 0.05), PCO2 was increased (noncompromised 49 +/- 5 mm Hg, compromised 72 +/- 23 mm Hg; P < 0.05), and pH was decreased (noncompromised 7.16 +/- 0.08, compromised 6.82 +/- 0.21; P < 0.05). Critical tissue values for the identification of ischemia were a P02 of 20 mm Hg, PCO2 of 60 mm Hg, and a pH of 7.0. These results suggest that brain tissue measures of P02, PCO2, and pH provide information on the adequacy of cerebral perfusion in neurosurgical patients. PMID:8623965

  4. THE EFFECT OF pH ON THE DIVISION RATE OF THE COCCOLITHOPHORID CRICOSPHAERA ELONGATA(1).

    PubMed

    Swift, E; Taylor, W R

    1966-09-01

    The division rate of Cricosphaera elongata was measured as a function of pH in a medium buffered with the CO2 -bicarbonate-carbonate system. The optimum pH for cell division of the coccolithophorid was 7.8. A change of the partial pressure of CO2 in the medium from 0.03 to 5% did not affect the division rate. Between pH 6.4 and 7.8 changes in the bicarbonate concentration from 0.1 to 6.0 mm and carbonate concentration from 0.007 to 0.1 mm did not affect the rate of division. At loiv experimental pH, C. elongata was nonmotile and grew in clumps; at higher pH values, it was motile and solitary. Coccoliths were not found covering C. elongata if calcite was soluble in the medium. PMID:27053415

  5. The same-source parallel MM{sub 5}.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalakes, J.

    1999-08-23

    The set of architectures available to users of the Penn State/NCAR MM5 has been expanded to included distributed-memory parallel computers, providing cost-effective scalable performance and memory capacity for large problem sizes. The same-source approach uses high-level parallel library and source-translation technology for adapting MM5, simplifying maintenance and allowing new physics modules to be incorporated without modification. The approach facilitates maintenance of the DM-parallel option to MM5 as an option within the official version, rather than as a separate stand-alone version. As a result, the DM-parallel option to MM5 (now at Version 3.1) has been a part of six subsequent model releases since MM5 Version 2.8 in March 1998. The same-source approach is applicable to other, similarly constructed codes when there is a need or desire to develop the code for distributed memory parallel machines without impacting the pre-existing source code. The approach is also compatible with pre-existing loop-level multithreading directives so that the code will run in distributed-memory/shared-memory mode on SMP clusters.

  6. QM/MM X-ray refinement of zinc metalloenzymes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Hayik, Seth A; Merz, Kenneth M

    2010-05-01

    Zinc metalloenzymes play an important role in biology. However, due to the limitation of molecular force field energy restraints used in X-ray refinement at medium or low resolutions, the precise geometry of the zinc coordination environment can be difficult to distinguish from ambiguous electron density maps. Due to the difficulties involved in defining accurate force fields for metal ions, the QM/MM (quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical) method provides an attractive and more general alternative for the study and refinement of metalloprotein active sites. Herein we present three examples that indicate that QM/MM based refinement yields a superior description of the crystal structure based on R and R(free) values and on the inspection of the zinc coordination environment. It is concluded that QM/MM refinement is an useful general tool for the improvement of the metal coordination sphere in metalloenzyme active sites. PMID:20116858

  7. pH Optrode Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

    1995-01-01

    pH-sensitive chromophoric reagents immobilized in porous optical fibers. Optoelectronic instrumentation system measures acidity or alkalinity of aqueous nutrient solution. Includes one or more optrodes, which are optical-fiber chemical sensors, in sense, analogous to electrodes but not subject to some of spurious effects distorting readings taken by pH electrodes. Concept of optrodes also described in "Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes" (KSC-11579). pH optrode sensor head, with lead-in and lead-out optical fibers, convenient for monitoring solutions located away from supporting electronic equipment.

  8. Peacemaker: Fracture assessment of a 155mm cannon barrel

    SciTech Connect

    Zywicz, E.

    1993-10-07

    A single crack 30 mm or deeper which is 75 mm long is sufficient to fracture a typical 155 mm cannon barrel with a pressure at or above two-thirds (206 MPa -- 30 ksi) of the maximum operating pressure (310 MPa -- 45 ksi). Longer and deeper flaws reduce the critical pressure required to initiate fracture. For the monolithic barrel design considered in this work, the postulated 30 mm deep by 75 mm long crack should propagate through the entire wall and, depending upon the new ``fractured`` geometry, may propagate axially down the cannon barrel. Numerical analyses conducted with straight through-thickness crack fronts propagated axially at pressures below the maximum operating pressure while those with curved crack fronts required pressures in excess of the working pressures to extend axially. (Experiments on actual 155 mm barrels with flaws similar to the one generated by the tested shape charge show appreciable axial crack extension at approximately equivalent pressures.) In either case, a through-thickness ``hole`` will be formed in the barrel`s side and a reduction in firing pressure should result. Finally, debris deposited within the barrel can greatly assist the fracture process, especially at lower operating pressures. Overall, a single deep and long interior crack appears the most effective way to fracture a cannon barrel. Unless clustered very closely together, multiple ``shallow`` cracks require higher pressures to fracture than does a single deep crack. Flaws introduced on the barrel`s exterior are less efficient since no crack-face pressures exist and the overall stresses on the barrel`s exterior are much lower than on its interior. Thus, very deep exterior cracks would be required to fail the barrel from internal pressure.

  9. 450mm wafer patterning with jet and flash imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Ecron; Hellebrekers, Paul; Hofemann, Paul; LaBrake, Dwayne L.; Resnick, Douglas J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    The next step in the evolution of wafer size is 450mm. Any transition in sizing is an enormous task that must account for fabrication space, environmental health and safety concerns, wafer standards, metrology capability, individual process module development and device integration. For 450mm, an aggressive goal of 2018 has been set, with pilot line operation as early as 2016. To address these goals, consortiums have been formed to establish the infrastructure necessary to the transition, with a focus on the development of both process and metrology tools. Central to any process module development, which includes deposition, etch and chemical mechanical polishing is the lithography tool. In order to address the need for early learning and advance process module development, Molecular Imprints Inc. has provided the industry with the first advanced lithography platform, the Imprio® 450, capable of patterning a full 450mm wafer. The Imprio 450 was accepted by Intel at the end of 2012 and is now being used to support the 450mm wafer process development demands as part of a multi-year wafer services contract to facilitate the semiconductor industry's transition to lower cost 450mm wafer production. The Imprio 450 uses a Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FILTM) process that employs drop dispensing of UV curable resists to assist high resolution patterning for subsequent dry etch pattern transfer. The technology is actively being used to develop solutions for markets including NAND Flash memory, patterned media for hard disk drives and displays. This paper reviews the recent performance of the J-FIL technology (including overlay, throughput and defectivity), mask development improvements provided by Dai Nippon Printing, and the application of the technology to a 450mm lithography platform.

  10. Performance evaluation of 4.75-mm NMAS superpave mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Farhana

    A Superpave asphalt mixture with 4.75-mm nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) is a promising, low-cost pavement preservation treatment for agencies such as the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT). The objective of this research study is to develop an optimized 4.75-mm NMAS Superpave mixture in Kansas. In addition, the study evaluated the residual tack coat application rate for the 4.75-mm NMAS mix overlay. Two, hot-in-place recycling (HIPR) projects in Kansas, on US-160 and K-25, were overlaid with a 15- to 19-mm thick layer of 4.75-mm NMAS Superpave mixture in 2007. The field tack coat application rate was measured during construction. Cores were collected from each test section for Hamburg wheel tracking device (HWTD) and laboratory bond tests performed after construction and after one year in service. Test results showed no significant effect of the tack coat application rate on the rutting performance of rehabilitated pavements. The number of wheel passes to rutting failure observed during the HWTD test was dependent on the aggregate source as well as on in-place density of the cores. Laboratory pull-off tests showed that most cores were fully bonded at the interface of the 4.75-mm NMAS overlay and the HIPR layer, regardless of the tack application rate. The failure mode during pull-off tests at the HMA interface was highly dependent on the aggregate source and mix design of the existing layer material. This study also confirmed that overlay construction with a high tack coat application rate may result in bond failure at the HMA interface. Twelve different 4.75-mm NMAS mix designs were developed using materials from the aforementioned but two binder grades and three different percentages of natural (river) sand. Laboratory performance tests were conducted to assess mixture performance. Results show that rutting and moisture damage potential in the laboratory depend on aggregate type irrespective of binder grade. Anti-stripping agent affects moisture sensitivity test results. Fatigue performance is significantly influenced by river sand content and binder grade. Finally, an optimized 4.75-mm NMAS mixture design was developed and verified based on statistical analysis of performance data.

  11. Computational Modeling in Plasma Processing for 300 mm Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Migration toward 300 mm wafer size has been initiated recently due to process economics and to meet future demands for integrated circuits. A major issue facing the semiconductor community at this juncture is development of suitable processing equipment, for example, plasma processing reactors that can accomodate 300 mm wafers. In this Invited Talk, scaling of reactors will be discussed with the aid of computational fluid dynamics results. We have undertaken reactor simulations using CFD with reactor geometry, pressure, and precursor flow rates as parameters in a systematic investigation. These simulations provide guidelines for scaling up in reactor design.

  12. Novel Processing of 81-mm Cu Shaped Charge Liners

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A; Korzekwa, D

    2002-01-16

    A seven-step procedure was developed for producing shaped charge liner blanks by back extrusion at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Starting with a 38.1-mm diameter, 101.6-mm long cylinder at 77K, three forging steps with a flat-top die are required to produce the solid cone while maintaining low temperature. The solid cone is forged in four individual back extrusions at 77K to produce the rough liner blank. This procedure is capable of being run in batch processes to improve the time efficiency.

  13. Resistance of Streptococcus bovis to acetic acid at low pH: Relationship between intracellular pH and anion accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.B. )

    1991-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis JB1, an acid-tolerant ruminal bacterium, was able to grown at pHs from 6.7 to 4.5, and 100 mM acetate had little effect on growth rate or proton motive force across the cell membrane. When S. bovis was grown in glucose-limited chemostats at pH 5.2, the addition of sodium acetate (as much as 100 mM) had little effect on the production of bacterial protein. At higher concentrations of sodium acetate (100 to 360 mM), production of bacterial protein declined, but this decrease could largely be explained by a shift in fermentation products (acetate, formate, and ethanol production to lactate production) and a decline in ATP production (3 ATP per glucose versus 2 ATP per glucose). Y{sub ATP} (grams of cells per mole at ATP) was not decreased significantly even by high concentrations of acetate. Cultures supplemented with 100 mM sodium acetate took up ({sup 14}C)acetate and ({sup 14}C)benzoate in accordance with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and gave similar estimates of intracellular pH. As the extracellular pH declined, S. bovis allowed its intracellular pH to decrease and maintained a relatively constant pH gradient across the cell membrane (0.9 unit). The decrease in intracellular pH prevented S. bovis from accumulating large amounts of acetate anion. On the basis of these results it did not appear that acetate was acting as an uncoupler. The sensitivity of other bacteria to volatile fatty acids at low pH is explained most easily by a high transmembrane pH gradient and anion accumulation.

  14. A comparative study of trypsin specificity based on QM/MM molecular dynamics simulation and QM/MM GBSA calculation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhong; Wang, Jinan; Zhang, Qinggang; Chen, Kaixian; Zhu, Weiliang

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen bonding and polar interactions play a key role in identification of protein-inhibitor binding specificity. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics (QM/MM MD) simulations combined with DFT and semi-empirical Hamiltonian (AM1d, RM1, PM3, and PM6) methods were performed to study the hydrogen bonding and polar interactions of two inhibitors BEN and BEN1 with trypsin. The results show that the accuracy of treating the hydrogen bonding and polar interactions using QM/MM MD simulation of PM6 can reach the one obtained by the DFT QM/MM MD simulation. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (QM/MM-GBSA) method was applied to calculate binding affinities of inhibitors to trypsin and the results suggest that the accuracy of binding affinity prediction can be significantly affected by the accurate treatment of the hydrogen bonding and polar interactions. In addition, the calculated results also reveal the binding specificity of trypsin: (1) the amidinium groups of two inhibitors generate favorable salt bridge interaction with Asp189 and form hydrogen bonding interactions with Ser190 and Gly214, (2) the phenyl of inhibitors can produce favorable van der Waals interactions with the residues His58, Cys191, Gln192, Trp211, Gly212, and Cys215. This systematic and comparative study can provide guidance for the choice of QM/MM MD methods and the designs of new potent inhibitors targeting trypsin. PMID:25562613

  15. Making pH Tangible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Elizabeth; Moss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise in which students test the pH of different substances, study the effect of a buffer on acidic solutions by comparing the behavior of buffered and unbuffered solutions upon the addition of acid, and compare common over-the-counter antacid remedies. (MKR)

  16. Advisory List of Instructional Media--16MM Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Educational Media.

    These two advisory lists include information on 16mm films appropriate for the K-12 instructional program. In both bibliographies films are listed in the following categories: communication skills; guidance; health, physical education, safety, and sports; science; and social studies. The list for the 1982-1983 school year also includes categories…

  17. 26. Photocopy of 35 mm. color slide (City of New ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of 35 mm. color slide (City of New York Department of Ports, International Trade, and Commerce), May 1985, Norman Berger AERIAL VIEW NORTHEAST OF PIERS 95, 96, AND 97 - West 55th Street & West 56th Street Piers, Hudson River at West Fifty-fifth & West Fifty-sixth Streets, Manhattan, New York, New York County, NY

  18. RF and mm-Wave Photonics at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, G.A.; Sullivan, C.

    1999-07-08

    RF and mm-wave photonic devices and circuits have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories for applications ranging from RF optical data links to optical generation of mm-wave frequencies. This talk will explore recent high-speed photonics technology developments at Sandia including: (1) A monolithic optical integrated circuit for all-optical generation of mm-waves. Using integrated mode-locked diode lasers, amplifiers, and detectors, frequencies between 30 GHz and 90 GHz are generated by a single monolithic (Al,Ga)As optical circuit less than 2mm in its largest dimension. (2) Development of polarization-maintaining, low-insertion-loss, low v-pi, Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulators with DC-to-potentially-K-band modulation bandwidth. New low-loss polarization-maintaining waveguide designs using binary alloys have been shown to reduce polarization crosstalk in undoped (Al,Ga)As waveguides, yielding high extinction ratio (>40dB) and low on-chip loss (<6dB) in Mach-Zehnder interferometers. RF drive voltage is reduced through use of 45rnrn-active length devices with modulator sensitivity, v-pi, less than 3V.

  19. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN URBAN CANOPY PARAMETERIZATION IN MM5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) (Grell et al. 1994) has been modified to include an urban canopy parameterization (UCP) for fine-scale urban simulations (~1-km horizontal grid spacing). The UCP accounts for drag ...

  20. Progress on 300-mm wafer lithography equipment and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautz, Karl E.; Maltabes, John G.

    2001-09-01

    SEMICONDUCTOR300 was the first pilot-production facility for 300mm wafers in the world. The company, a joint venture between Motorola, Inc. and Infineon Technologies started in early 1998 to test and compare process, metrology and probe equipment, develop robust processes, and manufacture products using a 300mm wafer tool set. The lithography tools included I-line steppers, an I-line scanner, a DUV stepper, and DUV scanners. All of these exposure tools were running in-line with various photoresist coat and develop tracks. The lithography tools were used to build both 64M and 256M DRAM devices and aggressive test vehicles. The process capability of the initial 0.25 micrometers reference process was done and compared to the 200mm data set of the sister factory. Automation issues for lithography tools were addressed and the cost metrics were calculated. SC300 demonstrated that a manufacturable 300mm lithography tool set and process for various ground rule devices was possible with the required performance in image transfer, CD control, and overlay. Further testing on 0.18micrometers and 0.15micrometers ground rule features indicated a sufficient process window for potential manufacturing. Additionally, it was demonstrated that non-concentric subfield stepping was feasible.

  1. Index to 8mm Motion Cartridges. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    This index to 8mm motion cartridges contains almost 10,000 entries, arranged alphabetically both by individual title and by series title in the main section of the book. Individual title entries include title with subtitle, size and physical description, length of film, stock or color code, description of contents, series title reference when…

  2. Operation and Maintenance of the 16mm Sound Film Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampino, Tony; Schexnaydre, Linda

    This manual presents information in seven sections: (1) parts of a 16mm film projector--film transport, threading, control, film projection, and sound system, and film projection correction devices, (2) threading procedures, (3) projection screens, (4) typical operating problems, (5) minor maintenance and repair techniques, (6) hints for the film…

  3. Guide to Films (16 mm) About Ecology, Adaptation and Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Synopses of 350 films (16 mm.) on ecology, adaptation of plants and animals to their environment, and environmental pollution are listed alphabetically by title in this guide. It specifies whether the film is black-and-white or color, its running time, and its source. An abbreviated subject index and a directory of sources are also provided. The

  4. Guide to Films (16 mm) About Ecology, Adaptation and Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Synopses of 350 films (16 mm.) on ecology, adaptation of plants and animals to their environment, and environmental pollution are listed alphabetically by title in this guide. It specifies whether the film is black-and-white or color, its running time, and its source. An abbreviated subject index and a directory of sources are also provided. The…

  5. Film Editing Handbook; Technique of 16mm Film Cutting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Hugh B.

    Designed to help the film student with the complexities of 16mm film cutting, this handbook catalogs the mechanical procedures of both picture and sound cutting and supplies step-by-step explanations of these procedures. Because the handbook was organized so that it could be used while working at the cutting bench, common cutting problems and…

  6. 0. 4 mm interferometer system using dielectric waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Ma, C.H.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    A 0.4 mm submillimeter-wave, phase-modulated polarimeter/interferometer is used for simultaneous time-dependent measurement of line-averaged electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation along chords of the plasma column in ISX-B tokamak. Heterodyna detection and hollow dielectric waveguide are utilized to achieve the high sensitivity required for the multichord equipment.

  7. Security architecture of the M&M mobile agent framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Paulo J.; Santos, Nuno F.; Silva, Luis; Silva, Joao G.

    2001-07-01

    In the Mobile Agent programming model, small threads of execution migrate from machine to machine, performing their operations locally. For being able to deploy such a model into real world applications, security is a vital concern. In the M&M project we have developed a system that departures from the traditional platform-based execution model for mobile agents. In M&M there are no agent platforms. Instead there is a component framework that allows the applications to become able of sending and receiving agents by themselves in a straightforward manner. In this paper we examine the security mechanisms available in M&M, and how integration with existing applications is done. One difficult aspect of this work is that all the features must work with the security mechanisms that already exist on the applications. This is so because the components are integrated from within into the applications, which already have security mechanisms in place. Currently, M&M provides features like fine-grain security permissions, encryption of agents and data, certificate distribution using LDAP and cryptographic primitives for agents. For validating the approach and solutions found, we have integrated the framework into several off-the-shelf web servers, having the security mechanisms running, with no problems.

  8. Bell & Howell Introduces an 8mm Cartridge Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educ Screen Audiovisual Guide, 1970

    1970-01-01

    "Bell & Howell has developed a highly versatile cartidge projector system for cine and super 8mm formats. Because Bell & Howell believes that standardization is an important factor in the development of a cartridge system, it has built in a flexibility which will allow this standardization. (Author)

  9. LIGA-fabricated compact mm-wave linear accelerator cavities.

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.J.; Bajikar, S.S.; DeCarlo, F.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Mancini, D.C.; Nassiri, A.; Lai, B.; Feinerman, A.D.; White, V.

    1998-03-23

    Millimeter-wave rf cavities for use in linear accelerators, free-electron lasers, and mm-wave undulatory are under development at Argonne National Laboratory. Typical cavity dimensions are in the 1000 mm range, and the overall length of the accelerator structure, which consists of 30-100 cavities, is about 50-100 mm. An accuracy of 0.2% in the cavity dimensions is necessary in order to achieve a high Q-factor of the cavity. To achieve this these structures are being fabricated using deep X-ray lithography, electroforming, and assembly (LIGA). The first prototype cavity structures are designed for 108 GHz and 2p/3-mode operation. Input and output couplers are integrated with the cavity structures. The cavities are fabricated on copper substrates by electroforming copper into 1-mm-thick PMMA resists patterned by deep x-ray lithography and polishing the copper down to the desired thickness. These are fabricated separately and subsequently assembled with precision spacing and alignment using microspheres, optical fibers, or microfabricated spacers/alignment pieces. Details of the fabrication process, alignment, and assembly work are presented in here.

  10. Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Analysis Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. Lum

    2002-02-12

    The purpose of this report is to document the Mineralogic Model (MM), Version 3.0 (MM3.0) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.0 and previous versions. A three-dimensional (3-D) Mineralogic Model was developed for Yucca Mountain to support the analyses of hydrologic properties, radionuclide transport, mineral health hazards, repository performance, and repository design. Version 3.0 of the MM was developed from mineralogic data obtained from borehole samples. It consists of matrix mineral abundances as a function of x (easting), y (northing), and z (elevation), referenced to the stratigraphic framework defined in Version 3.1 of the Geologic Framework Model (GFM). The MM was developed specifically for incorporation into the 3-D Integrated Site Model (ISM). The MM enables project personnel to obtain calculated mineral abundances at any position, within any region, or within any stratigraphic unit in the model area. The significance of the MM for key aspects of site characterization and performance assessment is explained in the following subsections. This work was conducted in accordance with the Development Plan for the MM (CRWMS M&O 2000). The planning document for this Rev. 00, ICN 02 of this AMR is Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The purpose of this ICN is to record changes in the classification of input status by the resolution of the use of TBV software and data in this report. Constraints and limitations of the MM are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow. The MM is one component of the ISM, which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed stratigraphy and structural features of the site into a 3-D model that will be useful in primary downstream models and repository design. These downstream models include the hydrologic flow models and the radionuclide transport models. All the models and the repository design, in turn, will be incorporated into the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of the potential nuclear waste repository block and vicinity to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a host for a repository. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 1. The lateral boundaries of the ISM and its three component models are shown in Figure 2.

  11. Spitzer Imaging of Herschel Lensed Sub-mm Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Wardlow, Julie; Kim, Sam; Khostovan, Ali; Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Barton, Elizabeth; Gong, Yan; Amblard, Alexandre; Serra, Paolo; Cooke, Jeff; Riechers, Dominik; Dominic, Benford; Frayer, David; Gardner, Jonathan; Fu, Hai; Bussmann, Shane; Gurwell, Mark; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Pasquale, Temi; Conley, Alex; Bock, Jamie; Vieira, Joaquin; Bridge, Carrie; Glenn, Jason; Zemcov, Michael; Schulz, Bernhard; Shupe, David; Hopwood, Ros; Negrello, Mattia; Andreani, Paola; Clements, David; Dannerbauer, Helmut; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Dunne, Loretta; Dunlop, James; Eales, Steve; Farrah, Duncan; Ivison, Rob; Jarvis, Matt; Maddox, Steve; Michalowski, Michal; Omont, Alain; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Serjeant, Stephen; Smail, Ian; Thompson, Mark; Vaccari, Mattia; Verma, Aprajita; Coppin, Kirsten; Oliver, Seb; Wang, Lingyu

    2011-05-01

    Sub-millimeter surveys have, in the last decade, revealed an unexpected population of high-redshift dust-obscured sub-mm galaxies (SMGs) which are forming stars at a tremendous rate. Due to steep number counts and the negative k-correction at sub-mm wavelengths sub-mm surveys are effective at finding intrinsically faint, gravitationally lensed galaxies. We have now produced a reliable list of about 150 bright lensed SMGs in 200 sq. deg of the Herschel-ATLAS and HerMES (the GTO program of the SPIRE Instrument team) surveys with Herschel-SPIRE. We propose Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging of 122 of these gravitationally lensed SMGs. The target SMGs are selected to maximally overlap with existing and planned multi-wavelength followup programs, without duplicating existing deep IRAC data. Using the proposed Spitzer data we will: (a) Extend the SEDs of z~ 1 to 5 lensed SMGs into the near-IR regime, where derived stellar masses are more reliable than those estimated at other wavelengths alone; (b) Combine with lens models from existing and planned high-resolution sub-mm imaging (SMA, CARMA, PdBI) to map the evolution of stellar mass as a function of redshift and star-formation rate (SFR); (c) Combine with existing and planned CO and CII molecular line measurements to map the evolution of dust-to-gas and stellar-to-gas mass ratios as a function of redshift and SFR; (d) Obtain snapshot statistics on the sub-mm galaxy evolution from z of 1 to 5 as a function of stellar, dust, and gas mass to study the role of mergers and AGN contribution that may regulate the starburst phenomenon; (e) Compare our results to those from numerical simulations of high-redshift starburst galaxies to investigate the physical conditions in SMGs, and their evolutionary pathways.

  12. Charpy impact test results on five materials and NIST verification specimens using instrumented 2-mm and 8-mm strikers

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is involved in two cooperative projects, with international participants, both of which involve Charpy V-notch impact tests with instrumented strikers of 2mm and 8mm radii. Two heats of A 533 grade B class I pressure vessel steel and a low upper-shelf (LUS) submerged-arc (SA) weld were tested on the same Charpy machine, while one heat of a Russian Cr-Mo-V forging steel and a high upper-shelf (HUS) SA weld were tested on two different machines. The number of replicate tests at any one temperature ranged from 2 to 46 specimens. Prior to testing with each striker, verification specimens at the low, high, and super high energy levels from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were tested. In the two series of verification tests, the tests with the 2mm striker met the requirements at the low and high energy levels but not at the super high energy. For one plate, the 2mm striker showed somewhat higher average absorbed energies than those for the 8-mm striker at all three test temperatures. For the second plate and the LUS weld, however, the 2mm striker showed somewhat lower energies at both test temperatures. For the Russian forging steel and the HUS weld, tests were conducted over a range of temperatures with tests at one laboratory using the 8mm striker and tests at a second laboratory using the 2mm striker. Lateral expansion was measured for all specimens and the results are compared with the absorbed energy results. The overall results showed generally good agreement (within one standard deviation) in energy measurements by the two strikers. Load-time traces from the instrumented strikers were also compared and used to estimate shear fracture percentage. Four different formulas from the European Structural Integrity Society draft standard for instrumented Charpy test are compared and a new formula is proposed for estimation of percent shear from the force-time trace.

  13. A Piezoelectric Micromotor with a Stator of φ=1.6 mm and l=4 mm Using Bulk PZT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagatay, Serra; Koc, Burhanettin; Moses, Paul; Uchino, Kenji

    2004-04-01

    The smallest discrete piezoelectric ultrasonic motor using bulk ceramics was developed. We are proposing basically a two-part motor: stator and rotor. The stator of the present motor consists of a hollow metal brass tube with outer diameter of 1.6 mm, inner diameter of 0.8 mm and length of only 4 mm with 2 PZT plates bonded onto it. Owing to the asymmetrical stator surface, two degenerated orthogonal bending modes were slightly split, resulting in a wobbling motion. Thus, the motor can be driven by a single driving source. The rotor is a spring, which is basically different from previous designs, pressed at both ends to the stator by a pair of ferrules. Consequently, the length of the whole motor assembly was reduced significantly; a final motor length of only 5 mm was obtained. The working frequency under zero load was approximately 227-233 kHz. Although the size is small, relatively high power was obtained under an optimized load condition: torque of 0.06 mNm, maximum power of 3.2 mW with a speed of 118 rad/s, and maximum efficiency of 11% under 48 Vrms at 221 kHz.

  14. MmTX1 and MmTX2 from coral snake venom potently modulate GABAA receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Jean-Pierre; Schwarz, Jürgen R.; Diaz-Bustamante, Marcelo; Céard, Brigitte; Gutiérrez, José M.; Kneussel, Matthias; Pongs, Olaf; Bosmans, Frank; Bougis, Pierre E.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors shape synaptic transmission by modulating Cl− conductance across the cell membrane. Remarkably, animal toxins that specifically target GABAA receptors have not been identified. Here, we report the discovery of micrurotoxin1 (MmTX1) and MmTX2, two toxins present in Costa Rican coral snake venom that tightly bind to GABAA receptors at subnanomolar concentrations. Studies with recombinant and synthetic toxin variants on hippocampal neurons and cells expressing common receptor compositions suggest that MmTX1 and MmTX2 allosterically increase GABAA receptor susceptibility to agonist, thereby potentiating receptor opening as well as desensitization, possibly by interacting with the α+/β− interface. Moreover, hippocampal neuron excitability measurements reveal toxin-induced transitory network inhibition, followed by an increase in spontaneous activity. In concert, toxin injections into mouse brain result in reduced basal activity between intense seizures. Altogether, we characterized two animal toxins that enhance GABAA receptor sensitivity to agonist, thereby establishing a previously unidentified class of tools to study this receptor family. PMID:25675485

  15. MmTX1 and MmTX2 from coral snake venom potently modulate GABAA receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Jean-Pierre; Schwarz, Jürgen R; Diaz-Bustamante, Marcelo; Céard, Brigitte; Gutiérrez, José M; Kneussel, Matthias; Pongs, Olaf; Bosmans, Frank; Bougis, Pierre E

    2015-02-24

    GABAA receptors shape synaptic transmission by modulating Cl(-) conductance across the cell membrane. Remarkably, animal toxins that specifically target GABAA receptors have not been identified. Here, we report the discovery of micrurotoxin1 (MmTX1) and MmTX2, two toxins present in Costa Rican coral snake venom that tightly bind to GABAA receptors at subnanomolar concentrations. Studies with recombinant and synthetic toxin variants on hippocampal neurons and cells expressing common receptor compositions suggest that MmTX1 and MmTX2 allosterically increase GABAA receptor susceptibility to agonist, thereby potentiating receptor opening as well as desensitization, possibly by interacting with the α(+)/β(-) interface. Moreover, hippocampal neuron excitability measurements reveal toxin-induced transitory network inhibition, followed by an increase in spontaneous activity. In concert, toxin injections into mouse brain result in reduced basal activity between intense seizures. Altogether, we characterized two animal toxins that enhance GABAA receptor sensitivity to agonist, thereby establishing a previously unidentified class of tools to study this receptor family. PMID:25675485

  16. Simulation results on a resistive plate chamber for a bakelite thickness of 1 mm up to 3 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, J. T.; Jamil, M.

    2005-07-01

    The performance of bakelite electrodes with thicknesses of 1, 2, and 3mm in a double-gap resistive plate chamber (RPC) have been tested by GEANT-based Monte Carlo simulation. Results show that the thickness of bakelite plays an important role in detecting particle signals. For checking the efficiency of these RPCs, gamma particles in the range 0.01-100MeV have been simulated through different bakelite setups. For an isotropic gamma source, a sensitivity sγ<3.5×10-2 at <100MeV by a 1mm bakelite double-gap RPC has been observed. For the same gamma source with a 2mm bakelite RPC, a sensitivity sγ<4.0×10-2 at <100MeV has been measured, whereas for 3mm bakelite RPC, sensitivity results were sγ<4.44×10-2 at <100MeV. Similar characteristics of bakelite electrodes have been observed for a parallel gamma source configuration.

  17. A 10-mm MR-Conditional Unidirectional Pneumatic Stepper Motor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Mershon, Christopher D.; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) conditional robotic devices facilitate accurate interventional procedures under MR imaging (MRI) guidance. For this purpose, a compact (10-mm diameter) MR-conditional stepper motor is presented. The device features seven key components, which contribute to a dense and easy to fabricate design. Alternating bursts of pressurized air and vacuum can drive the motor in 60° per step to achieve a maximum torque of 2.4 mNm. The relationship between torque and angular speed was investigated to demonstrate motor performance under different loading conditions. The stepper motor was tested in a GE 3T MRI scanner to verify its MR-compatibility. A maximum artifact width of 3 mm was measured in MRI images and a maximum signal-to-noise ratio reduction of 2.49% was recorded. PMID:25419104

  18. A 10-mm MR-Conditional Unidirectional Pneumatic Stepper Motor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Mershon, Christopher D; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) conditional robotic devices facilitate accurate interventional procedures under MR imaging (MRI) guidance. For this purpose, a compact (10-mm diameter) MR-conditional stepper motor is presented. The device features seven key components, which contribute to a dense and easy to fabricate design. Alternating bursts of pressurized air and vacuum can drive the motor in 60° per step to achieve a maximum torque of 2.4 mNm. The relationship between torque and angular speed was investigated to demonstrate motor performance under different loading conditions. The stepper motor was tested in a GE 3T MRI scanner to verify its MR-compatibility. A maximum artifact width of 3 mm was measured in MRI images and a maximum signal-to-noise ratio reduction of 2.49% was recorded. PMID:25419104

  19. Bacteria in the apical 5 mm of infected root canals.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, J C; Falkler, W A

    1991-08-01

    Ten freshly extracted teeth which had carious pulpal exposures and periapical lesions contiguous with the root apex were placed inside an anaerobic chamber and the apical 5 mm of the root canals cultured. In addition to anaerobic incubation, duplicate cultures were incubated aerobically. Fifty strains of bacteria from the 10 root canals were isolated and identified. The most prominent bacteria cultured from the 10 root canals were Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, black-pigmented Bacteroides, Peptostreptococcus, nonpigmented Bacteroides, Veillonella, Enterococcus faecalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Streptococcus mutans. Of the 50 bacterial isolates, 34 (68%) were strict anaerobes. This study demonstrates the presence of predominantly anaerobic bacteria in the apical 5 mm of infected root canals in teeth with carious pulpal exposures and periapical lesions. PMID:1809801

  20. Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.; Chau, H.H.

    1993-06-14

    A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250ns, with a time-to-burst jitter under 10ns. Both the slapper impact and the detonation breakout of the pellet have been measured to be flat to within 10ns over a 6-mm diameter. Fabry-Perot velocimetry of impacts with LiF crystals were used to characterize shock pressures and durations. Attenuator plates and flyers driven by the HE were also measured, which provided a variety of available pulse shapes and data for modeling efforts.

  1. Biomechanical Evaluation of 6.5-mm Cannulated Screws.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Benjamin C; Litsky, Alan S; Pugh, Kevin J; Fowler, T Ty

    2016-01-01

    Although biomechanical and clinical evidence exists regarding smaller compression screws, biomechanical data regarding the larger headless screws are not currently available. Headed and headless 6.5-mm cannulated compression screws were examined, with analysis of interfragmentary compression, insertion torque, and resistance of the construct to a shear force. No significant differences were seen between the maximum insertion torque of the headless or headed screws. Maximum and steady-state compression forces were also not significantly different between groups. Countersinking the headless model 2 mm led to a 77.01% decrease in steady-state compression levels. Shear testing did not reveal any significant differences in peak load at ultimate failure, specimen stiffness, or final block displacement, although a trend to increased peak load and stiffness was seen with the headless specimens. PMID:27082882

  2. Electromagnetic field measurements on a mm-wave linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, P.; Kang, Y.; Berenc, T.; Kustom, R.; Willke, T.; Feinerman, A.

    1994-07-01

    Field strength measurements for the determination of the R/Q of a mm-wave, 50-MeV electron linear accelerator using perturbational techniques are described. The perturbation is achieved using optical fibers coated with a thin metallic film to form a hollow cylinder. The perturbational form factors for such a geometry are approximated using several simple analytical expressions which are compared to a finite difference calculation as well as experimental results on a known cavity.

  3. Wireless channel characterization for mm-size neural implants.

    PubMed

    Mark, Michael; Bjorninen, Toni; Chen, Yuhui David; Venkatraman, Subramaniam; Ukkonen, Leena; Sydanheimo, Lauri; Carmena, Jose M; Rabaey, Jan M

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to modeling and characterizing wireless channel properties for mm-size neural implants. Full-wave electromagnetic simulation was employed to model signal propagation characteristics in biological materials. Animal tests were carried out, proving the validity of the simulation model over a wide range of frequency from 100MHz to 6GHz. Finally, effects of variability and uncertainty in human anatomy and dielectric properties of tissues on these radio links are explored. PMID:21096382

  4. Enhancing Paradynamics for QM/MM Sampling of Enzymatic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lameira, Jerônimo; Kupchencko, Ilya; Warshel, Arieh

    2016-03-10

    Despite the enormous increase in computer power, it is still extremely challenging to obtain computationally converging sampling of ab initio QM/MM (QM(ai)/MM) free energy surfaces in condensed phases. The sampling problem can be significantly reduced by the use of the reference potential paradynamics (PD) approach, but even this approach still requires major computer time in studies of enzymatic reactions. To further reduce the sampling problem we developed here a new PD version where we use an empirical valence bond reference potential that has a minimum rather than a maximum at the transition state region of the target potential (this is accomplished conveniently by shifting the EVB of the product state). Hence, we can map the TS region in a more efficient way. Here, we introduce and validate the inverted EVB PD approach. The validation involves the study of the SN2 step of the reaction catalyzed by haloakene dehalogenase (DhlA) and the GTP hydrolysis in the RasGAP system. In addition, we have also studied the corresponding reaction in water for each of the systems described here and the reaction involving trimethylsulfonium and dimethylamine in solution. The results are encouraging and the new strategy appears to provide a powerful way of evaluating QM(ai)/MM activation free energies. PMID:26866994

  5. Variations on a QM/MM approach to cluster dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, P. M.; Berger, D.; Faber, B.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.

    2012-11-01

    We discuss two extensions of a hierarchical QM/MM approach developed to describe clusters embedded into a polarizable environment. The first extension consists in considering the presence of a supporting metal. More specifically we consider the structure and dynamics of Na clusters on a surface built from Ar layers grown on a metal support. We study the effect of the Ar substrate and of the metal support. We find a faint binding on the surface and the effect of the dielectric response of the metal (DRM) turns out to be negligible. Deposit of small Na clusters is crucially influenced by the mechanical hardness of the metal support and the number of Ar layers, while the DRM makes little effect. The second extension consists in using the QM/MM approach to study color centers at an MgO surface. The particular efficiency of the QM/MM approach allows to consider large system's sizes and thus test the impact of the (necessarily) finite (surface) sample. We find that our results compare favorably with ab-initio approaches as well as with available experimental results.

  6. Feasibility studies of a compact mm-wave linac FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Nassiri, A.; Kustom, R.L.; Kang, Y.W.; Song, J.

    1995-12-31

    Short wavelength FELs impose stringent requirements on the quality of the electron beams. The key factor in obtaining a single-pass UV or x-ray FEL is the generation of small emittance electron beams with ultra-high brightness. The pioneering work at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the last decade has resulted in a dramatic improvement in the production of high electron beam brightness and small beam emittance using rf photocathode gun. The lower bound on the emittance of a 1-nC bunch without any emittance compensation is on the order of 3 {pi} mm-mrad. This is well within the emittance requirement being considered here. Although the original R&D work at Argonne, in collaboration with the University of Illinois at Chicago and University of Wisconsin-Madison, has produced encouraging results in the area of rf structure design, x-ray mask fabrication, and LIGA processing (Lithography, Electroforming, and Molding), the goal to prove feasibility has not yet been achieved. In this paper, we will present feasibility studies for a compact single-pass mm-linac FEL based on LIGA technology. This system will consist of a photocathode rf gun operated at 30 GHz, a 50-MeV superconducting constant gradient structure operated at 60 GHz, and a microundulator with 1-mm period.

  7. The Methods Behind PH WINS

    PubMed Central

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily from existing and validated items and focuses on 4 main areas: workforce perceptions about training needs, workplace environment and job satisfaction, perceptions about national trends, and demographics. This article outlines the conceptualization, development, and implementation of PH WINS, as well as considerations and limitations. It also describes the creation of 2 new data sets that will be available in public use for public health officials and researchers—a nationally representative data set for permanently employed state health agency central office employees comprising over 10 000 responses, and a pilot data set with approximately 12 000 local and regional health department staff responses. PMID:26422490

  8. The Methods Behind PH WINS.

    PubMed

    Leider, Jonathon P; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily from existing and validated items and focuses on 4 main areas: workforce perceptions about training needs, workplace environment and job satisfaction, perceptions about national trends, and demographics. This article outlines the conceptualization, development, and implementation of PH WINS, as well as considerations and limitations. It also describes the creation of 2 new data sets that will be available in public use for public health officials and researchers--a nationally representative data set for permanently employed state health agency central office employees comprising over 10,000 responses, and a pilot data set with approximately 12,000 local and regional health department staff responses. PMID:26422490

  9. Spectroscopic and QM/MM investigations of Chloroperoxidase catalyzed degradation of orange G.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; He, Qinghao; Huang, Yi; Wang, Xiaotang

    2016-04-15

    Chloroperoxidase (CPO), a heme-thiolate protein, from Caldariomyces fumago catalyzes a plethora of reactions including halogenation, dismutation, epoxidation, and oxidation. Although all CPO-catalyzed reactions go through a common intermediate, compound I, different mechanisms are followed in subsequent transformations. To understand the mechanism of CPO-catalyzed halide-dependent degradation of orange G, the role of halide and pH was systematically investigated. It is revealed that formation and protonation of compound X, a long-sought after hypochlorite heme adduct intermediate existed during CPO-catalyzed halide-dependent reactions, significantly lowers the reaction barrier and increases the efficiency of CPO-catalyzed orange G degradation. The extremely acidic optimal reaction pH suggests the protonation of a residue, presumably, Glu 183 in CPO catalysis. Halide dependent studies showed that Kcat is higher in the presence of Br(-) than in the presence of Cl(-). The degradation products of orange G indicate the cleavage at a single position of orange G, demonstrating a high regioselectivity of CPO-catalyzed degradation. Based on our kinetic, NMR and QM/MM studies, the mechanism of CPO-catalyzed orange G degradation was proposed. PMID:26926259

  10. pH gradients are not associated with tip growth in pollen tubes of Lilium longiflorum.

    PubMed

    Fricker, M D; White, N S; Obermeyer, G

    1997-08-01

    The cytoplasmic pH of growing pollen tubes of Lilium longiflorum Thunb. was measured using the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5(6')-carboxyfl uorescein and confocal fluorescence ratio imaging. The average cytoplasmic pH in the clear zone of the pollen tube tip was pH 7.11, and no consistent pH gradients were detected in the clear zone, averaging around -1.00 milli pH unit microm(-1), or along the first 50 microm of the tube (3.62 milli pH units microm[-1]). In addition, no correlation was observed between the absolute tip cytoplasmic pH or the pH gradient and the pollen tube growth rates. Shifts of external pH to more acidic pH values (pH 4.5) caused a relatively small acidification by 0.18 pH units, whereas a more alkaline external pH >7.0 caused a dramatic increase in cytoplasmic pH and growth stopped immediately. Stimulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by fusicoccin, resulted in an increase of tube growth but no change in cytoplasmic pH. On the other hand, vanadate (250-500 microM), a putative inhibitor of the pump, stopped tube growth and a slight cytoplasmic alkalinisation of 0.1 pH units was observed. Vanadate also arrested fusicoccin-stimulated growth and stimulated an increased alkalinisation of around 0.2 pH units. External application of CaCl2 (10 mM) caused a small acidification of less than 0.1 pH units in the clear zone, whilst LaCl3 (250 microM) caused slight and rather variable perturbations in cytoplasmic pH of no more than 0.1 pH units. Both treatments stopped growth. It was inferred from these data that tip-acid cytoplasmic pH gradients do not play a central role in the organisation or maintenance of pollen tube tip growth. PMID:9264460

  11. Changes in pH and water holding properties of Longissimus dorsi muscle during beef ageing.

    PubMed

    Boakye, K; Mittal, G S

    1993-01-01

    The effects of vacuum packaging, chilling rate (slow or fast), and fat cover thickness (≤ 4 mm or 7-8 mm) on pH and water-holding properties of longissimus dorsi muscle were assessed during beef ageing. The longissimus dorsi muscles were aged on the carcass or in vacuum packaging. Muscle samples were taken on days 0 (24 h post-mortem), 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 to measure these properties. Ageing time significantly influenced muscle pH and cooking loss; however, interaction fat × chill × time affected press juice. The pH was also influenced by vacuum-packaged ageing. Press juice positively correlated with cooking loss and pH. PMID:22060742

  12. PH sensitive WO3-Based microelectrochemical transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natan, Michael J.; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Wrighton, Mark S.

    1986-09-01

    Electrochemical properties of an array of closely spaced (1.2 microns) Au or Pt microelectrodes (approx. 2 microns wide x approx. 50 microns long x 0.1 microns high) coated by a 0.15 micron thick layer of polycrystalline WO3 are reported. The WO3 is deposited on the electrode by RF sputtering of a WO3 target. The cyclic voltammetry of these microelectrodes indicates that WO3 connects individual microelectrodes, since the voltammogram of a pair of microelectrodes driven together is indistinguishable from that of an individual microelectrode. WO3 becomes a good conductor upon electrochemical reduction in aqueous solutions. The change in resistance of WO3 connecting two microelectrodes as a function of electrochemical potential spans four orders of magnitude, from approx. 1,000,000 to approx. 100 ohms. A pair of WO3-connected microelectrodes functions as a microelectrochemical transistor that is sensitive to pH. The cyclic voltammetry is pH-dependent and consistent with pH-dependent transistor characteristics, which indicate that the device is turned on at more positive electrochemical potentials in acidic media. In basic solutions, more negative potentials are needed to turn on WO3-based transistors. The maximum slope of the drain current, I sub D, vs. late voltage, V sub G, plot at fixed drain voltage, V sub G, gives a transconductance of 12 mS/mm of gate width.

  13. Insights into structure and redox potential of lignin peroxidase from QM/MM calculations.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ludovic; Crawford, Luke; Mutengwa, Archford; Götze, Jan P; Bühl, Michael

    2016-02-16

    Redox potentials are computed for the active form (compound I) of lignin peroxidase (LiP) using a suitable QM/MM methodology (B3LYP/SDD/6-311G**//BP86/SVP:CHARMM). Allowing for dynamic conformational averaging, a potential of 0.67(33) V relative to ferrocenium/ferrocene is obtained for the active form with its oxoiron(iv) core. The computed redox potential is very sensitive to the charge distribution around the active site: protonation of titratable residues close to the metal center increases the redox potential, thereby rationalising the known pH dependence of LiP activity. A simple MM-charge deletion scheme is used to identify residues that are critical for the redox potential. Two mutant proteins are studied through homology modelling, E40Q and D183N, which are predicted to have an increased redox potential by 140 mV and 190 mV, respectively, relative to the wild type. These mutant proteins are thus promising targets for synthesis and further exploration toward a rational design of biocatalytic systems for oxidative degradation of lignin. PMID:26815633

  14. FT-Raman and QM/MM study of the interaction between histamine and DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Chica, A. J.; Soriano, A.; Tuñón, I.; Sánchez-Jiménez, F. M.; Silla, E.; Ramírez, F. J.

    2006-05-01

    The interaction between histamine and highly polymerized calf-thymus DNA has been investigated using FT-Raman spectroscopy and the hybrid QM/MM (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) methodology. Raman spectra of solutions containing histamine and calf-thymus DNA, at different molar ratios, were recorded. Solutions were prepared at physiological settings of pH and ionic strength, using both natural and heavy water as the solvent. The analysis of the spectral changes on the DNA Raman spectra when adding different concentrations of histamine allowed us to identify the reactive sites of DNA and histamine, which were used to built two minor groove and one intercalated binding models. They were further used as starting points of the QM/MM theoretical study. However, minimal energy points were only reached for the two minor groove models. For each optimized structure, we calculated analytical force constants of histamine molecule in order to perform the vibrational dynamics. Normal mode descriptions allowed us to compare calculated wavenumbers for DNA-interacting histamine to those measured in the Raman spectra of DNA-histamine solutions.

  15. Results from a partial lifetime test of a 40 mm-aperture 17 mm SSC model dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Radusewicz, P.; Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Ogitsu, T.; Potter, J.; Puglisi, M.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Jain, A.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Roher, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thomas, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J.; Royett, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.

    1992-03-01

    A 40-mm-aperture, 17-m-long Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) model dipole was assembled at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and tested initially at Fermi National Accelerator Lab (FNAL) and later at BNL. At BNL an extended cycle test was devised to examine the magnet`s performance through numerous cold tests and thermal cycles. This paper discusses the magnet`s mechanical and quench performance and magnet field measurements during the tests.

  16. Formation of asteroids from mm-cm sized grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, D.; Johansen, A.; Davies, M. B.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Asteroids and comets are intricately connected to life in the universe. Asteroids are the building blocks of terrestrial planets; water-rich asteroids and comets are likely to be the primary source of water for Earth's oceans and other volatiles (Morbidelli et al. 2000; Hartogh et al. 2011); and they may play role in mass extinctions. Yet, the formation of these objects is poorly understood. There is mounting evidence that the traditional picture of the formation of asteroids must be revised. The size distribution of asteroids is hard to reconcile with a traditional bottomup formation scenario. Instead, asteroids may form top-down, with large 100 - 1000 km sized objects forming first by the gravitational collapse of dense clumps of small particles. Experiments and simulations suggest that dust grains cannot grow to sizes larger than mm-cm in protoplanetary disks (Zsom et al. 2010). Also, primitive meteorites from the asteroid belt contain a large mass fraction in chondrules of sizes from 0.1 mm to a few mm. Hence, it is desirable to find a model for asteroid formation from mm-sized particles. Aims. In this work, we model the dynamics of mm-cm sized grains in dust-enriched inner regions of protoplanetary disks. We model the dust-gas interaction to determine whether dust grains of this size can form dense, self-gravitating clouds that can collapse to form asteroids. Methods. We perform shearing box simulations of the inner disk using the Pencil Code (Brandenburg & Dobler 2002). The simulations start with a Solar-type solids-to-gas ratio of 0.01 and we gradually increase the particle concentration. In a real protoplanetary disk, solid particles are expected to migrate from the outer regions and concentrate in the inner disk. Results. Our simulations show that mm-sized particles can form very dense clumps, driven by a run-away convergence in the radial-drift flow of these particles - this dynamic is known as the streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005; Johansen et al. 2007). We show that the streaming instability can also occur for small grains, strongly coupled to the surouning gas. We further show that the resulting particle clumps can reach the density where gravitational collapse is expected to take place, giving rise to planetesimals and asteroids. This process requires either a very high solids-to-gas ratio, or a reduced background pressure gradient, such as that produced by large-scale pressure bumps in the disk. Interpretation. This result offers a promising avenue to the formation of asteroids and comets. Additional work with this model may provide insight on the initial distribution of the masses and orbits of asteroids and comets. This information is important because these are the initial conditions for the formation of terrestrial planets, and for the delivery of water and other volatiles to rocky planets in the habitable zone.

  17. End design of the SSC 58 mm High Gradient Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.

    1992-06-10

    The end'' design of the High Gradient Quad. was done with consideration to the integrated field harmonics, the iron contribution, and the maximum field at the conductor. Magnetic analysis was done on the return end only, however the physical dimension of the lead end were determined as well. Using the cross-section of the windings and Cook's program BEND, we generated the physical end windings around the return end. Placing a single wire at the center of each turn the integrated gradient was computed and iterating on the end block spacers the integrated harmonics minimized. The final geometry was then used for more, extensive calculations, such as the field at the conductor and the 3D field harmonics. For this detailed calculation we have placed a single line current at the center of each strand and included the iron contribution ({mu} = {infinity}), see Appendix C. With the termination of the iron serving as a reference, the maximum length of the inner and outer layers are 182 mm and 215 mm respectively. The magnetic length of the end was computed from the gradient function A{sub 2} and was found to be 142 mm. In reality we expect the physical length of the end to be somewhat larger, however this should have little or no effect on the magnetic length. The gradient in the straight section is 212.44 T/m at 7000 A and the integrated value of the gradient is -3.01665 E5 (G) in the end region marked by the magnetic length of the end. The respective integrated harmonics for the end 12 pole and 20 pole are -10.6658 (G/CM{sup 4}) and 0.7279 (G/cm{sup 8}) corresponding to b{sub 6} = 0.351 , b{sub 10} = -0.024 units. The above was computed from the values of A{sub 2}, A{sub 6}, and A{sub 10}.

  18. End design of the SSC 58 mm High Gradient Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.

    1992-06-10

    The ``end`` design of the High Gradient Quad. was done with consideration to the integrated field harmonics, the iron contribution, and the maximum field at the conductor. Magnetic analysis was done on the return end only, however the physical dimension of the lead end were determined as well. Using the cross-section of the windings and Cook`s program BEND, we generated the physical end windings around the return end. Placing a single wire at the center of each turn the integrated gradient was computed and iterating on the end block spacers the integrated harmonics minimized. The final geometry was then used for more, extensive calculations, such as the field at the conductor and the 3D field harmonics. For this detailed calculation we have placed a single line current at the center of each strand and included the iron contribution ({mu} = {infinity}), see Appendix C. With the termination of the iron serving as a reference, the maximum length of the inner and outer layers are 182 mm and 215 mm respectively. The magnetic length of the end was computed from the gradient function A{sub 2} and was found to be 142 mm. In reality we expect the physical length of the end to be somewhat larger, however this should have little or no effect on the magnetic length. The gradient in the straight section is 212.44 T/m at 7000 A and the integrated value of the gradient is -3.01665 E5 (G) in the end region marked by the magnetic length of the end. The respective integrated harmonics for the end 12 pole and 20 pole are -10.6658 (G/CM{sup 4}) and 0.7279 (G/cm{sup 8}) corresponding to b{sub 6} = 0.351 , b{sub 10} = -0.024 units. The above was computed from the values of A{sub 2}, A{sub 6}, and A{sub 10}.

  19. Effect of pH and ionic strength on the physicochemical properties of coconut milk emulsions.

    PubMed

    Tangsuphoom, N; Coupland, J N

    2008-08-01

    Coconut milk (16% to 17% fat, 1.8% to 2% protein) was extracted from coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) endosperm and diluted in buffer to produce natural oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt% oil). The effect of pH (3 to 7) and NaCl (0 to 200 mM) on the properties and stability, namely, mean particle size, zeta-potential, viscosity, microstructure, and creaming stability, of the natural coconut milk emulsions was investigated. At pH values close to the isoelectric point (IEP) of the coconut proteins (pH 3.5 to 4) and in the absence of NaCl, coconut milk flocculated, but did not coalesce. Flocculation corresponded to low surface charges and was accompanied by an increase in emulsion viscosity. Adding up to 200 mM NaCl to those flocculated emulsions did not change the apparent degree of flocculation. Coconut milk emulsion at pH 6 was negatively charged and not flocculated. Upon addition of salt, the zeta-potential decreased from -16 to -6 mV (at 200 mM NaCl) but this was not sufficient to induce flocculation in coconut milk emulsions. At low pH (< IEP), the positively charged droplets of coconut milk emulsions only flocculated when the NaCI concentration exceeded 50 mM, as the zeta-potential approached zero. PMID:19241548

  20. Dynamic impact analysis of the M1 105mm projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.

    1993-06-01

    Evaluation of the effects of {open_quotes}rough-handling{close_quotes}-induced stresses in the nose region of a 105mm artillery projectile was performed to determine if these stresses could have contributed to the premature explosion of a projectile during a Desert Shield training mission of the 101st Army Airborne in Saudi Arabia. The rough-handling evaluations were simulated by dynamic impact analysis. It was concluded that the combined residual stress and dynamic impact-induced stress would not be of sufficient magnitude to cause cracking of the projectile in the nose region.

  1. Dynamic impact analysis of the M1 105mm projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.

    1993-06-01

    Evaluation of the effects of [open quotes]rough-handling[close quotes]-induced stresses in the nose region of a 105mm artillery projectile was performed to determine if these stresses could have contributed to the premature explosion of a projectile during a Desert Shield training mission of the 101st Army Airborne in Saudi Arabia. The rough-handling evaluations were simulated by dynamic impact analysis. It was concluded that the combined residual stress and dynamic impact-induced stress would not be of sufficient magnitude to cause cracking of the projectile in the nose region.

  2. Performance of 2mm radius straw tube drift cells

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.E.; Bantly, J.; Blessing, S.; Buchholz, D.; Gobbi, B.; Liu, Y.; Rajagopalan, S.; Tilden, R. ); Martin, M. )

    1993-08-01

    The performance of a 128 channel test module made with straw tubes of 2mm radius has been studied in a test beam and with cosmic rays. Different gases were used and for each one the time-to-distance relation and the hit efficiency was measured. Comparison are made between results when two different electronics readouts were used. The information was recorded with 106 MHz FADC units and also with TDCs (50ps resolution). The best resolution, of 135 [mu]m, was obtained using 50% ethane, 50% argon and reading out the information with the TDCs, at an operating HV of 1,750V.

  3. Gas Analysis by Fourier Transform Mm-Wave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Brent J.; Steber, Amanda L.; Lehmann, Kevin K.; Pate, Brooks H.

    2013-06-01

    Molecular rotational spectroscopy of low pressure, room temperature gases offers high chemical selectivity and sensitivity with the potential for a wide range of applications in gas analysis. A strength of the technique is the potential to identify molecules that have not been previously studied by rotational spectroscopy by comparing experimental results to predictions of the spectroscopic parameters from quantum chemistry -6 so called library-free detection. The development of Fourier transform mm-wave spectrometers using high peak power (30 mW) active multiplier chain mm-wave sources brings new measurement capabilities to the analysis of complex gas mixtures. Strategies for gas analysis based on high-throughput mm-wave spectroscopy and arbitrary waveform generator driven mm-wave sources are described. Several new measurement capabilities come from the intrinsic time-domain measurement technique. High-sensitivity double-resonance measurements can be performed to speed the analysis of a complex gas sample containing several species. This technique uses a "pi-pulse" to selectively invert the population of two selected rotational energy levels and the effect of this excitation pulse on all other transitions in the spectrometer operating range is monitored using segmented chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy. This method can lead to automated determination of the molecular rotational constants. Rapid pulse duration scan experiments can be used to estimate the magnitude and direction of the dipole moment of the molecule from an unknown spectrum. Coherent pulse echo experiments, using the traditional Hahn sequence or two-color population recovery methods, can be used to determine the collisional relaxation rate of the unknown molecule. This rate determination improves the ability to estimate the mass of the unknown molecule from the determination of the Doppler dephasing rate. By performing a suite of automated, high-throughput measurements, there is the potential to determine the shape (via the rotational constant), electric properties (the dipole moments and its direction in the principal axis system), and the mass of the molecule to aid its identification.

  4. Living with Omniback and the 8mm drive

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Apollo's OmniBack backup system provides a convenient and effective way of storing network backup information on 8mm tape. In addition it has a journaling facility to write extensive log files, recording the backup process in almost any degree of detail desired. The directory structure and file names used are logical and well-defined. Summary files announce the degree of success of the backup as specified in the work file. The system will run unattended under the UNIX cron command, allowing the backup to be performed during the night when user demands on the network are small and most user files are free.

  5. Maps based on 53 GHz (5.7 mm wavelength)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Maps based on 53 GHz (5.7 mm wavelength) observations made with the DMR over the entire 4-year mission (top) on a scale from 0 - 4 K, showing the near-uniformity of the CMB brightness, (middle) on a scale intended to enhance the contrast due to the dipole described in the slide 19 caption, and (bottom) following subtraction of the dipole component. Emission from the Milky Way Galaxy is evident in the bottom image. See slide 19 caption for information about map smoothing and projection.

  6. Entropy estimation for M/M/1 queueing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnault, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the entropy of Markovian queueing systems. The marginal entropy and entropy rate of a stochastic process are well-known to measure its uncertainty. When only observations of the process are available, the need to estimate themarises. Regnault [5, 6] provide estimators with good asymptotic properties of the entropy of continuous-time ergodic Markov processes. We specialize these results in the context of birth-death processes used in continuous-time M/M/1 queueing systems. Links with maximum entropy arguments are used to characterize the asymptotic behavior of the estimators.

  7. Experimental demonstration of a 120-mm ram accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruczynski, David L.

    1992-10-01

    Ram acceleration is an emerging propulsion technology in which a projectile similar in shape to the centerbody of a ramjet aircraft engine is injected at high speed into a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture. As the projectile moves into the tube, under supersonic conditions, shocks occur on and around the projectile. If the gases are then ignited either by the energy in the shock system or an external mechanism, the combustion around or behind the projectile can be self-sustaining. The net effect is to generate a localized high pressure region around and/or behind the projectile which produces acceleration. Work at the University of Washington, Seattle, has demonstrated velocities in excess of 2.6 km/s in 38-mm caliber, while theory predicts velocities above 7 km/s may be obtainable. A program was initiated at the Weapons Technology Directorate of the US Army Research Laboratory (formerly Ballistic Research Laboratory) to examine the scaling potential of ram acceleration for use as a high velocity, high mass, (i.e., high kinetic energy) launcher. Data from initial gas mixing tests and first firings through a 120-mm bore diameter ram accelerator with both inert and live fuel gases are presented. Initial comparisons with ram accelerators of smaller scale are made. Discussions of scaling parameters as currently understood will be presented.

  8. Using 70-mm aerial photography to identify rangeland sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Alaniz, M. A.; Bowen, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A south Texas rangeland area was used as a study site to test the use of microdensitometry on 70-mm color-infrared and black-and-white photographs (scale 1:19,000) for distinguishing among 11 range sites (two brushland, seven grassland, two barren land) during the winter (February), spring (May), and summer (August) of 1976. Color-infrared photographs were also taken at a scale of 1:42,000 for the summer date. Film optical density readings were made on one color-infrared film with white light only. The best separations among density readings for all range sites were obtained using white light exposed on color-infrared film in the summer when vegetation was at peak foliage development. Results from this study indicate that 70-mm aerial color-infrared photography at a scale of 1:19,000 or 1:42,000 has good potential for identifying range sites in large and inaccessible areas, and could be a useful tool for range management.

  9. A High Resolution Desktop Color Scanner For 35 mm Transparencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, James F.

    1989-07-01

    A novel device for digitizing 35 mm transparencies has been designed by Barneyscan Corporation to provide medium-high resolution image input to microcomputers. The basic concept of the scanner is that a 35 mm slide moves on a linear track in front of a lens and a linear sensor while illuminated with a slit light source. Three passes are made for color digitizing; red, green and blue separation filters are interposed for each respective pass. A single pass greyscale mode is also included. The 1024-element photo array measures each of 1520 lines in the direction of slide travel, yielding 1.5 million pixels. Each pixel is digitized to 256 levels (8 bits) of intensity per primary color, or 16,800,00 shades. The resulting file size is 4.5 megabytes. Extensive software for pre-calibration and for automatic control of scan settings is included. Image processing software for cropping, resizing, color correction, sharpening and file format conversion is also included. Resultant images can be displayed, modified and edited, saved to disk or to hard copy, or distributed over a network.

  10. Resonant biaxial 7-mm MEMS mirror for omnidirectional scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, U.; Aikio, M.; Janes, J.; Senger, F.; Stenchly, V.; Weiss, M.; Quenzer, H.-J.; Wagner, B.; Benecke, W.

    2013-03-01

    Low-cost automotive laser scanners for environment perception are needed to enable the integration of advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) into all automotive vehicle segments, a key to reducing the number of traffic accidents on roads. An omnidirectional 360 degree laser scanning concept has been developed based on combination of an omnidirectional lens and a biaxial large aperture MEMS mirror. This omnidirectional scanning concept is the core of a small sized low-cost time-of-flight based range sensor development. This paper describes concept, design, fabrication and first measurement results of a resonant biaxial 7mm gimbal-less MEMS mirror that is electrostatically actuated by stacked vertical comb drives. Identical frequencies of the two resonant axes are necessary to enable the required circle scanning capability. A tripod suspension was chosen since it allows minimizing the frequency splitting of the two resonant axes. Low mirror curvature is achieved by a thickness of the mirror of more than 500 μm. Hermetic wafer level vacuum packaging of such large mirrors based on multiple wafer bonding has been developed to enable to achieve a large mechanical tilt angle of +/- 6.5 degrees in each axis. The 7mm-MEMS mirror demonstrates large angle circular scanning at 1.5kHz.

  11. QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Studies of Metal Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vidossich, Pietro; Magistrato, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Mixed quantum-classical (quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM)) simulations have strongly contributed to providing insights into the understanding of several structural and mechanistic aspects of biological molecules. They played a particularly important role in metal binding proteins, where the electronic effects of transition metals have to be explicitly taken into account for the correct representation of the underlying biochemical process. In this review, after a brief description of the basic concepts of the QM/MM method, we provide an overview of its capabilities using selected examples taken from our work. Specifically, we will focus on heme peroxidases, metallo-β-lactamases, α-synuclein and ligase ribozymes to show how this approach is capable of describing the catalytic and/or structural role played by transition (Fe, Zn or Cu) and main group (Mg) metals. Applications will reveal how metal ions influence the formation and reduction of high redox intermediates in catalytic cycles and enhance drug metabolism, amyloidogenic aggregate formation and nucleic acid synthesis. In turn, it will become manifest that the protein frame directs and modulates the properties and reactivity of the metal ions. PMID:25006697

  12. Miniature Chemical Optical Fiber Sensors For Ph Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisde, G.; Perez, J. J.

    1987-10-01

    A miniature optode (diameter about 1 mm) was built with 200/280 all-silica fibers usable over long distances. The immobilized indicator is fixed on a cross-linked styrene/divinyl-benzene copolymer (XADZI). The sensors are constructed so that measurements can be taken either by absorption at many different points in the single optical fiber, or by reflection from the end of the fiber. A wide range of pH values are encountered with radioactive wastes, and experiments are performed either with bromophenol blue (3.0 to 6.0) or a double-indicator (thymol blue) between 0.8 and 3.2, and 9 and 13 pH, as well as other indicators. Lifetimes, reversibility and kinetics are considered. A new low-cost device is proposed for chemical process control and medical applications.

  13. Effects of acetic acid and arginine on pH elevation and growth of Bacillus licheniformis in an acidified cucumber juice medium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenquan; Meng, Xia; Breidt, Frederick; Dean, Lisa L; Arritt, Fletcher M

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus licheniformis has been shown to cause pH elevation in tomato products having an initial pH below 4.6 and metabiotic effects that can lead to the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Because of this, the organism poses a potential risk to acidified vegetable products; however, little is known about the growth and metabolism of this organism in these products. To clarify the mechanisms of pH change and growth of B. licheniformis in vegetable broth under acidic conditions, a cucumber juice medium representative of a noninhibitory vegetable broth was used to monitor changes in pH, cell growth, and catabolism of sugars and amino acids. For initial pH values between pH 4.1 to 6.0, pH changes resulted from both fermentation of sugar (lowering pH) and ammonia production (raising pH). An initial pH elevation occurred, with starting pH values of pH 4.1 to 4.9 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and was apparently mediated by the arginine deiminase reaction of B. licheniformis. This initial pH elevation was prevented if 5 mM or greater acetic acid was present in the brine at the same pH. In laboratory media, under favorable conditions for growth, data indicated that growth of the organism was inhibited at pH 4.6 with protonated acetic acid concentrations of 10 to 20 mM, corresponding to 25 to 50 mM total acetic acid; however, growth inhibition required greater than 300 mM citric acid (10-fold excess of the amount in processed tomato products) products under similar conditions. The data indicate that growth and pH increase by B. licheniformis may be inhibited by the acetic acid present in most commercial acidified vegetable products but not by the citric acid in many tomato products. PMID:25836398

  14. Influence of Calcium, Iron, and pH on Phosphate Availability for Microbial Mineralization of Organic Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, B. K.; Alexander, Martin

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine some of the factors affecting the P requirement for the biodegradation of p-nitrophenol, phenol, and glucose by Pseudomonas and Corynebacterium strains. Mineralization of glucose was rapid and the Pseudomonas sp. grew extensively in solutions with 5 and 10 mM phosphate, but the rate and extent of degradation were low and the bacterial population never became abundant in media with 0.2 mM phosphate. Similar results were obtained with the Corynebacterium sp. growing in media containing p-nitrophenol or phenol and in solutions with a purified phosphate salt. The extent of growth of the Corynebacterium sp. was reduced with 2 or 10 mM phosphate in media containing high Fe concentrations. Ca at 5 mM but not 0.5 mM inhibited p-nitrophenol mineralization by the Corynebacterium sp. with phosphate concentrations from 0.2 to 5.0 mM. Phenol mineralization by the Pseudomonas sp. in medium with 0.2 mM phosphate was rapid at pH 5.2, but the bacteria had little or no activity at pH 8.0. In contrast, the activity was greater at pH 8.0 than at pH 5.2 when the culture contained 10 mM phosphate. These effects of pH were similar in media with 5 mM Ca or no added Ca. We conclude that the effect of P on bacterial degradation can be influenced by the pH and the concentrations of Fe and Ca. PMID:16348635

  15. Cytoplasmic pH mediates pH taxis and weak-acid repellent taxis of bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Kihara, M; Macnab, R M

    1981-01-01

    Bacteria migrate away from an acid pH and from a number of chemicals, including organic acids such as acetate; the basis for detection of these environmental cues has not been demonstrated. Membrane-permeant weak acids caused prolonged tumbling when added to Salmonella sp. or Escherichia coli cells at pH 5.5. Tethered Salmonella cells went from a prestimulus behavior of 14% clockwise rotation to 80% clockwise rotation when 40 mM acetate was added and remained this way for more than 30 min. A low external pH in the absence of weak acid did not markedly affect steady-state tumbling frequency. Among the weak acids tested, the rank for acidity (salicylate greater than benzoate greater than acetate greater than 5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione) was the same as the rank for the ability to collapse the transmembrane pH gradient and to cause tumbling. At pH 7.0, the tumbling responses caused by the weak acids were much briefer. Indole, a non-weak-acid repellent, did not cause prolonged tumbling at low pH. Two chemotaxis mutants (a Salmonella mutant defective in the chemotaxis methylesterase and an E. coli mutant defective in the methyl-accepting protein in MCP I) showed inverse responses of enhanced counterclockwise rotation in the first 1 min after acetate addition. The latter mutant had been found previously to be defective in the sensing of gradients of extracellular pH and (at neutral pH) of acetate. We conclude (i) that taxes away from acid pH and membrane-permeant weak acids are both mediated by a pH-sensitive component located either in the cytoplasm or on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, rather than by an external receptor (as in the case of the attractants), and (ii) that both of these taxes involve components of the chemotaxis methylation system, at least in the early phase of the response. PMID:7009572

  16. pH modulates arsenic toxicity in Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2.

    PubMed

    Tripti, K; Shardendu

    2016-08-01

    The toxic characteristics of arsenic species, As(V) and As(III) result in ecological risks. Arsenic tolerant bacterium was isolated and identified as the Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2 through 16SrDNA sequencing. B. licheniformis DAS-2 was efficient to tolerate and remove both the As(V)[MIC 8mM] and As(III)[MIC 6mM] from the growth medium. The potential for the removal/uptake of arsenic from the 3, 5 and 7mM As(V) enriched growth media was 100%, 60% and 35% respectively and from the 1, 3 and 5mM As(III) enrichment it was 100%, 99% and 58% respectively at neutral pH. 80% of uptake As(V) was reduced to As(III) in 3mM As(V) enrichment which was gradually decreased to only 17% at 7mM As(V) enrichment at neutral pH. The arsenic toxicity in B. licheniformis DAS-2 was found modulated by pH and was examined through alteration in growth, uptake/removal, reduction and measurement of chemical toxicity. PMID:27135959

  17. A densitometric analysis of commercial 35mm films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Ruffin, Christopher, III

    1989-01-01

    IIaO films have been subjected to various sensitometric tests. The have included thermal and aging effects and reciprocity failure studies. In order to compare the special IIaO film with popular brands of 35 mm films and their possible use in astrophotography, Agfa, Fuji and Kodak print and slide formats, as well as black and white and color formats, were subjected to sensitometric, as well as densitometric analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to analyze grain structure size, and shape as a function of both speed and brand. Preliminary analysis of the grain structure using an ISI-SS40 scanning electron microscope indicates that the grain sizes for darker densities are much larger than the grain size for lighter densities. Researchers analyze the scanning electron microscope findings of the various grains versus densities as well as enhancement of the grains, using the IP-8500 Digital Image Processor.

  18. Supersonic Love waves in strong piezoelectrics of symmetry mm2

    SciTech Connect

    Darinskii, A. N.; Weihnacht, M.

    2001-07-01

    A study has been made of the Love wave propagation on piezoelectric substrates of symmetry mm2. It has been shown that under certain conditions the velocity of the Love wave exceeds that of shear horizontal (SH) bulk waves in the substrate. This occurs when the slowness curve of SH bulk waves in the substrate either has a concavity or is convex with nearly zero curvature. For such {open_quotes}supersonic{close_quotes} Love waves to appear, it is also required that the substrate as well as the layer be specially oriented and that their material constants fulfill a number of inequalities. Numerical computations have been carried out for a number of structures. The results of numerical computations have been compared with approximate analytical estimations. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Coupling MM5 with ISOLSM: Development, testing, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.J.; Cooley, H.S.; He, Y.; Torn, M.S.

    2003-06-10

    Surface water and energy fluxes are tightly coupled with CO2 exchanges between the ecosystem and atmosphere. Other surface-to-atmosphere trace-gas exchanges of interest in climate change research (e.g., N2O, CH4, C18OO, and H218O) are also strongly impacted by surface energy exchanges. Further, land-use change has large effects on the surface energy balance and therefore the exchanges of these trace gases. To investigate these issues at the regional scale we have coupled MM5 (Grell et al. 1995) with ISOLSM (Riley et al. 2002, Riley et al. 2003), a land-surface model based on LSM1 (Bonan 1995).

  20. Quantum Phase Slips in 6 mm Long Niobium Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiwei; Liu, Xin; Chan, M H W

    2016-02-10

    Transport measurements were made to study the superconducting transition of four 6 mm long niobium nanowires with different cross-sectional dimensions. A low-temperature residual resistance tail measured with an excitation current of 5 nA is found in the thinnest wire down to 50 mK or 7.7% of Tc of Nb. The functional form of the residual resistance is consistent with quantum phase slip (QPS) processes. Resistance measured at high bias excitation current switches among many discrete values that are well below the normal state resistance. These discrete resistance values as a function of temperature fall into several parallel curves all showing QPS-like decay in the low temperature limit similar to that found at low current. The coexistence of QPS-like resistance tails and resistance jumps found in the same wire unifies results from previous experiments where these two distinct sets of evidence for QPS are exclusive of each other. PMID:26788964

  1. 1.25-mm observations of luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carico, David P.; Keene, Jocelyn; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements at a wavelength of 1.25 mm have been obtained for 17 IRAS galaxies selected on the basis of high far-infrared luminosity. These measurements are used to estimate the lower and upper limits to the mass of cold dust in infrared galaxies. As a lower limit on dust mass, all of the galaxies can be successfully modeled without invoking any dust colder than the dust responsible for the 60 and 100 micron emission that was detected by IRAS. As an upper limit, it is possible that the dust mass in a number of the galaxies may actually be dominated by cold dust. This large difference between the lower and upper limits is due primarily to uncertainty in the long-wavelength absorption efficiency of the astrophysical dust grains.

  2. The Apollo 15 coarse fines (4-10 mm)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Sherman, Sarah Bean

    1989-01-01

    A new catalog of the Apollo 15 coarse fines particles is presented. Powell's macroscopic descriptions, resulting from his 1972 particle by particle binocular examination of all of the Apollo 15 4 to 10 mm fines samples, are retained. His groupings are also retained, but petrographic, chemical, and other data from later analyses are incorporated into this catalog to better characterize individual particles and describe the groups. A large number of particles have no characterization beyond that done by Powell. Complete descriptions of the particles and all known references are provided. The catalog is intended for anyone interested in the rock types collected by Dave Scott and Jim Irwin in the Hadley-Appenine region, and particularly for researchers requiring sample allocations.

  3. Helical magneto-cumulative generator 280 mm in diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, V. A.; Kazakov, S. A.; Boriskin, A. S.; Vlasov, Yu. V.; Yanenko, V. A.; Nikolaev, N. I.; Volodchenkov, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Several possibilities of preamplifier energy and power increasing are considered: using a more powerful (HMX-based) conical HE-charge in the central tube of the magneto-cumulative generator, using a magnetic flux finish pressing out device with axial initiation of the HE charge, and increasing the inner diameter of the helix. A magneto-cumulative generator (MCG) with a helix 280 mm in diameter (MCG-280) is developed. The new preamplifier has a power of ≈400 GW and is able to power a ten-element DMCG480 with an initial inductance of ≈0.2 µH by a current of ≈10 MA with a characteristic current rise time (by a factor of e at the final stage of its operation) τ e = 32 µs.

  4. MALT-45: The Galactic plane in 7mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher; Walsh, Andrew; Voronkov, Maxim; Ellingsen, Simon

    2013-07-01

    MALT-45: The Galactic plane in 7mm MALT-45 is an untargeted Galactic plane survey searching for tracers of high mass star formation (HMSF) at 7mm. With the recent upgrades to the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we have been able to push the limits on observational efficiency to obtain a very sensitive blind survey in a short amount of time. Specifically, MALT-45 uses a fast on-the-fly mapping with 6 seconds per pointing, which results in a quarter-square-degree region being mapped in approximately 14 hours. Each region is Nyquist sampled and collects data in 12 spectral lines. The primary spectral lines of MALT-45 include: CS (1-0) - a high density gas tracer, which contrasts well with NH3 (1,1) from the similar HOPS survey; 44 GHz Class I methanol masers - the brightest of the Class I lines, it is poorly understood, and MALT-45 is one of the first surveys to thoroughly search for these masers; SiO (1-0) v=1,2,3 - typically associated with evolved stars, there have been rare associations with HMSF, and MALT-45 offers the potential to detect more. Other lines include thermal SiO (1-0) v=0, thermal methanol, C34S, OCS, and radio recombination lines H51a and H53a. Perhaps the most significant and innovative aspect of MALT-45 is the usage of ATCA autocorrelations. Each antenna of the ATCA is similar to Mopra, and by using all 6 antennae simultaneously, have a 6 fold increase in sensitivity per unit observation time. The autocorrelation data was only recently made available by the ATCA upgrade with the Compact Array Broadband Backend, and tools have been developed to allow this data processing. We present the first 5 square-degrees (l = 330 - 335, b = -0.5 - +0.5) of the Galactic plane mapped by MALT-45.

  5. Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH

  6. Defining and Teaching pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Richard F.

    2007-07-01

    The 1909 definition of pH given in most general chemistry textbooks conflicts with the modern, operationally-defined pH scale that underlies laboratory measurement and relates to activities. At an elementary level, pH and the algebra of equilibria can be simply and correctly taught, without logarithms, in terms of the latter scale.

  7. Heterogeneous Distribution of Microbial Activity in Methanogenic Aggregates: pH and Glucose Microprofiles

    PubMed Central

    Lens, Piet N. L.; De Beer, Dirk; Cronenberg, Carel C. H.; Houwen, Frans P.; Ottengraf, Simon P. P.; Verstraete, Willy H.

    1993-01-01

    Methanogenic aggregates, harvested from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating potato starch wastewater, were acclimatized to either glucose or a mixture of sugars and organic nitrogen compounds (i.e., diluted molasses). Both types of granules exhibited internal pH and substrate concentration gradients in mineral medium (pH 7.0, 30°C) as was measured with microelectrodes. Glucose-acclimatized granules suspended in a mineral medium lacking glucose exhibited a distinct internal pH decrease of about 1 U within the granule, suggesting strong metabolism by the acidogenic bacteria. Molasses-acclimatized and aged granules suspended in mineral medium did not exhibit such a pH decrease, suggesting the importance of the metabolic state of these acidogens. The pH gradient did not occur in deactivated granules and was not observable in strongly buffered media (mineral medium containing 33 mM phosphate or reactor liquid). When glucose (0.5 to 5.0 mM) was added to the mineral medium, granules exhibited a convex pH profile. Glucose consumption was located exclusively in the outer 200 to 300 μm of the aggregates (mean diameter = 1.5 mm). The addition of 20 mM 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid to the mineral medium indicated that the higher pH levels in the centre of the granule appeared to be related to the activity of methanogens. It is suggested that acidogenic activity occurs predominantly in the outer 200 to 300 μm of the aggregate and methanogenic activity occurs predominantly in the center of the investigated granules. Images PMID:16349091

  8. Experimental characteristics of a high-gain free-electron laser amplifier operating at 8-mm and 2-mm wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Throop, A.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Anderson, B.R.; Chambers, F.W.; Clark, J.C.; Fawley, W.M.; Jong, R.A.; Halbach, K.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.

    1987-06-08

    The Electron Laser Facility (ELF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses a high-current induction linac (3.5 MeV, 1000 A), in conjunction with a pulsed electromagnetic wiggler (4.0 M, 4000 G), to operate a free electron laser (FEL) that produces intense radiation in the microwave regime (2 to 8 mm). ELF is a high-gain, single-pass amplifier, using a commercial microwave source as an oscillator input (200 W-50 kW). Previous experiments at 35 GHz produced exponential gains of 40 dB/m, peak powers exceeding 1 GW, and beam-to-rf conversion efficiencies of 34%. Recent experiments at 140 GHz have demonstrated exponential gains of 22 dB/m, peak powers exceeding 50 MW, and total gains of 65 dB. In this paper, we describe the experimental results at these two frequencies and compare then with the predictions of simulation codes.

  9. GDx-MM: An imaging Mueller matrix retinal polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twietmeyer, Karen Marie

    2007-12-01

    Retinal diseases are a major cause of blindness worldwide. Although widely studied, disease mechanisms are not completely understood, and diagnostic tests may not detect disease early enough for timely intervention. The goal of this research is to contribute to research for more sensitive diagnostic tests that might use the interaction of polarized light with retinal tissue to detect subtle changes in the microstructure. This dissertation describes the GDx-MM, a scanning laser polarimeter which measures a complete 16-element Mueller matrix image of the retina. This full polarization signature may provide new comparative information on the structure of healthy and diseased retinal tissue by highlighting depolarizing structures as well as structures with varying magnitudes and orientations of retardance and diattenuation. The three major components of this dissertation are: (1) Development of methods for polarimeter optimization and error analysis; (2) Design, optimization, assembly, calibration, and validation of the GDx-MM polarimeter; and (3) Analysis of data for several human subjects. Development involved modifications to a Laser Diagnostics GDx, a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope with incomplete polarization capability. Modifications included installation of polarization components, development of a data acquisition system, and implementation of algorithms to convert raw data into polarization parameter images. Optimization involved visualization of polarimeter state trajectories on the Poincare sphere and a condition number analysis of the instrument matrix. Retinal images are collected non-invasively at 20 mum resolution over a 15° visual field in four seconds. Validation of the polarimeter demonstrates a polarimetric measurement accuracy of approximately +/- 5%. Retinal polarization data was collected on normal human subjects at the University of Arizona and at Indiana University School of Optometry. Calculated polarization parameter images reveal properties of the tissue microstructure. For example, retardance images indicate nerve fiber layer thickness and orientation, and depolarization images (uniform for these normal subjects), are predicted to indicate regions of disease-related tissue disruption. This research demonstrates a method for obtaining a full polarization signature of the retina in one measurement using a polarimetrically optimized instrument, and provides a step toward the use of complete retinal imaging polarimetry in the diagnosis and monitoring of retinal disease.

  10. Phosphocreatine kinetics at the onset of contractions in skeletal muscle of MM creatine kinase knockout mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Brian B.; Meyer, Ronald A.; Wiseman, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion during isometric twitch stimulation at 5 Hz was measured by (31)P-NMR spectroscopy in gastrocnemius muscles of pentobarbital-anesthetized MM creatine kinase knockout (MMKO) vs. wild-type C57B (WT) mice. PCr depletion after 2 s of stimulation, estimated from the difference between spectra gated to times 200 ms and 140 s after 2-s bursts of contractions, was 2.2 +/- 0.6% of initial PCr in MMKO muscle vs. 9.7 +/- 1.6% in WT muscles (mean +/- SE, n = 7, P < 0.001). Initial PCr/ATP ratio and intracellular pH were not significantly different between groups, and there was no detectable change in intracellular pH or ATP in either group after 2 s. The initial difference in net PCr depletion was maintained during the first minute of continuous 5-Hz stimulation. However, there was no significant difference in the quasi-steady-state PCr level approached after 80 s (MMKO 36.1 +/- 3.5 vs. WT 35.5 +/- 4.4% of initial PCr; n = 5-6). A kinetic model of ATPase, creatine kinase, and adenylate kinase fluxes during stimulation was consistent with the observed PCr depletion in MMKO muscle after 2 s only if ADP-stimulated oxidative phosphorylation was included in the model. Taken together, the results suggest that cytoplasmic ADP more rapidly increases and oxidative phosphorylation is more rapidly activated at the onset of contractions in MMKO compared with WT muscles.

  11. Development of in situ CO2 and pH sensor for AUVs and ROVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Kimoto, Hideshi; Miwa, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has been developing two-type autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs): a cruising AUV and a working AUV, since October 2010. These vehicles will perform carbon dioxide (CO2) and pH observations to explore hydrothermal plume on seabed mineral resources and to monitor a leak of CO2 in carbon capture and storage (CCS) up to depth of 3,000 meters. We here have been developing the compact in situ CO2 and pH sensor (Hybrid CO2-pH sensor: HCS) for the AUVs to obtain vertical and horizontal distributions of CO2 and pH. The HCS consists of an aluminum pressure housing (diameter 84 mm, length 570 mm, weight 4 kg) and an acrylic silicon-oil filled, pressure-compensated vessel (diameter 90 mm, length 355 mm, weight 2 kg) containing valves and pump unit. The HCS is also useful for the observation by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The measured data were transmitted to the AUVs or ROVs by serial communications. We can monitor the data of in situ pCO2, pH and so on in real time on board. The measurement principle for the CO2 sensor is based on spectrophotometry. The pCO2 is calculated from the optical absorbance of the pH indicator solution equilibrated with CO2 in seawater through a gas permeable membrane. On the other hand, we adopt potentiometric analysis using original glass and reference electrodes as a pH sensor because of the most commonly used technique for sea water pH measurements and high-speed response (within 20 seconds). From simultaneously measured data of in situ pCO2 and pH, we can also calculate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) as other carbonate species in the ocean. The resolutions of HCS are 1 μatm for pCO2 and 0.001 pH. In the laboratory experiment, the HCS obtained precisions within 3 μatm and within 0.01 pH, respectively. Our first in situ observational test of the HSC with cruising AUV was made in the coast of the Japan Sea last August. And also first in situ test of the HCS with ROV was performed at Okinawa Trough last September. The data obtained from each tests are consistent with predictions based on past studies.

  12. Low pH affects survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of the postlarvae and early juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Gunzo; Bagarinao, Teodora; Yong, Annita Seok Kian; Chen, Chiau Yu; Noor, Siti Norasidah Mat; Lim, Leong Seng

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of rain water caused by air pollutants is now recognized as a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We examined the effects of low pH (control pH 7.5, pH 6, pH 5, pH 4) on the survival, growth, and shell quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles in the laboratory. Hatcheryproduced postlarvae (PL 5) were stocked at 250 PL per aquarium, acclimated over 7 d to experimental pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid, and reared for 30 d. Dead specimens were removed and counted twice a day. After 27 d rearing, all specimens were measured for total length and body weight. Carapace quality was assessed by spectrophotometry. Survival of juveniles was highest at pH 6 (binomial 95% confidence interval 79 - 89%) followed by control pH 7.5 (56 - 68%) and pH 5 (50 - 60%) and was lowest for unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles at pH 4 (43 - 49%). The final median total length and body weight of juveniles were similar at control pH 7.5 (18.2 TL, 50.2 mg BW) and pH 6 (17.7 mm TL, 45.0 mg BW) but significantly less at pH 5 (16.7 mm TL, 38.2 mg BW); at pH 4, the postlarvae did not metamorphose and measured only 9.8 mm TL, 29.3 mg BW. Length frequency distribution showed homogeneous growth at pH 6, positive skew at control pH 7.5 and pH 5, and extreme heterogeneity at pH 4. The carapace showed different transmittance spectra and lower total transmittance (i.e. thicker carapace) in juveniles at pH 7.5, pH 6, and pH 5 than in unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles with thinner carapace at pH 4. Thus, survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of M. rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles were negatively affected by pH 5 and especially pH 4. The thinner carapace of the survivors at pH 4 was mostly due to their small size and failure to metamorphose. Natural waters affected by acid rain could decimate M. rosenbergii populations in the wild.

  13. Digital Frequency Domain Multiplexer for mm-Wavelength Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, Helmuth G; Dobbs, Matt; Bissonnette, Eric; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-07-23

    An FPGA based digital signal processing (DSP) system for biasing and reading out multiplexed bolometric detectors for mm-wavelength telescopes is presented. This readout system is being deployed for balloon-borne and ground based cosmology experiments with the primary goal of measuring the signature of inflation with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The system consists of analog superconducting electronics running at 250 mK and 4 K, coupled to digital room temperature backend electronics described here. The digital electronics perform the real time functionality with DSP algorithms implemented in firmware. A soft embedded processor provides all of the slow housekeeping control and communications. Each board in the system synthesizes multi-frequency combs of 8 to 32 carriers in the MHz band to bias the detectors. After the carriers have been modulated with the sky-signal by the detectors, the same boards digitize the comb directly. The carriers are mixed down to base-band and low pass filtered. The signal bandwidth of 0.050Hz-100 Hz places extreme requirements on stability and requires powerful filtering techniques to recover the sky-signal from the MHz carriers.

  14. mm-wave filter design with suspended stripline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, R. M.

    1986-07-01

    In treating the subject of planar filter design using suspended stripline architectures, it is noted that the prime objective in any filter design is to achieve low insertion loss within the prescribed bandwidth while attaining the required out-of-band signal rejection. When operating in the mm-wave region, mode propagation within the enclosed structure is an additional concern. In the particular design case considered, the objectives were: center frequency 45 GHz, bandwidth 3.6 GHz, percentage bandwidth 8 percent, 3 poles, 0.2 dB ripple. To obtain the required values of gap capacitance for the suspended stripline network, one must know the odd and even mode fringing capacitance for coupled line structures. The work of Smith (1971) was adapted and used to develop a FORTRAN computer program for determining the gap-capacitances along with even and odd mode impedances and capacitances as a function of the ratio of gap spacing to dielectric thickness. The program inputs line width, gap spacing, dielectric constant and upper and low ground plane spacing and material thickness. A listing of the program is provided along with a sample run. The final printed circuit layout including probe transition is illustrated, and a photograph of the filter is included.

  15. The LMT Galaxies' 3 mm Spectroscopic Survey: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa González, D.; Schloerb, P.; Vega, O.; Hunt, L.; Narayanan, G.; Calzetti, D.; Yun, M.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Mayya, Y. D.; Chávez, M.; Montaña, A.; Pérez García, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    The molecular phase of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies offers fundamental insight for understanding star-formation processes and how stellar feedback affects the nuclear activity of certain galaxies. We present here Large Millimeter Telescope spectra obtained with the Redshift Search Receiver, a spectrograph that covers simultaneously the 3 mm band from 74 to 111 GHz with a spectral resolution of around 100 km/s. Our selected galaxies, have been detected previously in HCN, and have different degrees of nuclear activity — one normal galaxy (NGC 6946), the starburst prototype (M82) and two %ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, IRAS 17208-0014 and Mrk 231). We plotted our data in the HCO+/HCN vs. HCN/13CO diagnostic diagram finding that NGC 6946 and M82 are located close to other normal galaxies; and that both IRAS 17208-0014 and Mrk 231 are close to the position of the well known ULIRG Arp 220 reported by Snell et al. (2011). We found that in Mrk 231 - a galaxy with a well known active galactic nucleus - the HCO+/HCN ratio is similar to the ratio observed in normal galaxies.

  16. Manufacturing and performance test of an 800-mm space optic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krödel, Matthias R.; Ozaki, Tsuyoshi; Kume, Masami; Furuya, Akira; Yui, Yukari Y.; Imai, Hiroko; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Tange, Yoshio; Nakagawa, Takao; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2008-07-01

    Next generation space telescopes, which are currently being developed in the US and Europe, require large-scale light-weight reflectors with high specific strength, high specific stiffness, low CTE, and high thermal conductivity. To meet budget constraints, they also require materials that produce surfaces suitable for polishing without expensive over-coatings. HB-Cesic - a European and Japanese trademark of ECM - is a Hybrid Carbon-Fiber Reinforced SiC composite developed jointly by ECM and MELCO to meet these challenges. The material's mechanical performance, such as stiffness, bending strength, and fracture toughness are significantly improved compared to the classic ECM Cesic material (type MF). Thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of HB-Cesic at cryogenic temperatures are now partly established; and excellent performance for large future space mirrors and structures are expected. This paper presents the design and manufacturing of an 800-mm mirror for space application, starting with the C/C raw material preparation to the finishing of the components, including the polishing of the mirror. The letters "HB" in HB-Cesic stand for "hybrid" to indicate that the C/C raw material is composed of a mixture of different types of chopped, short carbon-fibers.

  17. S-I-S mm-wave mixers and detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jillie, D. W.; Kroger, H.; Smith, L. N.; Shaw, D. M.

    1983-10-01

    This program is an effort to achieve the ultimate goal of fabricating refractory superconducting S-I-S mixer devices for operation in mm-wave receivers in the quantum mode and in the 8-10 K temperature range. The following progress has been made toward the above goal: (1) development of in-house capability of depositing niobium carbonitride films (Nb (x) N(y) of device quality with transition temperatures to approx. 16 K; (2) development of NbC(x)N(y):aSi:Nb and NbC(x)N(y):Ge:Nb devices of very high quality; (3) fabrication and successful operation of niobium based S-I-S mixer chips; and (4) fabrication and evaluation of aSi and Ge barrier all-NbC(x)N(y) devices. NbC(x)N(y):Ge:Nb devices have been fabricated with chemical vapor deposited (CVD) polycrystalline arsenic-doped germanium barriers. All-Nb-S-I-S mixer chips were fabricated and sent to Goddard Institute for Space Studies to be evaluated. The noise temperature was approx. 60 K and the conversion loss of 5 dB. These results are comparable to Pb alloy junction results. A second-generation mixer was designed by GISS.

  18. COSMOG: Cosmology Oriented Sub-mm Modeling of Galactic Foregrounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Leisawitz, D.

    2004-01-01

    With upcoming missions in mid- and far-Infrared there is a need for software packages to reliably simulate the planned observations. This would help in both planning the observation and scanning strategy and in developing the concepts of the far-off missions. As this workshop demonstrated, many of the new missions are to be in the far-IR range of the electromagnetic spectrum and at the same time will map the sky with a sub-arcsec angular resolution. We present here a computer package for simulating foreground maps for the planned sub-mm and far-IR missions. such as SPECS. The package allows to study confusion limits and simulate cosmological observations for specified sky location interactively and in real time. Most of the emission at wavelengths long-ward of approximately 50 microns is dominated by Galactic cirrus and Zodiacal dust emission. Stellar emission at these wavelengths is weak and is for now neglected. Cosmological sources (distant and not-so-distant) galaxies for specified cosmologies will be added. Briefly, the steps that the algorithm goes through is described.

  19. Parallel implementation, validation, and performance of MM5

    SciTech Connect

    Michalakes, J.; Canfield, T.; Nanjundiah, R.; Hammond, S.; Grell, G.

    1994-12-31

    We describe a parallel implementation of the nonhydrostatic version of the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model, MM5, that includes nesting capabilities. This version of the model can run on many different massively Parallel computers (including a cluster of workstations). The model has been implemented and run on the IBM SP and Intel multiprocessors using a columnwise decomposition that supports irregularly shaped allocations of the problem to processors. This stategy will facilitate dynamic load balancing for improved parallel efficiency and promotes a modular design that simplifies the nesting problem AU data communication for finite differencing, inter-domain exchange of data, and I/O is encapsulated within a parallel library, RSL. Hence, there are no sends or receives in the parallel model itself. The library is Generalizable to other, similar finite difference approximation codes. The code is validated by comparing the rate of growth in error between the sequential and parallel models with the error growth rate when the sequential model input is perturbed to simulate floating point rounding error. Series of runs on increasing numbers of parallel processors demonstrate that the parallel implementation is efficient and scalable to large numbers of processors.

  20. Mapping wetlands on beaver flowages with 35-mm photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Beaver flowages and associated wetlands on the Chippewa National Forest, north-central Minnesota, were photographed from the ground and from the open side window of a small high-wing monoplane. The 35-mm High Speed Ektachrome transparencies obtained were used to map the cover-type associations visible on the aerial photographs. Nearly vertical aerial photos were rectified by projecting the slides onto a base map consisting ofcontrol points located by plane-table survey. Maps were prepared by tracing the recognizable stands of vegetation in the rectified projection at the desired map scale. Final map scales ranging from 1:260 to 1:571 permitted identification and mapping of 26 cover-type associations on 10 study flowages in 1971. This cover-mapping technique was economical and substituted for detailed ground surveys. Comparative data from 10 flowages were collected serially throughout the entire open-water season. Although developed for analysis of waterfowl habitat, the technique has application to other areas of wildlife management and ecological investigation.

  1. DNA synthesis and microtubule assembly-related events in fertilized Paracentrotus lividus eggs: reversible inhibition by 10 mM procaine.

    PubMed

    Raymond, M N; Foucault, G; Coffe, G; Pudles, J

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the effects of 10 mM procaine on microtubule assembly and on DNA synthesis, as followed by [3H]colchicine binding assays and [3H]thymidine incorporation respectively, in fertilized Paracentrotus lividus eggs. In the absence of microtubule assembly inhibitors, about 25% of the total egg tubulin is submitted to two cycles of polymerization prior to the first cell division, this polymerization process precedes DNA synthesis. If the zygotes are treated with 10 mM procaine in the course of the cell cycle, tubulin polymerization is inhibited or microtubules are disassembled. DNA synthesis is inhibited when procaine treatment is performed 10 min, before the initiation of the S-period. However, when the drug is applied in the course of this synthetic period, the process is normally accomplished, but the next S-period becomes inhibited. Moreover, procaine treatment increases the cytoplasmic pH of the fertilized eggs by about 0.6 to 0.8 pH units. This pH increase precedes microtubule disassembly and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Washing out the drug induces a decrease of the intracellular pH which returns to about the same value as that of the fertilized egg controls. This pH change is then followed by the reinitiation of microtubule assembly, DNA synthesis and cell division. Our results show that the inhibition of both tubulin polymerization and DNA synthesis in fertilized eggs treated with 10 mM procaine, appears to be related to the drug-induced increase in cytoplasmic pH. PMID:3709552

  2. The role of pH in determining the species composition of the human colonic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Louis, Petra; Thomson, John M; Flint, Harry J

    2009-08-01

    The pH of the colonic lumen varies with anatomical site and microbial fermentation of dietary residue. We have investigated the impact of mildly acidic pH, which occurs in the proximal colon, on the growth of different species of human colonic bacteria in pure culture and in the complete microbial community. Growth was determined for 33 representative human colonic bacteria at three initial pH values (approximately 5.5, 6.2 and 6.7) in anaerobic YCFA medium, which includes a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) with 0.2% glucose as energy source. Representatives of all eight Bacteroides species tested grew poorly at pH 5.5, as did Escherichia coli, whereas 19 of the 23 gram-positive anaerobes tested gave growth rates at pH 5.5 that were at least 50% of those at pH 6.7. Growth inhibition of B. thetaiotaomicron at pH 5.5 was increased by the presence of the SCFA mix (33 mM acetate, 9 mM propionate and 1 mM each of iso-valerate, valerate and iso-butyrate). Analysis of amplified 16S rRNA sequences demonstrated a major pH-driven shift within a human faecal bacterial community in a continuous flow fermentor. Bacteroides spp. accounted for 27% of 16S rRNA sequences detected at pH 5.5, but 86% of sequences at pH 6.7. Conversely, butyrate-producing gram-positive bacteria related to Eubacterium rectale represented 50% of all 16S rRNA sequences at pH 5.5, but were not detected at pH 6.7. Inhibition of the growth of a major group of gram-negative bacteria at mildly acidic pH apparently creates niches that can be exploited by more low pH-tolerant microorganisms. PMID:19397676

  3. The influence of calcium and pH on growth in primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of Ca2+ and pH on root elongation in Zea mays L. cv. B73 x Missouri 17 and cv. Merit. Seedlings were raised to contain high levels of Ca2+ (HC, imbibed and raised in 10 mM CaCl2) or low levels of Ca2+ (LC, imbibed and raised in distilled water). In HC roots, lowering the pH (5 mM MES/Tris) from 6.5 to 4.5 resulted in strong, long-lasting growth promotion. Surprisingly, increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 also resulted in strong growth promotion. In LC roots acidification of the medium (pH 6.5 to 4.5) resulted in transient growth stimulation followed by a gradual decline in the growth rate toward zero. Exposure of LC roots to high pH (pH shift from 6.5 to 8.5) also promoted growth. Addition of EGTA resulted in strong growth promotion in both LC and HC roots. The ability of EGTA to stimulate growth appeared not to be related to H+ release from EGTA upon Ca2+ chelation since, 1) LC roots showed a strong and prolonged response to EGTA, but only a transient response to acid pH, and 2) promotion of growth by EGTA was observed in strongly buffered solutions. We also examined the pH dependence of the release of 45Ca2+ from roots of 3-day-old seedlings grown from grains imbibed in 45Ca2+. Release of 45Ca2+ from the root into agar blocks placed on the root surface was greater the more acidic the pH of the blocks. The results indicate that Ca2+ may be necessary for the acid growth response in roots.

  4. Experimentally and theoretically observed native pH shifts in a nanochannel array

    PubMed Central

    Bottenus, Danny; Oh, Youn-Jin; Han, Sang M.; Ivory, Cornelius F.

    2010-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology provides a powerful platform for simultaneous separation, purification, and identification of low concentration multicomponent mixtures. As the characteristic dimension of LOC devices decreases down to the nanoscale, the possibility of containing an entire lab on a single chip is becoming a reality. This research examines one of the unique physical characteristics of nanochannels, in which native pH shifts occur. As a result of the electrical double layer taking up a significant portion of a 100 nm wide nanochannel, electroneutrality no longer exists in the channel causing a radial pH gradient. This work describes experimentally observed pH shifts as a function of ionic strength using the fluorescent pH indicator 5-(and-6)-carboxy SNARF®-1 and compares it to a model developed using Comsol Multiphysics. At low ionic strengths (~ 3 mM) the mean pH shift is approximately 1 pH unit whereas at high ionic strengths (~ 150 mM) the mean pH shift is reduced to 0.1 pH units. An independent analysis using fluorescein pH indicator is also presented supporting these findings. Two independent non-linear simulations coupling the Nernst-Planck equation describing transport in ionic solutions subjected to an electric field and Poisson's equation to describe the electric field as it relates to the charge distribution are solved using a finite element solver. In addition, the effects of chemical activities are considered in the simulations. The first numerical simulation is based on a surface ζ-potential which significantly underestimates the experimental results for most ionic strengths. A modified model assuming that SNARF and fluorescein molecules are able to diffuse into the hydrolyzed SiO2 phase, and in the case of the SNARF molecule, able to bind to neutral regions of the SiO2 phase agrees quantitatively with experimental results. PMID:19107277

  5. Stabilization of pH in solid-matrix hydroponic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frick, J.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer or Amberlite DP-1 (cation-exchange resin beads) were used to stabilize substrate pH of passive-wicking, solid-matrix hydroponic systems in which small canopies of Brassica napus L. (CrGC 5-2, genome : ACaacc) were grown to maturity. Two concentrations of MES (5 or 10 mM) were included in Hoagland 1 nutrient solution. Alternatively, resin beads were incorporated into the 2 vermiculite : 1 perlite (v/v) growth medium at 6% or 12% of total substrate volume. Both strategies stabilized pH without toxic side effects on plants. Average seed yield rates for all four pH stabilization treatments (13.3 to 16.9 g m-2 day-1) were about double that of the control (8.2 g m-2 day-1), for which there was no attempt to buffer substrate pH. Both the highest canopy seed yield rate (16.9 g m-2 day-1) and the highest shoot harvest index (19.5%) occurred with the 6% resin bead treatment, even though the 10 mM MES and 12% bead treatments maintained pH within the narrowest limits. The pH stabilization methods tested did not significantly affect seed oil and protein contents.

  6. A QM/MM study of the catalytic mechanism of aspartate ammonia lyase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yongjun

    2014-06-01

    Aspartate ammonia lyase (Asp) is one of three types of ammonia lyases specific for aspartate or its derivatives as substrates, which catalyzes the reversible reaction of l-aspartate to yield fumarate and ammonia. In this paper, the catalytic mechanism of Asp has been studied by using combined quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) approach. The calculation results indicate that the overall reaction only contains two elementary steps. The first step is the abstraction of Cβ proton of l-aspartate by Ser318, which is calculated to be rate limiting. The second step is the cleavage of CαN bond of l-aspartate to form fumarate and ammonia. Ser318 functions as the catalytic base, whereas His188 is a dispensable residue, but its protonation state can influence the active site structure and the existing form of leaving amino group, thereby influences the activity of the enzyme, which can well explain the pH dependence of enzymatic activity. Mutation of His188 to Ala only changes the active site structure and slightly elongates the distance of Cβ proton of substrate with Ser318, causing the enzyme to remain significant but reduced activity. PMID:24875395

  7. Modulation of capsaicin-sensitive nerve activation by low pH solutions in guinea-pig lung.

    PubMed

    Auberson, S; Lacroix, J S; Lundberg, J M

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the stimulation of airways sensory nerves by low pH solutions and concomitantly induced bronchoconstriction. The effect of low pH buffer and lactic acid solutions at the same pH (5 and 6) were compared and the influence of low pH on the capsaicin effect was recorded. We have used the isolated guinea-pig perfused lung model taking the insufflation pressure as an indicator of bronchial smooth muscle tone while the calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity measured in the lung perfusate represented sensory nerves activation. Low pH buffer and lactic acid solution (3 and 4.1 mM) at the same pH of 5 and 6 induced pH-dependent bronchoconstriction and peptides release which were completely abolished after systemic pretreatment with capsaicin. Both responses were significantly inhibited after Ca2+-free infusion. Capsazepine (10(-6) M), a selective capsaicin antagonist, significantly reduced the calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity overflow evoked by all the solutions studied. Diclofenac (10(-5) M), a cyclooxygenase blocker, inhibited pH 5, pH 6 and lactic acid 3 mM (pH 6)-evoked peptide release, but not lactic acid 4.1 mM (pH 5). The functional response was not significantly modified after diclofenac while only the lactic acid 3 mM response was significantly reduced by capsazepine. There was a synergistic interaction between capsaicin and low pH buffer on calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity release and an additive effect on bronchoconstriction. It is concluded that in the isolated perfused guinea-pig lung, lactic acid and low pH buffer induced calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity release and bronchoconstriction by stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive C fibres via a pathway partly dependent of extracellular Ca2+. The mechanism of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity release seems to be the same at pH 6, while differences are evident at pH 5 between low pH buffer and lactic acid. Our results also suggest that proton activity could exert a modulatory role on the capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves by a mechanism which remains to be clarified. PMID:10720102

  8. Regulation of intracellular pH during anoxia in rice coleoptiles in acidic and near neutral conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kulichikhin, Konstantin Yu; Greenway, Hank; Byrne, Lindsay; Colmer, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    Rice coleoptiles, renowned for anoxia tolerance, were hypoxically pretreated, excised, ‘healed’, and then exposed to a combination of anoxia and pH 3.5. The putative acid load was confirmed by net effluxes of K+ to the medium, with concurrent net decreases of H+ in the medium, presumably mainly due to H+ influx. Yet the coleoptiles survived the combination of anoxia and pH 3.5 for at least 90 h, and even for at least 40 h when the energy crisis, inherent to anoxia, had been aggravated by supplying the coleoptiles with 2.5 mM rather than 50 mM glucose. Even in the case of coleoptiles with 2.5 mM glucose, an accumulation ratio of 6 for Cl– was attained at 4 h after the start of re-aeration, implying plasma membrane integrity was either maintained during anoxia, or rapidly restored after a return to aerated conditions. Cytoplasmic pH and vacuolar pH were measured using in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with 50 mM glucose in the basal perfusion medium. After 60 h in anoxia, external pH was suddenly decreased from 6.5 to 3.5, but cytoplasmic pH only decreased from 7.35 to 7.2 during the first 2 h and then remained steady for the next 16 h. During the first 3 h at pH 3.5, vacuolar pH decreased from 5.7 to 5.25 and then stabilized. After 18 h at pH 3.5, the initial values of cytoplasmic pH and vacuolar pH were rapidly restored, both upon a return to pH 6.5 while maintaining anoxia and after subsequent return to aerated solution. Summing up, rice coleoptiles exposed to a combination of anoxia and pH 3.5 retained pH regulation and cellular compartmentation, demonstrating tolerance to anoxia even during the acid load imposed by exposure to pH 3.5. PMID:19363206

  9. Interstitial pH, pO2, and pCO2 controlled by optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Francesco; Bizzarri, Alessandro; Cajlakovic, Merima; Giannetti, Ambra; Konrad, Christian; Mencaglia, Andrea

    2005-11-01

    The continuous monitoring of interstitial pH, pO2 and pCO2 contained in the adipose tissue of intensive care patients, is one of the objective of the four year European project CLINICIP (Closed Loop Insulin Infusion in Critically Ill Patients). A glass capillary on line with the microfluidic system, is the solid support onto which the appropriate chemistry is immobilised. The optical working principle applied for the detection of oxygen and carbon dioxide is the modulation of the fluorescence lifetime, whereas absorption modulation is the approach followed for the pH detection. On this basis, two different optoelectronic units were developed for the interrogation of the glass capillary, one for life-time measurements and the other for absorption measurements. Preliminary tests demonstrated a resolution of 0.03 pH units for pH; ≤ 0.55 mmHg for oxygen and ≤ 0.6 mmHg for carbon dioxide; and an accuracy of 0.07 pH units for pH; ≤ 1 mmHg for oxygen and ≤ 1.5 mmHg for carbon dioxide.

  10. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de

    2004-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with {sup 125}I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained.

  11. QM/MM studies of structural and energetic properties of the far-red fluorescent protein HcRed.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiao; Doerr, Markus; Li, Zhen; Smith, Sean C; Thiel, Walter

    2010-03-14

    The far-red fluorescent protein HcRed was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) and combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. Three models of HcRed (anionic chromophore) were considered, differing in the protonation states of nearby Glu residues (A: Glu214 and Glu146 both protonated; B: Glu214 protonated and Glu146 deprotonated; C: Glu214 and Glu146 both deprotonated). SCC-DFTB/MM MD simulations of model B yield good agreement with the available crystallographic data at ambient pH. Bond lengths in the QM region are well reproduced, with a root mean square (rms) deviation between experimental and average MD data of 0.079 A; the chromophore is almost co-planar, which is consistent with experimental observation; and the five hydrogen bonds involving the chromophore are conserved. QM/MM geometry optimizations were performed on representative snapshot structures from the MD simulations for each model. They confirm the structural features observed in the MD simulations. According to the DFT(B3LYP)/MM results, the cis-conformation of the chromophore is more stable than the trans-form by 9.1-12.9 kcal mol(-1) in model B, and by 12.4-19.9 kcal mol(-1) in model C, consistent with the experimental preference for the cis-isomer. However, in model A when both Glu214 and Glu146 are protonated, the stability is inverted with the trans-form being favored. The different protonation states of the titratable active-site residues Glu214 and Glu146 thus critically influence the manner in which the relative stability and degree of planarity of the cis- and trans-conformers vary with pH. Coupled with the known correlation of chromophore conformation with fluorescence efficiency, this work provides a detailed structural basis for the observed phenomenon that red fluorescent proteins such as HcRed, mKate and Rtms5 show bright fluorescence at high pH. PMID:20449359

  12. Effect of pH on characteristics of low-moisture Mozzarella cheese during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Cortez, M A S; Furtado, M M; Gigante, M L; Kindstedt, P S

    2008-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of cheese pH on proteolysis, calcium distribution, and functional characteristics of Mozzarella cheese. On 4 occasions, cultured low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella cheeses were obtained from a commercial producer on the day after manufacture. Cheese blocks were randomly assigned to 2 groups. One group was shredded, subdivided, and exposed to either ammonia vapor to increase the pH or HCl vapor to decrease the pH. Samples were vacuum packaged, stored at 4 degrees C, and analyzed for pH 4.6 and 12% TCA soluble nitrogen, apparent viscosity, free oil, and water-soluble calcium on days 5, 12, 22, and 40. The 2nd group was sectioned into 23-mm thick slabs and similarly exposed to either ammonia vapor to increase the pH or HCl vapor to decrease the pH. The slabs were vacuum packaged, stored at 4 degrees C, and analyzed for pH 4.6 and 12% TCA soluble nitrogen, TPA hardness, springiness and cohesiveness, and meltability on days 17, 29, and 41. Data were analyzed by ANOVA according to a spilt-plot design. Experimentally induced pH differences persisted and significantly affected TPA hardness, apparent viscosity, meltability, and water-soluble calcium throughout 40 d of storage, but did not affect soluble nitrogen changes. Thus, cheese pH affected functional characteristics and calcium distribution but did not affect proteolysis rates. Higher cheese pH resulted in a harder cheese that required longer aging to develop desirable melting characteristics, whereas cheese with lower pH developed desirable melting characteristics more quickly but had a shorter functional shelf life. PMID:19021819

  13. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe.

  14. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, C.J.

    1983-11-15

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe. 1 fig.

  15. A comparable study of clinical and optical outcomes after 1.8, 2.0 mm microcoaxial and 3.0 mm coaxial cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-Bo; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yi-Dong; Yu, Yin-Hui; Yao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the clinical and optical outcomes after clear corneal incision cataract surgery (CICS) with three different incision sizes (1.8, 2.0 and 3.0 mm). METHODS Eyes of 150 patients with age-related cataract scheduled for coaxial cataract surgery were randomized to three groups: 1.8, 2.0, or 3.0 mm CICS. Intraoperative data and postoperative outcomes including surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), the corneal incision thickness, wavefront aberrations and modulation transfer function (MTF) of cornea were obtained. RESULTS There were no significant differences among the three groups in demographic characteristics and intraoperative outcome. The 1.8 and 2.0 mm microincisions showed more satisfactory clinical outcomes than the 3.0 mm incision. The 1.8 mm incision showed significantly less SIA than the 2.0 mm incision until postoperative 1mo (P<0.05), but the difference was only 0.14-0.18 D. Combined with less increased incision thickness only at postoperative 1d (P=0.013), the 1.8 mm incision presented better uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA) than the 2.0 mm incision only at 1d postoperatively (P=0.008). For higher-order aberrations and other Zernike coefficients, there were no significant differences between the 1.8 mm group and 2.0 mm group (P>0.05). CONCLUSION Converting from 3.0 mm CICS to 1.8 or 2.0 mm CICS result in better clinical and optical outcomes. However, when incision is 1.8 mm, the benefits from further reduction in size compared with 2.0 mm are limited. The necessity to reduce the incision size is to be deliberated.

  16. Effects of salivary film velocity on pH changes in an artificial plaque containing Streptococcus oralis, after exposure to sucrose.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, L M; Dawes, C

    1991-09-01

    Results from a computer model suggest that following exposure of dental plaque to sucrose, the rate of clearance of acids from plaque into the overlying salivary film will be greatly retarded at low film velocities. This was investigated with an in vitro technique in which artificial plaque containing S. oralis cells was exposed to 10% sucrose for one min. The pH at the proximal (P) and distal (D) undersurfaces of the plaque (0.5 or 1.5 mm thick) was then monitored during the passage of a 0.1-mm-thick film of a sucrose-free solution over the surface. Over the range of salivary film velocities that have been estimated to occur in vivo (0.8-8 mm/min), lower minimum pH values and increased times for the pH to recover toward neutrality occurred at the lower salivary film velocity. Lower pH values were also reached with the 0.5- than with the 1.5-mm-thick plaque. P/D pH gradients, with a lower pH distally, developed at film velocities of 0.8 and 8 mm/min, and the gradients were much more pronounced at the lower velocity. No P/D pH gradients developed when the film velocity was 86.2 mm/min. Incorporation of dead S. oralis cells into the plaque at percentages up to 57% reduced the extent of the pH fall and prolonged the recovery of the pH toward neutrality. The results support the prediction that, other factors being equal, plaque located in regions of the mouth with low salivary film velocity will achieve pH values lower than those of plaque of identical dimensions and microbial composition located in areas where salivary film velocity is high. PMID:1918572

  17. pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the…

  18. On Calibration of pH Meters

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, K. L.; Zhu, Da-Ming

    2005-01-01

    The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes, buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basic concepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH, as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. The emergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with a conducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH buffer solution with a conducting wire may be used as a stable reference electrode. The misleading unlimited linear Nernstian slope should be discarded. Calibration curves with 3 nonlinear portions for the entire 0—14 pH range due to the isoelectric point change effect are explained. The potential measurement with stirring or unstirring and effects by double layer (DL) and triple layer (TL) will be discussed.

  19. Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH…

  20. Middle School and pH?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herricks, Susan

    2007-01-01

    A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. After sorting through a multitude of information about pH, a

  1. Middle School and pH?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herricks, Susan

    2007-01-01

    A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. After sorting through a multitude of information about pH, a…

  2. Response to the "Responsive PhD"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyssen, David

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, 50 graduate school deans gathered at Princeton to address the fact that the number of new PhDs conferred each year far exceeds the number of tenure-track academic jobs on offer. Under the auspices of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's Responsive PhD Project, these deans spoke passionately about how American…

  3. pH [Measure of Acidity].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paula

    This autoinstructional program deals with the study of the pH of given substances by using litmus and hydrion papers. It is a learning activity directed toward low achievers involved in the study of biology at the secondary school level. The time suggested for the unit is 25-30 minutes (plus additional time for further pH testing). The equipment…

  4. CALCULATING THE PH OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SATURATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two new expressions for the pH of saturation (pH subs) were derived. One is a simplified equation developed from an aqueous carbonate equilibrium system in which correction for ionic strength was considered. The other is a more accurate quadratic formula that involves computerize...

  5. Response to the "Responsive PhD"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyssen, David

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, 50 graduate school deans gathered at Princeton to address the fact that the number of new PhDs conferred each year far exceeds the number of tenure-track academic jobs on offer. Under the auspices of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's Responsive PhD Project, these deans spoke passionately about how American

  6. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePlus

    The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the kidneys to send acid to the urine when there is too much acid in the ... Urine with a pH less than 5.3 is normal. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different ...

  7. Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coping as a Teenager with PH Coping with High School Speaking of PH... with Teachers Friends, Family and ... Coping as a Teenager with PH Coping with High School Speaking of PH... with Teachers Friends, Family and ...

  8. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    DOEpatents

    Maynard, John D.; Hendee, Shonn P.; Rohrscheib, Mark R.; Nunez, David; Alam, M. Kathleen; Franke, James E.; Kemeny, Gabor J.

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  9. Assessing the performance of the MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods: II. The accuracy of ranking poses generated from docking

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Tingjun; Wang, Junmei; Li, Youyong; Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    In molecular docking, it is challenging to develop a scoring function which is accurate to conduct high throughput screenings (HTS). Most scoring functions implemented in popular docking software packages were developed with many approximations for computational efficiency, which sacrifices the accuracy of prediction. With advanced technology and powerful computational hardware nowadays, it is feasible to use rigorous scoring functions, such as Molecular Mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA) and Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA) in molecular docking studies. Here we systematically investigated the performance of MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA to identify the correct binding conformations and predict the binding free energies for 98 protein/ligand complexes. Comparison studies showed that MM/GBSA (69.4%) outperformed MM/PBSA (45.5%) and many popular scoring functions to identify the correct binding conformations. Moreover, we found that molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are necessary for some systems to identify the correct binding conformations. Based on our results, we proposed the guideline for MM/GBSA to predict the binding conformations. We then tested the performance of MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA to reproduce the binding free energies of the 98 protein-ligand complexes. The best prediction of MM/GBSA model with internal dielectric 2.0, produced a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.66, which is better than MM/PBSA (0.49) and almost all scoring functions used in molecular docking. In summary, MM/GBSA performs well for both binding pose predictions and binding free energy estimations and is efficient to re-score the top-hit poses produced by other less accurate scoring functions. PMID:20949517

  10. Superiority of 10-mm-wide Balloon over 8-mm-wide Balloon in Papillary Dilation for Bile Duct Stones: A Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Dai; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Tsujino, Takeshi; Umefune, Gyotane; Takahara, Naminatsu; Mohri, Dai; Kogure, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Saburo; Ito, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Sasahira, Naoki; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is a possible alternative to endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) for common bile duct (CBD) stones. To date, 10- and 8-mm EPBD have not been fully compared. Patients and Methods: Patients who underwent EPBD for CBD stones at two Japanese tertiary care centers between May 1994 and January 2014 were identified. Matched pairs with 10- and 8-mm EPBD were generated. Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 869 patients were identified (61 and 808 patients for 10- and 8-mm EPBD, respectively), and 61 well-balanced pairs were generated. The rate of complete stone removal within a single session was higher in the 10-mm EPBD group than in the 8-mm EPBD group (69% vs. 44%, P < 0.001), and use of lithotripsy was less frequent in the 10-mm EPBD group (23% vs. 56%, P < 0.001). The rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis were similar between the 10- and 8-mm EPBD groups (11% vs. 8%). Cumulative biliary complication-free rates were not statistically different between the two groups: 88% [95% confidence interval (CI): 7997%] and 94% (95% CI: 88100%) at 1 year and 69% (95% CI: 5685%) and 80% (95% CI: 6993%) at 2 years in the 10- and 8-mm EPBD groups, respectively. In the 10-mm EPBD group, ascending cholangitis was not observed, and pneumobilia was found in 5% of cases during the follow-up period. Conclusions: EPBD using a 10-mm balloon for CBD stones is safe and more effective than 8-mm EPBD. The sphincter function is highly preserved after 10-mm EPBD. PMID:26228364

  11. Stress Analysis on Single Cobalt/Chrome Prosthesis With a 15-mm Cantilever Placed Over 10/13/15-mm-length Implants: A Simulated Photoelastic Model Study.

    PubMed

    Gastaldo, José Fábio Guastelli; Pimentel, Angélica Castro; Gomes, Maria Helena; Sendyk, Wilson Roberto; Laganá, Dalva Cruz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of study was to assess the stress around 10/13/15-mm implants in the mandibular area with a 15-mm cantilevered acrylic-resin-coated prostheses following the application force, using the photoelasticity method. Three photoelastic mandibular models were created containing 10-, 13-, and 15-mm implants in length and 3.75 mm in diameter. The implants had bore internal hex connections and were placed parallel to the intermental region. Abutments with 1-mm high cuffs were placed over the implants, and a single cobalt/chrome metallic prosthesis with a 15-mm cantilever, coated with thermoplastic acrylic resin, was placed on top. Loads of 1.0 and 3.0 bars were applied, and the images were photographed and assessed by photoelasticity method. The greatest stress levels were observed for the 10-mm implants. The stress pattern was the same regardless of implant length; only the magnitude of the stress along the implant body revealed changes. Increased implant length played a role in reducing stress on the investigated area of the model, and the 15-mm implants exhibited the best performance in regard to stress distribution. The highest stress levels were found in the implants closest to the cantilever and the central implant. The longest implants were more favorable in regard to the stress distribution on the peri-implant support structures in the 15-mm cantilevered prosthesis under loads. PMID:24914673

  12. Formation of Hg(II) Tetrathiolate Complexes with Cysteine at Neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Thomas; Jalilehvand, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Mercury(II) ions precipitate from aqueous cysteine (H2Cys) solutions containing H2Cys/Hg(II) mole ratio ≥ 2.0 as Hg(S-HCys)2. In absence of additional cysteine, the precipitate dissolves at pH ~12 with the [Hg(S,N-Cys)2]2− complex dominating. With excess cysteine (H2Cys/Hg(II) mole ratio ≥ 4.0), higher complexes form and the precipitate dissolves at lower pH values. Previously, we found that tetrathiolate [Hg(S-Cys)4]6− complexes form at pH = 11.0; in this work we extend the investigation to pH values of physiological interest. We examined two series of Hg(II)-cysteine solutions in which CHg(II) varied between 8 – 9 mM and 80 – 100 mM, respectively, with H2Cys/Hg(II) mole ratios from 4 to ~20. The solutions were prepared in the pH range 7.1 – 8.8, at the pH at which the initial Hg(S-HCys)2 precipitate dissolved. The variations in the Hg(II) speciation were followed by 199Hg NMR, X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic techniques. Our results show that in the dilute solutions (CHg(II) = 8 – 9 mM), mixtures of di-, tri- (major) and tetrathiolate complexes exist at moderate cysteine excess (CH2Cys ~ 0.16 M) at pH 7.1. In the more concentrated solutions (CHg(II) = 80 – 100 mM) with high cysteine excess (CH2Cys > 0.9 M), tetrathiolate [Hg(S-cysteinate)4]m-6 (m = 0 – 4) complexes dominate in the pH range 7.3 – 7.8, with lower charge than for the [Hg(S-Cys)4]6− complex due to protonation of some (m) of the amino groups of the coordinated cysteine ligands. The results of this investigation could provide a key to the mechanism of biosorption and accumulation of Hg(II) ions in biological / environmental systems. PMID:27064521

  13. Effects of Atmospheric Air Plasma Irradiation on pH of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Koga, Kazunori; Kitazaki, Satoshi; Uchida, Giichirou; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu

    We have studied the effects of atmospheric air plasma irradiation to water using a scalable dielectric barrier discharge device. Measurements of the pH of water treated by the plasmas have shown the pH decreases due to peroxide molecules generated by plasma irradiation and depends on material of water container. We also found this plasma treated water has little effect on the growth enhancement on Radish sprouts compare with plasma irradiation on dry seeds and the plasma irradiation can affect them through the water buffer of 0.2 mm in thickness.

  14. Feature Films on 8mm and 16 mm. A Directory of Feature Films Available for Rental, Sale, and Lease in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbacher, James L., Comp.

    Compiled from distributors' catalogs and supplementary lists, this third edition of the directory lists more than 10,000 feature films on 8mm and 16mm which are available for rental, sale, or lease. For this directory, a feature film is defined as one which runs more than 45 minutes or is longer than one reel. The films are listed in alphabetical…

  15. Feasibility of converting hi-speed processor for processing Kodak film types 7381/7271 (16mm) and 5381/5271 (35mm) using Kodak ECP chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    Testing conducted to determine the feasibility of converting the 16/35/70 hi-speed processor to process Kodak film types 7381/7271 (16mm) and 5381/5271 (35mm) color negative films using Kodak ECP chemistry is described.

  16. Effect of pH, salt, and biopolymer ratio on the formation of pea protein isolate-gum arabic complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuanghui; Low, Nicholas H; Nickerson, Michael T

    2009-02-25

    Turbidity measurements were used to study the formation of soluble and insoluble complexes between pea protein isolate (PPI) and gum arabic (GA) mixtures as a function of pH (6.0-1.5), salt concentration (NaCl, 0-50 mM), and protein-polysaccharide weight mixing ratio (1:4 to 10:1 w/w). For mixtures in the absence of salt and at a 1:1 mixing ratio, two structure-forming transitions were observed as a function of pH. The first event occurred at a pH of 4.2, with the second at pH 3.7, indicating the formation of soluble and insoluble complexes, respectively. Sodium chloride (mM) was found to have no effect on biopolymer interactions, but interfered with interactions at higher levels (>7.5 mM) due to substantial PPI aggregation. The pH at which maximum PPI-GA interactions occurred was 3.5 and was independent of NaCl levels. As PPI-GA ratios increased, structure-forming transitions shifted to higher pH. PMID:19170635

  17. Brenda K. Edwards, PhD

    Cancer.gov

    Brenda K. Edwards, PhD, has been with the Surveillance Research Program (SRP) and its predecessor organizations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) since 1989, serving as SRP’s Associate Director from 1990-2011.

  18. The action of trialkyltin compounds on mitochondrial respiration. The effect of pH

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Alan P.; Selwyn, Michael J.

    1974-01-01

    1. Inhibition of 2,4-dinitrophenol-stimulated respiration by trialkyltins is dependent on the presence of Cl− in the assay medium and is only apparent at acid pH values. It appears to be a result of the Cl−–OH− exchange mediated by trialkyltins. 2. In a KCl medium at alkaline pH values, the maximum rate of respiration produced by uncouplers is further increased by the presence of trialkyltins. 3. The inhibition of uncoupled succinate oxidation at acid pH values is not reversed by increasing the external substrate concentration, suggesting that depletion of intramitochondrial succinate is not an important factor in the inhibition. 4. It is suggested that the probable explanation for these observations is that in the presence of Cl− trialkyltins alter the internal pH to a more acid value and this directly affects the activity of one or more steps in succinate oxidation. 5. The oligomycin-like action of trialkyltins in a Cl−-free medium shows considerable pH-dependence over the pH range 6.6–7.6 in the presence of 10mm-phosphate, but very much less pH-dependence in the presence of 1mm-phosphate. 6. The binding of triethyltin to mitochondria shows a pK at pH6.3 and does not change greatly over the pH range 6.6–7.6. 7. It is suggested that the pH-dependence of the oligomycin-like action described by Coleman & Palmer (1971) is the result of the pH-dependence of the formation of a hydrophilic complex between trialkyltins and Pi. PMID:4429539

  19. Washout/rainout contribution in wet deposition estimated by 0.5 mm precipitation sampling/analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Masahide; Hiraki, Takatoshi

    A precipitation dataset collected on a 0.5 mm precipitation basis was studied. The parameters analyzed in this study were the pH (i.e., H + concentration), electric conductivity (EC), and SO42- and NO3- concentrations. The NO3- concentration clearly decayed with an increase of the precipitation amount, while a larger variation was observed in the SO42- concentration even when the precipitation amount increased. Assuming that the decaying NO3- concentration (0.70 μg ml -1) was the result of the rainout process, the estimates were: annual total deposition, 3252 mg m -2 yr -1; rainout process, 1092 mg m -2 yr -1; and rainout/total, 34%. The estimates for SO42- were: annual total deposition, 4687 mg m -2 yr -1; rainout process, 2096 mg m -2 yr -1; and rainout/total, 45%.

  20. In Vivo Model to Test Implanted Biosensors for Blood pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Somps, Chris J.; Madou, Marc; Hines, John; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Biosensors for monitoring physiologic data continuously through telemetry are available for heart rate, respiration, and temperature but not for blood pH or ions affected by hydrogen ion concentration. A telemetric biosensor for monitoring blood pH on-line could be used to identify and manage problems in fluid and electrolyte metabolism, cardiac and respiratory function during space flight and the acid-base status of patients without the need for venipuncture in patients on Earth. Critical to the development of biosensors is a method for evaluating their performance after implantation. Mature rats, prepared with jugular, cannulas for repeated blood samples, were exposed to a gas mixture containing high levels of carbon dioxide (7%) in a closed environment to induce mild respiratory acidosis. Serial blood gas and pH measurements in venous blood were compared with electrical responses from sensors implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals became slightly tachypneic after exposure to excess CO2, but remained alert and active. After 5 minutes, basal blood pH decreased from 7.404 +/- 0.013 to 7.289 +/- 0.010 (p less than 0.001)and PC02 increased from 45 +/- 6 to 65 +/- 4 mm. Hg (p les than 0.001). Thereafter pH and blood gas parameters remained stable. Implanted sensors showed a decrease in millivolts (mV) which paralleled the change in pH and averaged 5-6 mV per 0.1 unit pH. Implanted sensors remained sensitive to modest changes in tissue pH for one week. A system for inducing acidosis in rats was developed to test the in vivo performance of pH biosensors. The system provides a method which is sensitive, rapid and reproducible in the same and different animals with full recovery, for testing the performance of sensors implanted in subcutaneous tissues.

  1. Microchamber arrays with an integrated long luminescence lifetime pH sensor.

    PubMed

    Poehler, Elisabeth; Pfeiffer, Simon A; Herm, Marc; Gaebler, Michael; Busse, Benedikt; Nagl, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    A pH probe with a microsecond luminescence lifetime was obtained via covalent coupling of 6-carboxynaphthofluorescein (CNF) moieties to ruthenium-tris-(1,10-phenanthroline)(2+). The probe was covalently attached to amino-modified poly-(2-hydroxyethyl)methacrylate (pHEMA) and showed a pH-dependent FRET with luminescence lifetimes of 681 to 1260 ns and a working range from ca. pH 6.5 to 9.0 with a pKa of 7.79 ± 0.14. The pH sensor matrix was integrated via spin coating as ca. 1- to 2-μm-thick layer into "CytoCapture" cell culture dishes of 6 mm in diameter. These contained a microcavity array of square-shaped regions of 40 μm length and width and 15 μm depth that was homogeneously coated with the pH sensor matrix. The sensor layer showed fast response times in both directions. A microscopic setup was developed that enabled imaging of the pH inside the microchamber arrays over many hours. As a proof of principle, we monitored the pH of Escherichia coli cell cultures grown in the microchamber arrays. The integrated sensor matrix allowed pH monitoring spatially resolved in every microchamber, and the differences in cell growth between individual chambers could be resolved and quantified. Graphical abstract A pH probe with a microsecond luminescence lifetime is described and its covalent attachment to a hydrogel matrix, integration into microchamber arrays, and use for pH monitoring in a model E. coli miniaturized cell culture. PMID:26590561

  2. Rainwater ph in the vicinity of hadera power plant, Israel during the winter season of 1981/82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolton-Shapira, Rivka; Lakritz, Yerucham; Luria, Menachem

    A new method for the continuous pH measurement of rainwater is discussed. Tkis method, applied at a site near a new coal-fired power plant (before its operation), showed a pH variation of 4.3 to 9.2 as compared to 6.5 1.0 observed using conventional methods which measure pH at the end of each rain episode. The alkalinity of top soil in the vicinity, and hence natural aerosols act as a buffer, reducing the acidity of the rain. This buffering effect disappears after 30-40 mm of rainfall.

  3. Sub-mm Jet Properties of the X-Ray Binary Swift J1745-26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetarenko, A. J.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Curran, P. A.; Russell, T. D.; Coulson, I. M.; Heinz, S.; Maitra, D.; Markoff, S. B.; Migliari, S.; Petitpas, G. R.; Rupen, M. P.; Rushton, A. P.; Russell, D. M.; Sarazin, C. L.

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of our observations of the early stages of the 2012-2013 outburst of the transient black hole X-ray binary (BHXRB), Swift J1745-26, with the Very Large Array, Submillimeter Array, and James Clerk Maxwell telescope (SCUBA-2). Our data mark the first multiple-band mm and sub-mm observations of a BHXRB. During our observations the system was in the hard accretion state producing a steady, compact jet. The unique combination of radio and mm/sub-mm data allows us to directly measure the spectral indices in and between the radio and mm/sub-mm regimes, including the first mm/sub-mm spectral index measured for a BHXRB. Spectral fitting revealed that both the mm (230 GHz) and sub-mm (350 GHz) measurements are consistent with extrapolations of an inverted power law from contemporaneous radio data (1-30 GHz). This indicates that, as standard jet models predict, a power law extending up to mm/sub-mm frequencies can adequately describe the spectrum, and suggests that the mechanism driving spectral inversion could be responsible for the high mm/sub-mm fluxes (compared to radio fluxes) observed in outbursting BHXRBs. While this power law is also consistent with contemporaneous optical data, the optical data could arise from either jet emission with a jet spectral break frequency of {{ν }break}≳ 1× {{10}14} Hz or the combination of jet emission with a lower jet spectral break frequency of {{ν }break}≳ 2× {{10}11} Hz and accretion disk emission. Our analysis solidifies the importance of the mm/sub-mm regime in bridging the crucial gap between radio and IR frequencies in the jet spectrum, and justifies the need to explore this regime further.

  4. Evaluation of fluorimetric pH sensors for bioprocess monitoring at low pH.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Nils H; Schmidt, Michael; Krause, Christian; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Optical chemical sensors are the standard for pH monitoring in small-scale bioreactors such as microtiter plates, shaking flasks or other single-use bioreactors. The dynamic pH range of the so far commercially available fluorescent pH sensors applied in small-scale bioreactors is restricted to pH monitoring around neutral pH, although many fermentation processes are performed at pH<6 on industrial scale. Thus, two new prototype acidic fluorescence pH sensors immobilized in single-use stirred-tank bioreactors, one with excitation at 470nm and emission at 550nm (sensor 470/550) and the other with excitation at 505nm and emission at 600nm (sensor 505/600), were characterized with respect to dynamic ranges and operational stability in representative fermentation media. Best resolution and dynamic range was observed with pH sensor 505/600 in mineral medium (dynamic range of 3.9<pH<7.2). Applying the same pH sensors to complex medium results in a drastic reduction of resolution and dynamic ranges. Yeast extract in complex medium was found to cause background fluorescence at the sensors' operating wavelength combinations. Optical isolation of the sensor by adding a black colored polymer layer above the sensor spot and fixing an aperture made of adhesive photoresistant foil between the fluorescence reader and the transparent bottom of the polystyrene reactors enabled full re-establishment of the sensor's characteristics. Reliability and operational stability of sensor 505/600 was shown by online pH monitoring (4.5<pH<5.8) of parallel anaerobic batch fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) with offline pH measurements with a standard glass electrode as reference. PMID:25969385

  5. Tomato responses to ammonium and nitrate nutrition under controlled root-zone pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peet, M. M.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Tolley, L. C.; Robarge, W. P.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. 'Vendor') plants were grown for 21 days in flowing solution culture with N supplied as either 1.0 mM NO3- or 1.0 mM NH4+. Acidity in the solutions was automatically maintained at pH 6.0. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter and total N and net photosynthetic rate were not affected by source of N. Thus, when rhizosphere acidity was controlled at pH 6.0 during uptake, either NO3- or NH4+ can be used efficiently by tomato. Uptake of K+ and Ca2+ were not altered by N source, but uptake of Mg2+ was reduced in NH4(+)-fed plants. This indicates that uptake of Mg2+ was regulated at least partially by ionic balance within the plant.

  6. Kinetic evidence for the interactive inhibition of laccase from Trametes versicolor by pH and chloride.

    PubMed

    Raseda, Nasrin; Hong, Soonho; Kwon, O Yul; Ryu, Keungarp

    2014-12-28

    The interactive inhibitory effects of pH and chloride on the catalysis of laccase from Trametes versicolor were investigated by studying the alteration of inhibition characteristics of sodium chloride at different pHs for the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). At pH 3.0, the addition of sodium chloride (50 mM) brought about a 40-fold increase in Km(app) and a 4-fold decrease in Vmax(app). As the pH increased to 7.0, the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride became significantly weakened. The mixed-inhibition mechanism was successfully used to quantitatively estimate the competitive and uncompetitive inhibition strengths by chloride at two different pHs (pH 3.0 and 6.0). At pH 3.0, the competitive inhibition constant, Ki, was 0.35 mM, whereas the uncompetitive inhibition constant, Ki', was 18.1 mM, indicating that the major cause of the laccase inhibition by chloride is due to the competitive inhibition step. At a higher pH of 6.0, where the inhibition of the laccase by hydroxide ions takes effect, the inhibition of the laccase by chloride diminished to a great extent, showing increased values of both the competitive inhibition constant (Ki= 23.7 mM) and uncompetitive inhibition constant (Ki' = 324 mM). These kinetic results evidenced that the hydroxide anion and chloride share a common mechanism to inhibit the laccase activity. PMID:25152059

  7. β-Galactoside-binding activity of human galectin-1 at basic pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Hirotsugu; Takeuchi, Katsuyuki; Fukuda, Koki; Nishino, Tomohide

    2013-06-01

    β-Galactoside-binding activity of human galectin-1 (hGal-1) was evaluated at pH 7-9.5 by fluorescence spectroscopy from the fraction bound to lactose gel (Y) and the lactose binding constant (Kb). Y decreases at pH > 8.2 ± 0.1 in the absence of NaCl, while it is constant in the presence of 150 mM NaCl. On the other hand, Kb is independent of pH and the NaCl concentration at basic pH. Analysis of Raman spectrum has shown that the pKa of Cys residues of hGal-1 is 8.5 ± 0.1 on average, indicating that about 40% of the six Cys residues of hGal-1 would be deprotonated at pH 8.2. The pH dependence of Y is explained by an increase of Coulombic repulsion among negatively charged hGal-1 on the lactose gel surface. This result suggests that Y is not always a good indicator of the β-galactoside-binding activity of galectins, which contain many Cys residues.

  8. Development of luminescent pH sensor films for monitoring bacterial growth through tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fenglin; Raval, Yash; Chen, Hongyu; Tzeng, Tzuen-Rong J.; DesJardins, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Although implanted medical devices (IMDs) offer many benefits, they are susceptible to bacterial colonization and infections. Such infections are difficult to treat because bacteria could form biofilms on the implant surface, which reduce antibiotics penetration and generate local dormant regions with low pH and low oxygen. In addition, these infections are hard to detect early because biofilms are often localized on the surface. Herein, an optical sensor film is developed to detect local acidosis on an implanted surface. The film contains both upconverting particles (UCPs) that serve as a light source and a pH indicator that alters the luminescence spectrum. When irradiated with 980 nm light, the UCPs produce deeply penetrating red light emission, while generating negligible autofluorescence in the tissue. The basic form of the pH indicator absorbs more of upconversion luminescence at 661 nm than at 671 nm and consequently the spectral ratio indicates pH. Implanting this pH sensor film beneath 6-7 mm of porcine tissue does not substantially affect the calibration curve because the peaks are closely spaced. Furthermore, growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis on the sensor surface causes a local pH decrease that can be detected non-invasively through the tissue. PMID:23832869

  9. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: effects of pH and mixed nitrogen sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D. Jr; Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.; Chaillou, S.

    1991-01-01

    To determine if the daily pattern of NO3- and NH4+ uptake is affected by acidity or NO3- : NH4+ ratio of the nutrient solution, non-nodulated soybean plants (Glycine max) were exposed for 21 days to replenished, complete nutrient solutions at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5 which contained either 1.0 mM NH4+, 1.0 mM NO3- [correction of NO3+], 0.67 mM NH4+ plus 0.33 mM NO3- (2:1 NH4+ : NO3-) [correction of (2:1 NH3+ : NO4-)], or 0.33 mM NH4+ plus 0.67 mM NO3- (1:2 NH4+ : NO3-). Net uptake rates of NH4+ and NO3- were measured daily by ion chromatography as depletion from the replenished solutions. When NH4+ and NO3- were supplied together, cumulative uptake of total nitrogen was not affected by pH or solution NH4+ : NO3- ratio. The cumulative proportion of nitrogen absorbed as NH4+ decreased with increasing acidity; however, the proportional uptake of NH4+ and NO3- was not constant, but varied day-to-day. This day-to-day variation in relative proportions of NH4+ and NO3- absorbed when NH4+ : NO3- ratio and pH of solution were constant indicates that the regulatory mechanism is not directly competitive. Regardless of the effect of pH on cumulative uptake of NH4+, the specific nitrogen uptake rates from mixed and from individual NH4+ and NO3- sources oscillated between maxima and minima at each pH with average periodicities similar to the expected interval of leaf emergence.

  10. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations. PMID:23335919

  11. The Effects of Alkaline pH on Microleakage of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium Enriched Mixture Apical Plugs

    PubMed Central

    Mirhadi, Hossein; Moazzami, Fariborz; Rangani Jahromi, Saeed; Safarzade, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Alkaline pH can affect the physical and chemical properties and sealing ability of apical plug material. Calcium hydroxide is used as an intracanal medication to complete disinfection of root canals. It raises the pH of environment to alkaline value. Purpose The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of alkaline pH on the sealing ability of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plugs. Materials and Method Seventy single-rooted human maxillary anterior teeth were randomly divided to two experimental groups for Angelus MTA and CEM cement (n=30) and two control groups (n=5). Each group was divided into two subgroups of 15 for neutral and alkaline pH, and 1 negative and 1 positive control groups of 5. The root canals were cleaned and shaped by using ProTaper rotary system (Dentsply Maillefer; Ballaigues, Switzerland) and the terminal 3mm of the roots were resected. Then, MTA and CEM cement were condensed in apical region with 3mm thickness. The samples were exposed to two environments with different pH values of 13 and 7.4. The leakage was assessed by using the fluid filtration technique at 1, 7, 14, 30 days intervals. Data were analyzed by the repeated measures MANOVA. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of microleakage between neutral and alkaline pH of CEM cement and MTA (p> 0.05). The sealing ability of MTA in an alkaline pH of 13 was significantly less than CEM cement in this pH (p< 0.05). Conclusion An environment with alkaline pH had no adverse effect on the sealing ability of MTA and CEM cement used as apical plugs. CEM cement had better sealing ability in alkaline pH. PMID:26966703

  12. pH. Training Module 5.305.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with pH, measurement of pH with a pH meter and maintenance of pH meter electrodes. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers the definition of pH, types of electrodes and…

  13. Assessing the performance of the MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods: I. The accuracy of binding free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Tingjun; Wang, Junmei; Li, Youyong; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The Molecular Mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA) and the Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA) methods calculate binding free energies for macromolecules by combining molecular mechanics calculations and continuum solvation models. To systematically evaluate the performance of these methods, we report here an extensive study of 59 ligands interacting with six different proteins. First, we explored the effects of the length of the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, ranging from 400 to 4800 ps, and the solute dielectric constant (1, 2 or 4) to the binding free energies predicted by MM/PBSA. The following three important conclusions could be observed: (1). MD simulation lengths have obvious impact on the predictions, and longer MD simulations are not always necessary to achieve better predictions; (2). The predictions are quite sensitive to solute dielectric constant, and this parameter should be carefully determined according to the characteristics of the protein/ligand binding interface; (3). Conformational entropy showed large fluctuations in MD trajectories and a large number of snapshots are necessary to achieve stable predictions. Next, we evaluated the accuracy of the binding free energies calculated by three Generalized Born (GB) models. We found that the GB model developed by Onufriev and Case was the most successful model in ranking the binding affinities of the studied inhibitors. Finally, we evaluated the performance of MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA in predicting binding free energies. Our results showed that MM/PBSA performed better in calculating absolute, but not necessarily relative, binding free energies than MM/GBSA. Considering its computational efficiency, MM/GBSA can serve as a powerful tool in drug design, where correct ranking of inhibitors is often emphasized. PMID:21117705

  14. A Nanocrystal-based Ratiometric pH Sensor for Natural pH Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Rebecca C.; Lanning, Ryan M.; Snee, Preston T.; Greytak, Andrew B.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A ratiometric fluorescent pH sensor based on CdSe/CdZnS nanocrystal quantum dots (NCs) has been designed for biological pH ranges. The construct is formed from the conjugation of a pH dye (SNARF) to NCs coated with a poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. The sensor exhibits a well–resolved ratio response at pH values between 6 and 8 under linear or two–photon excitation, and in the presence of a 4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. PMID:26413260

  15. Recovery of macroinvertebrates by screening in the field: a comparison between coarse (1.18 mm) and fine (0.60 mm) mesh sieves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dukerschein, J.T.; Gent, R.; Sauer, J.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the potential loss of target benthic macroinvertebrates from coarse-mesh field wash down of samples through a 1.18-mm mesh sieve nested on a 0.60-mm mesh sieve. Visible target organisms (midges, mayflies, and fingernail clams) in the 1.18-mm mesh sieve were removed from the sample and enumerated in the field. The entire contents of both sieves were preserved for subsequent laboratory enumeration under 4X magnification. Percent recoveries from each treatment were based on total intact organisms found in all sieves. Percent recovery for fingernail clams found in the field (31%) was lower than for mayflies (79%) and midges (88%). Laboratory enumeration of organisms retained by the 1.18-mm sieve yielded additional fingernail clams (to total 74% recovered in the field and lab), mayflies (to total 89%), and midges (to total 91%). If the 1.18-mm sieve is used alone in the field, it is adequate to monitor mayflies, midges >1 cm, and adult fingernail clams greater than or equal to 5.0 mm shell length.

  16. Performance of ultra-small silicon photomultiplier array with active area of 0.12 mm×0.12 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Wang; Zongde, Chen; Chenhui, Li; Ran, He; Shenyuan, Wang; Baicheng, Li; Ruiheng, Wang; Kun, Liang; Ru, Yang; Dejun, Han

    2015-07-01

    We report the performance of an ultra-small silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) line array with 7 elements of 0.12×0.12 mm2 in active area, 0.2 mm in pitch and 120 micro cells in one element. The device features an epitaxial bulk quenching resistor concept, demonstrated high geometrical fill factor of 41% and photon detection efficiency (PDE) of 25.4% in the wavelength region between 430 nm and 480 nm while retaining high micro cell density around 10 000 mm-2 and ~3 ns FWHM of dark pulses width; it also demonstrated dark count rate of less than 28.7 kHz, optical crosstalk of the order of 2% to 4%, and excellent photon number discrimination. A 0.15 mm×1.6 mm×1.6 mm lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystal, corresponding to the width, length and height respectively, was successfully coupled to the 1×7 SiPM array for possible ultra-highly resolved positron emission tomography (PET) applications. This novel type of device has advantages particularly for small active area since the performances, such as PDE and response speed is one of the best among SiPMs with similarly high density of micro cells. It may pave a way for this type of SiPM as a promising pixel position sensitive device in imaging sensor applications.

  17. Comparison of Methods To Reweight from Classical Molecular Simulations to QM/MM Potentials.

    PubMed

    Dybeck, Eric C; König, Gerhard; Brooks, Bernard R; Shirts, Michael R

    2016-04-12

    We examine methods to reweight classical molecular mechanics solvation calculations to more expensive QM/MM energy functions. We first consider the solvation free energy difference between ethane and methanol in a QM/MM Hamiltonian from configurations generated in a cheaper MM potential. The solute molecules in the QM/MM Hamiltonian are treated with B3LYP/6-31G*, and the solvent water molecules are treated classically. The free energy difference in the QM/MM Hamiltonian is estimated using Boltzmann reweighting with both the non-Boltzmann Bennett method (NBB) and the multistate Bennett acceptance ratio (MBAR), and the variance of each method is directly compared for an identical data set. For this system, MBAR-derived methods are found to produce smaller overall uncertainties than NBB-based methods. Additionally, we show that to reduce the variance in the overall free energy difference estimate in this system for a fixed amount of QM/MM calculations, the energy re-evaluations in the Boltzmann reweighting step should be concentrated on the physical MM states with the highest overlap to the QM/MM states, rather than allocated equally over all sampled MM states. We also show that reallocating the QM/MM re-evaluations can be used to diagnose poor overlap between the sampled and target state. The solvation free energies for molecules in the SAMPL4 solvation data set are also calculated in the QM/MM Hamiltonian with NBB and MBAR, and the variances are marginally smaller for MBAR. Overall, NBB and MBAR produce similar variances for systems with poor sampling efficiency, and MBAR provides smaller variances than NBB in systems with high sampling efficiency. Both NBB and MBAR converge to identical solvation free energy estimates in the QM/MM Hamiltonian, and the RMSD to experimental values for molecules in the SAMPL4 solvation data set decreases by approximately 28% when switching from the MM Hamiltonian to the QM/MM Hamiltonian. PMID:26928941

  18. Detection of the 267 GHz J = 1-0 rotational transition of PH3 in Saturn with a new Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisstein, Eric W.; Serabyn, E.

    1994-01-01

    In recent observations at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, the highly pressure-broadened (FWHM = 11.2 GHz) J = 1-0 rotational transition of PH3 (phosphine) was detected on Saturn. By modeling the Saturnian atmosphere with a radiative transfer code, the observed line profile was consistent with a constant PH3 mole fraction of 3.0 plus or minus 1.0 ppm in the upper troposphere. A best-fit to the depth of the line implies a cutoff at high altitudes, with no PH3 present at pressures approximately less than 100 mbar. The observed line depth, combined with the lack of a detectable emission core, implies that a cutoff in the PH3 abundance occurs at a pressure between 13 and 140 mbar. PH3 in Jupiter was not detected, nor any other molecular lines between 195 and 295 GHz (1.54 mm and 1.02 mm, respectively) in either Jupiter or Saturn.

  19. Dissolution of basaltic glass: Effects of pH and organic ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, H.; Grandstaff, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Dissolution of powdered glass from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (ca 51 % SiO{sub 2}) was studied in a fluidized-bed, flow-through reactor at room temperature in both dilute HCl and organic ligand-bearing solutions (citrate and oxalate) to determine the effects of pH and organic acids on the dissolution rate. Dissolution was non-stoichiometric in both HCl and organic solutions; however, the relative release rates of various ions and the composition of leached layers or secondary phases are functions of pH and organic ligand concentration and type. In HCl solutions, the minimum glass dissolution rate, as assessed from the Na leaching rate, was 7.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} gm/cm sec, comparable with previous results, and was virtually independent of pH. Addition of citrate and oxalate increased the non-stoichiometry of dissolution. At pH 7, the overall rate of glass dissolution decreased (by as much as 5 times) at low ligand concentrations (< 1 mM), but increased by as much as five times at higher concentration (3 mM). High ligand concentrations do increase the release rate of some elements, especially multivalent cations, such as Fe{sup 3+}, which form strong organic complexes, by as much as 100 times.

  20. The Cytosolic pH of Individual Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells Is a Key Factor in Acetic Acid Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Niño, Miguel; Marquina, Maribel; Swinnen, Steve; Rodríguez-Porrata, Boris

    2015-01-01

    It was shown recently that individual cells of an isogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae population show variability in acetic acid tolerance, and this variability affects the quantitative manifestation of the trait at the population level. In the current study, we investigated whether cell-to-cell variability in acetic acid tolerance could be explained by the observed differences in the cytosolic pHs of individual cells immediately before exposure to the acid. Results obtained with cells of the strain CEN.PK113-7D in synthetic medium containing 96 mM acetic acid (pH 4.5) showed a direct correlation between the initial cytosolic pH and the cytosolic pH drop after exposure to the acid. Moreover, only cells with a low initial cytosolic pH, which experienced a less severe drop in cytosolic pH, were able to proliferate. A similar correlation between initial cytosolic pH and cytosolic pH drop was also observed in the more acid-tolerant strain MUCL 11987-9. Interestingly, a fraction of cells in the MUCL 11987-9 population showed initial cytosolic pH values below the minimal cytosolic pH detected in cells of the strain CEN.PK113-7D; consequently, these cells experienced less severe drops in cytosolic pH. Although this might explain in part the difference between the two strains with regard to the number of cells that resumed proliferation, it was observed that all cells from strain MUCL 11987-9 were able to proliferate, independently of their initial cytosolic pH. Therefore, other factors must also be involved in the greater ability of MUCL 11987-9 cells to endure strong drops in cytosolic pH. PMID:26341199

  1. Sensitization of Listeria monocytogenes to Low pH, Organic Acids, and Osmotic Stress by Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Clive; Park, Simon F.

    2001-01-01

    The killing of Listeria monocytogenes following exposure to low pH, organic acids, and osmotic stress was enhanced by the addition of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol. At pH 3, for example, the presence of this agent stimulated killing by more than 3 log units in 40 min of exposure. The rate of cell death at pH 3.0 was dependent on the concentration of ethanol. Thus, while the presence 10% (vol/vol) ethanol at pH 3.0 stimulated killing by more than 3 log units in just 5 min, addition of 1.25% (vol/vol) ethanol resulted in less than 1 log unit of killing in 10 min. The ability of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol to stimulate killing at low pH and at elevated osmolarity was also dependent on the amplitude of the imposed stress, and an increase in the pH from 3.0 to 4.0 or a decrease in the sodium chloride concentration from 25 to 2.5% led to a marked reduction in the effectiveness of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol as an augmentative agent. Combinations of organic acids, low pH, and ethanol proved to be particularly effective bactericidal treatments; the most potent combination was pH 3.0, 50 mM formate, and 5 % (vol/vol) ethanol, which resulted in 5 log units of killing in just 4 min. Ethanol-enhanced killing correlated with damage to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:11282610

  2. Gas phase ion chemistry and ab initio theoretical study of phosphine. III. Reactions of PH2+ and PH3+ with PH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniotti, Paola; Operti, Lorenza; Rabezzana, Roberto; Tonachini, Glauco; Vaglio, Gian Angelo

    2000-01-01

    The gas phase ion chemistry of phosphine has been investigated by ab initio theoretical calculations and experimental techniques. Following previous studies dealing with 3P+ and PH+ reacting with PH3, the quantum chemical study of these processes has been extended to the ion/molecule reactions starting from PH2+ and PH3 (reaction a) or PH3+ and PH3 (reaction b), as observed by ion trapping. In these experiments, PH2+ reacts to give P2Hn+ (n=1,3) product ions, with loss of H2 through different pathways. These processes take place at quite different rates, their constants being 2.6 and 7.6×10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively. The geometrical structures and energies of transition structures, reaction intermediates, and final products have been determined by ab initio theoretical methods. The initial step of the reaction of PH2+ with PH3 is formation of the H2P-PH3+ adduct. Then, a hydrogen molecule can be directly lost either from tricoordinated or tetracoordinated phosphorus, to give P-PH3+ or HP=PH2+, respectively. The shift of one H atom in HP=PH2+ produces the bridged HP(H)PH+ ion, from which further dissociation of H2 yields PPH+. The initial step of the reaction of PH3+ with PH3 is formation of the H3P-PH3+ adduct. Then inversion of the H atoms in the PH3 group transforms the adduct in an electrostatic complex. This last species is related by a dissociation process to the PH2 and PH4+ products. The heats of formation of the P2Hn+ (n=1-6) ionic species have been computed and compared with the experimental data in the literature.

  3. pH and Titratable Acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, George D.; Murphy, Patricia A.

    There are two interrelated concepts in food analysis that deal with acidity: pH and titratable acidity. Each of these quantities is analytically determined in separate ways and each has its own particular impact on food quality. Titratable acidity deals with measurement of the total acid concentration contained within a food (also called total acidity). This quantity is determined by exhaustive titration of intrinsic acids with a standard base. Titratable acidity is a better predictor of acid's impact on flavor than pH.

  4. Equilibrium structure of PH 2Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidung, Jürgen; Thiel, Walter; Demaison, Jean

    1997-03-01

    The structure of monobromophosphane has been calculated ab initio at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels using a polarized triple-zeta basis set. For comparison, a relativistic compact effective core potential has also been used for Br. Equilibrium and ground state rotational constants as well as centrifugal distortion constants have been predicted for both isotopic species PH 279Br and PH 281Br. The rz and re structures have bee determined by combining the experimental rotational constants and the ab initio geometry and force field.

  5. Production of microbial rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 for ex situ enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Amani, Hossein; Müller, Markus Michael; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Recently, several investigations have been carried out on the in situ bacteria flooding, but the ex situ biosurfactant production and addition to the sand pack as agents for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has little been studied. In order to develop suitable technology for ex situ MEOR processes, it is essential to carry out tests about it. Therefore, this work tries to fill the gap. The intention of this study was to investigate whether the rhamnolipid mix could be produced in high enough quantities for enhanced oil recovery in the laboratory scale and prove its potential use as an effective material for field application. In this work, the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 to grow and produce rhamnolipid on sunflower as sole carbon source under nitrogen limitation was shown. The production of Rha-C10-C10 and Rha2-C10-C10 was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The rhamnolipid mixture obtained was able to reduce the surface and interfacial tension of water to 26 and 2 mN/m, respectively. The critical micelle concentration was 120 mg/L. Maximum rhamnolipid production reached to about 0.7 g/L in a shake flask. The yield of rhamnolipid per biomass (Y RL/x ), rhamnolipid per sunflower oil (Y RL/s ), and the biomass per sunflower oil (Y x/s ) for shake flask were obtained about 0.01, 0.0035, and 0.035 g g(-1), respectively. The stability of the rhamnolipid at different salinities, pH and temperature, and also, its emulsifying activity has been investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pHs, and salt concentrations, and it also has the ability to emulsify oil, which is essential for enhanced oil recovery. With 120 mg/L rhamnolipid, 27 % of original oil in place was recovered after water flooding from a sand pack. This result not only suggests rhamnolipids as appropriate model biosurfactants for MEOR, but it even shows the potential as a biosurfactant of choice for actual MEOR applications. PMID:23640261

  6. pH regulation in anoxic rice coleoptiles at pH 3.5: biochemical pHstats and net H+ influx in the absence and presence of NO3−

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, Hank; Kulichikhin, Konstantin Y.; Cawthray, Gregory R.; Colmer, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    During anoxia, cytoplasmic pH regulation is crucial. Mechanisms of pH regulation were studied in the coleoptile of rice exposed to anoxia and pH 3.5, resulting in H+ influx. Germinating rice seedlings survived a combination of anoxia and exposure to pH 3.5 for at least 4 d, although development was retarded and net K+ efflux was continuous. Further experiments used excised coleoptile tips (7–10 mm) in anoxia at pH 6.5 or 3.5, either without or with 0.2 mM NO3−, which distinguished two processes involved in pH regulation. Net H+ influx (μmol g−1 fresh weight h−1) for coleoptiles with NO3− was ∼1.55 over the first 24 h, being about twice that in the absence of NO3−, but then decreased to 0.5–0.9 as net NO3− uptake declined from ∼1.3 to 0.5, indicating reduced uptake via H+–NO3− symports. NO3− reduction presumably functioned as a biochemical pHstat. A second biochemical pHstat consisted of malate and succinate, and their concentrations decreased substantially with time after exposure to pH 3.5. In anoxic coleoptiles, K+ balancing the organic anions was effluxed to the medium as organic anions declined, and this efflux rate was independent of NO3− supply. Thus, biochemical pHstats and reduced net H+ influx across the plasma membrane are important features contributing to pH regulation in anoxia-tolerant rice coleoptiles at pH 3.5. PMID:22174442

  7. pH regulation in anoxic rice coleoptiles at pH 3.5: biochemical pHstats and net H+ influx in the absence and presence of NOFormula.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Hank; Kulichikhin, Konstantin Y; Cawthray, Gregory R; Colmer, Timothy D

    2012-03-01

    During anoxia, cytoplasmic pH regulation is crucial. Mechanisms of pH regulation were studied in the coleoptile of rice exposed to anoxia and pH 3.5, resulting in H(+) influx. Germinating rice seedlings survived a combination of anoxia and exposure to pH 3.5 for at least 4 d, although development was retarded and net K(+) efflux was continuous. Further experiments used excised coleoptile tips (7-10 mm) in anoxia at pH 6.5 or 3.5, either without or with 0.2 mM NO(3)(-), which distinguished two processes involved in pH regulation. Net H(+) influx (μmol g(-1) fresh weight h(-1)) for coleoptiles with NO(3)(-) was ∼1.55 over the first 24 h, being about twice that in the absence of NO(3)(-), but then decreased to 0.5-0.9 as net NO(3)(-) uptake declined from ∼1.3 to 0.5, indicating reduced uptake via H(+)-NO(3)(-) symports. NO(3)(-) reduction presumably functioned as a biochemical pHstat. A second biochemical pHstat consisted of malate and succinate, and their concentrations decreased substantially with time after exposure to pH 3.5. In anoxic coleoptiles, K(+) balancing the organic anions was effluxed to the medium as organic anions declined, and this efflux rate was independent of NO(3)(-) supply. Thus, biochemical pHstats and reduced net H(+) influx across the plasma membrane are important features contributing to pH regulation in anoxia-tolerant rice coleoptiles at pH 3.5. PMID:22174442

  8. Effects of pH, Chloride, and Bicarbonate on Cu(I) Oxidation Kinetics at Circumneutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, X.; Pham, A.; Waite, T.; Xing, G.; Rose, A.

    2012-12-01

    The redox chemistry of copper species in the upper water column plays a significant role in its speciation, transport and bioavailability. Most previous studies have focused primarily on Cu(II), principally because Cu(I) is easily oxidized to Cu(II) by oxygen or other oxidants. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that a number of potentially important reactions may lead to Cu(I) formation and result in a significant steady-state concentration of Cu(I) in natural waters. Redox reactions of Cu(I) could result in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydroxyl radical, that may subsequently induce a cascade of radical-promoted reactions with other constituents in natural waters. As such, a better understanding of copper-catalysed processes that produce and consume O2- is important in furthering our insight into factors contributing to global biogeochemical cycles. In this study, the oxidation kinetics of nanomolar concentrations of Cu(I) in NaCl solutions have been investigated over the pH range 6.5-8.0.The overall apparent oxidation rate constant was strongly affected by chloride, moderately by bicarbonate and, and to a lesser extent, by pH. In the absence of bicarbonate, an equilibrium-based speciation model indicated that Cu+ and CuClOH- were the most kinetically reactive species, while the contribution of other Cu(I) species to the overall oxidation rate was minor. A kinetic model based on recognized key redox reactions for these two species further indicated that oxidation of Cu(I) by oxygen and superoxide were important reactions at all pH values and [Cl-] considered, but back reduction of Cu(II) by superoxide only became important at relatively low chloride concentrations. Bicarbonate concentrations from 2-5 mM substantially accelerated Cu(I) oxidation. Kinetic analysis over a range of bicarbonate concentrations revealed that this was due to the formation of CuCO3-, which reacts relatively rapidly with oxygen, and not due to inhibition of the back reduction of Cu(II) by formation of Cu(II)-carbonate complexes. We conclude that the simultaneous oxygenation of Cu+, CuClOH- and CuCO3- is the rate-limiting step in the overall oxidation of Cu(I) under these conditions. Determination of values for apparent and intrinsic rate constants for the oxidation of those critical Cu(I) species by O2 over the pH range 6.5-8.0 should greatly assist in understanding and predicting inorganic Cu(I) and Cu(II) transformations in natural waters.

  9. pH changes during simultaneous metabolism of urea and carbohydrate by human salivary bacteria in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sissons, C H; Cutress, T W

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the wide natural variation in oral ureolysis rates on the pH changes resulting from simultaneous metabolism of 25 mM urea and 2.8 mM glucose in salivary-sediment bacteria were investigated. The pH curves were complex, and included distinctive plateaux indicative of balanced acid and base production. These neutralization plateaux occurred at different pHs, which were a function (r2 = 0.98) of the ureolytic rate as measured by the log of the initial pH-change rate in the urea-only reaction. In the simplest case, the pH curve was characterized by a rise or fall to the neutralization plateau, a variable period of time at the plateau (up to 1 h), then a pH rise. The pattern of pH changes induced by glucose alone varied between different sediments: in some cases, the pH decreased smoothly to an end-point; in others, the curve was more complex, and these features became superimposed on the urea/glucose curve. The rate of ureolytic ammonia release was almost constant and unaffected by simultaneous carbohydrate metabolism. Concomitant metabolism of endogenous carbohydrate present in sediments prepared 1-2 h following a meal was of sufficient magnitude to affect ureolytic pH curves. If the ureolytic activity was high, this effect was negligible; if it was low, metabolism of the endogenous carbohydrates could completely suppress the ureolytic pH rise. Soluble salivary components had little effect on ureolysis but pH changes were modified by buffering, and the presence of urea, ammonia, N-catabolic and acidogenic substrates in the saliva. PMID:3254127

  10. Quantification of iopamidol multi-site chemical exchange properties for ratiometric chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhe Sun, Phillip; Livio Longo, Dario; Hu, Wei; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua

    2014-08-01

    pH-sensitive chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI holds great promise for in vivo applications. However, the CEST effect depends on not only exchange rate and hence pH, but also on the contrast agent concentration, which must be determined independently for pH quantification. Ratiometric CEST MRI normalizes the concentration effect by comparing CEST measurements of multiple labile protons to simplify pH determination. Iopamidol, a commonly used x-ray contrast agent, has been explored as a ratiometric CEST agent for imaging pH. However, iopamidol CEST properties have not been solved, determination of which is important for optimization and quantification of iopamidol pH imaging. Our study numerically solved iopamidol multi-site pH-dependent chemical exchange properties. We found that iopamidol CEST MRI is suitable for measuring pH between 6 and 7.5 despite that T1 and T2 measurements varied substantially with pH and concentration. The pH MRI precision decreased with pH and concentration. The standard deviation of pH determined from MRI was 0.2 and 0.4 pH unit for 40 and 20?mM iopamidol solution of pH 6, and it improved to be less than 0.1 unit for pH above 7. Moreover, we determined base-catalyzed chemical exchange for 2-hydrooxypropanamido (ksw = 1.2*10pH-4.1) and amide (ksw = 1.2*10pH-4.6) protons that are statistically different from each other (P < 0.01, ANCOVA), understanding of which should help guide in vivo translation of iopamidol pH imaging.

  11. pH & Rate of Enzymatic Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative and inexpensive way to measure the rate of enzymatic reaction is provided. The effects of different pH levels on the reaction rate of an enzyme from yeast are investigated and the results graphed. Background information, a list of needed materials, directions for preparing solutions, procedure, and results and discussion are…

  12. Teaching Physics Using PhET Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, C. E.; Adams, W. K.; Loeblein, P.; Perkins, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    PhET Interactive Simulations (sims) are now being widely used in teaching physics and chemistry. Sims can be used in many different educational settings, including lecture, individual or small group inquiry activities, homework, and lab. Here we will highlight a few ways to use them in teaching, based on our research and experiences using them in

  13. Monitoring fetal pH by telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, A.; Donahoe, T.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Ryan, W.

    1980-01-01

    Telemetry unit has been developed for possible use in measuring scalp-tissue pH and heart rate of unborn infant. Unit radius data to receiver as much as 50 ft. away. Application exists during hours just prior to childbirth to give warning of problems that might require cesarean delivery.

  14. The Ph.D. Value Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Atlanta University launched its doctor of arts in humanities (DAH) programs almost 40 years ago, and, since the 1988 merger with Clark College, Clark Atlanta University has continued to award the degrees. This fall, for the first time, its students will be able to earn Ph.D.s in humanities instead. In DAH programs around the country, there's been…

  15. What My Ph.D. Taught Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The author started in the Ph.D. program in comparative literature at Princeton in 1992, a year after she graduated from college. She fell in love with mythology and the classical traditions and find herself teaching literature. In the remainder of her time at Princeton, she precepted for four or five more classes, got the chance to join the…

  16. Ph.D.'s and the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, James

    Throughout the last decade, Ph.D. recipients were accustomed to a job market in which demand for their services far exceeded supply. During the same period, manpower experts predicted this situation would continue in the foreseeable future. However, when the 60's ended, the employment illusion had been rudely dispelled by frantic reports of a…

  17. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  18. The Ph.D. Value Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Atlanta University launched its doctor of arts in humanities (DAH) programs almost 40 years ago, and, since the 1988 merger with Clark College, Clark Atlanta University has continued to award the degrees. This fall, for the first time, its students will be able to earn Ph.D.s in humanities instead. In DAH programs around the country, there's been

  19. Teaching Physics Using PhET Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieman, C. E.; Adams, W. K.; Loeblein, P.; Perkins, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    PhET Interactive Simulations (sims) are now being widely used in teaching physics and chemistry. Sims can be used in many different educational settings, including lecture, individual or small group inquiry activities, homework, and lab. Here we will highlight a few ways to use them in teaching, based on our research and experiences using them in…

  20. Regulation of cytoplasmic pH under extreme acid conditions in suspension cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus: a possible role of inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Mimura, T; Shindo, C; Kato, M; Yokota, E; Sakano, K; Ashihara, H; Shimmen, T

    2000-04-01

    Changes in cytoplasmic pH of suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus under extreme acid conditions were measured with the pH-dependent fluorescence dye; 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5 (and-6) carboxyfluorescein (-acetoxymethylester) (BCECF). When cells were treated with 1 mM HCl (pH 3 solution), the cytoplasmic pH first decreased then returned to the original level. Treatment with 10 mM HCl (pH 2 solution) acidified the cytoplasm to a greater extent, and the acidification continued at a constant level throughout the measurement. Treatment with a pH 2 solution resulted in a gradual decrease of the malate content, indicating the operation of biochemical pH regulation mechanism. The pH 2 treatment also caused a sudden decrease of the intracellular level of Pi. The cellular content of total phosphorus did not change during the acidification. The Pi was converted to the organic phosphate form. The ATP level was not increased by the pH 2 treatment, but slightly decreased. The role of Pi, which might be functioning as a regulatory factor of cytoplasmic pH, a non-competitive inhibitor of the H+-pumps of both the plasma membrane and tonoplast is discussed. PMID:10845455

  1. ADIFOR working note No. 11: ADIFOR strategies related to POINTER usage in MM5

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Khademi, P.; Knauff, T.

    1994-03-01

    POINTERs are nonstandard Fortran statements which cannot be processed by ADIFOR. We are interested in generating derivative code for MM5, a mesoscale model code which uses POINTERs extensively and in a particular structured manner. We briefly report on POINTERs and their role in MM5 and, for their particular usage in MM5, describe the three-step code transformation scheme consisting of pre-ADIFOR, ADIFOR, and post-ADIFOR transformations that result in the generation of correct derivative code for MM5.

  2. Conventional metrizamide myelography (MM) and computed tomographic metrizamide myelography (CTMM) in scoliosis: a comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, H.; Harwood-Nash, D.C.; Fitz, C.R.; Chuang, H.S.; Armstrong, E.

    1982-01-01

    A retrospective examination was performed to assess the accuracy of metrizamide myelography (MM) and computed tomographic metrizamide myelography (CTMM) in scoliosis. Of 81 consecutive scoliotic children studied by myelography, 30 had only MM while the remaining 51 had CTMM immediately afterward. CTMM added esential diagnostic information in 13 cases of dysraphism and 4 cases, both methods gave the same imformation. The outhors conclude that in patients with severe scoliosis, dysraphism, and scoliosis with localized neurological disturbances, CTMM should always be added to MM or be the only examination; while in idiopathic scoliosis with vague neurological disturbances a survey of the entire spine is essential, preferably with MM.

  3. A practical large scale/high speed data distribution system using 8 mm libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Eight mm tape libraries are known primarily for their small size, large storage capacity, and low cost. However, many applications require an additional attribute which, heretofore, has been lacking -- high transfer rate. Transfer rate is particularly important in a large scale data distribution environment -- an environment in which 8 mm tape should play a very important role. Data distribution is a natural application for 8 mm for several reasons: most large laboratories have access to 8 mm tape drives, 8 mm tapes are upwardly compatible, 8 mm media are very inexpensive, 8 mm media are light weight (important for shipping purposes), and 8 mm media densely pack data (5 gigabytes now and 15 gigabytes on the horizon). If the transfer rate issue were resolved, 8 mm could offer a good solution to the data distribution problem. To that end Exabyte has analyzed four ways to increase its transfer rate: native drive transfer rate increases, data compression at the drive level, tape striping, and homogeneous drive utilization. Exabyte is actively pursuing native drive transfer rate increases and drive level data compression. However, for non-transmitted bulk data applications (which include data distribution) the other two methods (tape striping and homogeneous drive utilization) hold promise.

  4. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a sub-Arctic fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause-Jensen, D.; Duarte, C. M.; Hendriks, I. E.; Meire, L.; Blicher, M. E.; Marbà, N.; Sejr, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification (OA) and large-scale assessments of pH and the saturation state for aragonite (Ωarag) indicate that it is already close to corrosive states (Ωarag < 1). In high-latitude coastal waters the regulation of pH and Ωarag is far more complex than offshore because increased biological activity and input of glacial meltwater affect pH. As most calcifiers occupy coastal habitats, the assessment of risks from OA to these vulnerable organisms cannot be derived from extrapolation of current and forecasted offshore conditions, but requires an understanding of the regimes of pH and Ωarag in their coastal habitats. To increase knowledge of the natural variability of pH in the Arctic coastal zone and specifically to test the influence of benthic vegetated habitats, we quantified pH-variability in a Greenland fjord in a nested scale approach. A sensor array logging pH, O2, PAR, temperature and salinity was applied on spatial scales ranging from km-scale across the horizontal extension of the fjord, over 100 m scale vertically in the fjord, 10-100 m scale between subtidal habitats with and without kelp forests and between vegetated tidal pools and adjacent vegetated shores, to cm-m scale within kelp forests and mm-scale across boundary layers of macrophyte tissue. In addition, we assessed the temporal variability in pH on diurnal and seasonal scales. Based on pH-measurements combined with relationships between salinity, total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon we also estimated variability of Ωarag. Results show variability in pH and Ωarag of up to 0.2-0.3 units at several scales, i.e. along the horizontal and vertical extension of the fjord, between seasons and on a diel basis in benthic habitats and within 1 m3 of kelp forest. Vegetated intertidal pools exhibited extreme diel pH variability of > 1.5 units and macrophyte boundary layers a pH-range of up to 0.8 units. Overall, Ωarag was favorable to calcification, and pelagic and benthic metabolism was an important driver of pH and Ωarag producing mosaics of variability from low levels in the dark to peak levels at high irradiance. We suggest that productive coastal environments may form niches of high pH in a future acidified Arctic Ocean.

  5. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.; Battista, John R.

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).

  6. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    DOE PAGESBeta

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.; Battista, John R.

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominatedmore » community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).« less

  7. Influence of Acidic pH on Hydrogen and Acetate Production by an Electrosynthetic Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.

    2014-01-01

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (∼5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at −600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ∼5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ∼6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at −765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at −800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying −800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured). PMID:25333313

  8. Effect of electrolyte pH on CIEF with narrow pH range ampholytes.

    PubMed

    Páger, Csilla; Vargová, Andrea; Takácsi-Nagy, Anna; Dörnyei, Ágnes; Kilár, Ferenc

    2012-11-01

    CIEF of components following sequential injection of ampholytes and the sample zone offers unique advantages for analysis. The most important one of these is the efficient separation of amphoteric compounds having pIs outside the pH range of the ampholytes applied, but the resolution of the components can be increased by an adequate setup in the injection protocol. In this study, the effect of the pH of the anolyte and catholyte on the selectivity and speed of the isoelectric focusing was investigated. Changes in the pH values significantly influenced the resolution and the length of the pH gradient, while changes in the charge state of components were also observed. Three ampholyte solutions (from different suppliers) covering only two pH units were used for the analyses of substituted nitrophenol dyes in uncoated capillary. With appropriate setup, the components, with pIs not covered by the ampholyte pH range, migrated in charged state outside the pH gradient. This phenomenon is preferable for coupling isoelectric focusing to MS detection, by evading the undesirable ion suppression effect of ampholytes. PMID:23086725

  9. Relation between pH in the Trunk and Face: Truncal pH Can Be Easily Predicted from Facial pH

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Ae; Kim, Bo Ri; Chun, Mi Young

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinical symptoms of facial and truncal acne differ. Skin surface acidity (pH), which is affected by sebum secretions, reflects the different clinical characteristics of the face and trunk. However, no studies have been conducted on truncal sebum production and skin pH. Objective We evaluated the differences and relationship between pH values of the face and trunk. We also evaluated the relationship between pH and the quantity of sebum produced in the trunk. Methods A total of 35 female patients clinically diagnosed with truncal acne were included. We measured pH on the face and truncal area using the Skin-pH-Meter PH 905®. We measured truncal sebum secretions using the Sebumeter SM 815®. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the correlations and differences between pH and sebum. Results Facial pH was significantly higher than chest and back pH values. The correlation between pH on the trunk and the face was significant. We used linear regression equations to estimate truncal pH using only measured pH from the chin. There was no significant relationship between truncal sebum secretion and pH. Conclusion This was the first study that evaluated the differences and correlations between facial and truncal pH. We found that facial pH can predict truncal pH. In addition, we conclude that differences in pH and sebum secretion between the face and trunk are one of the reasons for differences in acne symptom at those sites. PMID:27081270

  10. The pH of Enceladus' ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glein, Christopher R.; Baross, John A.; Waite, J. Hunter

    2015-08-01

    Saturn's moon, Enceladus, is a geologically active waterworld. The prevailing paradigm is that there is a subsurface ocean that erupts to the surface, which leads to the formation of a plume of vapor and ice above the south polar region. The chemistry of the ocean is just beginning to be understood, but is of profound geochemical and astrobiological interest. Here, we determine the pH of the ocean using a thermodynamic model of carbonate speciation. Observational data from the Cassini spacecraft are used to make a chemical model of ocean water on Enceladus. The model suggests that Enceladus' ocean is a Na-Cl-CO3 solution with an alkaline pH of ∼11-12. The dominance of aqueous NaCl is a feature that Enceladus' ocean shares with terrestrial seawater, but the ubiquity of dissolved Na2CO3 suggests that soda lakes are more analogous to the Enceladus ocean. The high pH implies that the hydroxide ion should be relatively abundant, while divalent metals should be present at low concentrations owing to buffering by carbonates and phyllosilicates on the ocean floor. Carboxyl groups in dissolved organic species would be negatively charged, while amino groups would exist predominately in the neutral form. Knowledge of the pH improves our understanding of geochemical processes in Enceladus' ocean. The high pH is interpreted to be a key consequence of serpentinization of chondritic rock, as predicted by prior geochemical reaction path models; although degassing of CO2 from the ocean may also play a role depending on the efficiency of mixing processes in the ocean. Serpentinization leads to the generation of H2, a geochemical fuel that can support both abiotic and biological synthesis of organic molecules such as those that have been detected in Enceladus' plume. Serpentinization and H2 generation should have occurred on Enceladus, like on the parent bodies of aqueously altered meteorites; but it is unknown whether these critical processes are still taking place, or if Enceladus' rocky core has been completely altered by past hydrothermal activity. The presence of native H2 in the plume would provide strong evidence for contemporary aqueous alteration that replenishes this source of energy for possible life. The high pH also suggests that the delivery of strong oxidants from the surface to the ocean has not been significant (otherwise, sulfuric acid would be produced), which would be consistent with geophysical models of episodic resurfacing activity on Enceladus. This paper represents an expansion of chemical oceanography to an "ocean planet" beyond Earth.

  11. Shear bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives: pH influence

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of four one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values to enamel and dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 200 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were used. Four one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values were tested both on enamel and on dentin: Adper™ Easy Bond Self-Etch Adhesive (pH = 0.8-1), Futurabond NR (pH=2), G-aenial Bond (pH = 1.5), Clearfil S3 Bond (pH = 2.7). After adhesive systems application, a nanohybrid composite resin was inserted into the bonded surface. The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine. The shear bond strength was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min until the sample rupture. The shear bond strength values (MPa) of the different groups were compared with analysis of variance after that Kolmogorov and Smirnov tests were applied to assess normality of distributions. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In enamel shear bond strength, the highest shear bond strength values were reported with Futurabond NR (P < 0.01); however, no significant differences were found with Clearfil S3 Bond. The others adhesive systems showed lower shear bond strength values with significant differences between them (P < 0.05). When comparing the dentin shear bond strength, the lowest shear bond strength values were reported with Clearfil S3 Bond (P < 0.05), while there were no significant differences among the other three products (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The pH values of adhesive systems did not influence significantly their shear bond strength to enamel or dentin. PMID:26005459

  12. Effect of pH of amine fluoride containing toothpastes on enamel remineralization in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Wolfgang H; Haase, Anabel; Hacklaender, Julia; Gintner, Zeno; Bnczy, Jolan; Gaengler, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background One of the important factors of the demineralization and remineralization equilibrium of enamel is the pH of the surrounding solutions. Effort has been laid in the formulation of different fluoride compounds and the fluoride content in toothpastes but much less is known about the influence of the pH of the toothpastes on their effectiveness. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the influence of different pH levels on enamel remineralization in an in vitro experiment using polarization light microscopy and EDX quantitative element analysis. Methods A 5 5 mm window on the enamel surface of 40 caries free extracted human premolars was demineralized in a hydroxyethylcellulose solution at pH 4.8. The teeth were divided into 8 groups and the lower half of the window was covered with varnish serving as control. Each group was then immersed in toothpaste slurry containing amine fluoride (1400 ppm) at pH 4.1, 4.5, 5.1 and 6.9 or control toothpaste slurry without fluoride at pH 4.3, 4.7, 5.3 and 7.0. Serial sections were cut through the lesions and investigated with polarization light microscopy and quantitative EDX element analysis. Results The PLM results showed a decreased porous volume of the body of the lesion after incubation with fluoridated toothpaste at pH 4.53 and 5.16. No differences between the experimental window and the control window were found in the other groups. The quantitative element analysis showed no differences in the element content of any of the groups. Conclusion From the results it can be concluded that slightly acidified fluoridated dentifrices may have a certain positive effect on enamel remineralization. PMID:17941981

  13. Regulation of intracellular pH in cnidarians: response to acidosis in Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Julien; Venn, Alexander; Tambutté, Éric; Ganot, Philippe; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2014-02-01

    The regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) is a fundamental aspect of cell physiology that has received little attention in studies of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes ecologically important sea anemones and reef-building corals. Like all organisms, cnidarians must maintain pH homeostasis to counterbalance reductions in pHi, which can arise because of changes in either intrinsic or extrinsic parameters. Corals and sea anemones face natural daily changes in internal fluids, where the extracellular pH can range from 8.9 during the day to 7.4 at night. Furthermore, cnidarians are likely to experience future CO₂-driven declines in seawater pH, a process known as ocean acidification. Here, we carried out the first mechanistic investigation to determine how cnidarian pHi regulation responds to decreases in extracellular and intracellular pH. Using the anemone Anemonia viridis, we employed confocal live cell imaging and a pH-sensitive dye to track the dynamics of pHi after intracellular acidosis induced by acute exposure to decreases in seawater pH and NH₄Cl prepulses. The investigation was conducted on cells that contained intracellular symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium sp.) and on symbiont-free endoderm cells. Experiments using inhibitors and Na⁺-free seawater indicate a potential role of Na⁺/H⁺ plasma membrane exchangers (NHEs) in mediating pHi recovery following intracellular acidosis in both cell types. We also measured the buffering capacity of cells, and obtained values between 20.8 and 43.8 mM per pH unit, which are comparable to those in other invertebrates. Our findings provide the first steps towards a better understanding of acid-base regulation in these basal metazoans, for which information on cell physiology is extremely limited. PMID:24256552

  14. Young’s modulus calculations for cellulose Iß by MM3 and quantum mechanics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics (MM) calculations were performed to elucidate Young’s moduli for a series of cellulose Iß models. Computations using the second generation empirical force field MM3 with a disaccharide cellulose model, 1,4'-O-dimethyl-ß-cellobioside (DMCB), and an analo...

  15. The M/M Center: Meeting the Demand for Multicultural, Multilingual Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Pia Lindquist; Murai, Harold; Berta-Avila, Margarita; William-White, Lisa; Baker, Susan; Arellano, Adele; Echandia, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    The Multilingual/Multicultural Teacher Preparation Center (M/M Center), a teacher preparation program offered by the Bilingual/Multicultural Education Department (BMED) at California State University, Sacramento, is entering its third decade of operation. The M/M Center was established by a group of progressive teacher educators, most with a…

  16. Two-mm-wavelength superheterodyne modulation radiometer with a Josephson frequency converter at the input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abliazov, V. S.; Andreev, S. A.; Vystavkin, A. N.; Gubankov, V. N.; Diakov, V. P.; Zhukov, A. I.; Kisliakov, A. G.; Rulev, K. A.; Tarasov, M. A.; Turygin, S. Iu.

    1981-01-01

    The paper reports the successful field testing of a 2-mm-wavelength superheterodyne modulation radiometer with Josephson frequency converter on the RT-25x2 IPF radio telescope. The design and basic characteristics of the radiometer are summarized. Results were obtained that make it possible to refine values of solar brightness temperature at 2 mm.

  17. Estimation of the Young’s modulus of cellulose Iß by MM3 and quantum mechanics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young’s modulus provides a measure of the resistance to deformation of an elastic material. In this study, modulus estimations for models of cellulose Iß relied on calculations performed with molecular mechanics (MM) and quantum mechanics (QM) programs. MM computations used the second generation emp...

  18. The Development and Demise of 8 MM Film Loops in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Rebecca P.

    Educators in the late 1960s and early 1970s found that 8 mm film loop cartridges encouraged learning techniques such as self-tutorials, individualized instruction, and small-group participation. The single concept approach used in the production of most 8 mm cartridges contributed to alternative learning strategies in these settings. The…

  19. Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu.; Gao, Yifeng; Deng, Bin

    2010-10-15

    Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes were investigated experimentally. The experimental condensing temperature is 40 C, and nominal oil concentration range is from 0% to 5%. The test results indicate that the presence of oil deteriorates the heat transfer. The deterioration effect is negligible at nominal oil concentration of 1%, and becomes obvious with the increase of nominal oil concentration. At 5% nominal oil concentration, the heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture is found to have a maximum reduction of 25.1% and 23.8% for 5 mm and 4 mm tubes, respectively. The predictabilities of the existing condensation heat transfer correlations were verified with the experimental data, and Yu and Koyama correlation shows the best predictability. By replacing the pure refrigerant properties with the mixture's properties, Yu and Koyama correlation has a deviation of -15% to + 20% in predicting the local condensation heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture. (author)

  20. Effectiveness of 2.0 mm Standard and 2.0 mm Locking Miniplates in Management of Mandibular Fractures: A Clinical Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Mahaboob; Subba Raju, T; Rao, N Koteswara; Reddy, Chandra Kiran

    2014-03-01

    To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of 2.0 mm locking miniplates versus 2.0 mm standard miniplates in treatment of mandible fractures. Sixty randomly selected patients who sustained mandibular fractures were selected for this study. The fractured fragments were stabilized using 2.0 mm locking miniplates in 30 cases and in the remaining 30 cases the fractured fragments were fixed with conventional 2.0 mm miniplates. Post-operative stability was assessed with radiographs at 7th day, 1st, and 3rd months. The stability of the reduced fracture was assessed clinically and both the types of plates were assessed with an OPG or conventional radiographs. This study shows favorable results on use of locking miniplates in mandibular fractures. The results show that there were no significant differences in the post-operative complications between the conventional and the locking plate/screw mandibular systems. The locking plate/screw system was more rigid than conventional plate/screw system, thereby reducing the need and duration of intermaxillary fixation (IMF). PMID:24644396

  1. Stricture Rate after Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass with a 21-mm Circular Stapler versus a 25-mm Linear Stapler

    PubMed Central

    Vunnamadala, Kalyan; Sakharpe, Aniket; Wilhelm, B. Jakub; Aksade, Artun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is estimated to affect more than one and a half billion adults. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) has become one of the preferred weight loss procedures. However, complications can occur. Strictures at the gastrojejunal anastomosis lead to clinical symptoms such as vomiting, dysphagia, and patient discomfort. The stricture rate has been correlated with the size and type of stapler used. Methods: A retrospective review of the clinical records of patients who underwent LRYGB was performed between 2003 and 2010. A comparison was made between a 21-mm circular stapler technique and a 25-mm linear stapler technique. Results: The stricture rate for the 21-mm circular stapler group was 7.12% and comparable to the national average. Using the 25-mm linear stapler, this complication rate significantly decreased to 1.09% (p<0.0004; odds ratio 6.5; [95% confidence interval 1.96–33.83]). Conclusions: Stricture after LRYGB is a serious complication. This study found that with a change in technique, this complication can be decreased considerably. PMID:25830078

  2. pH recovery from intracellular alkalinization in Retzius neurones of the leech central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Frey, G; Schlue, W R

    1993-03-01

    1. Neutral-carrier pH-sensitive microelectrodes were used to investigate intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from alkalinization in leech Retzius neurones in Hepes- and in CO2-HCO3(-)-buffered solution. The Retzius neurones were alkaline loaded by the addition and subsequent removal of 16 mM acetate, by changing from 5% CO2-27 mM HCO3- to 2% CO2-11 mM HCO3- or by changing from CO2-HCO3(-)- to Hepes-buffered solution. 2. In Hepes-buffered solution (pH 7.4) the mean pHi was 7.29 +/- 0.11 and the mean membrane potential -44.7 +/- 5.9 mV (mean +/- S.D.; n = 83). 3. The rate of pHi recovery from alkalinization increased with decreasing pH of the bathing medium (pHb). pHi changed about 0.30 pH units for a pHb unit change. 4. A decrease of extracellular buffer concentration (Hepes concentration lowered from 20 to 5 mM) caused an acidification of extracellular and intracellular pH and an acceleration of pHi recovery from alkalinization. 5. A depolarization of the Retzius cell membrane-induced by increasing the K+ concentration of the bathing medium from 4 to 20 mM (delta Em = 16.5 +/- 5.5 mV) or from 4 to 40 mM (delta Em = 24.8 +/- 3.5 mV)--evoked a decrease of pHi and an acceleration of pHi recovery from alkalinization. 6. The H+ current blocker Zn2+ (0.5 mM) inhibited pHi recovery from alkalinization at resting membrane potential as well as during depolarization. The inhibition was more pronounced during depolarization. 7. In Cl(-)-free, CO2-HCO3(-)-buffered solution pHi recovery from an alkaline load by changing from 5% CO2-27 mM HCO3- to 2% CO2-11 mM HCO3- was slowed by 48-71%. The rate of pHi recovery from an alkaline load induced by changing from CO2-HCO3- to Hepes buffer was reduced by 33-56% in Cl(-)-free solution. The removal of external Cl- did not affect pHi recovery in Hepes-buffered solution. 8. The pHi recovery from alkalinization was DIDS-insensitive in CO2-HCO3(-)- as in Hepes-buffered solutions and was not slowed in the absence of external Na+. 9. It is concluded that in Retzius neurones pHi recovery from alkalinization is mediated by a passive voltage-dependent H+ influx along the electrochemical proton gradient. In the presence of CO2-HCO3- buffer a DIDS-insensitive Cl(-)-HCO3- exchanger additionally regulates pHi after an intracellular alkaline load. It cannot be excluded that intracellular processes (e.g. H+ release from organelles, metabolic H+ production) are also involved in pHi recovery from alkalinization. PMID:8331595

  3. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  4. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  5. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  6. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  7. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  8. PH DEPENDENT TOXICITY OF FIVE METALS TO THREE MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pH of natural marine systems is relatively stable; this may explain why metal toxicity changes with pH have not been well documented. However, changes in metal toxicity with pH in marine waters are of concern in toxicity testing. During porewater toxicity testing pH can chang...

  9. What Is a pH Probe Study?

    MedlinePlus

    What is a pH Probe Study ? What is pH a probe study? M easuring the pH in the esophagus helps determine whether or not acid is coming up from the stomach. A pH probe study is usually done in patients where ...

  10. Influence of Ionic Strength, pH, and Chelation of Divalent Metals on Isolation of Polyribosomes from Tobacco Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Andrew O.; Larkins, Brian A.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure was developed for extracting polysomes from tobacco (Nicotiana sp) leaves. Unexpanded leaves ground in a medium consisting of 200 mm tris-HCl, pH 9, 400 mm KCl, 200 mm sucrose, and 35 mm MgCl2 yielded larger amounts of polysomes with less degradation than polysomes from leaves extracted with buffers of lower ionic strength or pH. Extraction of polysomes from expanded leaves required the inclusion of ethyleneglycol-bis(2-aminoethyl ether)tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a divalent cation chelator with a high affinity for Ca2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+). EGTA also improved isolation of polysomes from unexpanded leaves. Addition of 25 mm Ca2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+ to extracts from young leaves precipitated polysomes, and density gradient profiles of polysome preparations from the cation treatments mimicked profiles from expanded leaves which were extracted without EGTA. Polysome precipitation by Ca2+ was prevented by EGTA. Endogenous Ca2+ was present in unexpanded leaves in sufficient concentrations (25 mm) to cause some precipitation of polysomes during extraction, and this cation increased by 60% in expanded leaves. Cu2+ and Zn2+ were not present in amounts sufficient to cause polysome precipitation. The results show that recovery of polyribosomes may be reduced by divalent cations in leaf tissue, and this can be overcome by chelation of these ions with EGTA. PMID:16659423

  11. Is There a Benefit to Head Size Greater Than 36 mm in Total Hip Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Haughom, Bryan D; Plummer, Darren R; Moric, Mario; Della Valle, Craig J

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the rate of dislocation and revision for instability between 36-mm and anatomic femoral heads (large diameter metal-on-metal THA, dual-mobility bearings, and hip resurfacing arthroplasty) in patients at high risk for dislocation. A total of 501 high-risk patients, over a 10-year period, were identified (282 36-mm THA, 24 dual-mobility bearings, 83 metal-on-metal arthroplasty, and 112 hip resurfacing arthroplasty). There were 13 dislocations in the 36-mm group compared to 1 in the anatomic group (4.6% vs 0.5%; P = .005). Four patients dislocated more than once in the 36-mm group (1.4% vs 0%; P = .04), and 2 patients in the 36-mm group required a revision for instability (0.7% vs 0%; P = .11). These results suggest that anatomic head sizes significantly lower the risk of dislocation in high-risk patients. PMID:26360768

  12. Characterization of -trypsin at acid pH by differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Bittar, E R; Caldeira, F R; Santos, A M C; G nther, A R; Rogana, E; Santoro, M M

    2003-12-01

    Trypsin is a serino-protease with a polypeptide chain of 223 amino acid residues and contains six disulfide bridges. It is a globular protein with a predominance of antiparallel -sheet and helix in its secondary structure and has two domains with similar structures. We assessed the stability of -trypsin in the acid pH range using microcalorimetric (differential scanning calorimetry) techniques. Protein concentrations varied in the range of 0.05 to 2.30 mg/ml. Buffer solutions of 50.0 mM -alanine and 20.0 mM CaCl2 at different pH values (from 2.0 to 4.2) and concentrations of sorbitol (1.0 and 2.0 M), urea (0.5 M) or guanidinium hydrochloride (0.5 and 1.0 M) were used. The data suggest that we are studying the same conformational transition of the protein in all experimental situations using pH, sorbitol, urea and guanidinium hydrochloride as perturbing agents. The observed van't Hoff ratios (deltaHcal/deltaHvH) of 1.0 to 0.5 in the pH range of 3.2 to 4.2 suggest protein aggregation. In contrast, deltaHcal/deltaHvH ratios equal to one in the pH range of 2.0 to 3.2 suggest that the protein unfolds as a monomer. At pH 3.00, -trypsin unfolded with Tm = 54 C and deltaH = 101.8 kcal/mol, and the change in heat capacity between the native and unfolded forms of the protein (deltaCp) was estimated to be 2.50 0.07 kcal mol-1 K-1. The stability of -trypsin calculated at 298 K was deltaG D = 5.7 kcal/mol at pH 3.00 and deltaG D = 15.2 kcal/mol at pH 7.00, values in the range expected for a small globular protein. PMID:14666246

  13. Chloride dependence of intracellular pH in frog skin: a /sup 31/P NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson-Yantorno, K.; Civan, M.M.

    1986-03-01

    Single frog skins from Northern Variety Rana pipiens were analyzed by /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy during superfusion alternately with control and experimental Ringer's solutions, permitting each preparation to serve as its own control. The spectral positions of intracellular inorganic phosphate and extracellular methylphosphonate permitted continuous monitoring of intracellular (pH/sub c/) and extracellular (pH/sub 0/) pH, respectively. Acute and steady state measurements suggested that pH/sub c/ is well regulated at about 7.29 +- 0.05 over an external pH range of about 7.25-7.65. Below this range, pH/sub c/ decreased markedly when the external pH was reduced with nonvolatile acid. In the presence of 2.5 mM HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and 1% CO/sub 2/, total substitution of external Cl/sup -/ by gluconate reversibly increased pH/sub c/ by 0.34 +- 0.05 U (mean +- SE). Replacing external Cl/sup -/ by SO/sup 2 -//sub 4/ increased pH/sub c/ by 0.12 +- 0.01 in the presence of external HCO/sup -//sub 3/, but only by 0.05 +- 0.02 in its absence. SITS (1 mM) at a pH/sub 0/ of 6.95 +- 0.05 did not significantly alter pH/sub c/, but entirely prevented the steady state alkalinization characteristically induced by gluconate substitution for external Cl/sup -/. The results document that: (1) intracellular pH is maintained relatively constant when the external pH is varied over the physiologic range by adding fixed acid or base, and (2) this regulation is (at least in part) a reflection of Cl/HCO/sub 3/ antiport activity.

  14. An efficient method of measuring the 4 mm helmet output factor for the Gamma Knife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijun; Li, X. Allen; Yu, Cedric X.

    2000-03-01

    It is essential to have accurate measurements of the 4 mm helmet output factor in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia patients using the Gamma Knife. Because of the small collimator size and the sharp dose gradient at the beam focus, this measurement is generally tedious and difficult. We have developed an efficient method of measuring the 4 mm helmet output factor using regular radiographic films. The helmet output factor was measured by exposing a single Kodak XV film in the standard Leksell spherical phantom using the 18 mm helmet with 30-40 of its plug collimators replaced by the 4 mm plug collimators. The 4 mm helmet output factor was measured to be 0.876 ± 0.009. This is in excellent agreement with our EGS4 Monte Carlo simulated value of 0.876 ± 0.005. This helmet output factor value also agrees with more tedious TLD, diode and radiochromic film measurements that were each obtained using two separate measurements with the 18 mm helmet and the 4 mm helmet respectively. The 4 mm helmet output factor measured by the diode was 0.884 ± 0.016, and the TLD measurement was 0.890 ± 0.020. The radiochromic film measured value was 0.870 ± 0.018. Because a single-exposure measurement was performed instead of a double-exposure measurement, most of the systematic errors that appeared in the double-exposure measurements due to experimental setup variations were cancelled out. Consequently, the 4 mm helmet output factor is more precisely determined by the single-exposure approach. Therefore, routine measurement and quality assurance of the 4 mm helmet output factor of the Gamma Knife could be efficiently carried out using the proposed single-exposure technique.

  15. Unsedated peroral wireless pH capsule placement vs. standard pH testing: A randomized study and cost analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wireless capsule pH-metry (WC) is better tolerated than standard nasal pH catheter (SC), but endoscopic placement is expensive. Aims: to confirm that non-endoscopic peroral manometric placement of WC is as effective and better tolerated than SC and to perform a cost analysis of the available esophageal pH-metry methods. Methods Randomized trial at 2 centers. Patients referred for esophageal pH testing were randomly assigned to WC with unsedated peroral placement or SC after esophageal manometry (ESM). Primary outcome was overall discomfort with pH-metry. Costs of 3 different pH-metry strategies were analyzed: 1) ESM + SC, 2) ESM + WC and 3) endoscopically placed WC (EGD + WC) using publicly funded health care system perspective. Results 86 patients (mean age 51 ± 2 years, 71% female) were enrolled. Overall discomfort score was less in WC than in SC patients (26 ± 4 mm vs 39 ± 4 mm VAS, respectively, p = 0.012) but there were no significant group differences in throat, chest, or overall discomfort during placement. Overall failure rate was 7% in the SC group vs 12% in the WC group (p = 0.71). Per patient costs ($Canadian) were $1475 for EGD + WC, $1014 for ESM + WC, and $906 for ESM + SC. Decreasing the failure rate of ESM + WC from 12% to 5% decreased the cost of ESM + WC to $991. The ESM + SC and ESM + WC strategies became equivalent when the cost of the WC device was dropped from $292 to $193. Conclusions Unsedated peroral WC insertion is better tolerated than SC pH-metry both overall and during placement. Although WC is more costly, the extra expense is partially offset when the higher patient and caregiver time costs of SC are considered. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT01364610 PMID:22650250

  16. Complexation Key to a pH Locked Redox Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Dangat, Yuvraj; Shams, Tahir; Khan, Khaliquz Zaman

    2016-01-01

    An unfavorable pH can block a feasible electron transfer for a pH dependent redox reaction. In this experiment, a series of potentiometric titrations demonstrate the sequential loss in feasibility of iron(II) dichromate redox reaction over a pH range of 0-4. The pH at which this reaction failed to occur was termed as a pH locked reaction. The

  17. Complexation Key to a pH Locked Redox Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Dangat, Yuvraj; Shams, Tahir; Khan, Khaliquz Zaman

    2016-01-01

    An unfavorable pH can block a feasible electron transfer for a pH dependent redox reaction. In this experiment, a series of potentiometric titrations demonstrate the sequential loss in feasibility of iron(II) dichromate redox reaction over a pH range of 0-4. The pH at which this reaction failed to occur was termed as a pH locked reaction. The…

  18. Reactivity of the isolable disilene R*PhSi=SiPhR* (R* = SitBu3).

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Nils; Niedermayer, Wolfgang; Polborn, Kurt; Mayer, Peter

    2002-06-17

    The disilene R*PhSi=SiPhR* (R* = supersilyl = SitBu3), which can be quantitatively prepared by dehalogenation of the disilane R*PhClSi-SiBrPhR* with NaR* (yellow, water- and air-sensitive crystals; decomp at ca. 70 degrees C; Si=Si distance 2.182 A), is comparatively reactive. It transforms 1) with Cl2, Br2, HCl, HBr, and HOH under 1,2-addition into disilanes R*PhXSi-SiX'PhR* (X/X' = Hal/Hal, H/Hal, H/OH), 2) with O2, S8, and Sen under insertion into 1,3-disiletanes R*PhSi(-Y-)2SiPhR* (Y = O, S, Se), 3) with Me2C=CH2 under ene reaction into the disilane R*PhRSi-SiHPhR* (R = CH2-CMe=CH2), 4) with N2O, Ten, tBuN identical to C, and Me3SiN=N=N under [2 + 1] cycloaddition into disiliranes -R*PhSi-Y-SiPhR*- (Y = O, Te, C=NtBu, NSiMe3; P4 adds 2 molecules of disilene), 5) with CO2, COS, PhCHO, and Ph2CS under [2 + 2] cycloaddition into disiletanes -R*PhSi-SiPhR*-Y-CO- (Y = O, S) as well as -R*PhSi-SiPhR*-Y-CRPh- (Y/R = O/H, S/Ph), 6) with CS2 and CSe2 under [2 + 3] cycloaddition into ethenes R*2Ph2Si2Y2C = CY2Si2Ph2R*2 (Y = S, Se), and 7) with CH2 = CMe-CMe=CH2 and Ph2CO under [2 + 4] cycloaddition into "Diels-Alder adducts". X-ray structure analyses of seven of these compounds are presented. PMID:12391651

  19. The Added Value of a PhD in Medicine--PhD Students' Perceptions of Acquired Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anttila, Henrika; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari; Lonka, Kristi; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    PhD in the field of medicine is more common than in any other domain. Many medical doctors are driven towards PhD, but also students with other backgrounds (usually MSc) are conducting a PhD in medical schools. Higher education has invested a lot in developing generic and research competences. Still little is known about how PhD students…

  20. Suspected melanoma only when the lesion is greater than 6mm may harm patients.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Oliveira, Daniel Arcuschin de; Souza, Murilo Costa; Silva, Mariane da; Brando, Mireille Darc Cavalcanti

    2015-12-01

    Objective To analyze the distribution of larger diameter in the pathological report of cutaneous melanoma patients. Methods Data were obtained from patients seen from 1994 to 2015. Date, sex, age, maximum diameter, histological subtype, primary site, microscopic thickness, mitoses, ulceration, vertical growth phase, and regression were the variables studied. This study was approved by the National Ethics Committee - Brazil Platform. Patients were grouped into smaller diameter (?6mm) and larger diameter (>6mm). The statistical analysis used the ?2test (p<0.05). Results Of the 292 patients analyzed, 123 were seen between 1994 and 2004, and 169 between 2005 and 2015; in that, 151 women and 141 men, mean age of 52 years. The diameters ranged from 2 to 76mm (mean of 14mm), 81 patients with smaller diameter (?6mm) and 211 with larger diameter (>6mm). Out of 81 patients with smaller diameter, 29 had invasive melanoma, while 179 of the 211 with larger diameter were invasive. A difference was observed in frequency of vertical growth phase. Conclusion Pigmented skin lesions with diameter smaller than 6mm should not be an excluding factor for biopsies, especially when patients present risk of developing skin cancer. PMID:26761547

  1. Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite with different solution concentration, pH and packing density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Li, Ming-Hsu; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2008-09-01

    In this work we used an "in-diffusion" method to study the effects of pH, solution concentration and packing density on Cs diffusion by packing local Taiwan laterite (LTL) into modified capillary columns with 5mm diameter. These packed columns were first pre-equilibrated with synthetic groundwater (GW) for 3 weeks. The diffusion experiments were then carried out at ambient condition for 2 weeks. Our experimental results showed that the Cs diffusion profile fits Fick's second law very well in given experimental conditions, indicating the validity of modified capillary column method. Generally speaking, Cs diffusion in LTL decreases as the pH increases and as Cs concentration decreases. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D(a)) increases from 5.52 x 10(-12) (10(-7)M) to 2.18 x 10(-11) (10(-3)M)m(2)/s, while the effective diffusion coefficient (D(e)) shows slight variation as the Cs concentration changes. Both the derived D(a) and D(e) values decrease as the pH increases, implying that the diffusion mechanisms of Cs nuclide in alkaline and acid environment are different. In addition, our results show that Cs diffusion is unaffected by the given packing density, indicating the interlaminary space is not the major determinant of Cs adsorption and diffusion in LTL. PMID:18321721

  2. The Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey: SPIRE-mm Photometric Redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseboom, I. G.; Ivison, R. J.; Greve, T. R.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Auld, R.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Brisbin, D.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Cooray, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Dwek, E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the potential of submm-mm and submm-mm-radio photometric red-shifts using a sample of mm-selected sources as seen at 250, 350 and 500 micrometers by the SPIRE instrument on Herschel. From a sample of 63 previously identified mm-sources with reliable radio identifications in the GOODS-N and Lockman Hole North fields 46 (73 per cent) are found to have detections in at least one SPIRE band. We explore the observed submm/mm colour evolution with redshift, finding that the colours of mm-sources are adequately described by a modified blackbody with constant optical depth Tau = (nu/nu(0))beta where beta = +1.8 and nu(0) = c/100 micrometers. We find a tight correlation between dust temperature and IR luminosity. Using a single model of the dust temperature and IR luminosity relation we derive photometric redshift estimates for the 46 SPIRE detected mm-sources. Testing against the 22 sources with known spectroscopic, or good quality optical/near-IR photometric, redshifts we find submm/mm photometric redshifts offer a redshift accuracy of |delta z|/(1+z) = 0.16 (less than |delta z| greater than = 0.51). Including constraints from the radio-far IR correlation the accuracy is improved to |delta z|/(1 + z) = 0.15 (less than |delta z| greater than = 0.45). We estimate the redshift distribution of mm-selected sources finding a significant excess at z greater than 3 when compared to 850 micrometer selected samples.

  3. The Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey: SPIRE-mm Photometric Redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseboom, I. G.; Ivison, R. J.; Greve, T. R.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Auld, R.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; Block, J.; Boselli, A.; Brisbin, D.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodriquez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Dowell, C. D.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dwek, E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the potential of submm-mm and submm-mm-radio photometric redshifts using a sample of mm-selected sources as seen at 250, 350 and 500 micron by the SPIRE instrument on Herschel. From a sample of 63 previously identified mm sources with reliable radio identifications in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North and Lockman Hole North fields, 46 (73 per cent) are found to have detections in at least one SPIRE band. We explore the observed submm/mm color evolution with redshift, finding that the colors of mm sources are adequately described by a modified blackbody with constant optical depth Tau = (Nu/nu(sub 0))(exp Beta), where Beta = +1.8 and nu(sub 0) = c/100 micron. We find a tight correlation between dust temperature and IR luminosity. Using a single model of the dust temperature and IR luminosity relation, we derive photometric redshift estimates for the 46 SPIRE-detected mm sources. Testing against the 22 sources with known spectroscopic or good quality optical/near-IR photometric redshifts, we find submm/mm photometric redshifts offer a redshift accuracy of (absolute value of Delta sub (z))/(1 + z) = 0.16 (absolute value of Delta sub (z)) = 0.51). Including constraints from the radio-far-IR correlation, the accuracy is improved to (absolute value of Delta sub (z))/(1 + z) = 0.14 (((absolute value of Delta sub (z))) = 0.45). We estimate the redshift distribution of mm-selected sources finding a significant excess at Z > 3 when compared to approx 8S0 micron selected samples.

  4. Technical note: Evaluation of a continuous ruminal pH measurement system for use in noncannulated small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Penner, G B; Aschenbach, J R; Gäbel, G; Oba, M

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of an indwelling ruminal pH measurement system that could be used in small ruminants (small ruminant ruminal pH measurement system; SRS) without requiring ruminal cannulation. The outer diameter, length, and weight of the SRS were 20.6 mm, 138 mm, and 245 g, respectively. This device was capable of logging pH, temperature, and battery voltage. In Exp. 1, a ruminally cannulated sheep (94 kg) was infused with a 40% (wt/vol) glucose solution to supply 5 g of glucose/kg of BW into the rumen. Ruminal pH was recorded every 30 s simultaneously using a portable pH meter and the SRS. In Exp. 2, 30 noncannulated sheep (72 +/- 10 kg of BW) were orally administered with a 40% glucose solution as described above (5 g of glucose/kg of BW; n = 22) or an equivalent volume of water (12.5 mL/kg of BW; n = 8). Sheep were slaughtered 3 h after the oral drench, and immediately after slaughter ruminal pH readings were measured manually using a portable pH meter and were compared with measurements recorded by the SRS. In Exp. 1, the relationship between manual pH measurement using a portable pH meter and the SRS (226 data pairs) had a Pearson correlation coefficient and concordance correlation coefficient of 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. Furthermore, the scale shift and location shift observed in Exp. 1 were 1.28 and 0.00, respectively. The relationship between measurements conducted manually using a portable pH meter and the SRS in Exp. 2 had Pearson and concordance correlation coefficients of 0.96 and 0.95, respectively. The respective scale and location shifts for Exp. 2 were 1.16 and 0.04. These results indicate that the measurements obtained from SRS were in agreement with simultaneous measurements manually conducted using a portable pH meter, suggesting that the SRS can be used to measure ruminal pH in noncannulated small ruminants. PMID:19329478

  5. Depth Penetration and Detection of pH Gradients in Biofilms by Two-Photon Excitation Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vroom, Jurrien M.; De Grauw, Kees J.; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Bradshaw, David J.; Marsh, Philip D.; Watson, G. Keith; Birmingham, John J.; Allison, Clive

    1999-01-01

    Deep microbial biofilms are a major problem in many industrial, environmental, and medical settings. Novel approaches are needed to understand the structure and metabolism of these biofilms. Two-photon excitation microscopy (TPE) and conventional confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were compared quantitatively for the ability to visualize bacteria within deep in vitro biofilms. pH gradients within these biofilms were determined by fluorescence lifetime imaging, together with TPE. A constant-depth film fermentor (CDFF) was inoculated for 8 h at 50 ml h?1 with a defined mixed culture of 10 species of bacteria grown in continuous culture. Biofilms of fixed depths were developed in the CDFF for 10 or 11 days. The microbial compositions of the biofilms were determined by using viable counts on selective and nonselective agar media; diverse mixed-culture biofilms developed, including aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic species. TPE was able to record images four times deeper than CLSM. Importantly, in contrast to CLSM images, TPE images recorded deep within the biofilm showed no loss of contrast. The pH within the biofilms was measured directly by means of fluorescence lifetime imaging; the fluorescence decay of carboxyfluorescein was correlated with biofilm pH and was used to construct a calibration curve. pH gradients were detectable, in both the lateral and axial directions, in steady-state biofilms. When biofilms were overlaid with 14 mM sucrose for 1 h, distinct pH gradients developed. Microcolonies with pH values of below pH 3.0 were visible, in some cases adjacent to areas with a much higher pH (>5.0). TPE allowed resolution of images at significantly greater depths (as deep as 140 ?m) than were possible with CLSM. Fluorescence lifetime imaging allowed the in situ, real-time imaging of pH and the detection of sharp gradients of pH within microbial biofilms. PMID:10427041

  6. Fiber-optic pH sensor based on sol-gel film immobilized with neutral red

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Dayeong; Yoo, Wook Jae; Seo, Jeong Ki; Shin, Sang Hun; Han, Ki-Tek; Kim, Seon Geun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Lee, Bongsoo

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we developed a fiber-optic pH sensor based on a sol-gel film immobilized with neutral red (NR). A solgel film was prepared by mixing tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS), trimethoxymethylsilane (MTMS), ethanol (EtOH), distilled water (H2O), and NR powder. Accordingly, the thin pH sol-gel film was fabricated through a sol-gel process with a dip-coating method. The thickness and diameter of the fabricated pH sol-gel film are 0.11 and 0.6 mm, respectively. We measured the optical absorbance and the light intensity with the spectra of reflected light, which change with the color variation of the pH sol-gel film in the fiber-optic sensing probe. From the experimental results, we demonstrated that the proposed fiber-optic pH sensor has good reversibility, reproducibility, and a fast response time, in which the optical properties of the NR-based pH sol-gel film change with the pH value.

  7. G11.92-0.61-MM2: A Bonafide Massive Prestellar Core?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyganowski, C. J.; Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.; Graninger, D.; Öberg, K. I.; Vasyunin, A.; Zhang, Q.; Friesen, R.; Schnee, S.

    2014-11-01

    Core accretion models of massive star formation require the existence of stable massive starless cores, but robust observational examples of such objects have proven elusive. We report subarcsecond-resolution Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.3 mm, 1.1 mm, and 0.88 mm and Very Large Array 1.3 cm observations of an excellent massive starless core candidate, G11.92-0.61-MM2, initially identified in the course of studies of GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs). Separated by ~7.''2 from the nearby MM1 protostellar hot core, MM2 is a strong, compact dust continuum source (submillimeter spectral index α = 2.6 ± 0.1), but is devoid of star formation indicators. In contrast to MM1, MM2 has no masers, no centimeter continuum, and no (sub)millimeter wavelength line emission in ~24 GHz of bandwidth observed with the SMA, including N2H+(3-2), HCO+(3-2), and HCN(3-2). Additionally, there is no evidence for an outflow driven by MM2. The (sub)millimeter spectral energy distribution of MM2 is best fit with a dust temperature of ~17-19 K and luminosity of ~5-7 L ⊙. The combined physical properties of MM2, as inferred from its dust continuum emission, are extreme: M >~ 30 M ⊙ within a radius <1000 AU, N_H_2>1025 cm-2 and n_H_2 >109 cm-3. Comparison of the molecular abundance limits derived from our SMA observations with gas-grain chemical models indicates that extremely dense (n(H) Gt 108 cm-3), cold (<20 K) conditions are required to explain the lack of observed (sub)millimeter line emission, consistent with the dust continuum results. Our data suggest that G11.92-0.61-MM2 is the best candidate for a bonafide massive prestellar core found to date, and a promising target for future higher-sensitivity observations.

  8. G11.92–0.61-MM2: A BONAFIDE MASSIVE PRESTELLAR CORE?

    SciTech Connect

    Cyganowski, C. J.; Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.; Schnee, S.; Graninger, D.; Öberg, K. I.; Zhang, Q.; Vasyunin, A.; Friesen, R.

    2014-11-20

    Core accretion models of massive star formation require the existence of stable massive starless cores, but robust observational examples of such objects have proven elusive. We report subarcsecond-resolution Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.3 mm, 1.1 mm, and 0.88 mm and Very Large Array 1.3 cm observations of an excellent massive starless core candidate, G11.92–0.61-MM2, initially identified in the course of studies of GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs). Separated by ∼7.''2 from the nearby MM1 protostellar hot core, MM2 is a strong, compact dust continuum source (submillimeter spectral index α = 2.6 ± 0.1), but is devoid of star formation indicators. In contrast to MM1, MM2 has no masers, no centimeter continuum, and no (sub)millimeter wavelength line emission in ∼24 GHz of bandwidth observed with the SMA, including N{sub 2}H{sup +}(3-2), HCO{sup +}(3-2), and HCN(3-2). Additionally, there is no evidence for an outflow driven by MM2. The (sub)millimeter spectral energy distribution of MM2 is best fit with a dust temperature of ∼17-19 K and luminosity of ∼5-7 L {sub ☉}. The combined physical properties of MM2, as inferred from its dust continuum emission, are extreme: M ≳ 30 M {sub ☉} within a radius <1000 AU, N{sub H{sub 2}}>10{sup 25} cm{sup –2} and n{sub H{sub 2}} >10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. Comparison of the molecular abundance limits derived from our SMA observations with gas-grain chemical models indicates that extremely dense (n(H) >> 10{sup 8} cm{sup –3}), cold (<20 K) conditions are required to explain the lack of observed (sub)millimeter line emission, consistent with the dust continuum results. Our data suggest that G11.92–0.61-MM2 is the best candidate for a bonafide massive prestellar core found to date, and a promising target for future higher-sensitivity observations.

  9. Assessment of Bite Force in Patients Treated with 2.0-mm Traditional Miniplates versus 2.0-mm Locking Plates for Mandibular Fracture.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Sanjay; Reddy, Mahendra Parvath; Swarup, Azeez Gaurav; Swarup, Divya; Choudhury, Rupshikha

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the difference in bite forces in patients treated for mandibular fractures with 2.0 mm conventional and locking titanium plating system. A randomized study was performed for the treatment of fractures of mandible. In this study, 20 adult patients with isolated mandibular fracture were included. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups, that is, Group I-2.0 mm nonlocking (traditional) and Group II-2.0 mm locking plates. Bite force was evaluated at 1st, 3rd, and 6th weeks. Comparison of all the assessed parameters between both the groups depicted no significant difference in terms of pain, swelling including the incidence of infection, paresthesia, and hardware failure. Although same was true in case of bite force between both the groups at various time intervals, there was statistically significant increase in the bite force within the group comprising patients in whom locking plates was used between 1st and 3rd weeks follow-up period and highly significant increase in bite force between 1st and 6th weeks of follow-up period. The rapid improvement of bite force values when locking plates were used implies that the locking plate can be used in preference to conventional plates to achieve early mobilization with assured stability in the treatment of mandibular fractures. PMID:26889350

  10. Effect of pH on Fenton process using estimation of hydroxyl radical with salicylic acid as trapping reagent.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chen-Yu; Hsieh, Yung-Hsu; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Cheng, Ta-Chih; Yao, Kuo-Shan

    2008-01-01

    This study estimates the yield of hydroxyl radical using salicylic acid as the trapping reagent and investigates the relationship between hydroxyl radical and pH value. The formation and variation of hydroxyl radical under different pH values were evaluated using reaction products, 2,3-DHBA, 2,5-DHBA, and catechol. The formation rate of hydroxyl radical was dependent on the ratio of ferrous ion to hydrogen peroxide and pH values. The difference between various pH values was explored. The kinetics and mechanisms of hydroxyl radical reactions were established in the Fenton process. Experimental results showed that the best reaction conditions were 8.5 mM H(2)O(2), 1.25 mM Fe(2 + ), Fe(2 + )/H(2)O(2) = 0.147 at pH 3 and the formation rate constant of hydroxyl radical was 1.12 x 10(11) M(-1) s(-1). PMID:18776624

  11. The panacea toolbox of a PhD biomedical student.

    PubMed

    Skaik, Younis

    2014-01-01

    Doing a PhD (doctor of philosophy) for the sake of contribution to knowledge should give the student an immense enthusiasm through the PhD period. It is the time in one's life that one spends to "hit the nail on the head" in a specific area and topic of interest. A PhD consists mostly of hard work and tenacity; however, luck and genius might also play a little role. You can pass all PhD phases without having both luck and genius. The PhD student should have pre-PhD and PhD toolboxes, which are "sine quibus non" for getting successfully a PhD degree. In this manuscript, the toolboxes of the PhD student are discussed. PMID:25674150

  12. [Sequence-specific interaction of pyrimidine oligonucleotides with double-stranded DNA at acidic pH complexes of different types].

    PubMed

    Brossalina, E B; Demchenko, E N; Demchenko, Iu N; Vlassov, V V

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of pyrimidine oligonucleotides (OLN(15) and OLN(6)) and their alkylating derivatives bearing 4-(3-amino)-N-methyl and N-2-chloroethyl (RCl) aniline residues at the 5'-phosphate with a fragment of the human gamma-interferon gene was studied. In the presence of 150 mM NaCl at pH 5.4, the yield of dsDNA alkylation was 60% for RCl-OLN(15) and 10% for RCl-OLN(6); at pH 4.0 in the presence of 150 mM NaCl and 10 mM MgCl2, the yield of the dsDNA modification product was 100% for RCl-OLN(6) and 50% for RCl-OLN(15). It was shown by native electrophoresis that OLN(15) could form with the target dsDNA complexes of two types in the presence of magnesium ions at pH 4.0. One of the complexes was stable at pH 5.4 in the presence of magnesium ions, whereas the other was not. We found that only the complex stable in 10 mM Mg(OAc)2, pH 5.4, was effectively alkylated. PMID:19915644

  13. Matching phosphate and maleate buffer systems for dissolution of weak acids: Equivalence in terms of buffer capacity of bulk solution or surface pH?

    PubMed

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2016-06-01

    The development of in vitro dissolution tests able to anticipate the in vivo fate of drug products has challenged pharmaceutical scientists over time, especially in the case of ionizable compounds. In the seminal model proposed by Mooney et al. thirty-five years ago, the pH at the solid-liquid interface (pH0) was identified as a key parameter in predicting dissolution rate. In the current work it is demonstrated that the in vitro dissolution of the weak acid ibuprofen in maleate and phosphate buffer systems is a function of the pH0, which in turn is affected by properties of the drug and the medium. The reported pH0 for ibuprofen dissolution in bicarbonate buffer, the predominant buffer species in the human small intestine under fasting conditions, can be achieved by reducing the phosphate buffer concentration to 5.0mM or the maleate buffer concentration to 2.2mM. Using this approach to identify the appropriate buffer/buffer capacity combination for in vitro experiments in FaSSIF-type media, it would be possible to increase the physiological relevance of this important biopharmaceutics tool. However, the necessity of monitoring and adjusting the bulk pH during the experiments carried out in 5.0mM phosphate or 2.2mM maleate buffers must also be taken into consideration. PMID:27032508

  14. VIEW OF KENNEDY AVIONICS TEST SET LABORATORY, ROOM NO. MM6, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF KENNEDY AVIONICS TEST SET LABORATORY, ROOM NO. MM6, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. STS-34 MS Chang-Diaz records onboard activity with 16mm camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 Mission Specialist (MS) Franklin R. Chang-Diaz records forward flight deck activity with ARRIFLEX 16mm camera onboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. In the background, MS Shannon W. Lucid works at aft flight deck payload station.

  16. WRF/MM5 performance comparison during CRPAQS field experiment in Central Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Chen, S.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The winter particulate matter (PM) and summer ozone (O3)problems in the Central Valley of California are among the worst in the United States. Concentrations of PM and O3 are highly dependent on the atmospheric conditions. Air quality modeling exercises seeking to design efficient emissions control strategies typically require the use of meso-scale meteorological models to provide input data for the reactive chemical transport calculations. The complex topography in California makes the simulation of meteorology relatively difficult. The selection of the best meso-scale atmospheric model is a crucial step for air quality simulation and emission control design in central California. In this study, WRF and MM5, the two most widely used meso-scale models, are used to simulate the atmospheric conditions during the California Regional Particulate Air Quality Study (CRPAQS) field experiments. The model results are compared to the observation data with a focus on the most important air- pollution related variables, including winds, temperature and relative humidity. Both WRF and MM5 are modified to generate hourly averaged output in order to directly compare with the observation data, which are available as hourly averages.The analysis is focused on the first seven model levels spanning a height up to 2000m above the surface. For each level, Error Root Mean Square (ERMS) during the period Dec 17th, 2000 to Jan 07, 2001 are averaged over all stations within California and only those within the Central Valley. The results show that within the valley, the WRF for temperature is about 1.3 deg smaller than that of MM5 for the first level. In general, WRF predictions for temperature are closer to observation than MM5 predictions for the lowest three levels. For the four levels above, MM5 simulated temperature were more accurate. MM5 predictions for wind speed were slightly better (about 0.2m/s) for the first three levels, while WRF simulated more accurate winds the remaining 4 levels. For relatively humidity, WRF results are better than MM5 for all the 7 levels. Similar conclusions hold for the state-wise station averaged ERMS results.Next, the first three level mean ERMS and Error are calculated for each station over the whole CRPAQS episode. The first three levels are studied as a set because conditions within this range have the most direct influence on ground-level pollutant concentrations. Within the Central Valley, WRF had the most accurate temperature predictions for 11 out of 12 stations in the first 3 model layers, while MM5 had more accurate wind speed for 8 out of 12 stations. For stations outside the Central Valley within coast or mountain areas, WRF had better temperature ERMS for 6 out of 11 stations and MM5 has better wind simulation for 10 out of 11 stations. The analysis showed that both WRF and MM5 overestimated wind speed for almost all stations, and MM5 had smaller Err (average of 0.2 m/s smaller) for most stations. MM5 overestimated temperature at all stations, while WRF underestimated temperature at almost all stations. The absolute value of the temperature Err for WRF was ~1.5 deg smaller than that for MM5. In summary, for the most air pollution related model layers, WRF simulated better temperature (1.3 deg difference for ERMS) while MM5 has better wind speed simulation (0.2m/s) during the CRPAQS episode. Both WRF and MM5 overestimated the wind speed, MM5 overestimated temperature by ~2.5 degrees for almost all stations, and WRF underestimated temperature by ~1 degree. WRF results are slightly better in term of the air pollution related variables for CRPAQS simulations.

  17. 50. OVERALL VIEW OF LOWER MAIN STREET, WITH M.M. WALKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. OVERALL VIEW OF LOWER MAIN STREET, WITH M.M. WALKER COMPANY WAREHOUSE IN LEFT FOREGROUND AND THOMAS J. MULGREW COMPANY BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Dubuque Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  18. 480mm telephoto perspective, looking south toward midspan and south anchor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    480-mm telephoto perspective, looking south toward mid-span and south anchor arm. - Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, Ohio River Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, West of Beaver River, Beaver, Beaver County, PA

  19. 480mm telephoto perpective, looking south toward midspan and south anchor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    480-mm telephoto perpective, looking south toward mid-span and south anchor arm. - Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, Ohio River Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, West of Beaver River, Beaver, Beaver County, PA

  20. TELEPHOTO VIEW (600MM LENS) OF SILVERTON, COLORADO, LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TELEPHOTO VIEW (600MM LENS) OF SILVERTON, COLORADO, LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST. NOTE DURANGO & SILVERTON NARROW GAUGE RAILROAD AT BOTTOM CENTER. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  1. Parameters of tensile strength, elongation, and tenacity of 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Peters, Kevin A.

    1989-01-01

    The 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film was tested to determine its tensile strength, elongation, and breaking strength, using an Instron (strength and compression) 4201 Test Instrument. These data provide information leading to the upper and lower limits of the above parameters for 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film. This film will be developed by a commercial developing machine after the Ultraviolet Telescope Space Shuttle Mission returns to the Earth in the early 1990's; thus, it is necessary to understand these force parameters. Several test strips of approximately 200mm in length were used. The results indicate that when a stress load of 100 kg was applied, the film elongated approximately 1.06mm and the break strength was 19.45 kilograms.

  2. STS-33 MS Thornton uses 70mm camera on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Mission Specialist (MS) Kathryn C. Thornton points 70mm camera out overhead window W7 on Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, aft flight deck. Sunlight through W7 highlights Thornton's profile.

  3. Same-source parallel implementation of the PSU/NCAR MM5

    SciTech Connect

    Michalakes, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Pennsylvania State/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model is a limited-area model of atmospheric systems, now in its fifth generation, MM5. Designed and maintained for vector and shared-memory parallel architectures, the official version of MM5 does not run on message-passing distributed memory (DM) parallel computers. The authors describe a same-source parallel implementation of the PSU/NCAR MM5 using FLIC, the Fortran Loop and Index Converter. The resulting source is nearly line-for-line identical with the original source code. The result is an efficient distributed memory parallel option to MM5 that can be seamlessly integrated into the official version.

  4. 16. Oblique view, typical room; view to north, 65mm lens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Oblique view, typical room; view to north, 65mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  5. 17. Oblique view, typical room; view to south, 65mm lens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Oblique view, typical room; view to south, 65mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  6. 18. Southeast end room; view to northeast, 65mm lens plus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Southeast end room; view to northeast, 65mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. Failed south wall at right. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  7. 5. East portal of Tunnel 26, view to southwest, 135mm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East portal of Tunnel 26, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Tunnel 25 (HAER CA-201) is visible in the distance. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 26, Milepost 133.29, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  8. 7. Detail, east portal of Tunnel 34/Snowshed 33, 135mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail, east portal of Tunnel 34/Snowshed 33, 135mm lens. Tall signal mast necessary in order to be seen above winter snows. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 41, Milepost 193.3, Donner, Placer County, CA

  9. CD Reference Materials Fabricated on Monolithic 200 mm Wafers for Automated Metrology Tool Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Richard A.; Dixson, Ronald G.; Cresswell, Michael W.; Guthrie, William F.; Shulver, Byron J. R.; Bunting, A. S.; Stevenson, J. T. M.; Walton, Anthony J.

    2007-09-01

    Recently, prototype isolated-line, single-crystal critical dimension (CD) reference materials (SCCDRMs) with linewidths as narrow as 40 nm±1.5 nm have been reported. These reference materials, designated NIST Prototype Reference Material (RM) 8111, were configured as 10 mm by 11 mm silicon test chips mounted in 200 mm carrier wafers. The RM 8111 chips were fabricated using microelectromechanical (MEMS) process techniques, which assure the alignment of the sidewalls of the features to silicon (111) lattice planes, and were calibrated in a sequence involving atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) metrology. This paper reports initial results on SCCDRMs fabricated on 200 mm bulk wafers; this monolithic approach would eliminate the need for carrier wafers.

  10. 19. Southeast end room; view to southeast, 65mm lens plus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Southeast end room; view to southeast, 65mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. Note extent of failure; figure for scale. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  11. A new smoothing function to introduce long-range electrostatic effects in QM/MM calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Dong; Duke, Robert E.; Cisneros, G. Andrés

    2015-07-01

    A new method to account for long range electrostatic contributions is proposed and implemented for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics long range electrostatic correction (QM/MM-LREC) calculations. This method involves the use of the minimum image convention under periodic boundary conditions and a new smoothing function for energies and forces at the cutoff boundary for the Coulomb interactions. Compared to conventional QM/MM calculations without long-range electrostatic corrections, the new method effectively includes effects on the MM environment in the primary image from its replicas in the neighborhood. QM/MM-LREC offers three useful features including the avoidance of calculations in reciprocal space (k-space), with the concomitant avoidance of having to reproduce (analytically or approximately) the QM charge density in k-space, and the straightforward availability of analytical Hessians. The new method is tested and compared with results from smooth particle mesh Ewald (PME) for three systems including a box of neat water, a double proton transfer reaction, and the geometry optimization of the critical point structures for the rate limiting step of the DNA dealkylase AlkB. As with other smoothing or shifting functions, relatively large cutoffs are necessary to achieve comparable accuracy with PME. For the double-proton transfer reaction, the use of a 22 Å cutoff shows a close reaction energy profile and geometries of stationary structures with QM/MM-LREC compared to conventional QM/MM with no truncation. Geometry optimization of stationary structures for the hydrogen abstraction step by AlkB shows some differences between QM/MM-LREC and the conventional QM/MM. These differences underscore the necessity of the inclusion of the long-range electrostatic contribution.

  12. Optical design and evaluation of a 4 mm cost-effective ultra-high-definition arthroscope

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Yu, Lu; Liu, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    High definition and magnification rigid endoscope plays an important role in modern minimally invasive medical surgery and diagnosis. In this paper, we present the design and evaluation methods of a high definition rigid endoscope, specifically an arthroscope, with a large depth of field (DOF). The incident heights and exit angles of the sampled rays on the relay lens are controlled during the optimization process to ensure an effective field view (70°) and a normal ray path within the limited lens diameter of 2.7 mm. The lens is set up as a multi-configuration system with two extreme and one middle object distances to cover a large DOF. As a result, an entrance pupil of 0.3 mm is achieved for the first time, to bring the theoretical resolution to 23.1 lps/mm in the object space at a working distance of 20 mm, with the wavelength of 0.532 um. The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves approach diffraction limit, and the values are all higher than 0.3 at 160 line pairs/mm (lps/mm) in the image space. Meanwhile, stray light caused by total internal reflection on the inner wall of the rod lenses and the objective lens is eliminated. The measured resolution in the object space at a 20 mm working distance is 22.3 lps/mm, and test results show that other performance characteristics also fulfill design requirements. The relay lenses are designed with only one type of the spacer and two types of lenses to greatly reduce the fabrication and assembly cost. The design method has important research and application values for lens systems used in modern minimally invasive medical surgery and industrial non-destructive testing area. PMID:25136495

  13. SSC 50 mm collider dipole cryostat single tube support post conceptual design and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, T.H.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the conceptual design for a support post whose function is identical to that of the current reentrant design, which requires very few modifications to surrounding cryostat components, is thermally equivalent to the current 50 mm support post, and is nearly equivalent structurally. The focus of this work is on a design aimed specifically at application in SSC 50 mm collider dipoles, however, the conceptual design presented here is applicable to other cryogenic systems.

  14. A new smoothing function to introduce long-range electrostatic effects in QM/MM calculations.

    PubMed

    Fang, Dong; Duke, Robert E; Cisneros, G Andrés

    2015-07-28

    A new method to account for long range electrostatic contributions is proposed and implemented for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics long range electrostatic correction (QM/MM-LREC) calculations. This method involves the use of the minimum image convention under periodic boundary conditions and a new smoothing function for energies and forces at the cutoff boundary for the Coulomb interactions. Compared to conventional QM/MM calculations without long-range electrostatic corrections, the new method effectively includes effects on the MM environment in the primary image from its replicas in the neighborhood. QM/MM-LREC offers three useful features including the avoidance of calculations in reciprocal space (k-space), with the concomitant avoidance of having to reproduce (analytically or approximately) the QM charge density in k-space, and the straightforward availability of analytical Hessians. The new method is tested and compared with results from smooth particle mesh Ewald (PME) for three systems including a box of neat water, a double proton transfer reaction, and the geometry optimization of the critical point structures for the rate limiting step of the DNA dealkylase AlkB. As with other smoothing or shifting functions, relatively large cutoffs are necessary to achieve comparable accuracy with PME. For the double-proton transfer reaction, the use of a 22 Å cutoff shows a close reaction energy profile and geometries of stationary structures with QM/MM-LREC compared to conventional QM/MM with no truncation. Geometry optimization of stationary structures for the hydrogen abstraction step by AlkB shows some differences between QM/MM-LREC and the conventional QM/MM. These differences underscore the necessity of the inclusion of the long-range electrostatic contribution. PMID:26233103

  15. Somatic embryogenesis of carrot in hormone-free medium: external pH control over morphogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Cultures of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs) were initiated from mechanically wounded mature zygotic embryos of carrot, Daucus carota, on a hormone-free, semisolid medium. These PGSPs have been maintained and multiplied for extended periods without their progression into later embryo stages on the same hormone-free medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Sustained maintenance of cultures comprised exclusively of PGSPs was dependent on medium pH throughout the culture period. Best growth and multiplication of PGSP cultures occurred when the pH of unbuffered, hormone-free medium fell from 4.5 to 4 over a 2-week period or when buffered medium was titrated to pH 4. If the hormone-free medium was buffered to sustain a pH at or above 4.5, PGSPs developed into later embryo stages. Maintenance with continuous multiplication of PGSPs occurred equally well on medium containing NH4+ or NH4+ and NO3-, but growth was poor with NO3- alone. Additional observations on the effects of medium components such as various nitrogen sources and levels, sucrose concentration, semisolid supports, type of buffer, borate concentration, activated charcoal, and initial pH that permit optimum maintenance of the PGSPs or foster their continued developmental progression into mature embryos and plantlets are reported. The influence of the pH of the hormone-free medium as a determinant in maintaining cultures as PGSPs or allowing their continued embryonic development are unequivocally demonstrated by gross morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and histological preparations.

  16. Hybrid Laser-arc Welding of 17-4 PH Martensitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Ma, Junjie; Atabaki, Mehdi Mazar; Pillai, Raju; Kumar, Biju; Vasudevan, Unnikrishnan; Sreshta, Harold; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2015-06-01

    17-4 PH stainless steel has wide applications in severe working conditions due to its combination of good corrosion resistance and high strength. The weldability of 17-4 PH stainless steel is challenging. In this work, hybrid laser-arc welding was developed to weld 17-4 PH stainless steel. This method was chosen based on its advantages, such as deep weld penetration, less filler materials, and high welding speed. The 17-4 PH stainless steel plates with a thickness of 19 mm were successfully welded in a single pass. During the hybrid welding, the 17-4 PH stainless steel was immensely susceptible to porosity and solidification cracking. The porosity was avoided by using nitrogen as the shielding gas. The nitrogen stabilized the keyhole and inhibited the formation of bubbles during welding. Solidification cracking easily occurred along the weld centerline at the root of the hybrid laser-arc welds. The microstructural evolution and the cracking susceptibility of 17-4 PH stainless steel were investigated to remove these centerline cracks. The results showed that the solidification mode of the material changed due to high cooling rate at the root of the weld. The rapid cooling rate caused the transformation from ferrite to austenite during the solidification stage. The solidification cracking was likely formed as a result of this cracking-susceptible microstructure and a high depth/width ratio that led to a high tensile stress concentration. Furthermore, the solidification cracking was prevented by preheating the base metal. It was found that the preheating slowed the cooling rate at the root of the weld, and the ferrite-to-austenite transformation during the solidification stage was suppressed. Delta ferrite formation was observed in the weld bead as well no solidification cracking occurred by optimizing the preheating temperature.

  17. Exchangeable hydrogen explains the pH of spodosol Oa horizons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, D.S.; David, M.B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bartlett, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The chemistry of extremely acid Oa horizons does not conform to traditional pH, Al, and base saturation relationships. Results from two separate studies of northeastern U.S. forested soils were used to investigate relationships between pH in water or dilute salt solutions and other soil characteristics. In Oa horizons with pH below 4, soil pH in dilute CaCl2 solution was correlated with exchangeable H+ measured either by titration (r = -0.88, P = 0.0001, n = 142) or by electrode (r = -0.89, P = 0.0001, n = 45). Exchangeable H+ expressed as a percentage of the cation-exchange capacity (CEC) was linear with pH and showed similar slopes for data from both studies. For all samples, pHw = 4.21 - 1.80 x H+/CEC (R2 = 0.69, n = 194). The reciprocal of the H+/CEC ratio is base saturation with Al added to the bases. Because of the low pH, exchangeable Al does not appear to behave as an acid. Exchangeable H+ remains an operationally defined quantity because of the difficulty in separating exchange and hydrolysis reactions. In a variety of neutral-salt extractants, concentration of H+ were correlated with 0.1 M BaCl2-exchangeable H+ (r > 0.91, P = 0.0001, n = 26) regardless of the strength of the extract. Nine successive extractions with 0.33 mM CaCl2 removed more H+ than was removed by single batch extractions with either 1 M KCl or 0.1 M BaCl2 (average H+ of 70, 43, and 49 mmol kg-1, respectively for 26 samples). The data showed little difference in the chemical behavior of Oa horizons from a variety of geographical sites and vegetation types.

  18. Toxicity evaluation of pH dependent stable Achyranthes aspera herbal gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Alok; Kumari, Sarika; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have gained substantial attention for the control of various diseases. However, any adverse effect of herbal gold nanoparticles (HGNPs) on animals including human being has not been investigated in details. The objectives of current study are to assess the cytotoxicity of HGNPs synthesized by using leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera, and long epoch stability. The protocol deals with stability of HGNPs in pH dependent manner. Visually, HGNPs formation is characterized by colour change of extract from dark brown to dark purple after adding gold chloride solution (1 mM). The 100 μg/ml HGNPs concentration has been found nontoxic to the cultured spleenocyte cells. Spectrophotometric analysis of nanoparticles solution gave a peak at 540 nm which corresponds to surface plasmon resonance absorption band. As per scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), size of HGNPs are in the range of 50-80 nm (average size 70 nm) with spherical morphology. TEM-selected area electron diffraction observation showed hexagonal texture. HGNPs showed substantial stability at higher temperature (85 °C), pH 10 and salt concentration (5 M). The zeta potential value of HGNPs is -35.9 mV at temperature 25 °C, pH 10 showing its good quality with better stability in comparison to pH 6 and pH 7. The findings advocate that the protocol for the synthesis of HGNPs is easy and quick with good quality and long epoch stability at pH 10. Moreover, non-toxic dose could be widely applicable for human health as a potential nano-medicine in the future to cure diseases.

  19. Mechanism of proteolysis in matrix metalloproteinase-2 revealed by QM/MM modeling.

    PubMed

    Vasilevskaya, Tatiana; Khrenova, Maria G; Nemukhin, Alexander V; Thiel, Walter

    2015-08-01

    The mechanism of enzymatic peptide hydrolysis in matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was studied at atomic resolution through quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations. An all-atom three-dimensional molecular model was constructed on the basis of a crystal structure from the Protein Data Bank (ID: 1QIB), and the oligopeptide Ace-Gln-Gly∼Ile-Ala-Gly-Nme was considered as the substrate. Two QM/MM software packages and several computational protocols were employed to calculate QM/MM energy profiles for a four-step mechanism involving an initial nucleophilic attack followed by hydrogen bond rearrangement, proton transfer, and C-N bond cleavage. These QM/MM calculations consistently yield rather low overall barriers for the chemical steps, in the range of 5-10 kcal/mol, for diverse QM treatments (PBE0, B3LYP, and BB1K density functionals as well as local coupled cluster treatments) and two MM force fields (CHARMM and AMBER). It, thus, seems likely that product release is the rate-limiting step in MMP-2 catalysis. This is supported by an exploration of various release channels through QM/MM reaction path calculations and steered molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:26132652

  20. Accuracy of buffered-force QM/MM simulations of silica

    SciTech Connect

    Peguiron, Anke; Moras, Gianpietro; Colombi Ciacchi, Lucio; De Vita, Alessandro; Kermode, James R.

    2015-02-14

    We report comparisons between energy-based quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) and buffered force-based QM/MM simulations in silica. Local quantities—such as density of states, charges, forces, and geometries—calculated with both QM/MM approaches are compared to the results of full QM simulations. We find the length scale over which forces computed using a finite QM region converge to reference values obtained in full quantum-mechanical calculations is ∼10 Å rather than the ∼5 Å previously reported for covalent materials such as silicon. Electrostatic embedding of the QM region in the surrounding classical point charges gives only a minor contribution to the force convergence. While the energy-based approach provides accurate results in geometry optimizations of point defects, we find that the removal of large force errors at the QM/MM boundary provided by the buffered force-based scheme is necessary for accurate constrained geometry optimizations where Si–O bonds are elongated and for finite-temperature molecular dynamics simulations of crack propagation. Moreover, the buffered approach allows for more flexibility, since special-purpose QM/MM coupling terms that link QM and MM atoms are not required and the region that is treated at the QM level can be adaptively redefined during the course of a dynamical simulation.

  1. Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate and pH Among Areca Nut Chewers and Oral Submucous Fibrosis Subjects: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Khader, Nishat Fatima; Dyasanoor, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH among areca nut chewers, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and apparently healthy individuals. Methods: A comparative study was conducted to assess and compare the SFR and pH among 135 outpatients (45 areca nut chewers + 45 OSMF + 45 control) at The Oxford Dental College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, India. Subjects were interviewed using structural proforma and Modified Schirmer strips and pH paper were implemented for assessing SFR and pH respectively. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 software. Results: A statistically significant increase in SFR (35.7 mm at 3rd minutes) among areca nut group and a decrease in SFR among OSMF group (23.4 mm at 3rd minutes) when compared to apparently healthy subjects (30.7 mm at 3rd minutes). The mean pH among areca nut, OSMF and control groups was 6.76, 6.82, and 6.74 respectively with no statistical significance. Conclusions: The observation and findings of the study clearly showed hypersalivation among areca nut group and hyposalivation among OSMF group, with no significant change in salivary pH when compared to healthy subjects. PMID:26473160

  2. Use of a Genetically Enhanced, Pediocin-Producing Starter Culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM217, To Control Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Buyong, Nurliza; Kok, Jan; Luchansky, John B.

    1998-01-01

    Cheddar cheese was prepared with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM217, a starter culture which contains pMC117 coding for pediocin PA-1. About 75 liters of pasteurized milk (containing ca. 3.6% fat) was inoculated with strain MM217 (ca. 106 CFU per ml) and a mixture of three Listeria monocytogenes strains (ca. 103 CFU per ml). The viability of the pathogen and the activity of pediocin in the cheese were monitored at appropriate intervals throughout the manufacturing process and during ripening at 8°C for 6 months. In control cheese made with the isogenic, non-pediocin-producing starter culture L. lactis subsp. lactis MM210, the counts of the pathogen increased to about 107 CFU per g after 2 weeks of ripening and then gradually decreased to about 103 CFU per g after 6 months. In the experimental cheese made with strain MM217, the counts of L. monocytogenes decreased to 102 CFU per g within 1 week of ripening and then decreased to about 10 CFU per g within 3 months. The average titer of pediocin in the experimental cheese decreased from approximately 64,000 arbitrary units (AU) per g after 1 day to 2,000 AU per g after 6 months. No pediocin activity (<200 AU per g) was detected in the control cheese. Also, the presence of pMC117 in strain MM217 did not alter the cheese-making quality of the starter culture, as the rates of acid production, the pH values, and the levels of moisture, NaCl, and fat of the control cheese and the experimental cheese were similar. Our data revealed that pediocin-producing starter cultures have significant potential for protecting natural cheese against L. monocytogenes. PMID:9835572

  3. Simple Evaluation Method of Atmospheric Plasma Irradiation Dose using pH of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Kazunori; Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Nakatsu, Yoshimichi; Tanaka, Akiyo; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric discharge plasmas are promising for agricultural productivity improvements and novel medical therapies, because plasma provides high flux of short-lifetime reactive species at low temperature, leading to low damage to living body. For the plasma-bio applications, various kinds of plasma systems are employed, thus common evaluation methods are needed to compare plasma irradiation dose quantitatively among the systems. Here we offer simple evaluation method of plasma irradiation dose using pH of water. Experiments were carried out with a scalable DBD device. 300 μl of deionized water was prepared into the quartz 96 microwell plate at 3 mm below electrode. The pH value has been measured just after 10 minutes irradiation. The pH value was evaluated as a function of plasma irradiation dose. Atmospheric air plasma irradiation decreases pH of water with increasing the dose. We also measured concentrations of chemical species such as nitrites, nitrates and H2O2. The results indicate our method is promising to evaluate plasma irradiation dose quantitatively.

  4. Effect of pH on the accumulation kinetics of pentachlorophenol in goldfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, G.R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of accumulation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) at various pH values were investigated to explore how pH-dependent accumulation might influence PCP toxicity. Goldfish (Carassius auratus ) were exposed to 5 mu g PCP/L in a static system buffered with 7.5 mM bicine or N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (BES) at pH 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0. The amount of PCP in the fish, concentration of PCP in water, and the total amount of metabolites in the system were measured after exposure of fish from 1 to 96 hr. The distribution of PCP within the fish was altered by changes in the external pH. The pH-associated changes in distribution may have altered access of PCP to sites of metabolism, thereby altering the metabolic clearance. The pH-related changes in the pharmacokinetics of PCP resulted in a decrease in its bioconcentration factor with an increase in pH and account both for the decreased capacity of the fish to accumulated PCP and for its reduced LC50.

  5. Histone acetylation regulates intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    McBrian, Matthew A; Behbahan, Iman Saramipoor; Ferrari, Roberto; Su, Trent; Huang, Ta-Wei; Li, Kunwu; Hong, Candice S; Christofk, Heather R; Vogelauer, Maria; Seligson, David B; Kurdistani, Siavash K

    2013-01-24

    Differences in global levels of histone acetylation occur in normal and cancer cells, although the reason why cells regulate these levels has been unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for histone acetylation in regulating intracellular pH (pH(i)). As pH(i) decreases, histones are globally deacetylated by histone deacetylases (HDACs), and the released acetate anions are coexported with protons out of the cell by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), preventing further reductions in pH(i). Conversely, global histone acetylation increases as pH(i) rises, such as when resting cells are induced to proliferate. Inhibition of HDACs or MCTs decreases acetate export and lowers pH(i), particularly compromising pH(i) maintenance in acidic environments. Global deacetylation at low pH is reflected at a genomic level by decreased abundance and extensive redistribution of acetylation throughout the genome. Thus, acetylation of chromatin functions as a rheostat to regulate pH(i) with important implications for mechanism of action and therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:23201122

  6. Histone Acetylation Regulates Intracellular pH

    PubMed Central

    McBrian, Matthew A.; Behbahan, Iman Saramipoor; Ferrari, Roberto; Su, Trent; Huang, Ta-Wei; Li, Kunwu; Hong, Candice S.; Christofk, Heather R.; Vogelauer, Maria; Seligson, David B.; Kurdistani, Siavash K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Differences in global levels of histone acetylation occur in normal and cancer cells, although the reason why cells regulate these levels has been unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for histone acetylation in regulating intracellular pH (pHi). As pHi decreases, histones are globally deacetylated by histone deacetylases (HDACs), and the released acetate anions are coexported with protons out of the cell by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), preventing further reductions in pHi. Conversely, global histone acetylation increases as pHi rises, such as when resting cells are induced to proliferate. Inhibition of HDACs or MCTs decreases acetate export and lowers pHi, particularly compromising pHi maintenance in acidic environments. Global deacetylation at low pH is reflected at a genomic level by decreased abundance and extensive redistribution of acetylation throughout the genome. Thus, acetylation of chromatin functions as a rheostat to regulate pHi with important implications for mechanism of action and therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:23201122

  7. The pH of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. C.; Bishop, J. L.; Edwards, J. O.

    1993-01-01

    The Viking labeled release (LR) experiments provided data that can be used to determine the acid-base characteristics of the regolith. Constraints on the acid-base properties and redox potentials of the Martian surface material would provide additional information for determining what reactions are possible and defining formation conditions for the regolith. Calculations devised to determine the pH of Mars must include the amount of soluble acid species or base species present in the LR regolith sample and the solubility product of the carbonate with the limiting solubility. This analysis shows that CaCO3, either as calcite or aragonite, has the correct K(sub sp) to have produced the Viking LR successive injection reabsorption effects. Thus CaCO3 or another MeCO3 with very similar solubility characteristics must have been present on Mars. A small amount of soluble acid, but no more than 4 micro-mol per sample, could also have been present. It is concluded that the pH of the regolith is 7.2 +/- 0.1.

  8. Brain oxygen, CO2, pH, and temperature monitoring: evaluation in the feline brain.

    PubMed

    Zauner, A; Bullock, R; Di, X; Young, H F

    1995-12-01

    Currently, no ideal method exists for monitoring the injured brain. Recently, a single, compact, fiberoptic sensor has become available for measuring oxygen, CO2, pH and temperature in blood. We have adapted this instrument for continuous use in brain tissue to measure oxygen tension, carbon dioxide tension (pCO2), pH, and temperature. To evaluate this new technique, we produced hypercapnia, hypocapnia, intracranial pressure increase, and hypoxemia in seven normal cats. In an additional six animals, sensors were placed within a zone of focal brain ischemia induced by occluding the left middle cerebral artery. The sensor readings were compared with cerebral blood flow measurements, intracranial pressure, and brain histological findings. An in vitro experiment was also performed using human blood to test the accuracy of the sensor over a wide range of pCO2 and oxygen tension values. After careful precalibration and rigid cranium fixation, stable measurements could be obtained throughout the 6- to 8-hour experiments. In normal animals, brain oxygen was 42 +/- 9 mm Hg, brain CO2 was 59 +/- 14 mm Hg, brain pH was 7.0 +/- 0.2, and brain temperature was 36.7 +/- 0.7 degrees C. Hypocapnia and hypoxemia produced a significant decline in tissue oxygen (< or = 30 +/- 3 mm Hg; P < 0.001), whereas hypercapnia caused by hypoventilation and intracranial pressure increase produced a significant increase in tissue CO2 (> or = 74 +/- 4 mm Hg; P < 0.001). Focal ischemia produced a rapid 42% decline in brain oxygen (25 +/- 7 mm Hg) and a 25% increase in tissue pCO2 (71 +/- 23 mm Hg). Brain oxygen further decreased to 19 +/- 6 mm Hg toward the end of the experiment, 4 hours later. After middle cerebral artery occlusion, the regional cerebral blood flow decreased to 10 +/- 5 ml per 100 g per minute, within the 1st hour, from a baseline value of 65 +/- 15 ml per 100 g per minute. It then gradually increased to 15 +/- 5 ml per 100 g per minute by the end of the 4-hour experiment. Brain pH was closely and inversely related to brain CO2. The brain temperature in the focally ischemic tissue decreased from 36.7 +/- 0.7 to 35.5 +/- 1.6 degrees C by the end of the experiment. The in vitro experiment demonstrated good linear correlation between the sensor readings and the blood gas analysis. Continuous monitoring of oxygen, CO2, pH, and temperature in damaged or at-risk brain tissue using a single sensor is now feasible and will, thus, allow improved continuous monitoring of neurosurgical patients who are at risk of significant secondary brain damage. PMID:8584158

  9. Effects of external calcium concentration and pH on charge movement in frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Shlevin, H H

    1979-01-01

    1. The effects of both external Ca2+ (1.8, 25, 50 and 100 mM) and external pH (pH 5.5, 7.15, and 9.0) on the voltage-dependence of charge movement in frog skeletal muscle were examined using the three intracellular micro-electrode voltage-clamp technique. 2. The two-state model of Schneider & Chandler (1973) was used to describe the voltage distribution of membrane charge. The parameters of this model are: Qmax, the maximum quantity of charge; V, the potential of equal distribution of charge; and k, a constant relating to the steepness of the charge vs. voltage relationship. 3. In 1.8 mM external Ca2+, alterations, in external pH shifted the transition potential, V, from a mean +/- S.E. of mean of -36.5 +/- 0.9 mV at pH 7.15 to -25.8 +/- 1.3 mV at pH 5.5 and to -42.5 +/- 1.8 mV at pH 9.0. These shifts are consistent with surface charge theory. No significant changes in Qmax or k were observed over the range of pH 5.5--9.0. 4. A reasonable fit of surface charge theory to the shifts in V over the range pH 5.5--9.0 could be obtained with surface charge densities and binding constants: sigma 1 = -1 e/165 A2, pK1 = 3.9 and sigma 2 = -1 e/400 A2, pK2 = 8. 5. However, at pH 7.15, both V and k changed with increasing external Ca2+ concentration. V shifted from -34.9 +/- 3.7 mV in 1.8 mM-Ca2+ to -13.8 +/- 5.1 mV, -19.3 +/- 3.6 mV and 3.3 +/- 9.3 mV in 25, 50 and 100 mM-Ca2+ respectively. k increased from 8.3 +/- 0.6 mV in 1.8 mM-Ca2+ to 15.3 +/- 1.4 mV, 14.6 +/- 1.6 mV and 20.0 +/- 2.9 mV in 25, 50 and 100 mM-Ca2+. Changes in k reflect decreases in the apparent charged particle valence from approximately 3 in 1.8 mM-Ca2+ to approximately 1.2 in 100 mM-Ca2+. As the external Ca2+ concentration was raised, Qmax was at least as large as that measured in 1.8 mM-Ca2+. The 43% decrease in the apparent valence of the charged groups cannot be explained by simple surface charge theory and may reflect a specific interaction between external Ca2+ and the charged groups. 6. Shifts in V with alterations in external pH and Ca2+ concentration are consistent with the effects of these agents on the contraction threshold of muscle fibres. This observation lends further support to the hypothesis that the charge movement is involved in gating muscle contraction and that the charged particles respond to changes in the electric field across the muscle cell membrane. 7. No difference was observed in the charge movement parameters of fibres from both room-temperature and cold-adapted frog tested at 2--5 degrees C in 1.8 mM-Ca2+ at pH 7.15. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:38332

  10. Inactivation of adenovirus, reovirus and bacteriophages in fecal sludge by pH and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Magri, Maria Elisa; Fidjeland, Jørgen; Jönsson, Håkan; Albihn, Ann; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inactivation of adenovirus, reovirus and bacteriophages (MS2, ΦX174, 28B) in a fecal sludge. We conducted two experiments. In the first, we tested different compositions of the fecal sludge by mixing different amounts of water, feces and urine, totaling nine combinations which were kept at temperatures between 10 and 28°C. In the second study, urea was added to the mixtures, which were kept at temperatures from 5 to 33°C. The inactivation was based on a combination of temperature, pH and uncharged ammonia concentration. The increase in pH and ammonia was provided mainly by urine content (Experiment 1) and by urine and added urea (Experiment 2). The inactivation of bacteriophages was slower than the AdV and ReV. At 23°C and 28°, reasonable treatment times were obtained when pH was higher than 8.9 and NH3 concentrations were higher than 35 and 55 mM respectively. With those conditions, the maximum time for a 3 log reduction in viruses, according to this study, would be 35 days (23°C) and 21 days (28°C). However, in most applications where helminth eggs are present, the treatment time and NH3 for sanitization will be the scaling criteria, as they are more persistent. Concerning the sanitization of effluents from latrines, vacuum toilets or dry toilets in developing countries with tropical and sub-tropical climates, the use of intrinsic ammonia combined with high pH can be effective in producing a safe and highly valuable liquid that can be used as a fertilizer. In the case of the fecal sludge with very intrinsic ammonia concentration (<20 mM), sanitization could still be achieved by the addition of urea. PMID:25817758

  11. Day-to-night variations of cytoplasmic pH in a crassulacean acid metabolism plant.

    PubMed

    Hafke, J B; Neff, R; Hütt, M T; Lüttge, U; Thiel, G

    2001-01-01

    In crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) large amounts of malic acid are redistributed between vacuole and cytoplasm in the course of night-to-day transitions. The corresponding changes of the cytoplasmic pH (pHcyt) were monitored in mesophyll protoplasts from the CAM plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier by ratiometric fluorimetry with the fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6-)carboxyfluorescein as a pHcyt indicator. At the beginning of the light phase, pHcyt was slightly alkaline (about 7.5). It dropped during midday by about 0.3 pH units before recovering again in the late-day-to-early-dark phase. In the physiological context the variation in pHcyt may be a component of CAM regulation. Due to its pH sensitivity, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase appears as a likely target enzyme. From monitoring delta pHcyt in response to loading the cytoplasm with the weak acid salt K-acetate a cytoplasmic H(+)-buffer capacity in the order of 65 mM H+ per pH unit was estimated at a pHcyt of about 7.5. With this value, an acid load of the cytoplasm by about 10 mM malic acid can be estimated as the cause of the observed drop in pHcyt. A diurnal oscillation in pHcyt and a quantitatively similar cytoplasmic malic acid is predicted from an established mathematical model which allows simulation of the CAM dynamics. The similarity of model predictions and experimental data supports the view put forward in this model that a phase transition of the tonoplast is an essential functional element in CAM dynamics. PMID:11732184

  12. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Johanningsmeier, S D; Drake, M A; McFeeters, R F

    2009-01-01

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on sour taste of equimolar protonated organic acid solutions and to investigate the potential roles of organic anions and sodium ions on sour taste perception. Despite equal concentrations of protonated acid species, sour taste intensity decreased significantly with increased pH for acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acids (P < 0.05). Total organic anion concentration did not explain the suppression of sour taste in solutions containing a blend of 3 organic acids with constant concentration of protonated organic acid species and hydrogen ions and variable organic anion concentrations (R(2)= 0.480, P = 0.12). Sour taste suppression in these solutions seemed to be more closely related to sodium ions added in the form of NaOH (R(2)= 0.861, P = 0.007). Addition of 20 mM NaCl to acid solutions resulted in significant suppression of sour taste (P = 0.016). However, sour taste did not decrease with further addition of NaCl up to 80 mM. Presence of sodium ions was clearly shown to decrease sour taste of organic acid solutions. Nonetheless, suppression of sour taste in pH adjusted single acid solutions was greater than what would be expected based on the sodium ion concentration alone, indicating an additional suppression mechanism may be involved. PMID:19490344

  13. Endoscopic mucosal resection of colorectal adenomas > 20 mm: Risk factors for recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Briedigkeit, Alexander; Sultanie, Omar; Sido, Bernd; Dumoulin, Franz Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate risk factors for local recurrence after endoscopic mucosal resection of colorectal adenomas > 20 mm. METHODS: Retrospective data analysis of 216 endoscopic mucosal resections for colorectal adenomas > 20 mm in 179 patients (40.3% female; median age 68 years; range 35-91 years). All patients had at least 1 follow-up endoscopy with a minimum control interval of 2 mo (mean follow-up 6 mo/2.0-43.4 mo). Possible factors associated with local recurrence were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Median size of the lesions was 30 mm (20-70 mm), 69.0% were localized in the right-sided (cecum, ascending and transverse) colon. Most of the lesions (85.6%) showed a non-pedunculated morphology and the majority of resections was in piecemeal technique (78.7%). Histology showed carcinoma or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in 51/216 (23.6%) lesions including 4 low risk carcinomas (pT1a, L0, V0, R0 - G1/G2). Histologically proven recurrence was observed in 33/216 patients (15.3%). Patient age > 65 years, polyp size > 30 mm, non-pedunculated morphology, localization in the right-sided colon, piecemeal resection and tubular-villous histology were found as associated factors in univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, only localization in the right-sided colon (HR = 6.842/95%CI: 1.540-30.394; P = 0.011), tubular-villous histology (HR = 3.713/95%CI: 1.617-8.528; P = 0.002) and polyp size > 30 mm (HR = 2.563/95%CI: 1.179-5.570; P = 0.017) were significantly associated risk factors for adenoma recurrence. CONCLUSION: Meticulous endoscopic follow-up is warranted after endoscopic mucosal resection of adenomas localized in the right-sided colon larger than > 30 mm, with tubular-villous histology. PMID:26981180

  14. Metabolism and disposition of MM-433593, a selective FAAH-1 inhibitor, in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Banijamali, Ali R; Wakefield, James D; Mermerian, Ara H; Busby, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    MM-433593 is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase-1 (FAAH-1) with potential utility as an orally administered treatment of pain, inflammation, and other disorders. In this study, we investigated the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of MM-433593 in monkeys, and compared plasma and urine metabolites of this compound to the in vitro metabolites produced by monkey hepatocytes. Intravenous administration of MM-433593 to cynomolgus monkeys produced a rapid distribution phase and slower elimination phase with a mean systemic clearance rate of 8–11 mL/min/kg. Absolute oral bioavailability was determined to be 14–21% with maximum plasma concentrations reached ∼3 h (Tmax) following a 10 mg/kg oral dose. The average terminal half-life of MM-433593 was 17–20 h, and there were no qualitative sex differences in the metabolite profile of MM-433593. The major site of metabolism was oxidation of the methyl group at the five position of the indole ring, which was confirmed by chromatography and mass spectrometry comparison to a synthesized authentic standard. This metabolite was further oxidized to the corresponding carboxylic acid and/or conjugated with sulfate, glucuronide, or glutathione. In all, 18 metabolites were found in plasma and urine. In vitro incubations of MM-433593 with monkey hepatocytes yielded 13 metabolites, all of which were found in vivo, indicating a good correlation between the in vitro and in vivo metabolism data. A comprehensive pathway for the metabolism of MM-433593 is proposed, including a plausible, five-step biotransformation for the formation of N-acetylcysteine conjugate metabolite (M18) from the hydroxylated parent (M5). PMID:25505606

  15. Catalytic Decomposition of PH3 on Heated Tungsten Wire Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemoto, Hironobu; Nishihara, Yushin; Ishikawa, Takuma; Yamamoto, Shingo

    2012-08-01

    The catalytic decomposition processes of PH3 on heated tungsten surfaces were studied to clarify the mechanisms governing phosphorus doping into silicon substrates. Mass spectrometric measurements show that PH3 can be decomposed by more than 50% over 2000 K. H, P, PH, and PH2 radicals were identified by laser spectroscopic techniques. Absolute density measurements of these radical species, as well as their PH3 flow rate dependence, show that the major products on the catalyst surfaces are P and H atoms, while PH and PH2 are produced in secondary processes in the gas phase. In other words, catalytic decomposition, unlike plasma decomposition processes, can be a clean source of P atoms, which can be the only major dopant precursors. In the presence of an excess amount of H2, the apparent decomposition efficiency is small. This can be explained by rapid cyclic reactions including decomposition, deposition, and etching to reproduce PH3.

  16. Organelle pH in the Arabidopsis endomembrane system.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinbo; Zeng, Yonglun; Zhuang, Xiaohong; Sun, Lei; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Pimpl, Peter; Jiang, Liwen

    2013-09-01

    The pH of intracellular compartments is essential for the viability of cells. Despite its relevance, little is known about the pH of these compartments. To measure pH in vivo, we have first generated two pH sensors by combining the improved-solubility feature of solubility-modified green fluorescent protein (GFP) (smGFP) with the pH-sensing capability of the pHluorins and codon optimized for expression in Arabidopsis. PEpHluorin (plant-solubility-modified ecliptic pHluorin) gradually loses fluorescence as pH is lowered with fluorescence vanishing at pH 6.2 and PRpHluorin (plant-solubility-modified ratiomatric pHluorin), a dual-excitation sensor, allowing for precise measurements. Compartment-specific sensors were generated by further fusing specific sorting signals to PEpHluorin and PRpHluorin. Our results show that the pH of cytosol and nucleus is similar (pH 7.3 and 7.2), while peroxisomes, mitochondrial matrix, and plastidial stroma have alkaline pH. Compartments of the secretory pathway reveal a gradual acidification, spanning from pH 7.1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to pH 5.2 in the vacuole. Surprisingly, pH in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and multivesicular body (MVB) is, with pH 6.3 and 6.2, quite similar. The inhibition of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) with concanamycin A (ConcA) caused drastic increase in pH in TGN and vacuole. Overall, the PEpHluorin and PRpHluorin are excellent pH sensors for visualization and quantification of pH in vivo, respectively. PMID:23702593

  17. New Routes to the PhD: Cause for Concern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Bill; Murray, Rowena

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments suggest that the PhD is at a turning point. Professional groups have criticised the so-called traditional PhD. New routes to the PhD are proposed by several bodies and endorsed by one funding council. In light of these developments, it is appropriate to ask what the implications are for the PhD and for the academy. A focus…

  18. New Routes to the PhD: Cause for Concern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Bill; Murray, Rowena

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments suggest that the PhD is at a turning point. Professional groups have criticised the so-called traditional PhD. New routes to the PhD are proposed by several bodies and endorsed by one funding council. In light of these developments, it is appropriate to ask what the implications are for the PhD and for the academy. A focus

  19. Development and application of QM/MM methods to study the solvation effects and surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dibya, Pooja Arora

    2010-05-16

    Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations have the advantage of attaining high-level accuracy, however QM calculations become computationally inefficient as the size of the system grows. Solving complex molecular problems on large systems and ensembles by using quantum mechanics still poses a challenge in terms of the computational cost. Methods that are based on classical mechanics are an inexpensive alternative, but they lack accuracy. A good trade off between accuracy and efficiency is achieved by combining QM methods with molecular mechanics (MM) methods to use the robustness of the QM methods in terms of accuracy and the MM methods to minimize the computational cost. Two types of QM combined with MM (QM/MM) methods are the main focus of the present dissertation: the application and development of QM/MM methods for solvation studies and reactions on the Si(100) surface. The solvation studies were performed using a discreet solvation model that is largely based on first principles called the effective fragment potential method (EFP). The main idea of combining the EFP method with quantum mechanics is to accurately treat the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions, such as electrostatic, polarization, dispersion and charge transfer, that are important in correctly calculating solvent effects on systems of interest. A second QM/MM method called SIMOMM (surface integrated molecular orbital molecular mechanics) is a hybrid QM/MM embedded cluster model that mimics the real surface.3 This method was employed to calculate the potential energy surfaces for reactions of atomic O on the Si(100) surface. The hybrid QM/MM method is a computationally inexpensive approach for studying reactions on larger surfaces in a reasonably accurate and efficient manner. This thesis is comprised of four chapters: Chapter 1 describes the general overview and motivation of the dissertation and gives a broad background of the computational methods that have been employed in this work. Chapter 2 illustrates the methodology of the interface of the EFP method with the configuration interaction with single excitations (CIS) method to study solvent effects in excited states. Chapter 3 discusses the study of the adiabatic electron affinity of the hydroxyl radical in aqueous solution and in micro-solvated clusters using a QM/EFP method. Chapter 4 describes the study of etching and diffusion of oxygen atom on a reconstructed Si(100)-2 x 1 surface using a hybrid QM/MM embedded cluster model (SIMOMM). Chapter 4 elucidates the application of the EFP method towards the understanding of the aqueous ionization potential of Na atom. Finally, a general conclusion of this dissertation work and prospective future direction are presented in Chapter 6.

  20. Use of 5-mm-diameter implants: Periotest values related to a clinical and radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, C; Orozco, P

    1998-12-01

    A modified design of the original Brnemark implant consisting of a cp. Titanium 5.0-mm-diameter self-tapping implant threaded up to the marginal platform has been proposed for specific indications. From February 1992 to November 1995, a total of 185 machined screw implants (Nobel Biocare, Gothenburg, Sweden) were installed in 45 patients to withstand 58 prostheses. Of these, 91 were 3.75-mm diameter and 94 were 5.0-mm wide. Most of the implants were placed in type B and C bone quantity and type 2 and 3 bone quality. A retrospective evaluation with regard to indications, marginal bone remodelling, Periotest values (PTv) and survival rate is presented. PTv and radiographic measurements were made at abutment connection and repeated 3, 6 and 12 months later and thereafter every year. The follow-up ranged from 16 to 55 months (mean 32.9 months) post-loading. Three patients with 8 5.0-mm implants dropped-out of the study at different stages. Out of the wide implants, 1 was expelled during the healing period; 3 were found mobile at the abutment connection; 1 lost its osseointegration suddenly after 2 years of function; 4 belonging to 1 patient did not meet the success criteria due to continuous marginal bone loss. The cumulative success rate of 5.0-mm implants (CSR) after 1 year of function was 97.2% for upper jaws and 88.4% in mandibles, whereas the CSR in maxilla after 48 months was 97.2% and 83.4% in mandibles. The obtained PTv from 5.0-mm-wide fixtures in maxilla and mandibles were respectively 1.1 and 0.6 units lower than those obtained PTv for 3.75-mm-diameter implants in the same patients. The hypothesis that there are differences in the damping capacity of the bone surrounding a 5.0-mm-wide implant compared to the 3.75-mm-diameter implant is supported by the PTv results. PMID:11429941

  1. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroche, G.; Vallade, J.; Bazinette, R.; van Nijnatten, P.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm × 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45° beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  2. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Laroche, G; Vallade, J; Bazinette, R; van Nijnatten, P; Hernandez, E; Hernandez, G; Massines, F

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm × 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45° beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma. PMID:23126767

  3. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Laroche, G.; Vallade, J.; Bazinette, R.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F.; Nijnatten, P. van

    2012-10-15

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm Multiplication-Sign 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45 Degree-Sign beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  4. Ultra-Compact Multitip Scanning Probe Microscope with an Outer Diameter of 50 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanov, Vasily; Zubkov, Evgeny; Junker, Hubertus; Korte, Stefan; Blab, Marcus; Coenen, Peter; Voigtländer, Bert

    We present a multitip scanning tunneling microscope (STM) where four independent STM units are integrated on a diameter of 50 mm. The coarse positioning of the tips is done under the control of an optical microscope or an SEM in vacuum. The heart of this STM is a new type of piezoelectric coarse approach called Koala Drive which can have a diameter greater than 2.5 mm and a length smaller than 10 mm. Alternating movements of springs move a central tube which holds the STM tip or AFM sensor. This new operating principle provides a smooth travel sequence and avoids shaking which is intrinsically present for nanopositioners based on inertial motion with saw tooth driving signals. Inserting the Koala Drive in a piezo tube for xyz-scanning integrates a complete STM inside a 4 mm outer diameter piezo tube of <10 mm length. The use of the Koala Drive makes the scanning probe microscopy design ultra-compact and accordingly leads to a high mechanical stability. The drive is UHV, low temperature, and magnetic field compatible. The compactness of the Koala Drive allows building a four-tip STM as small as a single-tip STM with a drift of <0.2 nm/min and lowest resonance frequencies of 2.5 (xy) and 5.5 kHz (z). We present examples of the performance of the multitip STM designed using the Koala Drive.

  5. QM/MM study of the monomeric red fluorescent protein DsRed.M1.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Doerr, Markus; Hsiao, Ya-Wen; Thiel, Walter

    2009-12-31

    We report a combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) study of the DsRed.M1 protein using as QM component the self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) method in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and hybrid density functional theory (DFT, B3LYP functional) in QM/MM geometry optimizations. We consider different variants of the chromophore (including the cis- and trans-acylimine and peptide forms) as well as different protonation states of environmental residues. The QM/MM calculations provide insight into the role of nearby residues concerning their interactions with the chromophore and their influence on structural and spectroscopic properties. QM/MM optimizations yield a single conformer for the anionic acylimine chromophore, whereas there are distinct cis- and trans-conformers in the anionic peptide chromophore, the latter being more stable. The calculated vertical excitation energies (DFT/MRCI) for the anionic chromophores agree well with experiment. The published crystal structure of DsRed.M1 with an anionic acylimine chromophore indicates a quinoid structure, while the QM/MM calculations predict the phenolate form to be more stable. PMID:19994834

  6. Ultrasonic micro-motor using miniature piezoelectric tube with diameter of 1.0 mm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Dong, Shu-xiang; Zhang, Shu-yi; Wang, Tian-hua; Zhang, Zhong-ning; Fan, Li

    2006-12-22

    At the present moment, the smallest piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-motors utilizing miniature PZT piezoelectric ceramic tubes were developed. The motor consists of a PZT-metal composite tube stator, two steel rotors and a thin shaft that keeps the two rotors pressing on both ends of the stator elastically. The dimensions of the PZT tube are 1.0 mm in outer diameter, 0.6 mm in inner diameter and 5.0 mm in length. The diameter and total length of the assembled micro-motor is 1.0 mm and 8 mm (including an adjusting spring), respectively. The tube-type micro-motor is driven by two pairs of alternative voltages with phase shift 90 degrees between the adjacent electrodes and operated in the first circular-bending vibration mode of the stator with the resonance frequency about 58 kHz. The experimental results show that the tube-type micro-motors have perfect performances: (i) high rotation frequency over 3000 rpm and (ii) large starting torque over 7.8 microN m under the conditions of the input voltage of 110 V(p-p) and the resonance frequency. The micro-motor is well suitable for operating in micro-spaces, such as in intravascular, micro-robots and micro-craft applications. PMID:16793103

  7. 450 mm dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma sources: Conventional, graded, and segmented electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yang; Kushner, Mark J.

    2010-12-01

    Wafer diameters for microelectronics fabrication will soon transition from 300 to 450 mm at a time when excitation frequencies for capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) are increasing to 200 MHz or higher. Already for 300 mm tools, there is evidence that wave behavior (i.e., propagation, constructive, and destructive interference) affects the uniformity of processing. The increase in diameter to 450 mm is likely to exacerbate these effects, perhaps requiring nontraditional tool designs. This is particularly important in dual frequency (DF) CCP tools in which there are potential interactions between frequencies. In this paper, results from a two-dimensional computational investigation of Ar plasma properties in a 450 mm DF-CCP reactor, incorporating a full-wave solution of Maxwell's equations, are discussed. As in 300 mm DF-CCP reactors, the electron density collapses toward the center of the reactor with increasing high frequency (HF), however, with more pronounced finite wavelength effects. Graded conductivity electrodes with multilayer of dielectrics are computationally demonstrated as a possible means to suppress wave effects thereby increasing plasma uniformity. Segmentation of the HF electrode also improves the plasma uniformity by making the electrical distance between the feeds and the sheath edges as uniform as possible.

  8. Survival and growth of age-0 steelhead after surgical implantation of 23-mm passive integrated transponders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, D.S.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little information is available on the effects of implanting 23-mm passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in salmonids less than 90 mm fork length (FL). Using juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss (range, 73–97 mm FL), we compared instantaneous growth rates and survival among three experimental groups: control, surgery with no tag, and surgery with tag. Survival rate was lower for tagged fish (86%) than for control and surgery−no tag fish (virtually 100% in each group). Approximately 90% of the mortalities occurred during days 1–3. Growth rate for the tagged group was lower for the first two 10-d measurement intervals; however, during the third 10-d interval, growth rates for tagged fish equaled or exceeded values for the other groups. These results suggest that tagged fish recovered by day 20. Growth rates for the control and surgery−no tag groups did not differ from one another during any measurement interval. Tag retention rate was 97% over the 30-d period of the study. It appears that the combination of fish length and tag size in this study resulted in short-term negative effects on growth rate and survival; however, 23-mm PIT tags may still be useful for studies of salmonids 80–90 mm FL when survival is not the parameter of interest.

  9. Steel slag raises pH of greenhouse substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dolomitic lime (DL) is the primary liming agent used for increasing pH in peatmoss-based substrates. Steel slag (SS) is a byproduct of the steel manufacturing industry that has been used to elevate field soil pH. The objective of this research was to determine the pH response of a peatmoss-based g...

  10. A Multiattributes Approach for Ranking PhD Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbancic, Frank R.

    2008-01-01

    In its plan to combat the PhD shortage crisis, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB; 2003) has called for the development of PhD program rankings to serve as incentives for academic institutions to invest more in PhD programs, thereby counterbalancing the disproportionate influence of master of business…

  11. pH dynamics in sewers and its modeling.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Keshab; Ganigue, Ramon; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-10-15

    pH variation in sewers has a significant effect on hydrogen sulfide production and emissions, and hence its accurate prediction is critical for the optimization of mitigation strategies. In this study, the nature and dynamics of pH variation in a sewer system is examined. Three sewer systems collecting domestic wastewater were monitored, with pH in all cases showing large diurnal variations. pH in fresh sewage in all three cases had a very similar trend with maximum pH in the range of 8.5-8.7. pH variation in fresh sewage followed the same pattern as the sewage flow rate, suggesting that sewage pH is influenced by household water use. Nitrogen content of the wastewater was found to be the most influential factor causing pH variation in fresh sewage, with the total ammonium concentration variation well correlated with the pH variation. A methodology for predicting pH variation in sewers is developed and calibration protocols proposed. The methodology, which is based on the concept of charge balance, was validated using titration curves and field pH data. Measurement of the total ammonium concentration in fresh sewage was found necessary and adequate for the calibration of the charge balance-based pH model. PMID:23962970

  12. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  13. INFLUENCE OF PH AND REDOX CONDITIONS ON COPPER LEACHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leaching behavior of metals from a mineral processing waste at varying pH and redox conditions was studies. Effect of combinations of pH and Eh on leaching of copper is described. Leaching of copper was found to be dependent on both pH and Eh. Higher concentrations of Cu were ...

  14. A Multiattributes Approach for Ranking PhD Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbancic, Frank R.

    2008-01-01

    In its plan to combat the PhD shortage crisis, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB; 2003) has called for the development of PhD program rankings to serve as incentives for academic institutions to invest more in PhD programs, thereby counterbalancing the disproportionate influence of master of business

  15. Measurement of pH in high ionic strength solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Knauss, K.G.; Wolery, T.J.; Jackson, K.J.

    1991-12-31

    A practical method is described for measuring pH in solutions of high ionic strength (e.g., brines, process solutions). The pH is determined by integratively measuring the potential due to H{sup +} and the potential due to another cation or anion and relating the combined electrical potential to a calculated pH for high ionic strength solutions.

  16. Ian Douglass Coulter, PhD

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on Dr. Ian Coulter’s accomplishments from the time he became Executive Vice-President of CMCC in 1981, until he ended his presidency with a year’s administrative leave in 1990. Annual planning initiatives, pedagogy, scholarship, conflicts, and the quest for university affiliation are discussed as well as his legacy to the College and the chiropractic profession. The term “adventurous” was first attributed to Coulter by Oswald Hall, PhD, Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto who had worked closely with Coulter in a major investigation of the chiropractic profession from 1976 to 1979. Throughout this article the author tries to capture the spirit of daring, innovation and intellect that permeated Coulter’s presidency, enthralling his advocates and confounding his detractors. PMID:17549218

  17. Intracellular pH in Sperm Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Nishigaki, Takuya; José, Omar; González-Cota, Ana Laura; Romero, Francisco; Treviño, Claudia L.; Darszon, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation is essential for cell function. Notably, several unique sperm ion transporters and enzymes whose elimination causes infertility are either pHi dependent or somehow related to pHi regulation. Amongst them are: CatSper, a Ca2+ channel; Slo3, a K+ channel; the sperm-specific Na+/H+ exchanger and the soluble adenylyl cyclase. It is thus clear that pHi regulation is of the utmost importance for sperm physiology. This review briefly summarizes the key components involved in pHi regulation, their characteristics and participation in fundamental sperm functions such as motility, maturation and the acrosome reaction. PMID:24887564

  18. Understanding Non-Traditional PhD Students Habitus--Implications for PhD Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Devika

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of vast changes in doctoral education and the emergence of non-traditional doctoral programmes, this paper investigates the habitus of non-traditional PhD students at a South African university. Bourdieu's conceptual tool of habitus informed the study. In-depth and open-ended interviews were conducted with 10 non-traditional…

  19. Understanding Non-Traditional PhD Students Habitus--Implications for PhD Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Devika

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of vast changes in doctoral education and the emergence of non-traditional doctoral programmes, this paper investigates the habitus of non-traditional PhD students at a South African university. Bourdieu's conceptual tool of habitus informed the study. In-depth and open-ended interviews were conducted with 10 non-traditional

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Mono-13C acetaldehydes mm/submm wave spectra (Margules+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margules, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2015-06-01

    This paper is a continuation of a series of studies conducted in PhLAM Lille (France) that are devoted to the investigations of the spectra of different isotopic species of astrophysical molecules. We present a new study of the 13CH3CHO and CH313CHO spectra with measurements and analysis extended up to 945GHz. (6 data files).

  1. Effects of starvation on the transport of Escherichia coli K12 in saturated porous media are dependent on pH and ionic strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Walczak, J. J.; Wang, L.; Bardy, S. L.; Li, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this research, we investigate the effects of starvation on the transport of E. coli K12 in saturated porous media. Particularly, we examine the relationship between such effects and the pH and ionic strength of the electrolyte solutions that were used to suspend bacterial cells. E. coli K12 (ATCC 10798) cells were cultured using either Luria-Bertani Miller (LB-Miller) broth (10 g trypton, 5 g yeast extract and 10 g NaCl in 1 L of deionized water) or LB-Luria broth (10 g tryptone, 5 g yeast extract and 0.5 g NaCl in 1 L of deionized water). Both broths had similar pH (~7.1) but differed in ionic strength (LB-Miller: ~170 mM, LB-Luria: ~ 8 mM). The bacterial cells were then harvested and suspended using one of the following electrolyte solutions: phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (pH ~7.2; ionic strength ~170 mM), 168 mM NaCl (pH ~5.7), 5% of PBS (pH ~ 7.2; ionic strength ~ 8 mM) and 8 mM NaCl (pH ~ 5.7). Column transport experiments were performed at 0, 21 and 48 hours following cell harvesting to evaluate the change in cell mobility over time under “starvation” conditions. Our results showed that 1) starvation increased the mobility of E. coli K12 cells; 2) the most significant change in mobility occurred when bacterial cells were suspended in an electrolyte solution that had different pH and ionic strength (i.e., LB-Miller culture suspended in 8 mM NaCl and LB-Luria culture suspended in 168 mM Nacl); and 3) the change in cell mobility primarily occurred within the first 21 hours. The size of the bacterial cells was measured and the surface properties (e.g., zeta potential, hydrophobicity, cell-bound protein, LPS sugar content, outer membrane protein profiles) of the bacterial cells were characterized. We found that the measured cell surface properties could not fully explain the observed changes in cell mobility caused by starvation.

  2. Regulation of intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Boron, Walter F

    2004-12-01

    The approach that most animal cells employ to regulate intracellular pH (pH(i)) is not too different conceptually from the way a sophisticated system might regulate the temperature of a house. Just as the heat capacity (C) of a house minimizes sudden temperature (T) shifts caused by acute cold and heat loads, the buffering power (beta) of a cell minimizes sudden pH(i) shifts caused by acute acid and alkali loads. However, increasing C (or beta) only minimizes T (or pH(i)) changes; it does not eliminate the changes, return T (or pH(i)) to normal, or shift steady-state T (or pH(i)). Whereas a house may have a furnace to raise T, a cell generally has more than one acid-extruding transporter (which exports acid and/or imports alkali) to raise pH(i). Whereas an air conditioner lowers T, a cell generally has more than one acid-loading transporter to lower pH(i). Just as a house might respond to graded decreases (or increases) in T by producing graded increases in heat (or cold) output, cells respond to graded decreases (or increases) in pH(i) with graded increases (or decreases) in acid-extrusion (or acid-loading) rate. Steady-state T (or pH(i)) can change only in response to a change in chronic cold (or acid) loading or chronic heat (or alkali) loading as produced, for example, by a change in environmental T (or pH) or a change in the kinetics of the furnace (or acid extrudes) or air conditioner (or acid loaders). Finally, just as a temperature-control system might benefit from environmental sensors that provide clues about cold and heat loading, at least some cells seem to have extracellular CO(2) or extracellular HCO(3)(-) sensors that modulate acid-base transport. PMID:15545345

  3. Comparison of Rumen Fluid pH by Continuous Telemetry System and Bench pH Meter in Sheep with Different Ranges of Ruminal pH

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Leonardo F.; Minervino, Antonio H. H.; Araújo, Carolina A. S. C.; Sousa, Rejane S.; Oliveira, Francisco L. C.; Rodrigues, Frederico A. M. L.; Meira-Júnior, Enoch B. S.; Barrêto-Júnior, Raimundo A.; Mori, Clara S.; Ortolani, Enrico L.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to compare the measurements of sheep ruminal pH using a continuous telemetry system or a bench pH meter using sheep with different degrees of ruminal pH. Ruminal lactic acidosis was induced in nine adult crossbred Santa Ines sheep by the administration of 15 g of sucrose per kg/BW. Samples of rumen fluid were collected at the baseline, before the induction of acidosis (T0) and at six, 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the induction for pH measurement using a bench pH meter. During this 72-hour period, all animals had electrodes for the continuous measurement of pH. The results were compared using the Bland-Altman analysis of agreement, Pearson coefficients of correlation and determination, and paired analysis of variance with Student's t-test. The measurement methods presented a strong correlation (r = 0.94, P < 0.05) but the rumen pH that was measured continuously using a telemetry system resulted in lower values than the bench pH meter (overall mean of 5.38 and 5.48, resp., P = 0.0001). The telemetry system was able to detect smaller changes in rumen fluid pH and was more accurate in diagnosing both subacute ruminal lactic acidosis and acute ruminal lactic acidosis in sheep. PMID:24967422

  4. Synergistic and Antagonistic Effects of Salinity and pH on Germination in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Yunwei; Cui, Jian; Chen, Guo; Xie, Bao; Wu, Chunhui; Liu, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    The effects of salt-alkaline mixed stress on switchgrass were investigated by evaluating seed germination and the proline, malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble sugar contents in three switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars in order to identify which can be successfully produced on marginal lands affected by salt-alkaline mixed stress. The experimental conditions consisted of four levels of salinity (10, 60, 110 and 160 mM) and four pH levels (7.1, 8.3, 9.5 and 10.7). The effects of salt-alkaline mixed stress with equivalent coupling of the salinity and pH level on the switchgrass were explored via model analyses. Switchgrass was capable of germinating and surviving well in all treatments under low-alkaline pH (pH≤8.3), regardless of the salinity. However, seed germination and seedling growth were sharply reduced at higher pH values in conjunction with salinity. The salinity and pH had synergetic effects on the germination percentage, germination index, plumular length and the soluble sugar and proline contents in switchgrass. However, these two factors exhibited antagonistic effects on the radicular length of switchgrass. The combined effects of salinity and pH and the interactions between them should be considered when evaluating the strength of salt-alkaline mixed stress. PMID:24454834

  5. Ultrastructural response of rat lung to 90 days' exposure to oxygen at 450 mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    Young Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 100% oxygen at 450 mm Hg in constant environment capsules for 90 days. Lung tissue examined by electron microscopy revealed a number of changes, many similar to those observed after exposure to oxygen at 760 mm Hg for shorter periods of time. Alterations in vesicle size and number and in mitochondrial matrix and cristae appear in both the endothelial and epithelial cells. Blebbing and rarefication of cytoplasm occur in both cell layers of the alveolo-capillary wall. Also seen are fluid in the basement membrane, platelets in the capillaries, and alveolar fluid and debris. All of these alterations occur at 1 atm exposure. However, after exposure to 450 mm Hg the changes are not as widespread nor as destructive as they are at the higher pressure.

  6. LICHEM: A QM/MM program for simulations with multipolar and polarizable force fields.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Eric G; Walker, Alice R; Lagardère, Louis; Lipparini, Filippo; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Andrés Cisneros, G

    2016-04-30

    We introduce an initial implementation of the LICHEM software package. LICHEM can interface with Gaussian, PSI4, NWChem, TINKER, and TINKER-HP to enable QM/MM calculations using multipolar/polarizable force fields. LICHEM extracts forces and energies from unmodified QM and MM software packages to perform geometry optimizations, single-point energy calculations, or Monte Carlo simulations. When the QM and MM regions are connected by covalent bonds, the pseudo-bond approach is employed to smoothly transition between the QM region and the polarizable force field. A series of water clusters and small peptides have been employed to test our initial implementation. The results obtained from these test systems show the capabilities of the new software and highlight the importance of including explicit polarization. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26781073

  7. Applications of a novel QM/MM method incorporating a polarizable force field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christopher; Herbert, John

    2009-03-01

    In conventional QM/MM methods the MM region is modeled by a force field that uses a set of point charges to represent the electrostatics. However, recently developed force fields use multipole expansions combined with polarizable sites to to represent electrostatic interactions. A novel algorithm is presented to interface this class of force fields with a QM region by allowing the QM region and the MM region to polarize each other self-consistently. It is implemented using the QChem electronic structure code and the AMOEBA force field as implemented in the software package TINKER. The algorithm is general and can be used with a variety of QM methods including MP2 and DFT. Examples of both ground state and excited state calculations are presented, including the investigation of the effectiveness of many-body expansions in modeling the solvation of charged species and the effect of charged environments on biomolecules.

  8. Recording and wear characteristics of 4 and 8 mm helical scan tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peter, Klaus J.; Speliotis, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    Performance data of media on helical scan tape systems (4 and 8 mm) is presented and various types of media are compared. All measurements were performed on a standard MediaLogic model ML4500 Tape Evaluator System with a Flash Converter option for time based measurements. The 8 mm tapes are tested on an Exabyte 8200 drive and 4 mm tapes on an Archive Python drive; in both cases, the head transformer is directly connected to a Media Logic Read/Write circuit and test electronics. The drive functions only as a tape transport and its data recover circuits are not used. Signal to Noise, PW 50, Peak Shift and Wear Test data is used to compare the performance of MP (metal particle), BaFe, and metal evaporate (ME). ME tape is the clear winner in magnetic performance but its susceptibility to wear and corrosion, make it less than ideal for data storage.

  9. New QM/MM implementation of the DFTB3 method in the gromacs package.

    PubMed

    Kubař, Tomáš; Welke, Kai; Groenhof, Gerrit

    2015-10-01

    The approximate density-functional tight-binding theory method DFTB3 has been implemented in the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) framework of the Gromacs molecular simulation package. We show that the efficient smooth particle-mesh Ewald implementation of Gromacs extends to the calculation of QM/MM electrostatic interactions. Further, we make use of the various free-energy functionalities provided by Gromacs and the PLUMED plugin. We exploit the versatility and performance of the current framework in three typical applications of QM/MM methods to solve biophysical problems: (i) ultrafast proton transfer in malonaldehyde, (ii) conformation of the alanine dipeptide, and (iii) electron-induced repair of a DNA lesion. Also discussed is the further development of the framework, regarding mostly the options for parallelization. PMID:26238364

  10. New Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Temperature at3.3 mm Wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Witebsky, C.; Smoot, G.; De Amici, G.; Friedman, S.D.

    1986-02-01

    We have measured the temperature of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at 3.3 mm wavelength in 1982, 1983, and 1984 as part of a larger project to determine the CBR temperature at five wavelengths from 12 cm to 3.3 mm (Smoot et al. 1985). The 3.3-mm measurements yield a brightness temperature of 2.57 K with a 1{sigma} uncertainty of 20.12 K. This paper describes the instrument, the measurement techniques, and the data-analysis procedures used. Our result is in good agreement with recent measurements at comparable wavelengths by Meyer and Jura (1985) and by Peterson, Richards, and Timusk (1985), but it disagrees with the temperatures reported by Woody and Richards (1981).

  11. Large-Area Reflective Infrared Filters for Millimeter/Sub-mm Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Z.; Grayson, J. A.; Thompson, K. L.; Kuo, C.-L.; Brooks, G.; Pothoven, T.

    2014-09-01

    Ground-based millimeter and sub-millimeter telescopes are attempting to image the sky with ever-larger cryogenically-cooled bolometer arrays, but face challenges in mitigating the infrared loading accompanying large apertures. Absorptive infrared filters supported by mechanical coolers scale insufficiently with aperture size. Reflective metal-mesh filters placed behind the telescope window provide a scalable solution in principle, but have been limited by photolithography constraints to diameters under 300 mm. We present laser etching as an alternate technique to photolithography for fabrication of large-area reflective filters, and show results from lab tests of 500-mm-diameter filters. Filters with up to 700-mm diameter can be fabricated using laser etching with existing capability.

  12. Three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor using a 5-mm-diameter piezoelectric ceramic tube.

    PubMed

    Mingsen Guo; Junhui Hu; Hua Zhu; Chunsheng Zhao; Shuxiang Dong

    2013-07-01

    A small three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor has been developed using a simple piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-tube stator (OD 5 mm, ID 3 mm, length 15 mm). The stator drives a ball-rotor into rotational motion around one of three orthogonal (x-, y-, and z-) axes by combing the first longitudinal and second bending vibration modes. A motor prototype was fabricated and characterized; its performance was superior to those of previous motors made with a PZT ceramic/metal composite stator of comparable size. The method for further improving the performance was discussed. The motor can be further miniaturized and it has potential to be applied to medical microrobots, endoscopes or micro laparoscopic devices, and cell manipulation devices. PMID:25004511

  13. An application of QM/MM simulation: the second protonation of cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Lian, Peng; Wei, Dongqing

    2015-01-01

    The multiscale model strategy, hybrid quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM), has become more and more prevalent in the theoretical study of enzymatic reactions. It combines both the efficiency of the Newtonian molecular calculations and the accuracy of the quantum mechanical methods. Simulation using QM/MM multiscale model may be one of the most promising approaches that could further narrow the gap between the theoretical models and the real problems. It is capable of dealing with not only the conformational changes of biomacromolecules, but also the catalytic reactions. Herein, we reviewed some of our recent work to demonstrate the application of the QM/MM simulations in exploring the enzymatic reactions. PMID:25387972

  14. Evidence for Highly Inhomogeneous mm-Wave Sources During the Impulsive Flare of May 9, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermann, R.; Magun, A.; Kaufmann, P.; Correia, E.; Costa, J. E. R.; Machado, M. E.; Fishman, G.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper multiwavelength observations of an impulsive flare of May 9, 1991 are presented. This event was observed with the 48 GHz multibeam focal array used at the Itapetinga radio telescope, the microwave patrol telescopes at Bem and the BATSE high time resolution hard X-ray spectrometer on board CGRO. While spatially unresolved low sensitivity observations show two major impulsive peaks, the mm-wave observations with the ability of spatially high resolved tracking of the emission centroids suggest a primarily bipolar source configuration. For the first time two mm-wave sources with a spacing below the HPBW could be separated with the multibeam technique. The general features of the observations are explained as emission of partially trapped electrons. Furthermore we present evidence for highly inhomogeneous substructures within one of the two mm-wave sources for which the positional scatter of the emission center, within 2s, is less than 2".

  15. GTKDynamo: a PyMOL plug-in for QC/MM hybrid potential simulations

    PubMed Central

    Bachega, José Fernando R.; Timmers, Luís Fernando S.M.; Assirati, Lucas; Bachega, Leonardo R.; Field, Martin J.; Wymore, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid quantum chemical (QC)/molecular mechanical (MM) potentials are very powerful tools for molecular simulation. They are especially useful for studying processes in condensed phase systems, such as chemical reactions, that involve a relatively localized change in electronic structure and where the surrounding environment contributes to these changes but can be represented with more computationally efficient functional forms. Despite their utility, however, these potentials are not always straightforward to apply since the extent of significant electronic structure changes occurring in the condensed phase process may not be intuitively obvious. To facilitate their use we have developed an open-source graphical plug-in, GTKDynamo, that links the PyMOL visualization program and the pDynamo QC/MM simulation library. This article describes the implementation of GTKDynamo and its capabilities and illustrates its application to QC/MM simulations. PMID:24137667

  16. OpenMM 4: A Reusable, Extensible, Hardware Independent Library for High Performance Molecular Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Peter; Friedrichs, Mark S.; Chodera, John D.; Radmer, Randall J.; Bruns, Christopher M.; Ku, Joy P.; Beauchamp, Kyle A.; Lane, Thomas J.; Wang, Lee-Ping; Shukla, Diwakar; Tye, Tony; Houston, Mike; Stich, Timo; Klein, Christoph; Shirts, Michael R.; Pande, Vijay S.

    2012-01-01

    OpenMM is a software toolkit for performing molecular simulations on a range of high performance computing architectures. It is based on a layered architecture: the lower layers function as a reusable library that can be invoked by any application, while the upper layers form a complete environment for running molecular simulations. The library API hides all hardware-specific dependencies and optimizations from the users and developers of simulation programs: they can be run without modification on any hardware on which the API has been implemented. The current implementations of OpenMM include support for graphics processing units using the OpenCL and CUDA frameworks. In addition, OpenMM was designed to be extensible, so new hardware architectures can be accommodated and new functionality (e.g., energy terms and integrators) can be easily added. PMID:23316124

  17. Efficient approach to obtain free energy gradient using QM/MM MD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asada, Toshio; Ando, Kanta; Koseki, Shiro

    2015-12-01

    The efficient computational approach denoted as charge and atom dipole response kernel (CDRK) model to consider polarization effects of the quantum mechanical (QM) region is described using the charge response and the atom dipole response kernels for free energy gradient (FEG) calculations in the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) method. CDRK model can reasonably reproduce energies and also energy gradients of QM and MM atoms obtained by expensive QM/MM calculations in a drastically reduced computational time. This model is applied on the acylation reaction in hydrated trypsin-BPTI complex to optimize the reaction path on the free energy surface by means of FEG and the nudged elastic band (NEB) method.

  18. The Effect of pH and Ion Channel Modulators on Human Placental Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Tayyba Y; Broughton Pipkin, Fiona; Khan, Raheela N

    2014-01-01

    Chorionic plate arteries (CPA) are located at the maternofetal interface where they are able to respond to local metabolic changes. Unlike many other types of vasculature, the placenta lacks nervous control and requires autoregulation for controlling blood flow. The placental circulation, which is of low-resistance, may become hypoxic easily leading to fetal acidosis and fetal distress however the role of the ion channels in these circumstances is not well-understood. Active potassium channel conductances that are subject to local physicochemical modulation may serve as pathways through which such signals are transduced. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulation of CPA by pH and the channels implicated in these responses using wire myography. CPA were isolated from healthy placentae and pre-contracted with U46619 before testing the effects of extracellular pH using 1 M lactic acid over the pH range 7.4 - 6.4 in the presence of a variety of ion channel modulators. A change from pH 7.4 to 7.2 produced a 29±3% (n = 9) relaxation of CPA which increased to 61±4% at the lowest pH of 6.4. In vessels isolated from placentae of women with pre-eclampsia (n = 6), pH responses were attenuated. L-methionine increased the relaxation to 67±7% (n = 6; p<0.001) at pH 6.4. Similarly the TASK 1/3 blocker zinc chloride (1 mM) gave a maximum relaxation of 72±5% (n = 8; p<0.01) which compared with the relaxation produced by the TREK-1 opener riluzole (75±5%; n = 6). Several other modulators induced no significant changes in vascular responses. Our study confirmed expression of several ion channel subtypes in CPA with our results indicating that extracellular pH within the physiological range has an important role in controlling vasodilatation in the human term placenta. PMID:25490401

  19. Third-body abrasive wear challenge of 32 mm conventional and 44 mm highly crosslinked polyethylene liners in a hip simulator model.

    PubMed

    Sorimachi, T; Clarke, I C; Williams, P A; Gustafson, A; Yamamoto, K

    2009-07-01

    Hip simulator studies have shown that wear in the polyethylene liners used for total hip replacements increased with the larger-diameter femoral balls and could also be exacerbated by third-body abrasion. However, they also indicated that the more highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXPE) bearings were more wear resistant than conventional polyethylene (CXPE) bearings. Unfortunately the HXPE bearings appeared to be particularly sensitive to adverse wear conditions. One simulator study in particular indicated that poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) debris increased wear sixfold by means of two-body abrasive interactions rather than the supposed third-body abrasion or roughening effects of the Co-Cr surfaces. There has been no confirmation of such novel theories. Therefore the goal of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of large-diameter HXPE bearings to the third-body PMMA wear challenge in a hip simulator model. An orbital hip simulator was used in standard test mode with a physiological load profile. The 32 mm control liners were machined from moulded GUR1050 and gamma irradiated to 35 kGy under nitrogen (CXPE). The 44 mm liners were also from moulded blanks, gamma irradiated to 75 kGy, machined to shape, given a proprietary heat treatment, and sterilized by gas plasma (HXPE). As in the published simulator model, the study was conducted in three phases. In phase 1, all cups were run in standard ('clean') lubricant for 1.5 x 10(6) cycles duration. In phase 2, three CXPE cups and six HXPE cups were run for 2 x 10(6) cycles with a slurry of PMMA particles added to the lubricant. In phase 3, the implants were again run in 'clean' lubricant for 2 x 10(6) cycles duration. In addition, three HXPE cups were run as wear controls for 5.5 x 10(6) cycles duration in clean lubricant. In phase-1, the HXPE liners demonstrated twelvefold reduced wear compared with the CXPE controls. The 32 mm and 44 mm Co-Cr balls were judged of comparable roughnesses. However, the surface finish of HXPE liners was superior to that of CXPE liners. In phase-2 abrasion, wear rates increased sixfold and eighty-fold for CXPE and HXPE bearings respectively. These data confirmed that HXPE bearings were particularly sensitive to 'severe' test modes. The Co-Cr balls revealed numerous surface patches representing transferred PMMA with average transient roughness increased to 25 nm and 212 nm for the 32 mm and 44 mm balls respectively. These PMMA patches produced an aggressive two-body abrasion wear of the polyethylene. After cleaning, the ball roughness returned to near normal. Therefore the Co-Cr roughness was not an issue in this severe test mode. In phase 3, the wear decreased to near the index values of phase 1, while liner roughness dropped by more than 90 per cent. The control CXPE liners now demonstrated twice the wear of the HXPE, as would be predicted comparing the diameter and cross-linking algorithms. No previous study has correlated polyethylene roughness profiles to wear performance. In phase 2, PMMA abrasion created significant damage to the polyethylene surfaces. The average roughness Sa of CXPE liners increased to 3.6 microm, a twenty-four-fold increase with some scratches up to 40 microm deep. The HXPE roughness also increased but only to 1.5 microm, a ninefold increase. The scratch indices Sz and Sp for HXPE surfaces were also 50 per cent less severe than on CXPE surfaces. However, within 2 x 10(6) cycles duration of phase 3, all liners had recovered to virtually their original surface finish in phase 1. In all test phases, the surface finish of the HXPE liners remained superior to control liners. These experimental data confirmed many of the results from the previous simulator study with the PMMA abrasion models. Thus the 44 mm liners appeared an excellent clinical alternative to the smaller ball designs used in total hip replacements. PMID:19623913

  20. A new 3 mm band receiver for the Onsala 20 m antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belitsky, V.; Lapkin, I.; Fredrixon, M.; Sundin, E.; Helldner, L.; Pettersson, L.; Ferm, S.-E.; Pantaleev, M.; Billade, B.; Bergman, P.; Olofsson, A. O. H.; Lerner, M. S.; Strandberg, M.; Whale, M.; Pavolotsky, A.; Flygare, J.; Olofsson, H.; Conway, J.

    2015-08-01

    A new receiver for the Onsala 20 m antenna with the possibility of being equipped with 3 mm and 4 mm bands has been built and the 3 mm channel has been commissioned during the Spring 2014. For single-dish operation, the receiver uses an innovative on-source/off-source optical switch. In combination with additional optical components and within the same optical layout, the switch provides two calibration loads (for the 3 mm and 4 mm channels), sideband rejection measurement, and tuning possibilities. The optical layout of the receiver employs all cold (4 K) offset elliptical mirrors for both channels, whereas the on-off switch employs flat mirrors only. The 3 mm channel employs a sideband separation (2SB) dual polarization receiver with orthomode transducer (OMT), 4-8 GHz intermediate frequency (IF), x 2pol x upper and lower sidebands (USB + LSB). The cryostat has four optical windows made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) with anti-reflection corrugations, two for the signal and two for each frequency band cold load. The cryostat uses a two-stage cryocooler produced by Sumitomo HI RDK 408D2 with anti-vibration suspension of the cold-head to minimize impact of the vibrations on the receiver stability. The local oscillator (LO) system is based on a Gunn oscillator with aphase lock loop (PLL) and four mechanical tuners for broadband operation, providing independently tunable LO power for each polarization. This paper provides a technical description of the receiver and its technology and could be useful for instrumentation engineers and observers using the Onsala 20 m telescope.

  1. The Galactic Centre Mini-Spiral in the MM-Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunneriath, D.; Eckart, A.; Vogel, S. N.; Teuben, P.; Muzic, I.; Schoedel, R.; Garcia-Marin, M.; Moultaka, J.; Staguhn, J.; Straubmeier, C.; Zensus, J. A.; Valencia-S., M.; Karas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The mini-spiral is a feature of the interstellar medium in the central approx.2 pc of the Galactic center. It is composed of several streamers of dust and ionised and atomic gas with temperatures between a few 100 K to 10(exp 4) K. There is evidence that these streamers are related to the so-called circumnuclear disk of molecular gas and are ionized by photons from massive, hot stars in the central parsec. Aims: We attempt to constrain the emission mechanisms and physical properties of the ionized gas and dust of the mini-spiral region with the help of our multiwavelength data sets. Methods: Our observations were carried out at 1.3 mm and 3 mm with the mm interferometric array CARMA in California in March and April 2009, with the MIR instrument VISIR at ESO's VLT in June 2006, and the NIR Bry with VLT NACO in August 2009. Results: We present high resolution maps of the mini-spiral, and obtain a spectral index of 0.5 +/- 0.25 for Sgr A *, indicating an inverted synchrotron spectrum. We find electron densities within the range 0.8-1.5 x 10(exp 4)/cu cm for the mini-spiral from the radio continuum maps, along with a dust mass contribution of approx. 0.25 Mo from the MIR dust continuum. and extinctions ranging from 1.8-3 at 2.16 microns in the Bry line. Conclusions: We observe a mixture of negative and positive spectral indices in our 1.3 mm and 3 mm observations of the extended emission of the mini-spiral, which we interpret as evidence that there are a range of contributions to the thermal free-free emission by the ionized gas emission and by dust at 1.3 mm.

  2. Anisodamine accelerates spontaneous passage of single symptomatic bile duct stones ? 10 mm

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Ding, Xue-Mei; Ke, Shan; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Qian, Xiao-Jun; Ma, Rui-Liang; Ning, Chun-Min; Xin, Zong-Hai; Sun, Wen-Bing

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the rate of spontaneous passage of single and symptomatic common bile duct (CBD) stones ? 10 mm in diameter in 4 wk with or without a 2-wk course of anisodamine. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken. A total of 197 patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Ninety-seven patients were assigned randomly to the control group and the other 100 to the anisodamine group. The anisodamine group received intravenous infusions of anisodamine (10 mg every 8 h) for 2 wk. The control group received the same volume of 0.9% isotonic saline for 2 wk. Patients underwent imaging studies and liver-function tests every week for 4 wk. The rate of spontaneous passage of CBD stones was analyzed. RESULTS: The rate of spontaneous passage of CBD stones was significantly higher in the anisodamine group than that in the control group (47.0% vs 22.7%). Most (87.2%, 41/47) stone passages in the anisodamine group occurred in the first 2 wk, and passages in the control group occurred at a comparable rate each week. Factors significantly increasing the possibility of spontaneous passage by univariate logistic regression analyses were stone diameter (< 5 mm vs ? 5 mm and ? 10 mm) and anisodamine therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that these two factors were significantly associated with spontaneous passage. CONCLUSION: Two weeks of anisodamine administration can safely accelerate spontaneous passage of single and symptomatic CBD stones ? 10 mm in diameter, especially for stones < 5 mm. PMID:24151390

  3. Prediction of heavy rainfall events over Rangamati, Bangladesh using high-resolution MM5 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahasan, M. N.; Mannan Chowdhury, M. A.; Quadir, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, prediction of the heavy rainfall events over Rangamati, Bangladesh has been carried out using the Fifth-Generation PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) conducting two historical rainfall events. The model was run on two-way triple-nested domains at 45, 15, 5 km horizontal resolutions using Anthes-Kuo cumulus parameterization schemes (CPS) with MRF planetary boundary layer (PBL). Bangladesh is the main focus area in this study. Thus, Bangladesh is taken as inner most domain (D3) with 5 km horizontal resolution. The model-predicted rainfall was compared with TRMM 3B42V7 and BMD observed rainfall. Both subjective and objective evaluation methods have been followed. The MM5 model produces realistic prediction of heavy rainfall events in terms of intensity and structure. The results show that the model performed all the Day 1 (24 h), Day 2 (48 h) and Day 3 (72 h) predictions reasonably well. The predictions are more accurate for Day 2 (48 h) and worse for Day 4 (96 h) in both cases. The prediction deteriorates as the prediction time increases. Thus, the prediction may be updated in every 24 h which would provide more realistic prediction. The RMSE shows that the value for 24 h prediction lies within 10-20 mm range. The prediction error is minimal for 48 h prediction, the error ranging from 8 to 12 mm. The error increases thereafter for 72 and 96 h of predictions. The errors range from around 10-20 and 15-25 mm, respectively. The topography/terrain over the southeast hilly region of Bangladesh has not been resolved by USGS terrain data which was used in the MM5 model. Thus, accurate and high-resolution terrain data of this region is expected to improve the performance of the model over the southeast hilly regions of Bangladesh.

  4. Molecular properties from combined QM/MM methods. 2. Chemical shifts in large molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Q.; Karplus, M.

    2000-04-20

    A method for calculating the chemical shielding tensor of any atom with the QM/MM approach has been developed. The method is described and applied to a number of model systems including the water dimer, NMA-water complexes, cytosine monophosphate, paired and stacked nucleic acid bases, imidazole-metal complexes, and 1{prime}-deoxyribose-metal ion complexes. The results demonstrate that with an appropriate QM/MM partition, good descriptions of the environmental effects on chemical shift tensors are obtained. The typical error compared to full QM calculations is 1--2 ppm for heavy atoms. At distances below 2.5 {angstrom}, such as occur in hydrogen bonding, larger errors arise due to the lack of Pauli repulsion and magnetic susceptibility of the nearby groups in the current QM/MM model; including the hydrogen bonded molecules as part of the QM region is a way of solving this problem. The method is also applied to a simple model of myoglobin-CO and it is shown that the significant influence from the distal histidine on the shielding of Fe and CO is well reproduced by a QM/MM calculation. Application to the chemical shift of the 1-N nitrogen in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), relative to N-methyl nicotinamide, gives good results, indicating that accurate chemical shifts can be obtained for specific atoms in large molecules that cannot be treated by QM at the MP2 level. The effect of solvation on the chemical shift of water was also studied with the QM/MM approach in a molecular dynamics framework. The test calculations described in this paper demonstrate that the QM/MM method for estimating shielding tensors and chemical shifts is a useful approach for large systems.

  5. PhD Students' Work Conditions and Study Environment in University- and Industry-Based PhD Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolmos, A.; Kofoed, L. B.; Du, X. Y.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 10 years, new models of funding and training PhD students have been established in Denmark in order to integrate industry into the entire PhD education. Several programmes have been conducted where it is possible to co-finance PhD scholarships or to become an employee as an industrial PhD in a company. An important question is what

  6. PhD Students' Work Conditions and Study Environment in University- and Industry-Based PhD Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolmos, A.; Kofoed, L. B.; Du, X. Y.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 10 years, new models of funding and training PhD students have been established in Denmark in order to integrate industry into the entire PhD education. Several programmes have been conducted where it is possible to co-finance PhD scholarships or to become an employee as an industrial PhD in a company. An important question is what…

  7. Proton Transport and pH Control in Fungi.

    PubMed

    Kane, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    Despite diverse and changing extracellular environments, fungi maintain a relatively constant cytosolic pH and numerous organelles of distinct lumenal pH. Key players in fungal pH control are V-ATPases and the P-type proton pump Pma1. These two proton pumps act in concert with a large array of other transporters and are highly regulated. The activities of Pma1 and the V-ATPase are coordinated under some conditions, suggesting that pH in the cytosol and organelles is not controlled independently. Genomic studies, particularly in the highly tractable S. cerevisiae, are beginning to provide a systems-level view of pH control, including transcriptional responses to acid or alkaline ambient pH and definition of the full set of regulators required to maintain pH homeostasis. Genetically encoded pH sensors have provided new insights into localized mechanisms of pH control, as well as highlighting the dynamic nature of pH responses to the extracellular environment. Recent studies indicate that cellular pH plays a genuine signaling role that connects nutrient availability and growth rate through a number of mechanisms. Many of the pH control mechanisms found in S. cerevisiae are shared with other fungi, with adaptations for their individual physiological contexts. Fungi deploy certain proton transport and pH control mechanisms not shared with other eukaryotes; these regulators of cellular pH are potential antifungal targets. This review describes current and emerging knowledge proton transport and pH control mechanisms in S. cerevisiae and briefly discusses how these mechanisms vary among fungi. PMID:26721270

  8. Simulated Solute Tempering in Fully Polarizable Hybrid QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Schwörer, Magnus; Wichmann, Christoph; Gawehn, Erik; Mathias, Gerald

    2016-03-01

    We successfully apply a solute tempering approach, which substantially reduces the large number of temperature rungs required in conventional tempering methods by solvent charge scaling, to hybrid molecular dynamics simulations combining quantum mechanics with molecular mechanics (QM/MM). Specifically, we integrate a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and polarizable MM (PMM) force fields into the simulated solute tempering (SST) concept. We show that the required DFT/PMM-SST weight parameters can be obtained from inexpensive calculations and that for alanine dipeptide (DFT) in PMM water three rungs suffice to cover the temperature range from 300 to 550 K. PMID:26835754

  9. QMMMW: A wrapper for QM/MM simulations with QUANTUM ESPRESSO  and LAMMPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Changru; Martin-Samos, Layla; Fabris, Stefano; Laio, Alessandro; Piccinin, Simone

    2015-10-01

    We present QMMMW, a new program aimed at performing Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics. The package operates as a wrapper that patches PWscf code included in the QUANTUM ESPRESSO  distribution and LAMMPS Molecular Dynamics Simulator. It is designed with a paradigm based on three guidelines: (i) minimal amount of modifications on the parent codes, (ii) flexibility and computational efficiency of the communication layer and (iii) accuracy of the Hamiltonian describing the interaction between the QM and MM subsystems. These three features are seldom present simultaneously in other implementations of QMMM. The QMMMW project is hosted by qe-forge at

  10. Potential use of a 100-mm film digitizer and image processor for film archiving.

    PubMed

    Kono, M; Yamasaki, K; Ikeda, M

    1990-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine experimentally and clinically whether a 100-mm roll-film digitizer and image processing device could preserve or increase the diagnostic accuracy of 100-mm roll films used in the mass screening of patients for lung cancer and provide picture archives of high enough image quality to replace the original films. The quality of the processed digitized CRT image was found to be only slightly less than that of the original films. There was only a slight decrease in diagnostic accuracy, and the system was judged to be potentially useful as a miniature picture archiving and reference system. PMID:2299704

  11. The remnant of SN 1987A revealed at (sub-)mm wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laki?evi?, M.; van Loon, J. Th.; Patat, F.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Zanardo, G.

    2011-08-01

    Context. Supernova 1987A (SN 1987A) exploded in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Its proximity and rapid evolution makes it a unique case study of the early phases in the development of a supernova remnant. One particular aspect of interest is the possible formation of dust in SN 1987A, as SNe could contribute significantly to the dust seen at high redshifts. Aims: We explore the properties of SN 1987A and its circumburst medium as seen at mm and sub-mm wavelengths, bridging the gap between extant radio and infrared (IR) observations of respectively the synchrotron and dust emission. Methods: SN 1987A was observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 3.2 mm in July 2005, and with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) at 0.87 mm in May 2007. We present the images and brightness measurements of SN 1987A at these wavelengths for the first time. Results: SN 1987A is detected as an unresolved point source of 11.2 2.0 mJy at 3.2 mm (5'' beam) and 21 4 mJy at 0.87 mm (18'' beam). These flux densities are in perfect agreement with extrapolations of the powerlaw radio spectrum and modified-blackbody dust emission, respectively. This places limits on the presence of free-free emission, which is similar to the expected free-free emission from the ionized ejecta from SN 1987A. Adjacent, fainter emission is observed at 0.87 mm extending ~0.5' towards the south-west. This could be the impact of the supernova progenitor's wind when it was still a red supergiant upon a dense medium. Conclusions: We have established a continuous spectral energy distribution for the emission from SN 1987A and its immediate surroundings, linking the IR and radio data. This places limits on the contribution from ionized plasma. Our sub-mm image reveals complexity in the distribution of cold dust surrounding SN 1987A, but leaves room for freshly synthesized dust in the SN ejecta. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO No. 78.F-9034).

  12. Time course of pH change in plant epidermis using microscopic pH imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Risako; Shimizu, Megumi; Kazama, Haruko; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2010-11-01

    We established a microscopic pH imaging system to track the time course of pH change in plant epidermis in vivo. In the previous research, we have found out that anthocyanin containing cells have higher pH. However, it was not clear whether the anthocyanin increased the pH or anthocyanin was synthesized result from the higher pH. Therefore, we further investigated the relationship between anthocyanin and pH change. To track the time course of pH change in plant epidermis, we established a system using luminescent imaging technique. We used HPTS (8-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-Trisulfonate) as pH indicator and applied excitation ratio imaging method. Luminescent image was converted to a pH distribution by obtained in vitro calibration using known pH solution. Cellular level observation was enabled by merging microscopic color picture of the same region to the pH change image. The established system was applied to epidermal cells of red-tip leaf lettuce, Lactuca Sativa L. and the time course was tracked in the growth process. We would discuss about the relationship between anthocyanin and pH change in plant epidermis.

  13. The Effect of Crystallizing and Non-crystallizing Cosolutes on Succinate Buffer Crystallization and the Consequent pH Shift in Frozen Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaramurthi, Prakash; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2011-09-06

    To effectively inhibit succinate buffer crystallization and the consequent pH changes in frozen solutions. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), the crystallization behavior of succinate buffer in the presence of either (i) a crystallizing (glycine, mannitol, trehalose) or (ii) a non-crystallizing cosolute (sucrose) was evaluated. Aqueous succinate buffer solutions, 50 or 200 mM, at pH values 4.0 or 6.0 were cooled from room temperature to -25 C at 0.5 C/min. The pH of the solution was measured as a function of temperature using a probe designed to function at low temperatures. The final lyophiles prepared from these solutions were characterized using synchrotron radiation. When the succinic acid solution buffered to pH 4.0, in the absence of a cosolute, was cooled, there was a pronounced shift in the freeze-concentrate pH. Glycine and mannitol, which have a tendency to crystallize in frozen solutions, remained amorphous when the initial pH was 6.0. Under this condition, they also inhibited buffer crystallization and prevented pH change. At pH 4.0 (50 mM initial concentration), glycine and mannitol crystallized and did not prevent pH change in frozen solutions. While sucrose, a non-crystallizing cosolute, did not completely prevent buffer crystallization, the extent of crystallization was reduced. Sucrose decomposition, based on XRD peaks attributable to {beta}-D-glucose, was observed in frozen buffer solutions with an initial pH of 4.0. Trehalose completely inhibited crystallization of the buffer components when the initial pH was 6.0 but not at pH 4.0. At the lower pH, the crystallization of both trehalose dihydrate and buffer components was evident. When retained amorphous, sucrose and trehalose effectively inhibited succinate buffer component crystallization and the consequent pH shift. However, when trehalose crystallized or sucrose degraded to yield a crystalline decomposition product, crystallization of buffer was observed. Similarly, glycine and mannitol, two widely used bulking agents, inhibited buffer component crystallization only when retained amorphous. In addition to stabilizing the active pharmaceutical ingredient, lyoprotectants may prevent solution pH shift by inhibiting buffer crystallization.

  14. CHARMM-GUI Input Generator for NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM Simulations Using the CHARMM36 Additive Force Field

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proper treatment of nonbonded interactions is essential for the accuracy of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, especially in studies of lipid bilayers. The use of the CHARMM36 force field (C36 FF) in different MD simulation programs can result in disagreements with published simulations performed with CHARMM due to differences in the protocols used to treat the long-range and 1-4 nonbonded interactions. In this study, we systematically test the use of the C36 lipid FF in NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. A wide range of Lennard-Jones (LJ) cutoff schemes and integrator algorithms were tested to find the optimal simulation protocol to best match bilayer properties of six lipids with varying acyl chain saturation and head groups. MD simulations of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer were used to obtain the optimal protocol for each program. MD simulations with all programs were found to reasonably match the DPPC bilayer properties (surface area per lipid, chain order parameters, and area compressibility modulus) obtained using the standard protocol used in CHARMM as well as from experiments. The optimal simulation protocol was then applied to the other five lipid simulations and resulted in excellent agreement between results from most simulation programs as well as with experimental data. AMBER compared least favorably with the expected membrane properties, which appears to be due to its use of the hard-truncation in the LJ potential versus a force-based switching function used to smooth the LJ potential as it approaches the cutoff distance. The optimal simulation protocol for each program has been implemented in CHARMM-GUI. This protocol is expected to be applicable to the remainder of the additive C36 FF including the proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecules. PMID:26631602

  15. Supplementary comparison COOMET.L-S7: Standards of the unit for length (metre) in the measurement range from 0.1 mm to 100 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevich, V.

    2012-01-01

    The COOMET Project No 390/BY/07, 'Supplementary comparison of standards of the unit for length (metre) in the measurement range from 0.1 mm to 100 mm', KCDB reference COOMET.L-S7, was organized by the Technical Committee TC 1.5 'Length and Angle' of COOMET. This comparison started in May 2007 and finished in October 2010. It was piloted by the Belarusian State Institute of Metrology BelGIM, Minsk, the Republic of Belarus, with other participants as follows: GUM (Warsaw, Poland), DP 'Ukrmetrteststandart' (Kiev, Ukraine), NSC 'Institute of Metrology' (Kharkov, Ukraine), SMU (Bratislava, Slovakia) and RSE 'KazInMetr' (Astana, Kazakhstan). The transfer standards provided by BelGIM were carried to the place of the comparison by NMI attendant specialists as personal baggage, where they were measured. The pilot laboratory processed the data obtained for the deviations of measured median lengths from the nominal lengths of the transfer standards in order to estimate the measurement result differences between the measuring instruments. The conclusion is that the equivalence of the reference installations for parameter measurements of the participating National Metrology Institutes is sufficient, and constitutes an appropriate basis for mutual recognition of measurement results. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  16. CHARMM-GUI Input Generator for NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM Simulations Using the CHARMM36 Additive Force Field.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jumin; Cheng, Xi; Swails, Jason M; Yeom, Min Sun; Eastman, Peter K; Lemkul, Justin A; Wei, Shuai; Buckner, Joshua; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Qi, Yifei; Jo, Sunhwan; Pande, Vijay S; Case, David A; Brooks, Charles L; MacKerell, Alexander D; Klauda, Jeffery B; Im, Wonpil

    2016-01-12

    Proper treatment of nonbonded interactions is essential for the accuracy of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, especially in studies of lipid bilayers. The use of the CHARMM36 force field (C36 FF) in different MD simulation programs can result in disagreements with published simulations performed with CHARMM due to differences in the protocols used to treat the long-range and 1-4 nonbonded interactions. In this study, we systematically test the use of the C36 lipid FF in NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. A wide range of Lennard-Jones (LJ) cutoff schemes and integrator algorithms were tested to find the optimal simulation protocol to best match bilayer properties of six lipids with varying acyl chain saturation and head groups. MD simulations of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer were used to obtain the optimal protocol for each program. MD simulations with all programs were found to reasonably match the DPPC bilayer properties (surface area per lipid, chain order parameters, and area compressibility modulus) obtained using the standard protocol used in CHARMM as well as from experiments. The optimal simulation protocol was then applied to the other five lipid simulations and resulted in excellent agreement between results from most simulation programs as well as with experimental data. AMBER compared least favorably with the expected membrane properties, which appears to be due to its use of the hard-truncation in the LJ potential versus a force-based switching function used to smooth the LJ potential as it approaches the cutoff distance. The optimal simulation protocol for each program has been implemented in CHARMM-GUI. This protocol is expected to be applicable to the remainder of the additive C36 FF including the proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecules. PMID:26631602

  17. Dynamic aggregation of the mid-sized gadolinium complex {Ph4[Gd(DTTA)(H2O)2](-)3}.

    PubMed

    Jaccard, Hugues; Miéville, Pascal; Cannizzo, Caroline; Mayer, Cédric R; Helm, Lothar

    2014-02-01

    A compound binding three Gd(3+) ions, {Ph4[Gd(DTTA)(H2O)2](-) 3} (where H5DTTA is diethylenetriaminetetraacetic acid), has been synthesized around a hydrophobic center made up of four phenyl rings. In aqueous solution the molecules start to self-aggregate at concentrations well below 1 mM as shown by the increase of rotational correlation times and by the decrease of the translational self-diffusion constant. NMR spectra recorded in aqueous solution of the diamagnetic analogue {Ph4[Y(DTTA)(H2O)2](-)3} show that the aggregation is dynamic and due to intermolecular π-stacking interactions between the hydrophobic aromatic centers. From estimations of effective radii, it can be concluded that the aggregates are composed of two to three monomers. The paramagnetic {Ph4[Gd(DTTA)(H2O)2](-)3} exhibits concentration-dependent (1)H NMR relaxivities with high values of approximately 50 mM(-1) s(-1) (30 MHz, 25 °C) at gadolinium concentrations above 20 mM. A combined analysis of (1)H NMR dispersion profiles measured at different concentrations of the compound and (17)O NMR data measured at various temperatures was performed using different theoretical approaches. The fitted parameters showed that the increase in relaxivity with increasing concentration of the compound is due to slower global rotational motion and an increase of the Lipari-Szabo order parameter S(2). PMID:24037218

  18. Sodium bromide: effects on different patterns of epileptiform activity, extracellular pH changes and GABAergic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Meierkord, H; Grünig, F; Gutschmidt, U; Gutierrez, R; Pfeiffer, M; Draguhn, A; Brückner, C; Heinemann, U

    2000-01-01

    Results regarding the anticonvulsant potency of bromide have been questioned, and the mechanisms of its action are unclear. Using combined rat hippocampus-entorhinal cortex slices we analyzed the effects of NaBr on four types of epileptiform discharges in two different models of epilepsy, the low-Ca2+ and the low-Mg2+ model. NaBr concentration-dependently reduced the frequency and finally blocked the low Ca2+-induced discharges. Low Mg2+-induced short recurrent discharges were also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. In the entorhinal cortex the frequency of seizure-like events was reduced by 3 and 5 mM and the discharges were blocked by 7 mM NaBr. Also, the late recurrent discharges in the entorhinal cortex which do not respond to most clinically employed anticonvulsants were reduced by concentrations of 10 and 15 mM and completely blocked by 30 mM NaBr. Using pH-sensitive microelectrodes different effects of NaBr were seen than those of acetazolamide on extracellular pH under control conditions and after stimulation. Acetazolamide at 1 mM caused a reversible acidification of delta pH: 0.2+/-0.14 at rest whereas no change on extracellular pH was seen with 5 mM NaBr. Acetazolamide increased the transient alkalosis induced by repetitive stimulation of the stratum radiatum in area CA1 and reduced the subsequent acidosis. NaBr also increased the alkalosis but had no effect on the subsequent acidosis. A significant increase in paired-pulse inhibition was seen in a paired-pulse stimulation protocol used to monitor the efficacy of GABAergic inhibition at concentrations of 5 mM NaBr. This finding was confirmed in whole-cell patch clamp recordings from cultured hippocampal neurons showing an increase in inhibitory postsynaptic current amplitude. In summary, our results suggest a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant activity which is likely to be caused by its effects on membrane excitability, by an increase in GABAergic inhibition and is less likely caused by its effects on extracellular pH. PMID:10651143

  19. Instrument development and field application of the in situ pH Calibrator at the Ocean Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C.; Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    A novel, self-calibrating instrument for in-situ measurement of pH in deep sea environments up to 4000 m has recently been developed. The device utilizes a compact fluid delivery system to perform measurement and two-point calibration of the solid state pH sensor array (Ir|IrOx| Ag|AgCl), which is sealed in a flow cell to enhance response time. The fluid delivery system is composed of a metering pump and valves, which periodically deliver seawater samples into the flow cell to perform measurements. Similarly, pH buffer solutions can be delivered into the flow cell to calibrate the electrodes under operational conditions. Sensor signals are acquired and processed by a high resolution (0.25 mV) datalogger circuit with a size of 114 mm×31 mm×25 mm. Eight input channels are available: two high impedance sensor input channels, two low impedance sensor input channel, two thermocouple input channels and two thermistor input channels. These eight channels provide adequate measurement flexibility to enhance applications in deep sea environments. The two high impedance channels of the datalogger are especially designed with the input impedance of 1016 Ω for YSZ (yittria-stabilized zirconia) ceramic electrodes characterized by the extremely low input bias current and high resistance. Field tests have been performed in 2008 by ROV at the depth up to 3200 m. Using the continuous power supply and TCP/IP network capability of the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) ocean observatory, the so-called "pH Calibrator" has the capability of long term operation up to six months. In the observatory mode, the electronics are configured with DC-DC power converter modules and Ethernet to serial module to gain access to the science port of seafloor junction box. The pH Calibrator will be deployed at the ocean observatory in October and the in situ data will be on line on the internet. The pH Calibrator presents real time pH data at high pressures and variable temperatures, while the in situ calibration capability enhances the accuracy of electrochemical measurements of seawater pH, fulfilling the need for long term objectives for marine studies.

  20. Effects of pH and bicarbonate on mitochondrial functions of marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Haider, Fouzia; Falfushynska, Halina; Ivanina, Anna V; Sokolova, Inna M

    2016-08-01

    Estuarine organisms including mollusks are exposed to periodic oxygen deficiency (hypoxia) that leads to a decrease in intracellular pH and accumulation of bicarbonate (HCO3(-)). These changes can affect cellular bioenergetics; however, their effects on mitochondria of estuarine mollusks are not well understood. We determined the interactive effects of bicarbonate (0-10mM) and pH (7.2 and 6.5) on mitochondrial oxygen consumption (ṀO2), membrane potential (Δψ) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in two common estuarine bivalves - hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria, and bay scallops Argopecten irradians. In both species, elevated HCO3(-) levels suppressed ADP-stimulated (state 3) ṀO2 but had little effect on the resting (state 4) respiration. These effects were not mediated by the soluble adenylyl cyclase or cyclic AMP. Effects of the low pH (6.5) on mitochondrial traits were species-specific and depended on the substrate oxidized by the mitochondria. Mild acidosis (pH6.5) had minimal effects on ṀO2 and Δψ of the bivalve mitochondria oxidizing pyruvate but led to increased rates of ROS production in clams (ROS production could not be measured in scallops). In succinate-respiring mitochondria of clams, mild acidosis suppressed ṀO2 and increased mitochondrial coupling, while in scallop mitochondria the effects of low pH were opposite. Suppression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by bicarbonate and/or acidosis may contribute to the metabolic rate depression during shell closure or environmental hypoxia/hypercapnia. These findings have implications for understanding the physiological mechanisms involved in regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics during hypoxia exposure in estuarine bivalves. PMID:27044911