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Sample records for mmp sensitive hyaluronic

  1. Injectable MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels as hMSC delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Keila B.; Gomes, David B.; Lee, Kangwon; Santos, Susana G.; Sousa, Aureliana; Silva, Eduardo A.; Mooney, David J.; Granja, Pedro L.; Barrias, Cristina C.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels with the potential to provide minimally invasive cell delivery represent a powerful tool for tissue-regeneration therapies. In this context, entrapped cells should be able to escape the matrix becoming more available to actively participate in the healing process. Here, we analyzed the performance of proteolytically-degradable alginate hydrogels as vehicles for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) transplantation. Alginate was modified with the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive peptide Pro-Val-Gly-Leu-Iso-Gly (PVGLIG), which did not promote dendritic cell maturation in vitro, neither free nor conjugated to alginate chains, indicating low immunogenicity. hMSC were entrapped within MMP-sensitive and MMP-insensitive alginate hydrogels, both containing cell-adhesion RGD peptides. Softer (2 wt% alginate) and stiffer (4 wt% alginate) matrices were tested. When embedded in a Matrigel™ layer, hMSC-laden MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels promoted more extensive outward cell migration and invasion into the tissue mimic. In vivo, after 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in a xenograft mouse model, hMSC-laden MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels showed higher degradation and host tissue invasion than their MMP-insensitive equivalents. In both cases, softer matrices degraded faster than stiffer ones. The transplanted hMSC were able to produce their own collagenous extracellular matrix, and were located not only inside the hydrogels, but also outside, integrated in the host tissue. In summary, injectable MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels can act as localized depots of cells, and confer protection to transplanted cells while facilitating tissue regeneration. PMID:24345197

  2. Inhibition of MMP-9 attenuates hypertensive cerebrovascular dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Kalani, Anuradha; Pushpakumar, Sathnur B; Vacek, Jonathan C; Tyagi, Suresh C; Tyagi, Neetu

    2016-02-01

    Hypertensive cerebropathy is a pathological condition associated with cerebral edema and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. However, the molecular pathways leading to this condition remains obscure. We hypothesize that MMP-9 inhibition can help reducing blood pressure and endothelial disruption associated with hypertensive cerebropathy. Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl/SS) and Lewis rats were fed with high-salt diet for 6 weeks and then treated without and with GM6001 (MMP inhibitor). Treatment of GM6001 (1.2 mg/kg body weight) was administered through intraperitoneal injections on alternate days for 4 weeks. GM6001 non-administered groups were given vehicle (0.9% NaCl in water) treatment as control. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff method. The brain tissues were analyzed for oxidative/nitrosative stress, vascular MMP-9 expression, and tight junction proteins (TJPs). GM6001 treatment significantly reduced mean blood pressure in Dahl/SS rats which was significantly higher in vehicle-treated Dahl/SS rats. MMP-9 expression and activity was also considerably reduced in GM6001-treated Dahl/SS rats, which was otherwise notably increased in vehicle-treated Dahl/SS rats. Similarly MMP-9 expression in cerebral vessels of GM6001-treated Dahl/SS rats was also alleviated, as devised by immunohistochemistry analysis. Oxidative/nitrosative stress was significantly higher in vehicle-treated Dahl/SS rats as determined by biochemical estimations of malondialdehyde, nitrite, reactive oxygen species, and glutathione levels. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis further confirmed considerable alterations of TJPs in hypertensive rats. Interestingly, GM6001 treatment significantly ameliorated oxidative/nitrosative stress and TJPs, which suggest restoration of vascular integrity in Dahl/SS rats. These findings determined that pharmacological inhibition of MMP-9 in hypertensive Dahl-SS rats attenuate high blood pressure and hypertension-associated cerebrovascular pathology. PMID

  3. Macrophage Metalloelastase (MMP12) Regulates Adipose Tissue Expansion, Insulin Sensitivity, and Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Ting; Pamir, Nathalie; Liu, Ning-Chun; Kirk, Elizabeth A.; Averill, Michelle M.; Becker, Lev; Larson, Ilona; Hagman, Derek K.; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; van Yserloo, Brian; Bornfeldt, Karin E.; LeBoeuf, Renee C.; Kratz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage metalloelastase, a matrix metallopeptidase (MMP12) predominantly expressed by mature tissue macrophages, is implicated in pathological processes. However, physiological functions for MMP12 have not been described. Because mRNA levels for the enzyme increase markedly in adipose tissue of obese mice, we investigated the role of MMP12 in adipose tissue expansion and insulin resistance. In humans, MMP12 expression correlated positively and significantly with insulin resistance, TNF-α expression, and the number of CD14+CD206+ macrophages in adipose tissue. MMP12 was the most abundant matrix metallopeptidase detected by proteomic analysis of conditioned medium of M2 macrophages and dendritic cells. In contrast, it was detected only at low levels in bone marrow derived macrophages and M1 macrophages. When mice received a high-fat diet, adipose tissue mass increased and CD11b+F4/80+CD11c−macrophages accumulated to a greater extent in MMP12-deficient (Mmp12−/−) mice than in wild-type mice (Mmp12+/+). Despite being markedly more obese, fat-fed Mmp12−/− mice were more insulin sensitive than fat-fed Mmp12+/+ mice. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2) by Mmp12−/− macrophages was significantly impaired both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that MMP12 might mediate nitric oxide production during inflammation. We propose that MMP12 acts as a double-edged sword by promoting insulin resistance while combatting adipose tissue expansion. PMID:24914938

  4. The In Vitro and In Vivo Response to MMP-Sensitive Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Amer, Luke D; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2016-06-01

    Enzyme-sensitive hydrogels are a promising class of materials for cell encapsulation and tissue engineering because their ability to be degraded by cell-secreted factors. However, it is well known that nearly all synthetic biomaterials elicit a foreign body response (FBR) upon implantation. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo response to an enzyme-sensitive hydrogel. Hydrogels were formed from poly(ethylene glycol) with the peptide crosslinker, C-VPLS↓LYSG-C, which is susceptible to matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9. We evaluated the hydrogel by exogenously delivered enzymes, encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells as a tissue engineering relevant cell type, and by macrophage-secreted factors in vitro and for the FBR through macrophage attachment in vitro and in a subcutaneous mouse model. These hydrogels rapidly degraded upon exposure to exogenous MMP-2 and to lesser degree with MMP-9. Encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells were capable of degrading the hydrogels via matrix metalloproteinases. Inflammatory macrophages were confirmed to attach to the hydrogels, but were not capable of rapidly degrading the hydrogels. In vivo, these hydrogels remained intact after 4 weeks and exhibited a classic FBR with inflammatory cells at the hydrogel surface and a fibrous capsule. In summary, these findings suggest that while this MMP-2/9 sensitive hydrogel is readily degraded in vitro, it does not undergo rapid degradation by the FBR. Thus, the long term stability of these hydrogels in vivo coupled with the ability for encapsulated cells to degrade the hydrogel makes them promising materials for tissue engineering. PMID:27080375

  5. In situ generation of cell-laden porous MMP-sensitive PEGDA hydrogels by gelatin leaching.

    PubMed

    Sokic, Sonja; Christenson, Megan; Larson, Jeffery; Papavasiliou, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Proteolytically degradable poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) hydrogels have been investigated as tissue engineering scaffolds; however, cell invasion and tissue regeneration are limited by the rate of cell-mediated degradation due to the small mesh size of the resultant crosslinked network. Gelatin leaching is combined with photopolymerization to form porous matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive PEG scaffolds under cytocompatible conditions in the presence of cells. Gelatin leaching allows control over pore size and porosity through selectivity of gelatin bead particle size and porogen loading, respectively. Increases in porogen loading lead to increased porosity, decreased compressive modulus and degradation time, and enhanced proliferation of encapsulated vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:24443002

  6. Hyaluronic acid nanogels with enzyme-sensitive cross-linking group for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenchen; Wang, Xin; Yao, Xikuang; Zhang, Yajun; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Xiqun

    2015-05-10

    A methacrylation strategy was employed to functionalize hyaluronic acid and prepare hyaluronic acid (HA) nanogels. Dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analyzer and electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the nanogels and their enzyme-degradability in vitro. It was found that these nanogels had a spherical morphology with the diameter of about 70nm, and negative surface potential. When doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into the nanogels, the diameter decreased to approximately 50nm with a drug loading content of 16% and encapsulation efficiency of 62%. Cellular uptake examinations showed that HA nanogels could be preferentially internalized by two-dimensional (2D) cells and three-dimensional (3D) multicellular spheroids (MCs) which both overexpress CD44 receptor. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging, biodistribution and penetration examinations in tumor tissue indicated that the HA nanogels could efficiently accumulate and penetrate the tumor matrix. In vivo antitumor evaluation found that DOX-loaded HA nanogels exhibited a significantly superior antitumor effect. PMID:25665867

  7. Protein binding assay for hyaluronate

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, B.E.; Underhill, C.B.

    1986-11-01

    A relatively quick and simple assay for hyaluronate was developed using the specific binding protein, hyaluronectin. The hyaluronectin was obtained by homogenizing the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats, and then centrifuging the homogenate. The resulting supernatant was used as a source of crude hyaluronectin. In the binding assay, the hyaluronectin was mixed with (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate, followed by an equal volume of saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, which precipitated the hyaluronectin and any (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate associated with it, but left free (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in solution. The mixture was then centrifuged, and the amount of bound (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in the precipitate was determined. Using this assay, the authors found that hyaluronectin specifically bound hyaluronate, since other glycosaminoglycans failed to compete for the binding protein. In addition, the interaction between hyaluronectin and hyaluronate was of relatively high affinity, and the size of the hyaluronate did not appear to substantially alter the amount of binding. To determine the amount of hyaluronate in an unknown sample, they used a competition assay in which the binding of a set amount of (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate was blocked by the addition of unlabeled hyaluronate. By comparing the degree of competition of the unknown samples with that of known amounts of hyaluronate, it was possible to determine the amount of hyaluronate in the unknowns. They have found that this method is sensitive to 1 ..mu..g or less of hyaluronate, and is unaffected by the presence of proteins.

  8. Enhanced anticancer activity of nanopreparation containing an MMP2-sensitive PEG-drug conjugate and cell-penetrating moiety.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Wang, Tao; Perche, Federico; Taigind, Anton; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-10-15

    In response to the challenges of cancer chemotherapeutics, including poor physicochemical properties, low tumor targeting, insufficient tumor cell internalization/bioavailability, and side effects, we developed a unique tumor-targeted micellar drug-delivery platform. Using paclitaxel as a model therapeutic, a nanopreparation composed of a matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2)-sensitive self-assembly PEG 2000-paclitaxel conjugate (as a prodrug and MMP 2-sensitive moiety), transactivating transcriptional activator peptide-PEG1000-phosphoethanolamine (PE) (a cell-penetrating enhancer), and PEG1000-PE (a nanocarrier building block) was prepared. Several major drug delivery strategies, including self-assembly, PEGylation, the enhanced permeability and retention effect, stimulus sensitivity, a cell-penetrating moiety, and the concept of prodrug, were used in design of this nanoparticle in a collaborative manner. The nanopreparation allowed superior cell internalization, cytotoxicity, tumor targeting, and antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo over its nonsensitive counterpart, free paclitaxel and conventional micelles. This uniquely engineered nanoparticle has potential for effective intracellular delivery of drug into cancer cells. PMID:24062440

  9. PEG shielded MMP sensitive CPPs for efficient and tumor specific gene delivery in vivo.

    PubMed

    Veiman, Kadi-Liis; Künnapuu, Kadri; Lehto, Tõnis; Kiisholts, Kristina; Pärn, Kalle; Langel, Ülo; Kurrikoff, Kaido

    2015-07-10

    Gene therapy has great potential to treat a range of different diseases, such as cancer. For that therapeutic gene can be inserted into a plasmid vector and delivered specifically to tumor cells. The most frequently used applications utilize lipoplex and polyplex approaches where DNA is non-covalently condensed into nanoparticles. However, lack of in vivo efficacy is the major concern that hinders translation of such gene therapeutic applications into clinics. In this work we introduce a novel method for in vivo delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA) and efficient tumor-specific gene induction using intravenous (i.v) administration route. To achieve this, we utilize a cell penetrating peptide (CPP), PepFect14 (PF14), double functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and a matrix metalloprotease (MMP) substrate. We show that this delivery vector effectively forms nanoparticles, where the condensed CPP and pDNA are shielded by the PEG, in an MMP-reversible manner. Administration of the complexes results in efficient induction of gene expression specifically in tumors, avoiding normal tissues. This strategy is a potent gene delivery platform that can be used for tumor-specific induction of a therapeutic gene. PMID:25935707

  10. MMP2-Sensitive PEG-Lipid Copolymers: A New Type of Tumor-Targeted P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi; Yao, Qing; Zhu, Lin

    2016-05-25

    Low tumor targetability and multidrug resistance (MDR) are two major impediments to the success of cancer treatments. Nanomaterials which possess high tumor targetability and the ability to reverse the MDR are rare. This report describes a new type of self-assembling polyethylene glycol-phosphoethanolamine-based copolymers (PEG-pp-PE) which showed both the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2)-sensitive tumor-targeted drug delivery and ability to inhibit the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug efflux. In this study, we synthesized a series of the homologous analogues of PEG-pp-PE copolymers and investigated the influence of their structures, including PEG lengths and peptide linkers, on the drug efflux, and identified the underlying mechanisms. We found that the whole structure (PEG-peptide-lipid) rather than any parts of the copolymers was key for the P-gp inhibition and a delicate balance between the hydrophilic and lipophilic segments of the PEG-pp-PE copolymers was needed for better modulating the P-gp-mediated drug efflux. The best copolymer, PEG2k-pp-PE, showed even higher P-gp inhibition effect than the d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS1k). We also found that the P-gp inhibition capability of PEG-pp-PE copolymers was highly associated with the P-gp down-regulation, the increase in the plasma membrane fluidity, and the inhibition of the P-gp ATPase activity. Besides, the excellent physicochemical properties, high drug loading, MMP2-dependent drug release, and improved drug efficacy in the MDR cancer cells suggested that the PEG-pp-PE copolymers might have great potential for building tumor-targeted drug delivery systems for treating drug-resistant cancers. PMID:27145021

  11. A new hyaluronic acid pH sensitive derivative obtained by ATRP for potential oral administration of proteins.

    PubMed

    Fiorica, Calogero; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Di Stefano, Mauro; Calascibetta, Filippo; Giammona, Gaetano

    2013-11-30

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been successfully employed to obtain a new derivative of hyaluronic acid (HA) able to change its solubility as a function of external pH and then to be potentially useful for intestinal release of bioactive molecules, included enzymes and proteins. In particular, a macroinitiator has been prepared by linking 2-bromo-2-methypropionic acid (BMP) to the amino groups of ethylenediamino derivative of tetrabutyl ammonium salt of HA (HA-TBA-EDA). This macroinititor, named HA-TBA-EDA-BMP has been used for the ATRP of sodium methacrylate (MANa) using a complex of Cu(I) and 2,2'-bipyridyl (Byp) as a catalyst. The resulting copolymer, named HA-EDA-BMP-MANa, has been characterized by (1)H NMR and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) analyses. A turbidimetric analysis has showed its pH sensitive behavior, being insoluble in simulated gastric fluid but soluble when pH increases more than 2.5. To confirm the ability of HA-EDA-BMP-MANa in protecting peptides or proteins from denaturation in acidic medium, α-chymotrypsin has been chosen as a model of protein molecule and its activity has been evaluated after entrapment into HA-EDA-BMP-MANa chains and treatment under simulated gastric conditions. Finally, cell compatibility has been evaluated by performing a MTS assay on murine dermal fibroblasts cultured with HA-EDA-BMP-MANa solutions. PMID:24060369

  12. Redox-Sensitive and Intrinsically Fluorescent Photoclick Hyaluronic Acid Nanogels for Traceable and Targeted Delivery of Cytochrome c to Breast Tumor in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Zhang, Jian; Deng, Chao; Meng, Fenghua; Yu, Lin; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2016-08-24

    In spite of their high specificity and potency, few protein therapeutics are applied in clinical cancer therapy owing to a lack of safe and efficacious delivery systems. Here, we report that redox-sensitive and intrinsically fluorescent photoclick hyaluronic acid nanogels (HA-NGs) show highly efficient loading and breast tumor-targeted delivery of cytochrome c (CC). HA-NGs were obtained from hyaluronic acid-graft-oligo(ethylene glycol)-tetrazole (HA-OEG-Tet) via inverse nanoprecipitation and catalyst-free photoclick cross-linking with l-cystine dimethacrylamide (MA-Cys-MA). HA-NGs exhibited a superb CC loading content of up to 40.6 wt %, intrinsic fluorescence (λem = 510 nm), and a small size of ca. 170 nm. Notably, CC-loaded nanogels (CC-NGs) showed a fast glutathione-responsive protein release behavior. Importantly, released CC maintained its bioactivity. MTT assays revealed that CC-NGs were highly potent with a low IC50 of 3.07 μM to CD44+ MCF-7 human breast tumor cells. Confocal microscopy observed efficient and selective internalization of fluorescent HA-NGs into MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, HA-NGs exhibited also effective breast tumor penetration. The therapeutic results demonstrated that CC-NGs effectively inhibited the growth of MCF-7 breast tumor xenografts at a particularly low dose of 80 or 160 nmol CC equiv./kg. Moreover, CC-NGs did not cause any change in mice body weight, corroborating their low systemic side effects. Redox-sensitive and intrinsically fluorescent photoclick hyaluronic acid nanogels have appeared as a "smart" protein delivery nanoplatform enabling safe, efficacious, traceable, and targeted cancer protein therapy in vivo. PMID:27509045

  13. Dimerization of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2): functional implication in MMP-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bon-Hun; Kim, Yeon Hyang; Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Doo-Sik

    2012-06-29

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) functions in diverse biological processes through the degradation of extracellular and non-extracellular matrix molecules. Because of its potential for tissue damage, there are several ways to regulate MMP-2 activity, including gene expression, compartmentalization, zymogen activation, and enzyme inactivation by extracellular inhibitors. Enzyme regulation through zymogen activation is important for the regulation of MMP-2 activity. In our previous studies, we showed that thrombin directly cleaved the propeptide of MMP-2 at specific sites for enzyme activation. We also demonstrated that heparan sulfate was required for thrombin-mediated activation of pro-MMP-2 by binding to thrombin, presumably through conformational changes at the active site of the enzyme. This suggests a regulatory mechanism for thrombin-mediated activation of pro-MMP-2. In this study, we found that MMP-2 formed a reduction-sensitive homodimer in a controlled manner and that Ca(2+) ion was essential for homodimerization of MMP-2. Homodimerization was not associated with protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of MMP-2. MMP-2 formed a homodimer through an intermolecular disulfide bond between Cys(102) and the neighboring Cys(102). Homodimerization of MMP-2 enhanced thrombin-mediated activation of pro-MMP-2. Moreover, the MMP-2 homodimer could cleave a small peptide substrate without removal of the propeptide. Taken together, our experimental data suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for pro-MMP-2 activation that is modulated through homodimerization of MMP-2. PMID:22577146

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 mediated degradation of hyaluronic acid-based matrices orchestrates stem cell engraftment through vascular integration.

    PubMed

    Jha, Amit K; Tharp, Kevin M; Browne, Shane; Ye, Jianqin; Stahl, Andreas; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Healy, Kevin E

    2016-05-01

    A critical design parameter for the function of synthetic extracellular matrices is to synchronize the gradual cell-mediated degradation of the matrix with the endogenous secretion of natural extracellular matrix (ECM) (e.g., creeping substitution). In hyaluronic acid (HyA)-based hydrogel matrices, we have investigated the effects of peptide crosslinkers with different matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) sensitivities on network degradation and neovascularization in vivo. The HyA hydrogel matrices consisted of cell adhesive peptides, heparin for both the presentation of exogenous and sequestration of endogenously synthesized growth factors, and MMP cleavable peptide linkages (i.e., QPQGLAK, GPLGMHGK, and GPLGLSLGK). Sca1(+)/CD45(-)/CD34(+)/CD44(+) cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) cultured in the matrices with the slowly degradable QPQGLAK hydrogels supported the highest production of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-13, VEGF165, and a range of angiogenesis related proteins. Hydrogels with QPQGLAK crosslinks supported prolonged retention of these proteins via heparin within the matrix, stimulating rapid vascular development, and anastomosis with the host vasculature when implanted in the murine hindlimb. PMID:26967648

  15. Role of MMP-2 in PKCdelta-mediated inhibition of Na+ dependent Ca2+ uptake in microsomes of pulmonary smooth muscle: involvement of a pertussis toxin sensitive protein.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Sajal; Mandal, Amritlal; Das, Sudip; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2005-12-01

    Treatment of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle with the O2 *- generating system hypoxanthine plus xanthine oxidase stimulated MMP-2 activity and PKC activity; and inhibited Na+ dependent Ca2+ uptake in the microsomes. Pretreatment of the smooth muscle with SOD (the O2 *- scavenger) and TIMP-2 (MMP-2 inhibitor) prevented the increase in MMP-2 activity and PKC activity, and reversed the inhibition of Na+ dependent Ca2+ uptake in the microsomes. Pretreatment with calphostin C (a general PKC inhibitor) and rottlerin (a PKCdelta inhibitor) prevented the increase in PKC activity and reversed O2 *- caused inhibition of Na+ dependent Ca2+ uptake without causing any change in MMP-2 activity in the microsomes of the smooth muscle. Treatment of the smooth muscle with the O2 *- generating system revealed, respectively, 36 kDa RACK-1 and 78 kDa PKCdelta immunoreactive protein profile along with an additional 38 kDa immunoreactive fragment in the microsomes. The 38 kDa band appeared to be the proteolytic fragment of the 78 kDa PKCdelta since pretreatment with TIMP-2 abolished the increase in the 38 kDa immunoreactive fragment. Co-immunoprecipitation of PKCdelta and RACK-1 demonstrated O2 *- dependent increase in PKCdelta-RACK-1 interaction in the microsomes. Immunoblot assay elicited an immunoreactive band of 41 kDa G(i)alpha in the microsomes. Treatment of the smooth muscle tissue with the O2 *- generating system causes phosphorylation of G(i)alpha in the microsomes and pretreatment with TIMP-2 and rottlerin prevented the phosphorylation. Pretreatment of the smooth muscle tissue with pertussis toxin reversed O2 *- caused inhibition of Na+ dependent Ca2+ uptake without affecting the protease activity and PKC activity in the microsomes. We suggest the existence of a pertussis toxin sensitive G protein mediated mechanism for inhibition of Na+ dependent Ca2+ uptake in microsomes of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle under O2 *- triggered condition, which is regulated by

  16. Physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on hydroxyethyl cellulose-hyaluronic acid and for applications as transdermal delivery systems for skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Sik; Kong, Bong Ju; Park, Soo Nam

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/hyaluronic acid (HA) complex hydrogels containing isoliquiritigenin (ILTG), and discussed potential applications as transdermal delivery systems for the treatment of skin lesions caused by pH imbalance. HA has skin compatibility and pH functional groups and HEC serves as scaffold to build hydrogels with varied HCE:HA mass ratio. Hydrogels were synthesized via chemical cross-linking, and three-dimensional network structures were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling properties and polymer ratios of the hydrogels were investigated at pH values in the range 1-13. HECHA13 (i.e., an HEC:HA mass ratio of 1:3) was found to have optimal rheological and adhesive properties, and was used to investigate the drug release efficiency as a function of pH; the efficiency was greater than 70% at pH 7. Antimicrobial activity assays against Propionibacterium acnes were conducted to take advantage of the pH-sensitive properties of HECHA13. At pH 7, we found that HECHA13, which contained ILTG, inhibited the growth of P. acnes. Furthermore, HECHA13 was found to exhibit excellent permeability into the skin, which penetrated mostly via the hair follicle. These results indicate that this pH-sensitive hydrogel is effective as a transdermal delivery system for antimicrobial therapeutics, with potential applications in the treatment of acne. PMID:25753198

  17. A pH-sensitive hyaluronic acid prodrug modified with lactoferrin for glioma dual-targeted treatment.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yatao; Fu, Chaoping; Li, Mei; Li, Xiangpen; Wang, Mengying; He, Lei; Zhang, Li-Ming; Peng, Ying

    2016-10-01

    Gliomas are the most common and lethal type of primary malignant brain tumor. But the existence of blood brain barrier (BBB) and blood-tumor barrier (BTB) hinder drug from reaching the tumor site. To address this problem, we developed a novel prodrug (Lf-HA-DOX) by conjugating hyaluronic acid with doxorubicin (HA-DOX) by an acid-labile hydrazone linkage, which is released in an acidic environment and accumulates in tumor tissues. Lactoferrin (Lf) was coupled for transporting across the BBB. In vitro, the release of DOX from Lf-HA-DOX was pH-dependent. At lower pH (5.0 and 6.0), the release of DOX was much quicker than that at pH7.4. In the cellular uptake studies, flow cytometry analyses and confocal laser scanning microscopy results showed significantly enhanced cellular uptake of Lf-HA-DOX and HA-DOX in C6 cells compared to DOX. In BALB/C mice bearing C6 glioma, enhanced accumulation of Lf-HA-DOX in the glioma was observed by real time fluorescence image. Correspondingly, glioma-bearing mice treated with Lf-HA-DOX displayed the longest median survival time, which was 2-fold longer than that of saline group. In conclusion, Lf-HA-DOX was able to significantly increase drug delivery to the glioma, which might provide a promising strategy for antiglioma therapy. PMID:27287110

  18. Rheology of hyaluronate.

    PubMed

    Bothner, H; Wik, O

    1987-01-01

    Solutions containing high molecular weight hyaluronate at concentrations around 10 mg/ml exhibit interesting rheological properties due to formation of a highly entangled network of flexible polysaccharide molecules. We have performed an extensive study of the rheological properties of hyaluronate solutions as a function of concentration and molecular weight. In this paper we review some basic rheological concepts, and discuss the rheological properties of hyaluronate solutions at high concentrations and medium to high molecular weights (1-5 million). The bulk viscosity (zero shear viscosity) of hyaluronate solutions is strongly dependent both on concentration and molecular weight. A 2-fold increase in concentration or molecular weight results in a 10-fold increase in bulk viscosity. For application in body compartments, the concentration of hyaluronate cannot be increased much above 10 mg/ml due to the highly non-ideal colloid osmotic behaviour of hyaluronate. High viscosity hyaluronate solutions must therefore be based on high molecular weight material. PMID:3481162

  19. Activity of MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9 in serum as a marker of progression of alcoholic liver disease in people from Lublin Region, eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Toruń-Jurkowska, Anna; Roliński, Jacek; Załuska, Wociech

    2015-01-01

    In alcoholic liver cirrhosis, normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue (fibrosis). Liver fibrosis is a dynamic process in which activated hepatic stellate cells are involved in the synthesis of matrix proteins and the regulation of matrix degeneration. The aim of the presented study was to assess the usefulness of MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9 as diagnostic markers of alcoholic liver disease. Sixty patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were randomly enrolled during hospitalization in departments of hospitals from the Lublin Region in eastern Poland. The stage of cirrhosis was estimated according to Child-Turcotte-Pugh criteria (Child-Pugh score) as P- Ch A, P-Ch B, P-Ch C. The control group consisted of 10 healthy persons without liver disease, who did not drink alcohol. Additionally, a group of alcoholics without liver cirrhosis was included in the study. Blood sample were obtained, and after centrifuge, serum was collected for further analysis. The activity of MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9 in the blood plasma of the patients and the control group were measured by using the sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique with commercially available quantitative ELISA test kits. Activity of MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9 in patients with liver cirrhosis were increased gradually according to Child-Pugh stages. The activity of MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9 were the highest in patients with liver cirrhosis stage C. MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9 concentrations in the people with liver cirrhosis (stage C) were significantly increased compared to controls. A significant difference were observed between activity MMP-2 in control group, alcoholics without liver cirrhosis, and those with liver cirrhosis (stages A, B, C according Child-Pugh score). MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9 may be markers of alcoholic liver cirrhosis in the alcoholics. Elevated levels of MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9 in the alcoholic patients indicated that cirrhosis has developed. The most sensitive is MMP-2, because the activity of this parameter is increased

  20. Skin wound healing in MMP2-deficient and MMP2 / plasminogen double-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Frøssing, Signe; Rønø, Birgitte; Hald, Andreas; Rømer, John; Lund, Leif R

    2010-08-01

    During healing of incisional skin wounds, migrating keratinocytes dissect their way under the crust to re-epithelialize the wounded area. The efficiency of this tissue remodelling process depends on the concomitant activity of several extracellular proteases, including members of the plasminogen activation (PA) system and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. Treatment with the broad spectrum MMP inhibitor, galardin, delays wound healing in wildtype mice and completely arrest wound healing in plasminogen (Plg)-deficient mice, indicating a functional overlap between plasmin- and galardin-sensitive MMPs during wound healing. To address whether MMP2 is accountable for the galardin-induced healing deficiency in wildtype and Plg-deficient mice, incisional skin wounds were generated in MMP2 single-deficient mice and in MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice and followed until healed. Alternatively, tissue was isolated 7 days post wounding for histological and biochemical analyses. No difference was found in the time from wounding to overt gross restoration of the epidermal surface between MMP2-deficient and wildtype control littermate mice. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice were viable and fertile, and displayed an unchallenged general phenotype resembling that of Plg-deficient mice, including development of rectal prolapses. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice displayed a slight increase in the wound length throughout the healing period compared with Plg-deficient mice. However, the overall time to complete healing was not significantly different between Plg-deficient and MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice. These results show that MMP2 activity is not essential for wound healing and indicate that lack of MMP2 only marginally potentiates the effect of Plg deficiency. PMID:20163454

  1. MT1-MMP modulates the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Bakker, Astrid D; Gruber, Elisabeth V; Chae, Thomas D; Veldkamp, Joris B B; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Everts, Vincent

    2012-01-13

    Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MT1-MMP) is expressed by mechanosensitive osteocytes and affects bone mass. The extracellular domain of MT1-MMP is connected to extracellular matrix, while its intracellular domain is a strong modulator of cell signaling. In theory MT1-MMP could thus transduce mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. We hypothesized that MT1-MMP plays a role in the osteocyte response to mechanical stimuli. MT1-MMP-positive and knockdown (siRNA) MLO-Y4 osteocytes were mechanically stimulated with a pulsating fluid flow (PFF). Focal adhesions were visualized by paxillin immunostaining. Osteocyte number, number of empty lacunae, and osteocyte morphology were measured in long bones of MT1-MMP(+/+) and MT1-MMP(-/-) mice. PFF decreased MT1-MMP mRNA and protein expression in MLO-Y4 osteocytes, suggesting that mechanical loading may affect pericellular matrix remodeling by osteocytes. MT1-MMP knockdown enhanced NO production and c-jun and c-fos mRNA expression in response to PFF, concomitantly with an increased number and size of focal adhesions, indicating that MT1-MMP knockdown osteocytes have an increased sensitivity to mechanical loading. Osteocytes in MT1-MMP(-/-) bone were more elongated and followed the principle loading direction, suggesting that they might sense mechanical loading. This was supported by a lower number of empty lacunae in MT1-MMP(-/-) bone, as osteocytes lacking mechanical stimuli tend to undergo apoptosis. In conclusion, mechanical stimulation decreased MT1-MMP expression by MLO-Y4 osteocytes, and MT1-MMP knockdown increased the osteocyte response to mechanical stimulation, demonstrating a novel and unexpected role for MT1-MMP in mechanosensing. PMID:22202174

  2. Inhibition of phagocytosis by high molecular weight hyaluronate.

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, J V; Balazs, E A

    1980-01-01

    The effect of sodium hyaluronate on phagocytosis was studied using a sensitive polystyrene latex sphere assay in mouse peritoneal macrophage monolayers. Viscous solutions of high molecular weight hyaluronate (4.6 X 10(5)--2.8 X 10(6)) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of phagocytosis, but low molecular weight hyaluronate (9.0 X 10(4)) was not inhibitory at equivalent viscosity. The inhibitory effect of high molecular weight hyaluronate did not appear to be mediated by the polyanionic charge of the molecule since sulphated glycosaminoglycans with greater charge density (heparin and chondroitin sulphate) were ineffective. In addition, competitive inhibition studies indicated that a direct effect on possible cell surface membrane receptors was unlikely. Instead, physical factors such as steric hindrance by the continuous polymeric network, were considered of more importance. Alternatively, the hydrophilic polysaccharide may have inhibited phagocytosis by providing an unsuitable surface for adhesive contact between the latex beads and the cell surface. PMID:7429537

  3. P17.40GLIOMA ASSOCIATED MICROGLIAL MMP9 EXPRESSION IS UP REGULATED BY TLR2 SIGNALLING AND SENSITIVE TO MINOCYCLINE

    PubMed Central

    Hu, F.; Ku, M.; Markovic, D.; Dzaye, O. Dildar a; Lehnardt, S.; Wolf, S.A.; Kettenmann, H.; Synowitz, M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The invasiveness of malignant gliomas is one of the major obstacles in glioma therapy and the reason for the poor survival of patients. Glioma cells infiltrate into the brain parenchyma and thereby escape surgical resection. Glioma—associated microglia/macrophages (GAMs) support glioma infiltration into the brain parenchyma by increased expression and activation of extracellular matrix degrading proteases such as maxtrix—metalloprotease (MMP)—2, MMP—9 and MT1—MMP. METHODS: Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo techniques, we identified TLR2 as the main TLR controlling microglial MMP9 expression and promoting microglia assisted glioma expansion. RESULTS: In this work we demonstrate that MMP—9 is predominantly expressed by GAMs in mouse and human glioma tissue but not by the glioma cells. Supernatant from glioma cells induced the expression of MMP—9 in cultured microglial cells. Using mice deficient for different toll—like receptors (TLRs) we identified TLR2/6 as the signalling pathway for the glioma induced upregulation of microglial MMP—9. Also in an experimental mouse glioma model, TLR2 deficiency attenuated the upregulation of microglial MMP—9. Moreover, glioma supernatant triggered an upregulation of TLR2 expression in microglia. Both, the upregulation of MMP—9 and TLR2 were attenuated by the antibiotic minocycline and a p38 MAPK antagonist in vitro. Minocycline also extended the survival rate of glioma bearing mice when given to the drinking water. CONCLUSIONS: Thus glioma cells change the phenotype of GAMs in a complex fashion using TLR2 as an important signalling pathway and minocycline further proved to be a potential candidate for adjuvant glioma therapy.

  4. MMP-14 Triggered Fluorescence Contrast Agent.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mai-Dung; Kang, Kyung A

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) is involved in cancer invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Therefore, it is considered to be a biomarker for aggressive cancer types, including some of the triple-negative breast cancer. Accurate (i.e., specific) and sensitive detection of MMP-14 can, thus, be important for the early diagnosis of and accurate prognosis for aggressive cancer, including the breast cancer caused by cell line MDA-MB 231. Fluorophore-mediated molecular sensing has been used for detecting biomarkers, for a long time. One way to increase the specificity of the sensing is designing the fluorophore to emit its fluorescence only when it encounters the biomarker of interest. When a fluorophore is placed on the surface of, or very close to a gold nanoparticle (GNP), its fluorescence is quenched. Applying this relationship between the GNP and fluorophore, we have developed a GNP-based, near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent that is highly specific for MMP-14. This agent normally emits only 14-17 % fluorescence of the free fluorophore. When the agent encounters MMP-14, its fluorescence gets fully restored, allowing MMP-14 specific optical signal emission. PMID:27526171

  5. Pre-Treatment of platinum resistant ovarian cancer cells with an MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor prior to cisplatin enhances cytotoxicity as determined by high content screening.

    PubMed

    Laios, Alexandros; Mohamed, Bashir M; Kelly, Lynn; Flavin, Richard; Finn, Stephen; McEvoy, Lynda; Gallagher, Michael; Martin, Cara; Sheils, Orla; Ring, Martina; Davies, Anthony; Lawson, Margaret; Gleeson, Noreen; D'Arcy, Tom; d'Adhemar, Charles; Norris, Lucy; Langhe, Ream; Saadeh, Feras Abu; O'Leary, John J; O'Toole, Sharon A

    2013-01-01

    Platinum resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in ovarian cancer. We previously identified matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) as a potential therapeutic target of chemoresistant disease. A2780cis (cisplatin-resistant) and A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive) ovarian carcinoma cell lines were used. The cytotoxic effect of MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor, (2R)-2-[(4-Biphenylsulfonyl) amino]-3 phenylpropionic acid (C21H19NO4S) alone or in combination with cisplatin was determined using high content screening. Protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Co-incubation of cisplatin and an MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor, (2R)-2-[(4-Biphenylsulfonyl) amino]-3 phenylpropionic acid (C21H19NO4S) resulted in significantly greater cytotoxicity as compared to either treatment alone in a cisplatin resistant MMP-9 overexpressing cell line; A2780cis. In addition, pre-incubating with MMP-9i prior to cisplatin further enhances the cytotoxic effect. No significant difference was observed in MMP-9 protein in tissue but a trend towards increased MMP-9 was observed in recurrent serum. We propose that MMP-9/MMP-2i may be utilized in the treatment of recurrent/chemoresistant ovarian cancers that overexpress MMP-9 mRNA but its role in vivo remains to be evaluated. PMID:23340649

  6. Degradation of cartilage aggrecan by collagenase-3 (MMP-13).

    PubMed

    Fosang, A J; Last, K; Knäuper, V; Murphy, G; Neame, P J

    1996-02-12

    Degradation of the large cartilage proteoglycan aggrecan in arthritis involves an unidentified enzyme aggrecanase, and at least one of the matrix metalloproteinases. Proteinase-sensitive cleavage sites in the aggrecan interglobular domain (IGD) have been identified for many of the humman MMPs, as well as for aggrecanase and other proteinases. The major MMP expressed by chondrocytes stimulated with retinoic acid to degrade their matrix is collagenase-3 or MMP-13. Because of its potential role in aggrecan degradation we examined the specificity of MMP-13 for an aggrecan substrate. The results show that MMP-13 cleaves aggrecan in the IGD at the same site (..PEN314-FFG..) identified for other members of the MMP family, and also at a novel site ..VKP384-VFE.. not previously observed for other proteinases. PMID:8603731

  7. In vivo detecting matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity by a genetically engineered fluorescent probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhihong; Su, Ting; Luo, Qingming

    2007-02-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) enhances tumor invasion and metastasis. To monitor MMP activity, we constructed plasmid that encoded a fluorescent sensor DC, in which an MMP substrate site (MSS) is sandwiched between DsRed2 and ECFP. MMPs are secretory proteins, only acting on the outside of cells; hence, an expressing vector was used that displayed the fluorescent sensor on the cellular surface. The DC was expressed in cells with high secretory MMP, so MSS was cleaved by MMP. Also, GM6001, an MMP inhibitor, causes DsRed2 signals to increase in living cells and on the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Thus, this fluorescent sensor was able to sensitively monitor MMP activation in vivo. Potential applications for this sensor include high-throughput screening for MMP inhibitors for anti-cancer research, and detailed analysis of the effects of MMP inhibitors.

  8. Role of P38 MAPK on MMP Activity in Photothrombotic Stroke Mice as Measured using an Ultrafast MMP Activatable Probe

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Di; Wang, Yuan-Cheng; Bai, Ying-Ying; Lu, Chun-Qiang; Xu, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Lei; Ju, Shenghong

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) exert a dual effect in ischemic stroke and thus represent an ideal target for detection and therapy. However, to date, all clinical trials of MMP inhibitors have failed, and alternative drug candidates and therapeutic targets are urgently required. Nonetheless, further investigations are limited by the lack of non-invasive imaging techniques. Here, we report a novel, fast and ultrasensitive MMP activatable optical imaging probe for the dynamic visualization of MMP activity in photothrombotic stroke mice. This probe provides a significant signal enhancement in as little as 15 min, with the highest signal intensity occurring at 1 h post-injection, and shows high sensitivity in measuring MMP activity alterations, which makes it specifically suitable for the real-time visualization of MMP activity and drug discovery in preclinical research. Moreover, using this probe, we successfully demonstrate that the regulation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway is capable of modulating MMP activity after stroke, revealing a novel regulatory mechanism of postischemic brain damage and overcoming the limitations of traditional therapeutic strategies associated with MMP inhibitors by using a non-invasive molecular imaging method. PMID:26581247

  9. 808 nm Light-triggered and hyaluronic acid-targeted dual-photosensitizers nanoplatform by fully utilizing Nd(3+)-sensitized upconversion emission with enhanced anti-tumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhiyao; Deng, Kerong; Li, Chunxia; Deng, Xiaoran; Lian, Hongzhou; Cheng, Ziyong; Jin, Dayong; Lin, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The current near-infrared (NIR) light-induced photodynamic therapy (PDT) can enhance the tissue penetration depth to trigger photosensitizers (PSs) far from the surface. NIR-mediated PDT is still challenged by overheating effect on normal tissues, limited tumor selectivity and low reactive oxygen species (ROS) yields. Here we construct a dual-agent photosensitizing nanoplatform by combining UV-blue upconversion emitting NaYF4:Yb/Tm@NaYF4:Yb@NaNdF4:Yb@NaYF4 (labeled as UCNPs) multi-shell nanocrystals with titanium dioxide (TiO2, UV-light-excited PS) and hypocrellin A (HA, blue-light-excited PS), which can induce cancer cell apoptosis by 808 nm light-triggered and hyaluronic acid (Hyal)-targeted PDT. In this construction strategy, the crystallized TiO2 shells on the surface of UCNPs can play dual roles as UV-light excited PS and conjugation site for Hyal, and then Hyal is served as targeting-ligand as well as the carrier of HA simultaneously. The step-by-step reactive mode of loading PSs and modifying targeting-ligands is a controllable and ordered design based on the use of one intermediate product as the reaction site for the next component. The Nd(3+)-sensitized UCNPs with quenching reduction layer can efficiently convert 808 nm NIR light to UV-blue emission for simultaneous activation of two PSs with enhanced intracellular ROS generation. Through the in vitro and in vivo experiment results, the dual-photosensitizers nanoplatform presents enhanced anti-tumor efficacy by effective targeting cellular uptake and taking full advantage of upconversion emission, which may make a major step toward next generation of NIR-mediated PDT. PMID:27267626

  10. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i)...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i)...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i)...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i)...

  14. Hyaluronic acid and tendon lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kaux, Jean-François; Samson, Antoine; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction recently, the viscoelastic properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) on liquid connective tissue have been proposed for the treatment of tendinopathies. Some fundamental studies show encouraging results on hyaluronic acid’s ability to promote tendon gliding and reduce adhesion as well as to improve tendon architectural organisation. Some observations also support its use in a clinical setting to improve pain and function. This literature review analyses studies relating to the use of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of tendinopathies. Methods this review was constructed using the Medline database via Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar. The key words hyaluronic acid, tendon and tendinopathy were used for the research. Results in total, 28 articles (in English and French) on the application of hyaluronic acid to tendons were selected for their relevance and scientific quality, including 13 for the in vitro part, 7 for the in vivo animal part and 8 for the human section. Conclusions preclinical studies demonstrate encouraging results: HA permits tendon gliding, reduces adhesions, creates better tendon architectural organisation and limits inflammation. These laboratory observations appear to be supported by limited but encouraging short-term clinical results on pain and function. However, controlled randomised studies are still needed. PMID:26958533

  15. Inhibition of MMP14 potentiates the therapeutic effect of temozolomide and radiation in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ulasov, Ilya; Thaci, Bart; Sarvaiya, Purvaba; Yi, Ruiyang; Guo, Donna; Auffinger, Brenda; Pytel, Peter; Zhang, Lingjiao; Kim, Chung Kwon; Borovjagin, Anton; Dey, Mahua; Han, Yu; Baryshnikov, Anatoly Y; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2013-08-01

    Metalloproteinases are membrane-bound proteins that play a role in the cellular responses to antiglioma therapy. Previously, it has been shown that treatment of glioma cells with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation (XRT) induces the expression of metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14). To investigate the role of MMP14 in gliomagenesis, we used several chemical inhibitors which affect MMP14 expression. Of all the inhibitors tested, we found that Marimastat not only inhibits the expression of MMP14 in U87 and U251 glioma cells, but also induces cell cycle arrest. To determine the relationship between MMP14 inhibition and alteration of the cell cycle, we used an RNAi technique. Genetic knockdown of MMP14 in U87 and U251 glioma cells induced G2/M arrest and decreased proliferation. Mechanistically, we show that TMZ and XRT regulated expression of MMP14 in clinical samples and in vitro models through downregulation of microRNA374. In vivo genetic knockdown of MMP14 significantly decreased tumor growth of glioma xenografts and improved survival of glioma-bearing mice. Moreover, the combination of MMP14 silencing with TMZ and XRT significantly improved the survival of glioma-bearing mice compared to a single modality treatment group. Therefore, we show that the inhibition of MMP14 sensitizes tumor cells to TMZ and XRT and could be used as a future strategy for antiglioma therapy. PMID:24156018

  16. Immunohistochemical expression of MMP-14 and MMP-2, and MMP-2 activity during human ovarian follicular development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of MMP-14 and MMP-2 during human ovarian follicular development using immunohistochemistry, and the activity of MMP-2 in follicular fluid using zymography. Methods Ovarian tissue collected from the archives of the Department of Pathology was examined and medical records and histopathology were reviewed. Follicular fluids were collected at the IVF-department and analyzed using zymography. Results MMP-14 and MMP-2 were increasingly found in the growing follicles and MMP-2 was highly expressed in the corpus luteum. Pro-MMP-2 was present in follicular fluid of IVF-patients. Conclusions The presence of MMP-14 and MMP-2 during human ovarian follicular development from the primordial follicle to the tertiary follicle and corpus luteum is confirmed, as was indicated by earlier animal studies following stimulation with gonadotrophins. PMID:24485069

  17. Physics of soft hyaluronic acid-collagen type II double network gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Svetlana; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2015-03-01

    Many biological hydrogels are made up of multiple interpenetrating, charged components. We study the swelling, elastic diffusion, mechanical, and optical behaviors of 100 mol% ionizable hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen type II fiber networks. Dilute, 0.05-0.5 wt% hyaluronic acid networks are extremely sensitive to solution salt concentration, but are stable at pH above 2. When swelled in 0.1M NaCl, single-network hyaluronic acid gels follow scaling laws relevant to high salt semidilute solutions; the elastic shear modulus G' and diffusion constant D scale with the volume fraction ϕ as G' ~ϕ 9 / 4 and D ~ϕ 3 / 4 , respectively. With the addition of a collagen fiber network, we find that the hyaluronic acid network swells to suspend the rigid collagen fibers, providing extra strength to the hydrogel. Results on swelling equilibria, elasticity, and collective diffusion on these double network hydrogels will be presented.

  18. MMP-25 Metalloprotease Regulates Innate Immune Response through NF-κB Signaling.

    PubMed

    Soria-Valles, Clara; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Ana; Osorio, Fernando G; Carrero, Dido; Ferrando, Adolfo A; Colado, Enrique; Fernández-García, M Soledad; Bonzon-Kulichenko, Elena; Vázquez, Jesús; Fueyo, Antonio; López-Otín, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) regulate innate immunity acting over proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and other immune-related proteins. MMP-25 (membrane-type 6-MMP) is a membrane-bound enzyme predominantly expressed in leukocytes whose biological function has remained largely unknown. We have generated Mmp25-deficient mice to elucidate the in vivo function of this protease. These mutant mice are viable and fertile and do not show any spontaneous phenotype. However, Mmp25-null mice exhibit a defective innate immune response characterized by low sensitivity to bacterial LPS, hypergammaglobulinemia, and reduced secretion of proinflammatory molecules. Moreover, these immune defects can be tracked to a defective NF-κB activation observed in Mmp25-deficient leukocytes. Globally, our findings provide new mechanistic insights into innate immunity through the activity of MMP-25, suggesting that this proteinase could be a potential therapeutic target for immune-related diseases. PMID:27259858

  19. Oil-free hyaluronic acid matrix for serial femtosecond crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Nakane, Takanori; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Numata, Keiji; Iwata, So

    2016-04-01

    The grease matrix was originally introduced as a microcrystal-carrier for serial femtosecond crystallography and has been expanded to applications for various types of proteins, including membrane proteins. However, the grease-based matrix has limited application for oil-sensitive proteins. Here we introduce a grease-free, water-based hyaluronic acid matrix. Applications for proteinase K and lysozyme proteins were able to produce electron density maps at 2.3-Å resolution.

  20. Oil-free hyaluronic acid matrix for serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Nakane, Takanori; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Numata, Keiji; Iwata, So

    2016-01-01

    The grease matrix was originally introduced as a microcrystal-carrier for serial femtosecond crystallography and has been expanded to applications for various types of proteins, including membrane proteins. However, the grease-based matrix has limited application for oil-sensitive proteins. Here we introduce a grease-free, water-based hyaluronic acid matrix. Applications for proteinase K and lysozyme proteins were able to produce electron density maps at 2.3-Å resolution. PMID:27087008

  1. Oil-free hyaluronic acid matrix for serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Nakane, Takanori; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Numata, Keiji; Iwata, So

    2016-01-01

    The grease matrix was originally introduced as a microcrystal-carrier for serial femtosecond crystallography and has been expanded to applications for various types of proteins, including membrane proteins. However, the grease-based matrix has limited application for oil-sensitive proteins. Here we introduce a grease-free, water-based hyaluronic acid matrix. Applications for proteinase K and lysozyme proteins were able to produce electron density maps at 2.3-Å resolution. PMID:27087008

  2. Genetic polymorphisms of MMP1, MMP3 and MMP7 gene promoter and risk of colorectal adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Lièvre, Astrid; Milet, Jacqueline; Carayol, Jérôme; Le Corre, Delphine; Milan, Chantal; Pariente, Alexandre; Nalet, Bernard; Lafon, Jacques; Faivre, Jean; Bonithon-Kopp, Claire; Olschwang, Sylviane; Bonaiti-Pellié, Catherine; Laurent-Puig, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been shown to play a role in colorectal cancer (CRC). More recently, MMP1, MMP3 and MMP7 functional gene promoter polymorphisms have been found to be associated with CRC occurrence and prognosis. To document the role of MMP polymorphisms in the early step of colorectal carcinogenesis, we investigated their association with colorectal adenoma risk in a case-control study comprising 295 patients with large adenomas (LA), 302 patients with small adenomas (SA) and 568 polyp-free (PF) controls. Methods Patients were genotyped using automated fragment analysis for MMP1 -1607 ins/del G and MMP3 -1612 ins/delA (MMP3.1) polymorphisms and allelic discrimination assay for MMP3 -709 A/G (MMP3.2) and MMP7 -181 A/G polymorphisms. Association between MMP genotypes and colorectal adenomas was first tested for each polymorphism separately and then for combined genotypes using the combination test. Adjustment on relevant variables and estimation of odds ratios were performed using unconditional logistic regression. Results No association was observed between the polymorphisms and LA when compared to PF or SA. When comparing SA to PF controls, analysis revealed a significant association between MMP3 -1612 ins/delA polymorphism and SA with an increased risk associated with the 6A/6A genotype (OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.20–2.34). Using the combination test, the best association was found for MMP3.1-MMP1 (p = 0.001) with an OR of 1.88 (95%CI: 1.08–3.28) for the combined genotype 2G/2G-6A/6A estimated by logistic regression. Conclusion These data show a relation between MMP1 -1607 ins/del G and MMP3 -1612 ins/delA combined polymorphisms and risk of SA, suggesting their potential role in the early steps of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:17125518

  3. The role of hyaluronic acid in biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen-Hua; Ren, Xiu-Li; Zhou, Hui-Hui; Li, Xu-Dong

    2012-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid has been extensively investigated due to intrinsic properties of natural origin and strong ability to bind ions in water. Hyaluronic acid is an excellent crystal modifier because its abundant negatively charged carboxyl groups can bind the cations protruding from the crystal lattice. In this review, we mainly present the latest work focus on the role of hyaluronic acid in controlling the crystallization, breaking the symmetry of crystal, and the surface funtionalization of nanocrystals.

  4. Design, Synthesis, and Use of MMP-2 Inhibitor-Conjugated Quantum Dots in Functional Biochemical Assays.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, Erika; Brazhnik, Kristina; Sukhanova, Alyona; Moroy, Gautier; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; Martin, Anne-Pascaline; Villena, Isabelle; Bellon, Georges; Sapi, Janos; Nabiev, Igor

    2016-04-20

    The development of chemically designed matrix metalloprotease (MMP) inhibitors has advanced the understanding of the roles of MMPs in different diseases. Most MMP probes designed are fluorogenic substrates, often suffering from photo- and chemical instability and providing a fluorescence signal of moderate intensity, which is difficult to detect and analyze when dealing with crude biological samples. Here, an inhibitor that inhibits MMP-2 more selectively than Galardin has been synthesized and used for enzyme labeling and detection of the MMP-2 activity. A complete MMP-2 recognition complex consisting of a biotinylated MMP inhibitor tagged with the streptavidin-quantum dot (QD) conjugate has been prepared. This recognition complex, which is characterized by a narrow fluorescence emission spectrum, long fluorescence lifetime, and negligible photobleaching, has been demonstrated to specifically detect MMP-2 in in vitro sandwich-type biochemical assays with sensitivities orders of magnitude higher than those of the existing gold standards employing organic dyes. The approach developed can be used for specific in vitro visualization and testing of MMP-2 in cells and tissues with sensitivities significantly exceeding those of the best existing fluorogenic techniques. PMID:26930394

  5. Temporal fossa defects: techniques for injecting hyaluronic acid filler and complications after hyaluronic acid filler injection.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2015-09-01

    Facial changes with aging include thinning of the epidermis, loss of skin elasticity, atrophy of muscle, and subcutaneous fat and bony changes, all which result in a loss of volume. As temporal bones become more concave, and the temporalis atrophies and the temporal fat pad decreases, volume loss leads to an undesirable, gaunt appearance. By altering the temporal fossa and upper face with hyaluronic acid filler, those whose specialty is injecting filler can achieve a balanced and more youthful facial structure. Many techniques have been described to inject filler into the fossa including a "fanned" pattern of injections, highly diluted filler injection, and the method we describe using a three-injection approach. Complications of filler in the temporal fossa include bruising, tenderness, swelling, Tyndall effect, overcorrection, and chewing discomfort. Although rare, more serious complications include infection, foreign body granuloma, intravascular necrosis, and blindness due to embolization into the ophthalmic artery. Using reversible hyaluronic acid fillers, hyaluronidase can be used to relieve any discomfort felt by the patient. Injectors must be aware of the complications that may occur and provide treatment readily to avoid morbidities associated with filler injection into this sensitive area. PMID:26311237

  6. Inhibition of MMP14 potentiates the therapeutic effect of temozolomide and radiation in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ulasov, Ilya; Thaci, Bart; Sarvaiya, Purvaba; Yi, Ruiyang; Guo, Donna; Auffinger, Brenda; Pytel, Peter; Zhang, Lingjiao; Kim, Chung Kwon; Borovjagin, Anton; Dey, Mahua; Han, Yu; Baryshnikov, Anatoly Y; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Metalloproteinases are membrane-bound proteins that play a role in the cellular responses to antiglioma therapy. Previously, it has been shown that treatment of glioma cells with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation (XRT) induces the expression of metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14). To investigate the role of MMP14 in gliomagenesis, we used several chemical inhibitors which affect MMP14 expression. Of all the inhibitors tested, we found that Marimastat not only inhibits the expression of MMP14 in U87 and U251 glioma cells, but also induces cell cycle arrest. To determine the relationship between MMP14 inhibition and alteration of the cell cycle, we used an RNAi technique. Genetic knockdown of MMP14 in U87 and U251 glioma cells induced G2/M arrest and decreased proliferation. Mechanistically, we show that TMZ and XRT regulated expression of MMP14 in clinical samples and in vitro models through downregulation of microRNA374. In vivo genetic knockdown of MMP14 significantly decreased tumor growth of glioma xenografts and improved survival of glioma-bearing mice. Moreover, the combination of MMP14 silencing with TMZ and XRT significantly improved the survival of glioma-bearing mice compared to a single modality treatment group. Therefore, we show that the inhibition of MMP14 sensitizes tumor cells to TMZ and XRT and could be used as a future strategy for antiglioma therapy. Glioblastoma remains an incurable form of brain cancer. In this manuscript, we show that inhibition of MMP14 can potentiate the efficacy of current standard of care which includes chemo- and radiotherapy. PMID:24156018

  7. Heterotrimeric G Proteins Directly Regulate MMP14/Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloprotease

    PubMed Central

    Overland, Aaron C.; Insel, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Agonist stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can transactivate epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), but the precise mechanisms for this transactivation have not been defined. Key to this process is the protease-mediated “shedding” of membrane-tethered ligands, which then activate EGFRs. The specific proteases and the events involved in GPCR-EGFR transactivation are not fully understood. We have tested the hypothesis that transactivation can occur by a membrane-delimited process: direct increase in the activity of membrane type-1 matrix metalloprotease (MMP14, MT1-MMP) by heterotrimeric G proteins, and in turn, the generation of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) and activation of EGFR. Using membranes prepared from adult rat cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts, we found that MMP14 activity is increased by angiotensin II, phenylephrine, GTP, and guanosine 5′-O-[γ-thio]triphosphate (GTPγS). MMP14 activation by GTPγS occurs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, does not occur in response to GMP or adenosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate (ATPγS), and is not blunted by inhibitors of Src, PKC, phospholipase C (PLC), PI3K, or soluble MMPs. This activation is specific to MMP14 as it is inhibited by a specific MMP14 peptide inhibitor and siRNA knockdown. MMP14 activation by GTPγS is pertussis toxin-sensitive. A role for heterotrimeric G protein βγ subunits was shown by using the Gβγ inhibitor gallein and the direct activation of recombinant MMP14 by purified βγ subunits. GTPγS-stimulated activation of MMP14 also results in membrane release of HB-EGF and the activation of EGFR. These results define a previously unrecognized, membrane-delimited mechanism for EGFR transactivation via direct G protein activation of MMP14 and identify MMP14 as a heterotrimeric G protein-regulated effector. PMID:25759388

  8. MMP-13 predominates over MMP-8 as the functional interstitial collagenase in mouse atheromata

    PubMed Central

    Quillard, Thibaut; Araújo, Haniel Alves; Franck, Gregory; Tesmenitsky, Yevgenia; Libby, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective Substantial evidence implicates interstitial collagenases of the MMP family in plaque rupture and fatal thrombosis. Understanding the compensatory mechanisms that may influence the expression of these enzymes and their functions therefore have important clinical implications. This study assessed in mice the unknown relative impact of the two principal collagenases on collagen content and other plaque characteristics. Approach and Results apoE−/− mice, MMP-13−/− apoE−/−, MMP-8−/− apoE−/− double knockout (DKO) mice, and MMP-13−/− MMP-8−/− apoE−/− triple knockout (TKO) mice consumed a high-cholesterol diet for 10 and 24 weeks. Both DKO and TKO mice showed comparable atherosclerotic lesion formation compared to apoE−/− controls. Analysis of aortic root sections indicated that lesions of MMP-8/MMP-13-deficient and MMP-13-deficient mice accumulate more fibrillar collagen than apoE−/− controls and MMP-8−/− apoE−/− DKO. We further tested the relative impact of MMPs on plaque collagenolysis using in situ zymography. MMP-13 deletion alone abrogated collagenolytic activity in lesions, indicating a predominant role for MMP-13 in this process. MMP-13 and MMP-13/MMP-8 deficiency did not alter macrophage content, but associated with reduced accumulation of smooth-muscle cells. Conclusions These results show that among MMP interstitial collagenases in mice, MMP-13 prevails over MMP-8 in collagen degradation in atheromata. These findings provide a rationale for the identification and selective targeting a predominant collagenase for modulating key aspects of plaque structure considered critical in clinical complications, although they do not translate directly to human lesions, which also contain MMP-1. PMID:24723558

  9. The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Emiko; Yana, Ikuo; Fujita, Chisato; Irifune, Aiko; Takeda, Maki; Madachi, Ayako; Mori, Seiji; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2010-03-05

    The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression remains to be elucidated in spite of many reports on MT1-MMP. Using a human fibrosarcoma cell, HT1080 and a human gastric cancer cell, TMK-1, endogenous expression of MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP was suppressed by siRNA induction to examine the influence of cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. In HT1080 cells, positive both in MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, the migration as well as the invasion was impaired by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression. Also cell proliferation in three dimensional (3D) condition was inhibited by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression and tumor growth in the nude mice transplanted with tumor cells were reduced either MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression with a prolongation of survival time in vivo. MT2-MMP suppression induces more inhibitory effects on 3D proliferation and in vivo tumor growth than MT1-MMP. On the other hand, TMK-1 cells, negative in MT1-MMP and MMP-2 but positive in MT2-MMP, all the migratory, invasive, and 3D proliferative activities in TMK-1 are decreased only by MT2-MMP suppression. These results indicate MT2-MMP might be involved in the cancer progression more than or equal to MT1-MMP independently of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP.

  10. Hyaluronic acid production and hyaluronidase activity in the newt iris during lens regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Kulyk, W.M.; Zalik, S.E.; Dimitrov, E.

    1987-09-01

    The process of lens regeneration in newts involves the dedifferentiation of pigmented iris epithelial cells and their subsequent conversion into lens fibers. In vivo this cell-type conversion is restricted to the dorsal region of the iris. We have examined the patterns of hyaluronate accumulation and endogenous hyaluronidase activity in the newt iris during the course of lens regeneration in vivo. Accumulation of newly synthesized hyaluronate was estimated from the uptake of (/sup 3/H)glucosamine into cetylpyridinium chloride-precipitable material that was sensitive to Streptomyces hyaluronidase. Endogenous hyaluronidase activity was determined from the quantity of reducing N-acetylhexosamine released upon incubation of iris tissue extract with exogenous hyaluronate substrate. We found that incorporation of label into hyaluronate was consistently higher in the regeneration-activated irises of lentectomized eyes than in control irises from sham-operated eyes. Hyaluronate labeling was higher in the dorsal (lens-forming) region of the iris than in ventral (non-lens-forming) iris tissue during the regeneration process. Label accumulation into hyaluronate was maximum between 10 and 15 days after lentectomy, the period of most pronounced dedifferentiation in the dorsal iris epithelium. Both normal and regenerating irises demonstrated a high level of endogenous hyaluronidase activity with a pH optimum of 3.5-4.0. Hyaluronidase activity was 1.7 to 2 times higher in dorsal iris tissue than in ventral irises both prior to lentectomy and throughout the regeneration process. We suggest that enhanced hyaluronate accumulation may facilitate the dedifferentiation of iris epithelial cells in the dorsal iris and prevent precocious withdrawal from the cell cycle. The high level of hyaluronidase activity in the dorsal iris may promote the turnover and remodeling of extracellular matrix components required for cell-type conversion.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): elevated levels are primarily related to CSF cell count.

    PubMed

    Yushchenko, M; Weber, F; Mäder, M; Schöll, U; Maliszewska, M; Tumani, H; Felgenhauer, K; Beuche, W

    2000-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and zymography in 111 paired CSF and serum samples from patients with various neurological disorders. In 20 patients with blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment but normal CSF cell count, elevated levels of MMP-9 were not observed by ELISA measurement. Another 11 patients characterized in the same way, exhibited only slightly increased MMP-9 levels. In contrast, in 12 patients with intact BBB but elevated CSF cell count, MMP-9 was increased too. It was shown by the more sensitive zymography that MMP-9 increased if CSF cell count exceeded five cells per microl. Spearman rank statistics revealed that MMP-9 concentration in CSF correlated with CSF cell count (r=0.755; P<0.0001), but not with CSF/serum albumin ratio (Q(Alb)) (r=0.212; P=0.057), a measure for BBB impairment. Moreover, the CSF/serum MMP-9 ratio (Q(MMP-9)) did not correlate with Q(Alb)(r=0.192; P=0.100). By use of a Boyden chamber, in which granulocytes migrated through a reconstituted basement membrane, it was demonstrated that the MMP-9 concentration in the lower chamber correlated very significantly with the number of accumulated cells (r(2)=0.7692; P<0.0001). The meaning of the increase of MMP-9 in CSF is critically discussed. PMID:11024556

  12. Heterogeneity of serum gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 isoforms and charge variants.

    PubMed

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Riviello, Lea; Coniglio, Maria Gabriella; Vandooren, Jennifer; Liuzzi, Grazia Maria; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Riccio, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9) are mediators of brain injury in multiple sclerosis (MS) and valuable biomarkers of disease activity. We applied bidimensional zymography (2-DZ) as an extension of classic monodimensional zymography (1-DZ) to analyse the complete pattern of isoforms and post-translational modifications of both MMP-9 and MMP-2 present in the sera of MS patients. The enzymes were separated on the basis of their isoelectric points (pI) and apparent molecular weights (Mw) and identified both by comparison with standard enzyme preparations and by Western blot analysis. Two MMP-2 isoforms, and at least three different isoforms and two different states of organization of MMP-9 (the multimeric MMP-9 and the N-GAL-MMP-9 complex) were observed. In addition, 2-DZ revealed for the first time that all MMP-9 and MMP-2 isoforms actually exist in the form of charge variants: four or five variants in the NGAL complex, more charge variants in the case of MMP-9; and five to seven charge variants for MMP-2. Charge variants were also observed in recombinant enzymes and, after concentration, also in sera from healthy individuals. Sialylation (MMP-9) and phosphorylation (MMP-2) contributed to molecular heterogeneity. The detection of charge variants of MMP-9 and MMP-2 in MS serum samples illustrates the power of 2-DZ and demonstrates that in previous studies MMP mixtures, rather than single molecules, were analysed. These observations open perspectives for better diagnosis and prognosis of many diseases and need to be critically interpreted when applying other methods for MS and other diseases. PMID:24616914

  13. Differential Processing of α- and β-Defensin Precursors by Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7)*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Carole L.; Schmidt, Amy P.; Pirilä, Emma; Valore, Erika V.; Ferri, Nicola; Sorsa, Timo; Ganz, Tomas; Parks, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Proteolytic processing of defensins is a critical mode of posttranslational regulation of peptide activity. Because mouse α-defensin precursors are cleaved and activated by matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), we determined if additional defensin molecules, namely human neutrophil defensin pro-HNP-1 and β-defensins, are targets for MMP-7. We found that MMP-7 cleaves within the pro-domain of the HNP-1 precursor, a reaction that does not generate the mature peptide but produces a 59-amino acid intermediate. This intermediate, which retains the carboxyl-terminal end of the pro-domain, had antimicrobial activity, indicating that the residues important for masking defensin activity reside in the amino terminus of this domain. Mature HNP-1 was resistant to processing by MMP-7 unless the peptide was reduced and alkylated, demonstrating that only the pro-domain of α-defensins is normally accessible for cleavage by this enzyme. From the 47-residue HBD-1 precursor, MMP-7 catalyzed removal of 6 amino acids from the amino terminus. Neither a 39-residue intermediate form of HBD-1 nor the mature 36-residue form of HBD-1 was cleaved by MMP-7. In addition, both pro-HBD-2, with its shorter amino-terminal extension, and pro-HBD-3 were resistant to MMP-7. However, human and mouse β-defensin precursors that lack disulfide bonding contain a cryptic MMP-7-sensitive site within the mature peptide moiety. These findings support and extend accumulating evidence that the native three-dimensional structure of both α- and β-defensins protects the mature peptides against proteolytic processing by MMP-7. We also conclude that sites for MMP-7 cleavage are more common at the amino termini of α-defensin rather than β-defensin precursors, and that catalysis at these sites in α-defensin pro-domains results in acquisition of defensin activity. PMID:19181662

  14. Investigation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in canine sera with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Chegeni, S; Khaki, Z; Shirani, D; Vajhi, A; Taheri, M; Tamrchi, Y; Rostami, A

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is accompanied by myocytes and connective tissue changes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in cardiac remodeling. It seems that the gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) are effective enzymes in cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy was confirmed in 22 dogs (patient group) including 11 female and 11 male by clinical examination, auscultation, thoracic radiography and echocardiography. 17 healthy dogs (control group) with similar weight and breed to patients were also selected from referred cases to Small Animal Hospital of the Veterinary Faculty of Tehran University and the same diagnostic procedures were performed on them. After that, serum MMP-2 and MMP-9 of control and patient groups were measured by semi-quantitative zymography. Semiquantitative analysis of zymograms from canine serums with DCM showed that total MMP-9 in patients is more than control group, while there was no significant difference in total MMP-2 between the two groups. Pro-MMP-2 was not detected in patient group but its active form was present in both groups, of course MMP-2 activity in patients was significantly more than control. Active form of MMP-9 was detected only in patients. Although pro-MMP-9 was present in both groups, its level in control group was significantly higher than patients. The heart enlargement was observed in the left, right or both parts. Statistically significant differences in active form of MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were observed between different groups of heart enlargement (right, left and both parts) compared to control but this difference was not significant considering chambers affected and VHS (vertebral heart score) groups. In conclusion, although there are some changes in serum MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in canine DCM, it seems that increase of MMP-9 is more prominent than MMP-2 and neither of them were affected by heart enlargement or VHS grade. PMID:27175173

  15. Associations of MMP1, MMP2 and MMP3 Genes Polymorphism with Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaoming; Wang, Lijuan; Wu, Baiqun; Han, Ruhui; Han, Lei; Wang, Ting; Yang, Jingjin; Ni, Chunhui

    2015-01-01

    Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) has been associated with abnormalities in the extracellular matrix remodeling, as well as aberrant matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in lung tissues. We investigated the association of three functional polymorphisms in MMP gene promoters (MMP1 rs1799750, MMP2 rs2285053 and MMP3 rs522616) with the risk of CWP. A total of 693 CWP cases and 690 controls were included in a case-control study. Genotype analysis was performed by the TaqMan method. Statistically significant differences were found in distributions of MMP3 rs522616 under a recessive model (p = 0.047) between CWP cases and controls. In the stratification analysis, individuals with MMP3 rs522616 GG genotype decreased the risk of CWP (adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.52–0.99) compared to those with AA/AG genotype obviously, particularly among subgroups of no smokers (adjusted OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.41–1.00). Furthermore, serum MMP3 protein levels measured with enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay in the control group was significantly lower than that in the CWP groups (p = 0.02). Extremely lower MMP3 among subjects with the rs522616 GG or AG genotype compared with the AA genotype carriers (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 respectively) in the normal serum. These findings indicate that the MMP3 rs522616 polymorphism may contribute to the etiology of CWP in the Chinese population and MMP3 might be a potential diagnostic biomarker for CWP, additional independent studies are warranted to validate our findings in different populations as well as in a larger series. PMID:26528997

  16. Associations of MMP1, MMP2 and MMP3 Genes Polymorphism with Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis in Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoming; Wang, Lijuan; Wu, Baiqun; Han, Ruhui; Han, Lei; Wang, Ting; Yang, Jingjin; Ni, Chunhui

    2015-11-01

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) has been associated with abnormalities in the extracellular matrix remodeling, as well as aberrant matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in lung tissues. We investigated the association of three functional polymorphisms in MMP gene promoters (MMP1 rs1799750, MMP2 rs2285053 and MMP3 rs522616) with the risk of CWP. A total of 693 CWP cases and 690 controls were included in a case-control study. Genotype analysis was performed by the TaqMan method. Statistically significant differences were found in distributions of MMP3 rs522616 under a recessive model (p = 0.047) between CWP cases and controls. In the stratification analysis, individuals with MMP3 rs522616 GG genotype decreased the risk of CWP (adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.52-0.99) compared to those with AA/AG genotype obviously, particularly among subgroups of no smokers (adjusted OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.41-1.00). Furthermore, serum MMP3 protein levels measured with enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay in the control group was significantly lower than that in the CWP groups (p = 0.02). Extremely lower MMP3 among subjects with the rs522616 GG or AG genotype compared with the AA genotype carriers (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 respectively) in the normal serum. These findings indicate that the MMP3 rs522616 polymorphism may contribute to the etiology of CWP in the Chinese population and MMP3 might be a potential diagnostic biomarker for CWP, additional independent studies are warranted to validate our findings in different populations as well as in a larger series. PMID:26528997

  17. Reporters to monitor cellular MMP12 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos-Correa, Amanda; Mall, Marcus A.; Schultz, Carsten

    2010-02-01

    Macrophage elastase, also called MMP12, belongs to a family of proteolytic enzymes whose best known physiological function is the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Under certain pathological conditions, including inflammation, chronic overexpression of MMP12 has been observed and its elevated proteolytic activity has been suggested to be the cause of pulmonary emphysema. However, it was until recently impossible to monitor the activity of MMP12 under disease conditions, mainly due to a lack of detection methods. Recent development of new reporters for monitoring MMP12 activity in living cells, such as LaRee1, provided novel insights into the pathobiology of MMP12 in pulmonary inflammation.1 In the future, these reporters might contribute to improved diagnosis and in finding better treatments for chronic inflammatory lung diseases and emphysema. Our approach for visualizing MMP12 activity is based on peptidic, membrane-targeted FRET (Foerster Resonance Energy Transfer) reporters. Here we describe a set of new reporters containing different fluorophore pairs as well as modifications in the membrane-targeting lipid moiety. We studied the influence of these modifications on reporter performance and the reporter mobility on live cell membranes by FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching). Finally, we generated several new fluorescently labeled MMP inhibitors based on the peptidic reporter structures as prototypes for future tools to inhibit and monitor MMP activity at the same time.

  18. Imagerie moleculaire de la MMP-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebel, Rejean

    MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) are enzymes involved in tissue architecture remodelling and cell migration. MMP-2, particularly, was found to be a biomarker of the progression or prognosis of several pathologies, such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, infarct and cancer. Yet, its exact role in these pathologies is still uncertain. For these reasons, it is critical to develop new tools to enable the specific and non invasive study of MMP-2. As of now, a large number of optical probes (optical imaging), contrast agents (magnetic resonance imaging) and radiotracers (positron emission tomography, single photon emission tomography) have been published in the literature. However, none of the molecules allows for the specific quantification of MMP-2, particularly against MMP-9 which cleaves similar substrates. This thesis describes our progress in the development of new molecules capable of targeting and allowing the imaging of MMP-2. All tested molecules were fond to be quickly activated by MMP-2 and to be selective when compared with MMP3, MMP-7 and MMP-9. First, a contrast agent named PCA2-switch is tested in a mouse subcutaneous tumor model, and allows us to differentiate between tumors with low or high levels of MMP-2 activity. We also developed a panel of activatable fluorescent probes, one of which was found to be highly specific to MMP-2 (low activation by MMP9, efficient quenching). However, an extensive set of control experiments does not enable to conclude on the specificity of the probes in vivo. One of the principal limitations of many studies in the field of MMP imaging is the lack of proper controls, including unspecific uptake controls. The last section of this thesis discusses the impact of the EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) effect on the uptake of a non-specific probe in a subcutaneous tumor model treated with radiotherapy. Proper control experiments that should be performed when testing new MMP-2 probes are discussed. Keywords: Matrix

  19. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of the catalytic domain of MMP16 (cdMMP16).

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan; Yang, Hao; Aitha, Mahesh; George, Sam; Tierney, David L; Crowder, Michael W

    2016-07-01

    Membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase 16 (MMP16/MT3-MMP) is considered a drug target due to its role(s) in disease processes such as cancer and inflammation. Biochemical characterization of MMP16 is critical for developing new generation MMP inhibitors (MMPi), which exhibit high efficacies and selectivities. Herein, a modified over-expression and purification protocol was used to prepare the catalytic domain of MMP16 (cdMMP16). The resulting recombinant enzyme exhibited steady-state kinetic constants of K m = 10.6 ± 0.7 μM and k cat = 1.14 ± 0.02 s(-1), when using FS-6 as substrate, and the enzyme bound 1.8 ± 0.1 eq of Zn(II). The enzymatic activity of cdMMP16 is salt concentration-dependent, and cdMMP16 exhibits autoproteolytic activity under certain conditions, which may be related to an in vivo regulatory mechanism of MMP16 and of other membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs). Co(II)-substituted analogs (Co2- and ZnCo) of cdMMP16 were prepared and characterized using several spectroscopic techniques, such as UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, and EXAFS spectroscopies. A well-characterized cdMMP16 is now available for future inhibitor screening efforts. PMID:27229514

  20. MMP2 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    MMP2 is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family and is involved in many functions, such as remodeling of the vasculature, angiogenesis, tissue repair and remodeling, tumor invasion, inflammation, atherosclerotic plaque rupture, reproduction and embryonic development, as well as in disease processes such as arthritis and metastasis. In addition to degrading extracellular matrix proteins, MMP2 can also act on several nonmatrix proteins such as big endothelial 1 and beta-type CGRP promoting vasoconstriction and appears to have a role in myocardial cell death pathways. MMPs are generally secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. The MMP2 protein degrades gelatin type I and collagen types IV, V, VII, and X. MMP2 gene mutations have been associated with Winchester syndrome and Nodulosis-Arthropathy-Osteolysis (NAO) syndrome. There are two known isoforms of this gene, encoded by two transcript variants.

  1. MMP inhibition in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lokeshwar, B L

    1999-06-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a significant role during the development and metastasis of prostate cancer (CaP). CaP cells secrete high levels of MMPs and low levels of endogenous MMP inhibitors (TIMPs), thus creating an excess balance of MMPs. Established CaP cell lines that express high levels of MMPs frequently metastasize to the bone and the lungs. Drugs such as Taxol and alendronate that reduce cell motility and calcium metabolism reduce bony metastasis of xenografted CaP tumors. We tested several synthetic, nontoxic inhibitors of MMPs that can be administered orally, including doxycycline (DC) and chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) on CaP cells in vitro and on a rat CaP model in vivo. Among several anti-MMP agents tested, CMT-3 (6-deoxy, 6-demethyl,4-de-dimethylamino tetracycline) showed highest activity against CaP cell invasion and cell proliferation. Micromolar concentration of CMT-3 and DC inhibited both the secretion and activity of MMPs by CaP cells. When tested for in vivo efficacy in the Dunning rat CaP model by daily oral gavage, CMT-3 and DC both reduced the lung metastases (> 50%). CMT-3, but not DC, inhibited tumor incidence (55 +/- 9%) and also reduced the tumor growth rate (27 +/- 9.3%). More significantly, the drugs showed minimum systemic toxicity. Ongoing studies indicate that CMT-3 may inhibit the skeletal metastases of CaP cells and delay the onset of paraplegia due to lumbar metastases. These preclinical studies provide the basis for clinical trials of CMT-3 for the treatment of metastatic disease. PMID:10415736

  2. Secondary rhinoplasty fixations with hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Liapakis, Ioannis E; Englander, Miriam; Vrentzos, Nikolaos P; Derdas, Stavros P; Paschalis, Eleftherios I

    2013-09-01

    The management of nasal deformities especially after rhinoplasty is a challenge. Postsurgical edema may last 6-8 months, causing aesthetic irregularities and nose deformities. The aim of this study is to present the correction of minor nose deformities secondary to rhinoplasty using hyaluronic acid subdermal injections. Eleven patients were treated between 2009 and 2011 with subdermal injections of hyaluronic acid (24 mg/mL) with 0.3% lidocaine (Juvederm, Allergan, Pringy-France) at the 1-month follow-up visit. The volume of hyaluronic acid injected varied from 0.4 to 1 mL according to the deformity. Injections were aimed to correct minor surface irregularities and to provide aesthetic symmetry. These patients were followed for at least 12 months postoperatively. Irregularities were aesthetically corrected immediately after hyaluronic acid injections. No complications were reported with the exception of minor swelling that resolved within 1 week. Esthetic correction was achieved in all patients as determined by the surgeon as well as by overall patient's satisfaction. Our 1-year follow-up data suggest that hyaluronic acid absorption is slow enough to provide the necessary time for postsurgical edema resorption. Rhinoplasty is among the most commonly used procedures for aesthetic improvement in men and women. However, achievement of the final outcome may take several months due to the induced postsurgical edema. Subdermal hyaluronic acid injections can provide temporary correction of these nose irregularities. Our data suggest that subdermal hyaluronic acid injections may provide immediate and long-lasting correction of these minor deformities. As a result, the aesthetic outcome is achieved and maintained throughout the postsurgical course of edema decompression. PMID:23992166

  3. MMP3-Mediated tumor progression is controlled transcriptionally by a novel IRF8-MMP3 interaction

    PubMed Central

    Banik, Debarati; Netherby, Colleen S.; Bogner, Paul N.; Abrams, Scott I.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF8), originally identified as a leukemic tumor suppressor, can also exert anti-neoplastic activities in solid tumors. We previously showed that IRF8-loss enhanced tumor growth, which was accompanied by reduced tumor-cell susceptibility to apoptosis. However, the impact of IRF8 expression on tumor growth could not be explained solely by its effects on regulating apoptotic response. Exploratory gene expression profiling further revealed an inverse relationship between IRF8 and MMP3 expression, implying additional intrinsic mechanisms by which IRF8 modulated neoplastic behavior. Although MMP3 expression was originally linked to tumor initiation, the role of MMP3 beyond this stage has remained unclear. Therefore, we hypothesized that MMP3 governed later stages of disease, including progression to metastasis, and did so through a novel IRF8-MMP3 axis. Altogether, we showed an inverse mechanistic relationship between IRF8 and MMP3 expression in tumor progression. Importantly, the growth advantage due to IRF8-loss was significantly compromised after silencing MMP3 expression. Moreover, MMP3-loss reduced spontaneous lung metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of mammary carcinoma. MMP3 acted, in part, in a cell-intrinsic manner and served as a direct transcriptional target of IRF8. Thus, we identified a novel role of an IRF8-MMP3 axis in tumor progression, which unveils new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26008967

  4. Hyaluronic Acid Suppresses the Expression of Metalloproteinases in Osteoarthritic Cartilage Stimulated Simultaneously by Interleukin 1β and Mechanical Load

    PubMed Central

    Pohlig, Florian; Guell, Florian; Lenze, Ulrich; Lenze, Florian W.; Mühlhofer, Heinrich M. L.; Schauwecker, Johannes; Toepfer, Andreas; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Burgkart, Rainer; Salzmann, Gian M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In patients with osteoarthritis (OA), intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) frequently results in reduced pain and improved function for prolonged periods of time, i.e. more than 6 months. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. Our underlying hypothesis is that HA modifies the enzymatic breakdown of joint tissues. Methods To test this hypothesis, we examined osteochondral cylinders from 12 OA patients. In a bioreactor, these samples were stimulated by interleukin 1β (Il1ß) (2 ng/ml) plus mechanical load (2.0 Mpa at 0.5 Hz horizontal and 0.1 Hz vertical rotation), thus the experimental setup recapitulated both catabolic and anabolic clues of the OA joint. Results Upon addition of HA at either 1 or 3 mg/ml, we observed a significant suppression of expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-13. A more detailed analysis based on the Kellgren and Lawrence (K&L) OA grade, showed a much greater degree of suppression of MMP-13 expression in grade IV as compared to grade II OA. In contrast to the observed MMP-13 suppression, treatment with HA resulted in a suppression of MMP-1 expression only at 1 mg/ml HA, while MMP-2 expression was not significantly affected by either HA concentration. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that under concurrent catabolic and anabolic stimulation, HA exhibits a pronounced suppressive effect on MMP-13. In the long-run these findings may benefit the development of treatment strategies aimed at blocking tissue degradation in OA patients. PMID:26934732

  5. Immunohistochemical expression of MMP-2 and MMP-8 in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, Akinyele-Olumuyiwa; Kolude, Bamidele; Adeyemi, Bukola-Folasade

    2015-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases that can degrade extracellular matrix components and affect invasiveness and aggressiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of MMP-2 and MMP-8 in OSCCs in patients presenting at the Tertiary Health facility in Nigeria. Material and Methods Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) OSCC samples diagnosed between the years 2010 and 2012 were used for his study. The FFPE were processed for MMP-2 and MMP-8 using the specifications of the manufacturer. Two investigators reviewed the slides scoring the pattern and intensity of staining as negative (0), weakly positive (+1), moderately positive (+2) and strongly positive (+3). The data were analysed using version 20 of the SPSS. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results Twenty-five OSCC consisting of 14 (56%) males and 11 females (44%) were used. The mean age was 54.6 ± 17.9 years. A higher proportion (100%) of poorly differentiated OSCC strongly expressed MMP-2 compared with the well differentiated and moderately differentiated OSSC. There was no significant difference in the expression of MMP-2 amongst the three grades of OSCC (X2 = 2.87; p= 0.17). Only 5 (20%) OSCC cases positively expressed MMP-8. Moderate expression of MMP-8 was only seen in well-differentiated OSCCs. Conclusions This study showed that a higher proportion of poorly differentiated OSSC strongly expressed MMP-2. Eighty percent of cases that express MMP-8 were females and moderate expression of MMP-8 was seen only in well differentiated OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, MMP-2, MMP-8, immunohistochemistry. PMID:26155333

  6. Functional Promoter Polymorphisms of MMP-2 C-735T and MMP-9 C-1562T and Their Synergism with MMP-7 A-181G in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Zohreh; Abdan, Zahra; Rahimi, Ziba; Razazian, Nazanin; Shiri, Hadis; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Shakiba, Ebrahim; Vessal, Mahmood; Moradi, Mohammad-Taher

    2016-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in breakdown of blood-brain barrier, transmigration, and invasion of immune cells and formation of MS lesions. The aim of present study was to investigate the influence of MMP-2 C-735T and MMP-9 C-1562T variants and their synergism with MMP-7 A-181G on susceptibility to MS. In a case-control study 125 MS patients and 235 healthy individuals from Western Iran were investigated. The various genotypes of MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-7 were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In females the presence of MMP-2 C allele was associated with an increased risk of MS (OR = 1.69, p = 0.041). No significant difference was detected between the frequency of MMP-9 T allele in MS patients (8.2%) and controls (12.8%, p = 0.068). The concomitant presence of both MMP-2 C and MMP-7 G alleles was associated with 1.82-fold increased risk of MS (p = 0.002). Also, a synergism was detected between MMP-9 C and MMP-7 G alleles that elevated the risk of MS by 1.5-times (p = 0.035). The presence of haplotype MMP-9 T, MMP-7 G, and MMP-2 C (TGC) compared to haplotype CAG increased the risk of MS by 3.13-fold (p = 0.16). The present study suggests that gene-gene interactions and variants of more genes instead of single gene might play a role in susceptibility to MS. We indicated that synergism between variants of MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 genes might increase the risk of MS. PMID:27409770

  7. Mmp 1a and Mmp 1b Are Not Functional Orthologs to Human MMP1 in Cigarette Smoke Induced Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Phillip I.; Anguiano, Vincent; D’Armiento, Jeanine M.; Shiomi, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1, collagenase-1) expression is implicated in a number of diseased states including emphysema and malignant tumors. The cigarette-smoke induced expression of this interstitial collegenase has been studied extensively and its inhibition proposed as a novel therapeutic treatment for tobacco related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. However, a limitation in MMP1 research is the inability to take advantage of natural in vivo studies as most research has been performed in vitro or via animal models expressing human forms of the gene due to the lack of a rodent ortholog of MMP1. The present study examines the function of two possible mouse orthologs of human MMP1 known as Mmp 1a and Mmp 1b. Using genomic sequence analysis and expression analysis of these enzymes, the data demonstrate that neither MMP 1a nor MMP 1b behave in the same manner as human MMP1 in the presence of cigarette smoke. These findings establish that the two commonly proposed orthologs of MMP1, MMP 1a and MMP 1b, provide substantial limitations for use in examining MMP1 induced lung disease in mouse models of cigarette smoke emphysema. PMID:25497407

  8. Mmp1a and Mmp1b are not functional orthologs to human MMP1 in cigarette smoke induced lung disease.

    PubMed

    Carver, Phillip I; Anguiano, Vincent; D'Armiento, Jeanine M; Shiomi, Takayuki

    2015-02-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1, collagenase-1) expression is implicated in a number of diseased states including emphysema and malignant tumors. The cigarette-smoke induced expression of this interstitial collegenase has been studied extensively and its inhibition proposed as a novel therapeutic treatment for tobacco related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. However, a limitation in MMP1 research is the inability to take advantage of natural in vivo studies as most research has been performed in vitro or via animal models expressing human forms of the gene due to the lack of a rodent ortholog of MMP1. The present study examines the function of two possible mouse orthologs of human MMP1 known as Mmp1a and Mmp1b. Using genomic sequence analysis and expression analysis of these enzymes, the data demonstrate that neither MMP1a nor MMP1b behave in the same manner as human MMP1 in the presence of cigarette smoke. These findings establish that the two commonly proposed orthologs of MMP1, Mmp1a and Mmp1b, provide substantial limitations for use in examining MMP1 induced lung disease in mouse models of cigarette smoke emphysema. PMID:25497407

  9. Ions in hyaluronic acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Basser, Peter J.; Londono, David J.; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2009-11-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic biopolymer that is almost ubiquitous in biological tissues. An attempt is made to determine the dominant features that account for both its abundance and its multifunctional role, and which set it apart from other types of biopolymers. A combination of osmotic and scattering techniques is employed to quantify its dynamic and static properties in near-physiological solution conditions, where it is exposed both to mono- and divalent counterions. An equation of state is derived for the osmotic pressure Π in the semidilute concentration region, in terms of two variables, the polymer concentration c and the ionic strength J of the added salt, according to which Π =1.4×103c9/4/J3/4 kPa, where c and J are expressed in mole. Over the physiological ion concentration range, the effect of the sodium chloride and calcium chloride on the osmotic properties of HA solutions is fully accounted for by their contributions to the ionic strength. The absence of precipitation, even at high CaCl2 concentrations, distinguishes this molecule from other biopolymers such as DNA. Dynamic light scattering measurements reveal that the collective diffusion coefficient in HA solutions exceeds that in aqueous solutions of typical neutral polymers by a factor of approximately 5. This property ensures rapid adjustment to, and recovery from, stress applied to HA-containing tissue. Small angle x-ray scattering measurements confirm the absence of appreciable structural reorganization over the observed length scale range 10-1000 Å, as a result of calcium-sodium ion exchange. The scattered intensity in the transfer momentum range q >0.03 Å-1 varies as 1/q, indicating that the HA chain segments in semidilute solutions are linear over an extended concentration range. The osmotic compression modulus c ∂Π/∂c, a high value of which is a prerequisite in structural biopolymers, is several times greater than in typical neutral polymer solutions.

  10. MMP-9 overexpression is associated with intragenic hypermethylation of MMP9 gene in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Falzone, Luca; Salemi, Rossella; Travali, Salvatore; Scalisi, Aurora; McCubrey, James A.; Candido, Saverio; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Tumor spreading is associated with the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, mediated by the overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Although, such overexpression was linked to epigenetic promoter methylation, the role of intragenic methylation was not clarified yet. Melanoma was used as tumor model to investigate the relationship between the DNA intragenic methylation of MMP9 gene and MMP-9 overexpression at transcriptional and protein levels. Computational analysis revealed DNA hypermethylation within the intragenic CpG-2 region of MMP9 gene in melanoma samples with high MMP-9 transcript levels. In vitro validation showed that CpG-2 hotspot region was hypermethylated in the A375 melanoma cell line with highest mRNA and protein levels of MMP-9, while low methylation levels were observed in the MEWO cell line where MMP-9 was undetectable. Concordant results were demonstrated in both A2058 and M14 cell lines. This correlation may give further insights on the role of MMP-9 upregulation in melanoma. PMID:27115178

  11. Disposable MMP-9 sensor based on the degradation of peptide cross-linked hydrogel films using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Biela, Anna; Watkinson, Michael; Meier, Ute C; Baker, David; Giovannoni, Gavin; Becer, C Remzi; Krause, Steffi

    2015-06-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays an important role in both physiological and pathological processes. This enzyme is a peripheral biomarker of neuroinflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Presently, expensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are used to monitor subclinical disease activity in MS. An alternative to costly MRI scans could be the detection of MMP-9, using a low-cost, disposable sensor system for MMP-9 suitable for home-monitoring of inflammation. This would allow an early prediction of the failure of anti-inflammatory therapies and more timely clinical intervention to limit neuronal damage and prevent disability. Herein we present the development of a disposable sensor for fast and straightforward detection of MMP-9. Biosensors were produced by coating electrodes with oxidized dextran and subsequent cross-linking with peptides containing specific cleavage sites for MMP-9. Exposure of the films to the enzyme resulted in the degradation of the films, which was monitored using impedance measurements. Sensor response was rapid, a significant impedance change was usually observed within 5 min after the addition of MMP-9. Sensors showed a negligible response to matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), a protease which may interfere with MMP-9 detection. The peptide sequence with the highest sensitivity and selectivity Leu-Gly-Arg-Met-Gly-Leu-Pro-Gly-Lys was selected to construct calibration curves. MMP-9 was successfully detected in a clinically relevant range from 50 to 400 ng/ml. Two different processes of hydrogel degradation were observed on electrode surfaces with different roughness, and both appeared suitable to monitor MMP-9 activity. The sensor materials are generic and can be easily adopted to respond to other proteases by selecting peptide cross-linkers with suitable cleavage sites. PMID:25660510

  12. Sequential Amyloid-β Degradation by the Matrix Metalloproteases MMP-2 and MMP-9*

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Guillamon, Mar; Mawhirt, Stephanie; Blais, Steven; Montaner, Joan; Neubert, Thomas A.; Rostagno, Agueda; Ghiso, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been implicated in the physiological catabolism of Alzheimer's amyloid-β (Aβ). Conversely, their association with vascular amyloid deposits, blood-brain barrier disruption, and hemorrhagic transformations after ischemic stroke also highlights their involvement in pathological processes. To better understand this dichotomy, recombinant human (rh) MMP-2 and MMP-9 were incubated with Aβ40 and Aβ42, and the resulting proteolytic fragments were assessed via immunoprecipitation and quantitative mass spectrometry. Both MMPs generated Aβ fragments truncated only at the C terminus, ending at positions 34, 30, and 16. Using deuterated homologues as internal standards, we observed limited and relatively slow degradation of Aβ42 by rhMMP-2, although the enzyme cleaved >80% of Aβ40 during the 1st h of incubation. rhMMP-9 was significantly less effective, particularly in degrading Aβ(1–42), although the targeted peptide bonds were identical. Using Aβ(1–34) and Aβ(1–30), we demonstrated that these peptides are also substrates for both MMPs, cleaving Aβ(1–34) to produce Aβ(1–30) first and Aβ(1–16) subsequently. Consistent with the kinetics observed with full-length Aβ, rhMMP-9 degraded only a minute fraction of Aβ(1–34) and was even less effective in producing Aβ(1–16). Further degradation of Aβ(1–16) by either MMP-2 or MMP-9 was not observed even after prolonged incubation times. Notably, all MMP-generated C-terminally truncated Aβ fragments were highly soluble and did not exhibit fibrillogenic properties or induce cytotoxicity in human cerebral microvascular endothelial or neuronal cells supporting the notion that these truncated Aβ species are associated with clearance mechanisms rather than being key elements in the fibrillogenesis process. PMID:25897080

  13. A monoclonal antibody interferes with TIMP-2 binding and incapacitates the MMP-2-activating function of multifunctional, pro-tumorigenic MMP-14/MT1-MMP.

    PubMed

    Shiryaev, S A; Remacle, A G; Golubkov, V S; Ingvarsen, S; Porse, A; Behrendt, N; Cieplak, P; Strongin, A Y

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and, especially membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP/MMP-14, are promising drug targets in malignancies. In contrast with multiple small-molecule and protein pan-inhibitors of MT1-MMP cleavage activity, the murine 9E8 monoclonal antibody targets the MMP-2-activating function of cellular MT1-MMP alone, rather than the general proteolytic activity and the pro-migratory function of MT1-MMP. Furthermore, the antibody does not interact in any detectable manner with other members of the membrane type (MT)-MMP family. The mechanism of this selectivity remained unknown. Using mutagenesis, binding and activity assays, and modeling in silico, we have demonstrated that the 9E8 antibody recognizes the MT-loop structure, an eight residue insertion that is specific for MT-MMPs and that is distant from the MT1-MMP active site. The binding of the 9E8 antibody to the MT-loop, however, prevents tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) association with MT1-MMP. As a result, the 9E8 antibody incapacitates the TIMP-2-dependent MMP-2-activating function alone rather than the general enzymatic activity of human MT1-MMP. The specific function of the 9E8 antibody we determined directly supports an essential, albeit paradoxical, role of the protein inhibitor (TIMP-2) in MMP-2 activation via a unique membrane-tethered mechanism. In this mechanism, the formation of a tri-molecular MT1-MMPTIMP-2MMP-2 complex is required for both the capture of the soluble MMP-2 proenzyme by cells and then its well-controlled conversion into the mature MMP-2 enzyme. In sum, understanding of the structural requirements for the 9E8 antibody specificity may pave the way for the focused design of the inhibitory antibodies against other individual MMPs. PMID:24296749

  14. A monoclonal antibody interferes with TIMP-2 binding and incapacitates the MMP-2-activating function of multifunctional, pro-tumorigenic MMP-14/MT1–MMP

    PubMed Central

    Shiryaev, S A; Remacle, A G; Golubkov, V S; Ingvarsen, S; Porse, A; Behrendt, N; Cieplak, P; Strongin, A Y

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and, especially membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP/MMP-14, are promising drug targets in malignancies. In contrast with multiple small-molecule and protein pan-inhibitors of MT1–MMP cleavage activity, the murine 9E8 monoclonal antibody targets the MMP-2-activating function of cellular MT1–MMP alone, rather than the general proteolytic activity and the pro-migratory function of MT1–MMP. Furthermore, the antibody does not interact in any detectable manner with other members of the membrane type (MT)-MMP family. The mechanism of this selectivity remained unknown. Using mutagenesis, binding and activity assays, and modeling in silico, we have demonstrated that the 9E8 antibody recognizes the MT-loop structure, an eight residue insertion that is specific for MT–MMPs and that is distant from the MT1–MMP active site. The binding of the 9E8 antibody to the MT-loop, however, prevents tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) association with MT1–MMP. As a result, the 9E8 antibody incapacitates the TIMP-2-dependent MMP-2-activating function alone rather than the general enzymatic activity of human MT1–MMP. The specific function of the 9E8 antibody we determined directly supports an essential, albeit paradoxical, role of the protein inhibitor (TIMP-2) in MMP-2 activation via a unique membrane-tethered mechanism. In this mechanism, the formation of a tri-molecular MT1–MMPTIMP-2MMP-2 complex is required for both the capture of the soluble MMP-2 proenzyme by cells and then its well-controlled conversion into the mature MMP-2 enzyme. In sum, understanding of the structural requirements for the 9E8 antibody specificity may pave the way for the focused design of the inhibitory antibodies against other individual MMPs. PMID:24296749

  15. MT1-MMP dependent repression of the tumor suppressor SPRY4 contributes to MT1-MMP driven melanoma cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Shaverdashvili, Khvaramze; Zhang, Keman; Osman, Iman; Honda, Kord; Jobava, Rauli; Bedogni, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is the deadliest of all skin cancers. Despite progress in diagnostics and treatment of melanoma, the prognosis for metastatic patients remains poor. We previously showed that Membrane-type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is one of the drivers of melanoma metastasis. Classically, MT1-MMP regulates a verity of cellular functions including cell-to-cell interaction and cell-to-matrix communication. Recently, MT1-MMP has been found to also modulate gene expression. To specifically assess MT1-MMP dependent gene regulation in melanoma, microarray gene expression analysis was performed in a melanoma cell line whose metastatic properties depend on the activity of MT1-MMP. We identified the tumor suppressor gene SPRY4 as a new transcriptional target of MT1-MMP that is negatively regulated by the protease. Knockdown of MT1-MMP enhances SPRY4 expression at the mRNA and protein level. SPRY4 expression inversely correlates with that of MT1-MMP in melanoma samples and importantly, correlates with melanoma patient survival. SPRY4 modulates MT1-MMP dependent cell migration such that inhibition of SPRY4 rescues cell migration that has been impaired by MT1-MMP knock down. MT1-MMP decreases SPRY4 in part through an MMP2/RAC1 axis we previously show promotes cell motility downstream of MT1-MMP. These results identify the tumor suppressor SPRY4 as a novel molecular effector of MT1-MMP affecting melanoma cell motility. PMID:26392417

  16. Hyaluronate Acid-Dependent Protection and Enhanced Corneal Wound Healing against Oxidative Damage in Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jing; Deng, Yuqing; Tian, Bishan; Wang, Bowen; Sun, Yifang; Huang, Haixiang; Chen, Ling; Ling, Shiqi; Yuan, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects and mechanism of exogenous hyaluronate (HA) in promoting corneal wound healing. Methods. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were incubated with different concentrations of HA to evaluate their efficiency in promoting cell migration and their modulation of repair factors. After inducing hyperosmolar conditions, the cell morphologies, cell apoptosis, and expression levels of TNF-α and MMP-9 were detected to assess the protective role of HA. Corneal epithelium-injured rat models were established to test the therapeutic effects of 0.3% HA. Then, the wound healing rates, the RNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, and repair factors were examined. Results. HCECs in the 0.03% and 0.3% HA groups showed fewer morphological alterations and lower rates of cell apoptosis following preincubation with HA under hyperosmolar conditions, as well as the expression levels of MMP-9 and TNF-α. In the rat model, the areas of fluorescein staining in the corneas of 0.3% HA group were significantly smaller than the control group. The expression levels of IL-1β and MMP-9 were decreased, while CD44 and FN were increased in the 0.3% HA group. Conclusion. HA enhanced corneal epithelial cell wound healing by promoting cell migration, upregulating repair responses, and suppressing inflammatory responses. PMID:27190638

  17. TIMP-1 inhibits microvascular endothelial cell migration by MMP-dependent and MMP-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Akahane, Takemi; Akahane, Manabu; Shah, Amy; Connor, Christine M; Thorgeirsson, Unnur P

    2004-12-10

    It was reported over a decade ago that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) suppresses angiogenesis in experimental models but the mechanism is still incompletely understood. This in vitro study focused on the molecular basis of TIMP-1-mediated inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) migration, a key step in the angiogenic process. Both recombinant human TIMP-1 and the synthetic MMP inhibitors, GM6001 and MMP-2-MMP-9 Inhibitor III, suppressed migration of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC) in a dose-dependent fashion. The MMP-dependent inhibition of migration was associated with increased expression of the junctional adhesion proteins, VE-cadherin and PECAM-1, and VE-cadherin accumulation at cell-cell junctions. TIMP-1 also caused MMP-independent dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (pY397) and paxillin, which was associated with reduced number of F-actin stress fibers and focal adhesions. Moreover, TIMP-1 stimulated expression of PTEN that has been shown to reduce phosphorylation of FAK and inhibit cell migration. Our data suggest that TIMP-1 inhibits HDMVEC migration through MMP-dependent stimulation of VE-cadherin and MMP-independent stimulation of PTEN with subsequent dephosphorylation of FAK and cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID:15530852

  18. Rabbit tendon cells produce MMP-3 in response to fluid flow without significant calcium transients.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Joanne M; Elfervig-Wall, Michelle K; Tsuzaki, Mari; Herzog, Walter; Banes, Albert J

    2002-03-01

    Forces applied to tendon during movement cause cellular deformation, as well as fluid movement. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that rabbit tendon fibroblasts detect and respond to fluid-induced shear stress. Cells were isolated from the paratenon of the rabbit Achilles tendon and then subjected to fluid flow at 1 dyn/cm(2) for 6h in a specially designed multi-slide flow device. The application of fluid flow led to an increased expression of the collagenase-1 (MMP-1), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), cyclooxygenase II (COX-2) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) genes. The release of proMMP-3 into the medium exhibited a dose-response with the level of fluid shear stress. However, not all cells aligned in the direction of flow. In other experiments, the same cells were incubated with the calcium-reactive dye FURA-2 AM, then subjected to laminar fluid flow in a parallel plate flow chamber. The cells did not significantly increase intracellular calcium concentration when exposed to fluid shear stress levels of up to 25 dyn/cm(2). These results show that gene expression in rabbit tendon cells is sensitive to fluid flow, but that signal transduction is not dependent on intracellular calcium transients. The upregulation of the MMP-1, MMP-3 and COX-2 genes shows that fluid flow could be an important mechanical stimulus for tendon remodelling or injury. PMID:11858805

  19. Detection of MMP-8 via porous silicon microcavity devices functionalized with human antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Marta; Taleb Bendiab, Chakib; Massif, Laurent; Cuisinier, Frédéric J. G.; Gergely, Csilla

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the fabrication of functionalized PSiMc scaffolds that can be used to enhance the detection of MMP-8. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the major enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and play a key role in diverse physiological and pathological processes. We are interested in detecting the collagenase-type MMP-8 that is an inflammatory marker in gingival fluid for predicting tooth movement during orthodontic treatment. As presence of an increasing amount of MMP-8 in saliva is directly related with the tooth movement during orthodontic treatment, monitoring continuously the MMP-8 variation is primordial. Porous silicon microcavity (PSiMc) structures were prepared as multilayered stacks of low and high refractive indices and with layer thicknesses in the order of visible light wavelength. Then the PSi surface was functionalized with human antibodies. Both functionalization and MMP-8 infiltration were monitored by specular reflectometry. PSiMc is characterized by a narrow resonance peak in the optical spectrum that is very sensitive to a small change in the refractive index, such as that obtained when a molecule is attached to the large internal surface of porous silicon. The pore dimensions of the used PSiMc structures were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  20. Chemical Synthesis of a Hyaluronic Acid Decasaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaowei; Kamat, Medha N.; Huang, Lijun; Huang, Xuefei

    2009-01-01

    The chemical synthesis of a hyaluronic acid decasaccharide using the pre-activation based chemoselective glycosylation strategy is described. Assembly of large oligosaccharides is generally challenging due to the increased difficulties in both glycosylation and deprotection. Indeed, the same building blocks previously employed for hyaluronic acid hexasaccharide syntheses failed to yield the desired decasaccharide. After extensive experimentation, the decasaccharide backbone was successfully constructed with an overall yield of 37% from disaccharide building blocks. The trichloroacetyl group was used as the nitrogen protective group for the glucosamine units and the addition of TMSOTf was found to be crucial to suppress the formation of trichloromethyl oxazoline side-product and enable high glycosylation yield. For deprotections, the combination of a mild basic condition and the monitoring methodology using 1H-NMR allowed the removal of all base-labile protective groups, which facilitated the generation of the fully deprotected HA decasaccharide. PMID:19764799

  1. Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: Science and Clinical Uses.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Karol A

    2016-07-01

    Hyaluronic acid soft tissue fillers include a range of products (Juvederm Ultra, Juvederm Ultra Plus, Voluma, Restylane Silk, Restylane, Restylane Lyft, and Belotero Balance) that are used commonly for facial rejuvenation and enhancement of facial features. Although these products are similar in many ways, they are not interchangeable and have unique characteristics that need to be considered. Injection sites and techniques for facial rejuvenation are discussed. PMID:27363762

  2. A novel regulation of PD-1 ligands on mesenchymal stromal cells through MMP-mediated proteolytic cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Dezutter-Dambuyant, Colette; Durand, Isabelle; Alberti, Laurent; Bendriss-Vermare, Nathalie; Valladeau-Guilemond, Jenny; Duc, Adeline; Magron, Audrey; Morel, Anne-Pierre; Sisirak, Vanja; Rodriguez, Céline; Cox, David; Olive, Daniel; Caux, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Whether fibroblasts regulate immune response is a crucial issue in the modulation of inflammatory responses. Herein, we demonstrate that foreskin fibroblasts (FFs) potently inhibit CD3+ T cell proliferation through a mechanism involving early apoptosis of activated T cells. Using blocking antibodies, we demonstrate that the inhibition of T cell proliferation occurs through cell-to-cell interactions implicating PD-1 receptor expressed on T cells and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, on fibroblasts. Dual PD-1 ligand neutralization is required to abrogate (i) binding of the PD-1-Fc fusion protein, (ii) early apoptosis of T cells, and (iii) inhibition of T cell proliferation. Of utmost importance, we provide the first evidence that PD-1 ligand expression is regulated through proteolytic cleavage by endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) without transcriptional alteration during culture-time. Using (i) different purified enzymatic activities, (ii) MMP-specific inhibitors, and (iii) recombinant human MMP-9 and MMP-13, we demonstrated that in contrast to CD80/CD86, PD-L1 was selectively cleaved by MMP-13, while PD-L2 was sensitive to broader MMP activities. Their cleavage by exogenous MMP-9 and MMP-13 with loss of PD-1 binding domain resulted in the reversion of apoptotic signals on mitogen-activated CD3+ T cells. We suggest that MMP-dependent cleavage of PD-1 ligands on fibroblasts may limit their immunosuppressive capacity and thus contribute to the exacerbation of inflammation in tissues. In contrast, carcinoma-associated fibroblasts appear PD-1 ligand-depleted through MMP activity that may impair physical deletion of exhausted defective memory T cells through apoptosis and facilitate their regulatory functions. These observations should be considered when using the powerful PD-1/PD-L1 blocking immunotherapies. PMID:27141350

  3. Following the Trajectory of Osteoarthritis Development Through Serial Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of MMP Activities

    PubMed Central

    Leahy, Averi A.; Esfahani, Shadi A.; Foote, Andrea T.; Hui, Carrie K.; Rainbow, Roshni S.; Nakamura, Daisy S.; Tracey, Brian H.; Mahmood, Umar; Zeng, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A major hurdle in osteoarthritis (OA) research is the lack of sensitive detection and monitoring methods. It is hypothesized that proteases, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), are upregulated at early stages of OA development. The aim of this study was to investigate if a near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probe activated by MMPs could visualize in vivo OA progression starting from its early stages. Methods Using an MMP activatable NIRF probe (MMPSense680), we assessed the upregulation of MMP activity in vitro by incubating human chondrocytes with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. MMP activity was then evaluated in vivo serially in a chronic, injury-induced OA mouse model. For tracking MMP activity over time, mice were imaged 1 – 8 weeks post OA inducing surgery. Imaging results were correlated with histology. Results In vitro studies confirmed that NIRF imaging could identify enhanced MMP activity in IL-1β-treated human chondrocytes. In vivo imaging showed significantly higher fluorescent intensity in OA knees compared to sham knees (control) of the same mice. Additionally, the total emitted fluorescence intensity steadily increased over the entire course of OA progression that was examined. NIRF imaging results correlated with histological analysis, which showed an increase in articular cartilage structural damage over time. Conclusions Imaging of MMP activity in an OA mouse model provided sensitive and consistent visualization of OA progression, beginning from the early stages of OA. In addition to facilitating the preclinical study of OA modulators, this approach has the potential for future human translation. PMID:25385707

  4. MMP-2/MMP-9 plasma level and brain expression in cerebral amyloid angiopathy-associated hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Guillamon, Mar; Martinez-Saez, Elena; Delgado, Pilar; Domingues-Montanari, Sophie; Boada, Cristina; Penalba, Anna; Boada, Mercè; Pagola, Jorge; Maisterra, Olga; Rodriguez-Luna, David; Molina, Carlos A; Rovira, Alex; Alvarez-Sabin, José; Ortega-Aznar, Arantxa; Montaner, Joan

    2012-03-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is one of the main causes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the elderly. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in blood-brain barrier disruption and ICH pathogenesis. In this study, we determined the levels MMP-2 and MMP-9 in plasma and their brain expression in CAA-associated hemorrhagic stroke. Although MMP-2 and MMP-9 plasma levels did not differ among patients and controls, their brain expression was increased in perihematoma areas of CAA-related hemorrhagic strokes compared with contralateral areas and nonhemorrhagic brains. In addition, MMP-2 reactivity was found in β-amyloid (Aβ)-damaged vessels located far from the acute ICH and in chronic microbleeds. MMP-2 expression was associated to endothelial cells, histiocytes and reactive astrocytes, whereas MMP-9 expression was restricted to inflammatory cells. In summary, MMP-2 expression within and around Aβ-compromised vessels might contribute to the vasculature fatal fate, triggering an eventual bleeding. PMID:21707819

  5. Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) Proteolysis of the Extracellular Loop of Voltage-gated Sodium Channels and Potential Alterations in Pain Signaling.

    PubMed

    Remacle, Albert G; Kumar, Sonu; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Cieplak, Piotr; Hullugundi, Swathi; Dolkas, Jennifer; Shubayev, Veronica I; Strongin, Alex Y

    2015-09-18

    Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) or congenital analgesia is a rare monogenic hereditary condition. This disorder is characterized by the inability to perceive any form of pain. Nonsense mutations in Nav.1.7, the main pain signaling voltage-gated sodium channel, lead to its truncations and, consequently, to the inactivation of the channel functionality. However, a non-truncating homozygously inherited missense mutation in a Bedouin family with CIP (Nav1.7-R907Q) has also been reported. Based on our currently acquired in-depth knowledge of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) cleavage preferences, we developed the specialized software that predicts the presence of the MMP cleavage sites in the peptide sequences. According to our in silico predictions, the peptide sequence of the exposed extracellular unstructured region linking the S5-S6 transmembrane segments in the DII domain of the human Nav1.7 sodium channel is highly sensitive to MMP-9 proteolysis. Intriguingly, the CIP R907Q mutation overlaps with the predicted MMP-9 cleavage site sequence. Using MMP-9 proteolysis of the wild-type, CIP, and control peptides followed by mass spectrometry of the digests, we demonstrated that the mutant sequence is severalfold more sensitive to MMP-9 proteolysis relative to the wild type. Because of the substantial level of sequence homology among sodium channels, our data also implicate MMP proteolysis in regulating the cell surface levels of the Nav1.7, Nav1.6, and Nav1.8 channels, but not Nav1.9. It is likely that the aberrantly accelerated MMP-9 proteolysis during neurogenesis is a biochemical rational for the functional inactivation in Nav1.7 and that the enhanced cleavage of the Nav1.7-R907Q mutant is a cause of CIP in the Bedouin family. PMID:26283785

  6. Binding of oligosaccharides of hyaluronic acid to proteoglycans (Short Communication)

    PubMed Central

    Hardingham, Timothy E.; Muir, Helen

    1973-01-01

    Oligosaccharides derived from hyaluronic acid were shown to inhibit proteoglycan–hyaluronic acid interaction, as measured in a viscometer. The relative inhibition increased with the size of the oligosaccharide and the results suggested that decasaccharides were the smallest fragments able to bind strongly to the proteoglycan. PMID:4273187

  7. Role of MMP2 and MMP9 in TRPV4-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Patricia C; Rocic, Petra; Townsley, Mary I

    2014-10-15

    Ca(2+) entry through transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) results in swelling, blebbing, and detachment of the epithelium and capillary endothelium in the intact lung. Subsequently, increased permeability of the septal barrier and alveolar flooding ensue. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TRPV4 activation provides a Ca(2+) source necessary for proteolytic disruption of cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9, thus increasing septal barrier permeability. In our study, C57BL/6 or TRPV4(-/-) mouse lungs were perfused with varying doses of the TRPV4 agonist GSK-1016790A (Sigma) and then prepared for Western blot. Lung injury, assessed by increases in lung wet-to-dry weight ratios and total protein levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, was increased in a dose-dependent fashion in TRPV4(+/+) but not TRPV4(-/-) lungs. In concert with lung injury, we detected increased active MMP2 and MMP9 isoforms, suggesting that TRPV4 can provide the Ca(2+) source necessary for increased MMP2/9 activation. Furthermore, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) 2 levels in the TRPV4-injured lungs were decreased, suggesting that TRPV4 activation increases the availability of these active MMPs. We then determined whether MMP2 and MMP9 mediate TRPV4-induced lung injury. Pharmacological blockade (SB-3CT, 1 μM; Sigma) of MMP2 and MMP9 resulted in protection against TRPV4-induced lung injury. We conclude that TRPV4 activation and the subsequent Ca(2+) transient initiates a rapid cascade of events leading to release and activation of the gelatinase MMPs, which then contribute to lung injury. PMID:25150065

  8. Role of MMP2 and MMP9 in TRPV4-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Villalta, Patricia C.; Rocic, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+ entry through transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) results in swelling, blebbing, and detachment of the epithelium and capillary endothelium in the intact lung. Subsequently, increased permeability of the septal barrier and alveolar flooding ensue. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TRPV4 activation provides a Ca2+ source necessary for proteolytic disruption of cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9, thus increasing septal barrier permeability. In our study, C57BL/6 or TRPV4−/− mouse lungs were perfused with varying doses of the TRPV4 agonist GSK-1016790A (Sigma) and then prepared for Western blot. Lung injury, assessed by increases in lung wet-to-dry weight ratios and total protein levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, was increased in a dose-dependent fashion in TRPV4+/+ but not TRPV4−/− lungs. In concert with lung injury, we detected increased active MMP2 and MMP9 isoforms, suggesting that TRPV4 can provide the Ca2+ source necessary for increased MMP2/9 activation. Furthermore, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) 2 levels in the TRPV4-injured lungs were decreased, suggesting that TRPV4 activation increases the availability of these active MMPs. We then determined whether MMP2 and MMP9 mediate TRPV4-induced lung injury. Pharmacological blockade (SB-3CT, 1 μM; Sigma) of MMP2 and MMP9 resulted in protection against TRPV4-induced lung injury. We conclude that TRPV4 activation and the subsequent Ca2+ transient initiates a rapid cascade of events leading to release and activation of the gelatinase MMPs, which then contribute to lung injury. PMID:25150065

  9. Inflammageing assessed by MMP9 in normal Japanese individuals and the patients with Werner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goto, Makoto; Chiba, Junji; Matsuura, Masaaki; Iwaki-Egawa, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Age-associated minor inflammation: inflammageing may explain human ageing mechanism(s). Our previous study reported a significant increase in the serum level of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with normal ageing and the patients with Werner syndrome (WS). To further study the minor inflammatory condition associated with ageing, another possible ageing biomarker: matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) was examined in the sera from 217 normal Japanese individuals aged between 1 and 100 years and 41 mutation-proven Japanese WS aged between 32 and 70 years. MMP9 was assayed by ELISA. The serum level of MMP9 was elevated significantly (p < 0.001) with normal ageing from both sexes as hsCRP. In contrast to normal ageing, the serum MMP9 level in WS decreased significantly with calendar age (p < 0.05). The MMP9 level (ng/mL) in WS (147.2 ± 28.5) was not significantly different in comparison with those from age-matched normal adult population aged between 25 and 70 years (109.1 ± 9.4), nor normal elderly population aged between 71 and 100 years (179.9 ± 16.1). Although both normal ageing and WS were associated with minor inflammation, the inflammatory parameters such as serum MMP9 and hsCRP changed differently between normal ageing and WS. The WS-specific chronic inflammation including skin ulcer and diabetes mellitus may contribute the different behavior of both ageing biomarkers from normal ageing. PMID:27195193

  10. Inflammageing assessed by MMP9 in normal Japanese individuals and the patients with Werner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Makoto; Chiba, Junji; Matsuura, Masaaki; Iwaki-Egawa, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Age-associated minor inflammation: inflammageing may explain human ageing mechanism(s). Our previous study reported a significant increase in the serum level of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with normal ageing and the patients with Werner syndrome (WS). To further study the minor inflammatory condition associated with ageing, another possible ageing biomarker: matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) was examined in the sera from 217 normal Japanese individuals aged between 1 and 100 years and 41 mutation-proven Japanese WS aged between 32 and 70 years. MMP9 was assayed by ELISA. The serum level of MMP9 was elevated significantly (p < 0.001) with normal ageing from both sexes as hsCRP. In contrast to normal ageing, the serum MMP9 level in WS decreased significantly with calendar age (p < 0.05). The MMP9 level (ng/mL) in WS (147.2 ± 28.5) was not significantly different in comparison with those from age-matched normal adult population aged between 25 and 70 years (109.1 ± 9.4), nor normal elderly population aged between 71 and 100 years (179.9 ± 16.1). Although both normal ageing and WS were associated with minor inflammation, the inflammatory parameters such as serum MMP9 and hsCRP changed differently between normal ageing and WS. The WS-specific chronic inflammation including skin ulcer and diabetes mellitus may contribute the different behavior of both ageing biomarkers from normal ageing. PMID:27195193

  11. Hyaluronic acid abrogates ethanol-dependent inhibition of collagen biosynthesis in cultured human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Donejko, Magdalena; Przylipiak, Andrzej; Rysiak, Edyta; Miltyk, Wojciech; Galicka, Elżbieta; Przylipiak, Jerzy; Zaręba, Ilona; Surazynski, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol on collagen biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts, and the role of hyaluronic acid (HA) in this process. Regarding the mechanism of ethanol action on human skin fibroblasts we investigated: expression of β1 integrin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-IR), signaling pathway protein expression: mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), protein kinase B (Akt), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor, cytotoxicity assay and apoptosis, metalloproteinase activity, as well as the influence of HA on these processes. Materials and methods Collagen biosynthesis, activity of prolidase, DNA biosynthesis, and cytotoxicity were measured in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that have been treated with 25, 50, and 100 mM ethanol and with ethanol and 500 µg/mL HA. Western blot analysis and zymography were performed to evaluate expression of collagen type I, β1 integrin receptor, IGF-IR, NF-κB protein, phospho-Akt protein, kinase MAPK, caspase 9 activity, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-2). Results Ethanol in a dose-dependent manner lead to the impairment of collagen biosynthesis in fibroblast cultures through decreasing prolidase activity and expression of β1 integrin and IGF-IR. This was accompanied by an increased cytotoxicity, apoptosis and lowered expression of the signaling pathway proteins induced by β1 integrin and IGF-IR, that is, MAPK (ERK1/2) kinases. The lowered amount of synthesized collagen and prolidase activity disturbance may also be due to the activation of NF-κB transcription factor, which inhibits collagen gene expression. It suggests that the decrease in fibroblast collagen production may be caused by the disturbance in its biosynthesis but not degradation. The application of HA has a protective effect on disturbances caused by the examined substances. It seems that regulatory mechanism of ethanol-induced collagen aberration take

  12. Effect of LED irradiation on the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in SW1353 cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-chun; Guo, Zhou-yi; Zhang, Feng-xue; Deng, Wen-di; Liu, Song-hao

    2007-05-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) plays an active role in remodeling cartilage in osteoarthritic cartilage. To find an effective method of prevention of osteoclasia, this in vitro study focuses on the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in the SW1353 cells by LED irradiation. The human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 were stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and were received the irradiation of LED (632nm, 4mW/cm2). The cell count was assessed over a 96-hour period by using Trypan blue dye exclusion assay, and the cell activity was evaluated with a Cell Counting Kit-8 Assays. The subsequent expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was quantified. Results of this experiment showed that the cultural cell activity was decreased, and the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was increased by being stimulated with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. After received LED irradiation, the death rate of cultural cell was increased and the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was decreased significantly. The present study concluded that particular LED irradiation stimulates SW1353 cell proliferation activity and inhibit the MMP-3 and MMP-13 enzymatic activity. These findings might be clinically relevant, indicating that the low power laser irradiation treatment is likely to achieve the repair of articular cartilage in clinic.

  13. MMP-3 gene polymorphisms and Osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Adiguzel, Mustafa; Horozoglu, Cem; Kilicoglu, Onder; Ozger, Harzem; Acar, Leyla; Ergen, Arzu

    2016-03-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common adolescence cancer among all primary bone tumors next only to multiplemyeloma. It has a substantially worse prognosis and ability to metastasize to lung. MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) are among the major proteases that take part in regulation of ECM (extracellular matrix). MMPs play an active role in the formation of the osteoid tissue, rich in collagens and other ECM proteoglycans. They also take part in pro-osteoclast, osteoclast, osteoblast, and osteoid formation. Many members of the MMP gene family have been linked to human cancers. It has been shown that MMPs particularly play a role in the tumor's acquisition of an invasive and metastatic character. In our study, the E45K and T102T polymorphisms of MMP-3 were studied using the PCR-RFLP method in 135 Turkish subjects (54 subjects with osteosarcoma and 81 healthy controls). We found that frequencies of E45K G allele (p:0,010, χ²:6,710, OR:1,429, 95% Cl: 1,019-1,858) and AG genotype (p:0,001, χ²:14,753, OR:2,32, 95% Cl: 1,491-3,626) were elevated in patients compared to controls. Besides, there was a significant difference in.E45K AA genotype between study groups (p:0,004, χ²:8,182, OR: 2,929, 95% Cl: 1,38-6,19). There were no significant differences between any genotypes or allele in the control and patient groups for MMP-3 T102T polymorphism. Our findings indicate that the G allele and AG genotype of MMP-3 E45K polymorphism is associated with increased risk of osteosarcoma in adolescent population of Turkey. PMID:27145630

  14. Altered lymphocyte trafficking and diminished airway reactivity in transgenic mice expressing human MMP-9 in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Divya; Sternberg, David I; Jia, Yuxia; Canfield, Stephen; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nkyimbeng, Takwi; Wilder, Julie; Sonett, Joshua; D'Armiento, Jeanine

    2010-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is hypothesized to facilitate leukocyte extravasation and extracellular remodeling in asthmatic airways. Careful descriptive studies have shown that MMP-9 levels are higher in the sputum of asthmatics; however, the consequence of increased MMP-9 activity has not been determined in this disease. We induced asthma in transgenic mice that express human MMP-9 in the murine lung tissue macrophage to determine the direct effect of human MMP-9 expression on airway inflammation. Transgenic (TG) and wild-type (WT) mice were immunized and challenged with ovalbumin. Forty-eight hours after the ovalbumin challenge, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured, and inflammatory cell infiltration was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue. Baseline levels of inflammation were similar in the TG and WT groups of mice, and pulmonary eosinophilia was established in both groups by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin. There was a significant reduction in AHR in sensitized and challenged trangenics compared with WT controls. Although total BALF cell counts were similar in both groups, the lymphocyte number in the lavage of the TG group was significantly diminished compared with the WT group (0.25 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.89 +/- 0.53; P = 0.0032). In addition, the draining lymphocytes were found to be larger in the TG animals compared with the WT mice. Equal numbers of macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils were seen in both groups. IL-13 levels were found to be lower in the sensitized TG compared with the WT mice. These results demonstrate an inverse relationship between human MMP-9 and AHR and suggest that MMP-9 expression alters leukocyte extravasation by reducing lymphocyte accumulation in the walls of asthmatic airways. PMID:19940022

  15. Altered lymphocyte trafficking and diminished airway reactivity in transgenic mice expressing human MMP-9 in a mouse model of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Divya; Sternberg, David I.; Jia, Yuxia; Canfield, Stephen; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nkyimbeng, Takwi; Wilder, Julie; Sonett, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is hypothesized to facilitate leukocyte extravasation and extracellular remodeling in asthmatic airways. Careful descriptive studies have shown that MMP-9 levels are higher in the sputum of asthmatics; however, the consequence of increased MMP-9 activity has not been determined in this disease. We induced asthma in transgenic mice that express human MMP-9 in the murine lung tissue macrophage to determine the direct effect of human MMP-9 expression on airway inflammation. Transgenic (TG) and wild-type (WT) mice were immunized and challenged with ovalbumin. Forty-eight hours after the ovalbumin challenge, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured, and inflammatory cell infiltration was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue. Baseline levels of inflammation were similar in the TG and WT groups of mice, and pulmonary eosinophilia was established in both groups by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin. There was a significant reduction in AHR in sensitized and challenged trangenics compared with WT controls. Although total BALF cell counts were similar in both groups, the lymphocyte number in the lavage of the TG group was significantly diminished compared with the WT group (0.25 ± 0.08 vs. 0.89 ± 0.53; P = 0.0032). In addition, the draining lymphocytes were found to be larger in the TG animals compared with the WT mice. Equal numbers of macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils were seen in both groups. IL-13 levels were found to be lower in the sensitized TG compared with the WT mice. These results demonstrate an inverse relationship between human MMP-9 and AHR and suggest that MMP-9 expression alters leukocyte extravasation by reducing lymphocyte accumulation in the walls of asthmatic airways. PMID:19940022

  16. Inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 Activities by Limonium tetragonum Extract

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Min-Joo; Karadeniz, Fatih; Lee, Seul-Gi; Seo, Youngwan; Kong, Chang-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are crucial extracellular matrices degrading enzymes that take important roles in metastasis of cancer progression as well as other significant conditions such as oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis. Natural products are on the rise for their potential to provide remarkable health benefits. In this context, halophytes have been of interest in the nutraceutical field with reported instances of isolation of bioactive compounds. In this study, Limonium tetragonum, an edible halophyte, was studied for its ability to inhibit MMP-2 and -9 using HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Results showed that L. tetragonum extract was able to inhibit the enzymatic activity and mRNA expression of MMP-2 and -9 according to gelatin zymography and RT-PCR assays, respectively, but it was not able to significantly change the MMP pathway related factors such as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Also, Mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway-related protein levels and their phosphorylation were assayed. While the phosphorylated p38 levels were decreased, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase were not affected by L. tetragonum treatment. In conclusion, it was suggested that L. tetragonum contains substances acting as MMP inhibitors on enzymatic activity rather than intracellular pathway intervention, which could be useful for further utilization of L. tetragonum as a source for anti-MMP agents. PMID:27069904

  17. Inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 Activities by Limonium tetragonum Extract.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min-Joo; Karadeniz, Fatih; Lee, Seul-Gi; Seo, Youngwan; Kong, Chang-Suk

    2016-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are crucial extracellular matrices degrading enzymes that take important roles in metastasis of cancer progression as well as other significant conditions such as oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis. Natural products are on the rise for their potential to provide remarkable health benefits. In this context, halophytes have been of interest in the nutraceutical field with reported instances of isolation of bioactive compounds. In this study, Limonium tetragonum, an edible halophyte, was studied for its ability to inhibit MMP-2 and -9 using HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Results showed that L. tetragonum extract was able to inhibit the enzymatic activity and mRNA expression of MMP-2 and -9 according to gelatin zymography and RT-PCR assays, respectively, but it was not able to significantly change the MMP pathway related factors such as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Also, Mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway-related protein levels and their phosphorylation were assayed. While the phosphorylated p38 levels were decreased, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase were not affected by L. tetragonum treatment. In conclusion, it was suggested that L. tetragonum contains substances acting as MMP inhibitors on enzymatic activity rather than intracellular pathway intervention, which could be useful for further utilization of L. tetragonum as a source for anti-MMP agents. PMID:27069904

  18. Nicolau syndrome due to hyaluronic acid injections.

    PubMed

    Andre, Pierre; Haneke, Eckart

    2016-08-01

    Six cases of vascular compromise after hyaluronic injection are reported. Clinical symptoms realized a Nicolau syndrome, which is characterized by immediate pain, livedoid pattern and a few days later by the appearance of scabs and skin necrosis. This type of complication is rare, but may be dramatic and injectors must be aware of that. A thorough knowledge of facial anatomy is mandatory to avoid the risky facial areas. The use of a flexible cannula instead of a sharp needle has much less risk of hurting vessels and must be preferred. The support of the patient is discussed and a treatment protocol is proposed. PMID:26963701

  19. In vivo optical imaging of MMP2 immuno protein antibody: tumor uptake is associated with MMP2 activity.

    PubMed

    Panth, Kranthi Marella; van den Beucken, Twan; Biemans, Rianne; Lieuwes, Natasja G; Weber, Marcel; Losen, Mario; Yaromina, Ala; Dubois, Ludwig J; Lambin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) is important in tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and tumor invasion. In this study, we investigated if the Cy5-tagged small immuno protein targeting the catalytic domain of human MMP2 (aMMP2-SIP) detects MMP2 in tumors non-invasively. For this purpose, we generated MMP2 expressing (empty vector EV) and knock-down (KD) HT1080, U373 and U87 cells, which were injected subcutaneously in the lateral flank of NMRI-nu mice. Optical imaging (Optix MX2) performed at 0.5, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 hour post injection (h.p.i.) of Cy5 tagged aMMP2-SIP, indicated significantly lower tumor to background ratios at both 24 (P = 0.0090) and 48 h.p.i. (P < 0.0001) for the U87 MMP2-KD compared to control tumors. No differences were found for HT1080 and U373 models. U87 MMP2-KD tumors had significantly lower MMP2 activity (P < 0.0001) than EV tumors as determined by gelatin zymography in tumor sections and lysates, while no differences were observed between EV and MMP2-KD in HT1080 and U373. In line with these data, only U87 MMP2-KD tumors had a reduced tumor growth compared to control tumors (P = 0.0053). aMMP2-SIP uptake correlates with MMP2 activity and might therefore be a potential non-invasive imaging biomarker for the evaluation of MMP2 activity in tumors. PMID:26923459

  20. In vivo optical imaging of MMP2 immuno protein antibody: tumor uptake is associated with MMP2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Panth, Kranthi Marella; van den Beucken, Twan; Biemans, Rianne; Lieuwes, Natasja G.; Weber, Marcel; Losen, Mario; Yaromina, Ala; Dubois, Ludwig J.; Lambin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) is important in tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and tumor invasion. In this study, we investigated if the Cy5-tagged small immuno protein targeting the catalytic domain of human MMP2 (aMMP2-SIP) detects MMP2 in tumors non-invasively. For this purpose, we generated MMP2 expressing (empty vector EV) and knock-down (KD) HT1080, U373 and U87 cells, which were injected subcutaneously in the lateral flank of NMRI-nu mice. Optical imaging (Optix MX2) performed at 0.5, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 hour post injection (h.p.i.) of Cy5 tagged aMMP2-SIP, indicated significantly lower tumor to background ratios at both 24 (P = 0.0090) and 48 h.p.i. (P < 0.0001) for the U87 MMP2-KD compared to control tumors. No differences were found for HT1080 and U373 models. U87 MMP2-KD tumors had significantly lower MMP2 activity (P < 0.0001) than EV tumors as determined by gelatin zymography in tumor sections and lysates, while no differences were observed between EV and MMP2-KD in HT1080 and U373. In line with these data, only U87 MMP2-KD tumors had a reduced tumor growth compared to control tumors (P = 0.0053). aMMP2-SIP uptake correlates with MMP2 activity and might therefore be a potential non-invasive imaging biomarker for the evaluation of MMP2 activity in tumors. PMID:26923459

  1. Differential Matrix Metalloprotease (MMP) Expression Profiles Found in Aged Gingiva

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suhee; Ahn, Sun Hee; Lee, Jin-Sil; Song, Ji-Eun; Cho, Sung-Hyun; Jung, Seunggon; Kim, Seon-Kyu; Kim, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kwang-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    The periodontium undergoes age-related cellular and clinical changes, but the involved genes are not yet known. Here, we investigated age-related genetic changes in gingiva at the transcriptomic level. Genes that were differentially expressed between young and old human gingiva were identified by RNA sequencing and verified by real-time PCR. A total of 1939 mRNA transcripts showed significantly differential expression between young and old gingival tissues. Matrix metalloprotease (MMP) regulation was the top pathway involved in gingival aging. MMP3, MMP9, MMP12, and MMP13 were upregulated in old gingival tissues, concomitantly with interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) expression. In vitro experiments using human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) showed that MMP12 was upregulated in old hGFs compared to young hGFs. Moreover, the MMP3, MMP9 and IL1B levels were more highly stimulated by infection with the oral bacterium, Fusobacterium nucleatum, in old hGFs compared to young hGFs. Collectively, these findings suggest that, in gingiva, the upregulation of MMP12 may be a molecular hallmark of natural aging, while the upregulations of MMP3, MMM9, and IL1B may indicate externally (e.g., infection)-induced aging. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular targets involved in gingival aging. PMID:27391467

  2. Gelatinase B/MMP-9 in Tumour Pathogenesis and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Antonietta Rosella; Mackay, Andrew Reay

    2014-01-01

    Since its original identification as a leukocyte gelatinase/type V collagenase and tumour type IV collagenase, gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is now recognised as playing a central role in many aspects of tumour progression. In this review, we relate current concepts concerning the many ways in which gelatinase B/MMP-9 influences tumour biology. Following a brief outline of the gelatinase B/MMP-9 gene and protein, we analyse the role(s) of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in different phases of the tumorigenic process, and compare the importance of gelatinase B/MMP-9 source in the carcinogenic process. What becomes apparent is the importance of inflammatory cell-derived gelatinase B/MMP-9 in tumour promotion, early progression and triggering of the “angiogenic switch”, the integral relationship between inflammatory, stromal and tumour components with respect to gelatinase B/MMP-9 production and activation, and the fundamental role for gelatinase B/MMP-9 in the formation and maintenance of tumour stem cell and metastatic niches. It is also apparent that gelatinase B/MMP-9 plays important tumour suppressing functions, producing endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, promoting inflammatory anti-tumour activity, and inducing apoptosis. The fundamental roles of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in cancer biology underpins the need for specific therapeutic inhibitors of gelatinase B/MMP-9 function, the use of which must take into account and substitute for tumour-suppressing gelatinase B/MMP-9 activity and also limit inhibition of physiological gelatinase B/MMP-9 function. PMID:24473089

  3. Assessment of MMP-1, MMP-8 and TIMP-2 in experimental periodontitis treated with kaempferol

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a dietary flavonoid, kaempferol, which has been shown to possess antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant activities on the periodontium by histomorphometric analysis and on gingival tissue matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-8, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) by biochemical analysis of rats after experimental periodontitis induction. Methods Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of ten rats each, and silk ligatures were placed around the cervical area of the mandibular first molars for 15 days, except in the healthy control rats. In the experimental periodontitis groups, systemic kaempferol (10 mg/kg/2d) and saline were administered by oral gavage at two different periods (with and without the presence of dental biofilm) to all rats except for the ten non-medicated rats. Alveolar bone area, alveolar bone level, and attachment level were determined by histomorphometric analysis, and gingival tissue levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, and TIMP-2 were detected by biochemical analysis. Results Significantly greater bone area and significantly less alveolar bone and attachment loss were observed in the kaempferol application groups compared to the control groups (P<0.05). In addition, gingival tissue MMP-1 and -8 levels were significantly lower in the kaempferol application groups compared to the control groups and the periodontitis group (P<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in TIMP-2 levels between the kaempferol and saline application groups (P>0.05). Conclusions Kaempferol application may be useful in decreasing alveolar bone resorption, attachment loss, and MMP-1 and -8 production in experimental periodontitis. PMID:27127689

  4. Inhibition of MMP-9-dependent Degradation of Gelatin, but Not Other MMP-9 Substrates, by the MMP-9 Hemopexin Domain Blades 1 and 4.

    PubMed

    Ugarte-Berzal, Estefanía; Vandooren, Jennifer; Bailón, Elvira; Opdenakker, Ghislain; García-Pardo, Angeles

    2016-05-27

    Degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays important roles in normal development, inflammation, and cancer. MMP-9 efficiently degrades the extracellular matrix component gelatin, and the hemopexin domain of MMP-9 (PEX9) inhibits this degradation. To study the molecular basis of this inhibition, we generated GST fusion proteins containing PEX9 or truncated forms corresponding to specific structural blades (B1-B4) of PEX9. GST-PEX9 inhibited MMP-9-driven gelatin proteolysis, measured by gelatin zymography, FITC-gelatin conversion, and DQ-gelatin degradation assays. However, GST-PEX9 did not prevent the degradation of other MMP-9 substrates, such as a fluorogenic peptide, αB crystalline, or nonmuscular actin. Therefore, PEX9 may inhibit gelatin degradation by shielding gelatin and specifically preventing its binding to MMP-9. Accordingly, GST-PEX9 also abolished the degradation of gelatin by MMP-2, confirming that PEX9 is not an MMP-9 antagonist. Moreover, GST-B4 and, to a lesser extent, GST-B1 also inhibited gelatin degradation by MMP-9, indicating that these regions are responsible for the inhibitory activity of PEX9. Accordingly, ELISAs demonstrated that GST-B4 and GST-B1 specifically bound to gelatin. Our results establish new functions of PEX9 attributed to blades B4 and B1 and should help in designing specific inhibitors of gelatin degradation. PMID:27044750

  5. Cadmium exposure inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the prostate and testis

    SciTech Connect

    Lacorte, Livia M.; Rinaldi, Jaqueline C.; Justulin, Luis A.; Delella, Flávia K.; Moroz, Andrei; Felisbino, Sérgio L.

    2015-02-20

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc (Zn{sup 2+}) and calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) dependant endopeptidases, capable of degradation of numerous components of the extracellular matrix. Cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) is a well known environmental contaminant which could impair the activity of MMPs. In this sense, this study was conducted to evaluate if Cd{sup 2+} intake inhibits these endopeptidases activities at the rat prostate and testicles and if it directly inhibits the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 at gelatinolytic assays when present in the incubation buffer. To investigate this hypothesis, Wistar rats (5 weeks old), were given tap water (untreated, n = 9), or 15 ppm CdCl{sub 2} diluted in drinking water, during 10 weeks (n = 9) and 20 weeks (n = 9). The animals were euthanized and their ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, and testicles were removed. These tissue samples were processed for protein extraction and subjected to gelatin zymography evaluation. Additionally, we performed an experiment of gelatin zymography in which 5 μM or 2 mM cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) was directly dissolved at the incubation buffer, using the prostatic tissue samples from untreated animals that exhibited the highest MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the previous experiment. We have found that CdCl{sub 2} intake in the drinking water led to the inhibition of 35% and 30% of MMP2 and MMP9 (p < 0.05) at the ventral prostate and testis, respectively, in Cd{sup 2+} treated animals when compared to controls. Moreover, the activities of the referred enzymes were 80% and 100% inhibited by 5 μM and 2 mM of CdCl{sub 2}, respectively, even in the presence of 10 mM of CaCl{sub 2} within the incubation buffer solution. These important findings demonstrate that environmental cadmium contamination may deregulate the natural balance in the extracellular matrix turnover, through MMPs downregulation, which could contribute to the toxic effects observed in prostatic and testicular tissue after its

  6. Interleukin 6 trigged ataxia-telangiectasia mutated activation facilitates lung cancer metastasis via MMP-3/MMP-13 up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao Bo; Wang, Yi Nan; Li, Qing; Gao, Feng Guang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies show that the phosphorylation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) induced by interleukin 6 (IL-6) treatment contributes to multidrug resistance formation in lung cancer cells, but the exact role of ATM activation in IL-6 increased metastasis is still elusive. In the present study, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and MMP-13 were firstly demonstrated to be involved in IL-6 correlated cell migration. Secondly, IL-6 treatment not only increased MMP-3/MMP-13 expression but also augmented its activities. Thirdly, the inhibition of ATM phosphorylation efficiently abolished IL-6 up-regulating MMP-3/MMP-13 expression and increasing abilities of cell migration. Most importantly, the in vivo test showed that the inhibition of ATM abrogate the effect of IL-6 on lung cancer metastasis via MMP-3/MMP-13 down-regulation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that IL-6 inducing ATM phosphorylation increases the expression of MMP-3/MMP-13, augments the abilities of cell migration, and promotes lung cancer metastasis, indicating that ATM is a potential target molecule to overcome IL-6 correlated lung cancer metastasis. PMID:26528698

  7. MMP2 and MMP9 participate in S1P-induced invasion of follicular ML-1 thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kalhori, Veronica; Törnquist, Kid

    2015-03-15

    The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has emerged as a potent inducer of cancer cell migration and invasion. Previously, we have shown that S1P induces invasion of ML-1 follicular thyroid cancer cells via S1P receptors 1 and 3 (S1P1,3). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes used by cells for degradation of the extracellular matrix during invasion and migration. In the present study, we examined the role of MMP2 and MMP9 for S1P-induced invasion of ML-1 cells, and found that S1P regulates the secretion and activity of MMP2 and MMP9 via S1P1,3. Both pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA knockdown of MMP2 and MMP9 could attenuate S1P-induced invasion. Additionally, we show that calpains and Rac1 mediate S1P-induced secretion of MMP2 and MMP9. In conclusion, MMP2 and MMP9 participate in S1P-evoked follicular ML-1 thyroid cancer cell invasion. PMID:25643979

  8. Hydantoin based inhibitors of MMP13--discovery of AZD6605.

    PubMed

    De Savi, Chris; Waterson, David; Pape, Andrew; Lamont, Scott; Hadley, Elma; Mills, Mark; Page, Ken M; Bowyer, Jonathan; Maciewicz, Rose A

    2013-08-15

    Piperidine ether and aryl piperazine hydantoins are reported as potent inhibitors of MMP13. A medicinal chemistry campaign focused on replacing the reverse hydroxamate zinc binding group associated with historical inhibitors with a hydantoin zinc binding group then optimising MMP13 potency, solubility and DMPK properties whilst maintaining good selectivity over MMP14. A number of high quality candidates were progressed and following rat and dog safety evaluation, AZD6605 (3m) was identified as a candidate drug. PMID:23810497

  9. MMP-13 is involved in oral cancer cell metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shun-Hong; Law, Ching-Hsuan; Kuo, Ping-Hsueh; Hu, Ren-Yu; Yang, Ching-Chieh; Chung, Ting-Wen; Li, Ji-Min; Lin, Li-Hsun; Liu, Yi-Chung; Liao, En-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wei, Yu-Shan; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chien-Wen; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan; Wang, Wen-Ching; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr; Wang, Lu-Hai; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Chan, Hong-Lin; Lyu, Ping-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    The oral cancer cell line OC3-I5 with a highly invasive ability was selected and derived from an established OSCC line OC3. In this study, we demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases protein MMP-13 was up-regulated in OC3-I5 than in OC3 cells. We also observed that expression of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers including Twist, p-Src, Snail1, SIP1, JAM-A, and vinculin were increased in OC3-I5 compared to OC3 cells, whereas E-cadherin expression was decreased in the OC3-I5 cells. Using siMMP-13 knockdown techniques, we showed that siMMP-13 not only reduced the invasion and migration, but also the adhesion abilities of oral cancer cells. In support of the role of MMP-13 in metastasis, we used MMP-13 expressing plasmid-transfected 293T cells to enhance MMP-13 expression in the OC3 cells, transplanting the MMP-13 over expressing OC3 cells into nude mice led to enhanced lung metastasis. In summary, our findings show that MMP-13 promotes invasion and metastasis in oral cancer cells, suggesting altered expression of MMP-13 may be utilized to impede the process of metastasis. PMID:26958809

  10. The effect of hyaluronic acid on brushite cement cohesion.

    PubMed

    Alkhraisat, M H; Rueda, C; Mariño, F T; Torres, J; Jerez, L B; Gbureck, U; Cabarcos, E L

    2009-10-01

    The improvement of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) cohesion is essential for its application in highly blood perfused regions. This study reports the effectiveness of hyaluronic acids of different molecular weights in the enhancement of brushite cement cohesion. The cement was prepared using a powder phase composed of a mixture of beta-tricalcium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, whereas the liquid phase was formed by 0.5M citric acid solution modified by the addition of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights. It was found that medium and high molecular weight hyaluronic acid enhances the cement cohesion and scarcely affects the cement mechanical properties. However, concentrations >0.5% (w/v) were less efficient to prevent the cement disintegration. It is concluded that hyaluronic acid could be applied efficiently to reduce brushite cement disintegration. PMID:19409871

  11. Competitive Protein Adsorption on Polysaccharide and Hyaluronate Modified Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ombelli, Michela; Costello, Lauren; Postle, Corinne; Anantharaman, Vinod; Meng, Qing Cheng; Composto, Russell J.; Eckmann, David M.

    2011-01-01

    We measured adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen (Fg) onto six distinct bare and dextran- and hyaluronate-modified silicon surfaces created using two dextran grafting densities and three hyaluronic acid (HA) sodium salts derived from human umbilical cord, rooster comb and streptococcus zooepidemicus. Film thickness and surface morphology depended on HA molecular weight and concentration. BSA coverage was enhanced on surfaces upon competitive adsorption of BSA:Fg mixtures. Dextranization differentially reduced protein adsorption onto surfaces based on oxidation state. Hyaluronization was demonstrated to provide the greatest resistance to protein coverage, equivalent to that of the most resistant dextranized surface. Resistance to protein adsorption was independent of the type of hyaluronic acid utilized. With changing bulk protein concentration from 20 to 40 µg ml−1 for each species, Fg coverage on silicon increased by 4×, whereas both BSA and Fg adsorption on dextran and HA were far less dependent of protein bulk concentration. PMID:21623481

  12. Evaluation of MMP-7 A-181G and MMP-2 C-735T polymorphisms in healthy population from western Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Z; Yari, K; Rahimi, Z

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Variable frequency of the MMPs gene variants might affect the susceptibility to certain diseases. The aim of present study was to investigate the frequency of MMP-7 A-181G and MMP-2 C-735T variants in healthy population of Western Iran with Kurdish ethnic background. Individuals were medical students and staff members of the Medical School of Kermanshah University and blood donors that consisted of 221 females and 94 males. Control subjects were free of general and genetic diseases. Two hundred and eighty available samples including 192 females and 88 males were studied for MMP-2 C-735T polymorphism. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. The MMP-7 A-181G and MMP-2 C-735T polymorphisms were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The prevalence of MMP-7 G allele was 40% in studied individuals. The overall frequency of MMP-2 -735T allele was 15%. There was a higher frequency of MMP-2 T allele in females (16.9%) compared to males (10.8%, p=0.059). There were 30 (13.6%) women and 8 men (8.5%) with concomitant presence of MMP-7 AG and MMP-2 CT genotypes. All nine (4.1%) individuals with combined presence of MMP-7 GG and MMP-2 CT genotypes were women. The present study reports the frequency of two MMPs gene polymorphisms in healthy population of Western Iran. Our findings might be useful in evaluating the risk of MMPs in certain diseases. Also, our study suggests genetic admixture and similarities between our population with some Asian and European populations. PMID:26950446

  13. Identification of MMP-1 and MMP-9 inhibitors from the roots of Eleutherococcus divaricatus, and the PAMPA test.

    PubMed

    Załuski, Daniel; Mendyk, Ewaryst; Smolarz, Helena D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the isolation of metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-9 inhibitors from the chloroform extract of the Eleutherococcus divaricatus roots. Using GC-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, HMQC, HMBC, COSY and DEPT, (+)-sesamin has been identified as a new anti-MMP inhibitor. We report for the first time that (+)-sesamin inhibited MMP-1 and MMP-9 activity in 40% and 17%, respectively. The high inhibitory potential has been shown by ursolic acid (90.9% and 89.8% for MMP-1 and MMP-9). In the PAMPA test, the Pe value for sesamin was established as 17.4 × 10(-6) cm/s, that for ursolic acid as 30.0 × 10(- 6) cm/s. Verapamil and theophylline were used as a positive and negative control (Pe 42.1 and 2.9 × 10(-6) cm/s). To our best knowledge, no information was available on this activity of sesamin and other compounds. These studies provide a biochemical basis for the regulation of MMP-1 and MMP-9 by E. divaricatus compounds. PMID:25835099

  14. Paclitaxel isomerisation in polymeric micelles based on hydrophobized hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Smejkalová, Daniela; Nešporová, Kristina; Hermannová, Martina; Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Cožíková, Dagmar; Vištejnová, Lucie; Safránková, Barbora; Novotný, Jaroslav; Kučerík, Jiří; Velebný, Vladimír

    2014-05-15

    Physical and chemical structure of paclitaxel (PTX) was studied after its incorporation into polymeric micelles made of hyaluronic acid (HA) (Mw=15 kDa) grafted with C6 or C18:1 acyl chains. PTX was physically incorporated into the micellar core by solvent evaporation technique. Maximum loading capacity for HAC6 and HAC18:1 was determined to be 2 and 14 wt.%, respectively. The loading efficiency was higher for HAC18:1 and reached 70%. Independently of the derivative, loaded HA micelles had spherical size of approximately 60-80 nm and demonstrated slow and sustained release of PTX in vitro. PTX largely changed its form from crystalline to amorphous after its incorporation into the micelle's interior. This transformation increased PTX sensitivity towards stressing conditions, mainly to UV light exposure, during which the structure of amorphous PTX isomerized and formed C3C11 bond within its structure. In vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed that polymeric micelles loaded with PTX isomer had higher cytotoxic effect to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) and human colon carcinoma cells (HCT-116) than the same micelles loaded with non-isomerized PTX. Further observation indicated that PTX isomer influenced in different ways cell morphology and markers of cell cycle. Taken together, PTX isomer loaded in nanocarrier systems may have improved anticancer activity in vivo than pure PTX. PMID:24614580

  15. TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2) regulates MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2) activity in the extracellular environment after pro-MMP-2 activation by MT1 (membrane type 1)-MMP.

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, M Margarida; Fridman, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 has a crucial role in extracellular matrix degradation associated with cancer metastasis and angiogenesis. The latent form, pro-MMP-2, is activated on the cell surface by the membrane-tethered membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP, in a process regulated by the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2. A complex of active MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 binds pro-MMP-2 forming a ternary complex, which permits pro-MMP-2 activation by a TIMP-2-free neighbouring MT1-MMP. It remains unclear how MMP-2 activity in the pericellular space is regulated in the presence of TIMP-2. To address this question, the effect of TIMP-2 on MMP-2 activity in the extracellular space was investigated in live cells, and their isolated plasma membrane fractions, engineered to control the relative levels of MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 expression. We show that both free and inhibited MMP-2 is detected in the medium, and that the net MMP-2 activity correlates with the level of TIMP-2 expression. Studies to displace MT1-MMP-bound TIMP-2 in a purified system with active MMP-2 show minimal displacement of inhibitor, under the experimental conditions, due to the high affinity interaction between TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP. Thus inhibition of MMP-2 activity in the extracellular space is unlikely to result solely as a result of TIMP-2 dissociation from its complex with MT1-MMP. Consistently, immunoblot analyses of plasma membranes, and surface biotinylation experiments show that the level of surface association of TIMP-2 is independent of MT1-MMP expression. Thus low-affinity binding of TIMP-2 to sites distinct to MT1-MMP may have a role in regulating MMP-2 activity in the extracellular space generated by the ternary complex. PMID:12755684

  16. MMP2-sensing up-conversion nanoparticle for fluorescence biosensing in head and neck cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yung-Chieh; Chen, Chieh-Wei; Chan, Ming-Hsien; Chang, Yu-Chan; Chang, Wei-Min; Chi, Li-Hsing; Yu, Hui-Ming; Lin, Yuan-Feng; Tsai, Din Ping; Liu, Ru-Shi; Hsiao, Michael

    2016-06-15

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have extensive biological-applications because of their bio-compatibility, tunable optical properties and their ability to be excited by infrared radiation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in extracellular matrix remodelling; they are usually found to significantly increase during cancer progression, and these increases may lead to poor patient survival. In this study, we produced a biosensor that can be recognized by MMP2 and then be unravelled by the attached quencher to emit visible light. We used 3.5-nm gold nanoparticles as a quencher that absorbed emission from UCNPs at a wavelength of 540 nm. The biosensor consists of an upconversion nanoparticle, MMP2-recognized polypeptides and quenchers. Here, UCNPs consisting of NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) were prepared via a high temperature co-precipitation method while protecting the oleic acid ligand. To improve the biocompatibility and modify the UCNPs with a polypeptide, they were coated with a silica shell and further conjugated with MMP-recognizing polypeptides. The polypeptide has two ends of featuring carboxylic and thiol groups that react with UCNPs and AuNPs, and the resulting nanoparticles were referred to as UCNP@p-Au. According to the in vitro cell viability analysis, UCNP@p-Au exhibited little toxicity and biocompatibility in head and neck cancer cells. Cellular uptake studies showed that the MMP-based biosensor was activated by 980-nm irradiation to emit green light. This MMP-based biosensor may serve as sensitive and specific molecular fluorescent probe in biological-applications. PMID:26820361

  17. Stromelysin-2 (MMP10) Moderates Inflammation by Controlling Macrophage Activation.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Ryan S; Birkland, Timothy P; Smigiel, Kate S; Vandivort, Tyler C; Rohani, Maryam G; Manicone, Anne M; McGuire, John K; Gharib, Sina A; Parks, William C

    2016-08-01

    Several members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family control a range of immune processes, such as leukocyte influx and chemokine activity. Stromelysin-2 (MMP10) is expressed by macrophages in numerous tissues after injury; however, little is known of its function. In this study, we report that MMP10 is expressed by macrophages in human lungs from patients with cystic fibrosis and induced in mouse macrophages in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection both in vivo and by isolated resident alveolar and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). Our data indicates that macrophage MMP10 serves a beneficial function in response to acute infection. Whereas wild-type mice survived infection with minimal morbidity, 50% of Mmp10(-/-) mice died and all showed sustained weight loss (morbidity). Although bacterial clearance and neutrophil influx did not differ between genotypes, macrophage numbers were ∼3-fold greater in infected Mmp10(-/-) lungs than in wild-types. Adoptive transfer of wild-type BMDM normalized infection-induced morbidity in Mmp10(-/-) recipients to wild-type levels, demonstrating that the protective effect of MMP10 was due to its production by macrophages. Both in vivo and in cultured alveolar macrophages and BMDM, expression of several M1 macrophage markers was elevated, whereas M2 markers were reduced in Mmp10(-/-) tissue and cells. Global gene expression analysis revealed that infection-mediated transcriptional changes persisted in Mmp10(-/-) BMDM long after they were downregulated in wild-type cells. These results indicate that MMP10 serves a beneficial role in response to acute infection by moderating the proinflammatory response of resident and infiltrating macrophages. PMID:27316687

  18. Hyaluronic Acid in Inflammation and Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Litwiniuk, Malgorzata; Krejner, Alicja; Speyrer, Marcus S; Gauto, Anibal R; Grzela, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), the main component of extracellular matrix, is considered one of the key players in the tissue regeneration process. It has been proven to modulate via specific HA receptors, inflammation, cellular migration, and angiogenesis, which are the main phases of wound healing. Studies have revealed that most HA properties depend on its molecular size. High molecular weight HA displays anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, whereas low molecular weight HA is a potent proinflammatory molecule. In this review, the authors summarize the role of HA polymers of different molecular weight in tissue regeneration and provide a short overview of main cellular receptors involved in HA signaling. In addition, the role of HA in 2 major steps of wound healing is examined: inflammation and the angiogenesis process. Finally, the antioxidative properties of HA are discussed and its possible clinical implication presented. PMID:26978861

  19. Rheology and lubricity of hyaluronic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jing; Krause, Wendy E.

    2007-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan) is an important component in synovial fluid (i.e., the fluid that lubricates our freely moving joints). Its presence results in highly viscoelastic solutions. In comparison to healthy synovial fluid, diseased fluid has a reduced viscosity and loss of lubricity. In osteoarthritis the reduction in viscosity results from a decline in both the molecular weight and concentration of HA. In our investigation, we attempt to correlate the rheological properties of HA solutions to changes in lubrication and wear. A nanoindenter will be used to evaluate the coefficient of friction and wear properties between the nanoindenter tip and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene in both the presence and absence of a thin film of HA solution.

  20. MMP13 mutation causes spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Missouri type (SEMDMO)

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann M.; Inada, Masaki; Krane, Stephen M.; Christie, Paul T.; Harding, Brian; López-Otín, Carlos; Sánchez, Luis M.; Pannett, Anna A.J.; Dearlove, Andrew; Hartley, Claire; Byrne, Michael H.; Reed, Anita A.C.; Nesbit, M. Andrew; Whyte, Michael P.; Thakker, Rajesh V.

    2005-01-01

    MMPs, which degrade components of the ECM, have roles in embryonic development, tissue repair, cancer, arthritis, and cardiovascular disease. We show that a missense mutation of MMP13 causes the Missouri type of human spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMDMO), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by defective growth and modeling of vertebrae and long bones. Genome-wide linkage analysis mapped SEMDMO to a 17-cM region on chromosome 11q14.3–23.2 that contains a cluster of 9 MMP genes. Among these, MMP13 represented the best candidate for SEMDMO, since it preferentially degrades collagen type II, abnormalities of which cause skeletal dysplasias that include Strudwick type SEMD. DNA sequence analysis revealed a missense mutation, F56S, that substituted an evolutionarily conserved phenylalanine residue for a serine in the proregion domain of MMP13. We predicted, by modeling MMP13 structure, that this F56S mutation would result in a hydrophobic cavity with misfolding, autoactivation, and degradation of mutant protein intracellularly. Expression of wild-type and mutant MMP13s in human embryonic kidney cells confirmed abnormal intracellular autoactivation and autodegradation of F56S MMP13 such that only enzymatically inactive, small fragments were secreted. Thus, the F56S mutation results in deficiency of MMP13, which leads to the human skeletal developmental anomaly of SEMDMO. PMID:16167086

  1. Evaluation of MMP-9 and MMP-2 and their suppressor TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaofei; Duan, Lingling; Xie, Hongqin; Lu, Xiaoxia; Lu, Daolin; Lu, Daopeng; Jiang, Nan; Chen, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG) is a lethal malignancy featured with early metastasis, poor prognosis, and few treatment options. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and metalloproteinase suppressor (TIMP) have been considered to be associated with cancer invasion and metastasis. In our study, we evaluated expressions of MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in AEG and their correlation with clinicopathological parameters and the overall survival rate. Methods Expressions of MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in specimens from 120 AEGs were detected by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between expressions of these four proteins and clinicopathological characters were analyzed by chi-square test. Moreover, the prognostic value of these four biomarkers was evaluated by univariate analysis with Kaplan–Meier method and multivariate analysis with Cox regression model. Results The positive expression rate of MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 was 65%, 53%, 70%, and 49%, respectively, in the detected 120 AEG samples. MMP-9 was significantly associated with poorly histological differentiation (P=0.001), lymph node metastasis (P=0.007), and UICC stage (P=0.008). TIMP-1 showed significantly reversed correlations with histological differentiation (P=0.001), lymph node metastasis (P=0.007), and Union for International Cancer Control stage (P=0.008). Univariate analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis (P=0.002), depth of invasion (P=0.050), and MMP-9+/TIMP-1 phonotype (P<0.001) were significantly associated with the overall survival rate. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that MMP-9+/TIMP-1–phenotype was an independent prognostic factor in AEGs. Conclusion Detection of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression allows stratification of AEG patients into different survival categories and can be useful for precise individual evaluation and survival prediction. PMID:27486337

  2. Inhibition of MMP-13 with modified polymer particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hai; Bratlie, Kaitlin M.

    2016-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteases that destroy the extracellular matrix and have important roles in the foreign body response, wound healing, and disease. Of particular importance is the chronic wound environment in which MMP activity is increased, resulting in destruction of the de novo extracellular matrix. One potential treatment of these wounds would be to use dressings that are capable of inhibiting MMP activity. In this study, we examined the effect of seven polymer modifiers (2-amino-3-guanidinopropionic acid, arginine, carnitine, citrulline, creatine, 3-guanidino propionic acid, and Nw-nitro-L-arginine) on MMP-13 activity. MMP-13 is a collagenase that is present in chronic wounds and is zinc dependent. Our results showed that these polymer modifiers were able to inhibit MMP-13 activity to varying degrees. The mechanism of inhibition appears to be binding zinc to the modifiers.

  3. Ara-C increases gastric cancer cell invasion by upregulating CD-147-MMP-2/MMP‑9 via the ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Lin; Tao, Hai-Rong; Wang, Han-Wei; Sun, Yun; Zhang, Li-Di; Zhang, Chao; He, Wei; Xu, Mang-Hua; Zhao, Jiang-Min; Gao, Feng-Hou

    2015-04-01

    Gastric cancer cell are not particularly sensitive to Ara-C, a deoxycytidine analog that affects DNA synthesis. In the present study, AGS and MKN-45 gastric cancer cell lines were treated with Ara-C to determine its role in cell prolife-ration and apoptosis. The antiproliferative effect of Ara-C was assessed using the Cell Counting kit-8. Gelatinase zymography was utilized to detect the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and an in vitro invasion assay was performed. Using RT-PCR, CD-147, MMP-2 and MPP-9 mRNA levels were assessed in AGS cells with various doses of Ara-C treatment. CD-147, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels were analysed in Ara-C‑treated AGS and MKN-45 cells. AGS cells were treated with or without U-0126 or siRNA-CD147 and/or Ara-C for 24 h, and an in vitro invasion assay was performed. Although low-dose Ara-C had no obvious effect on cell proliferation, it upregulated the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and CD-147 and ERK activation. Low-dose Ara-C increased gastric cancer cell invasion. U-0126 and siRNA-CD-147 inhibited the induction of Ara-C in gastric cancer cell invasion. Therefore, Ara-C enhances the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells by expression of CD-147 /MMP-2 and MMP-9 via the ERK signaling pathway. The results are therefore useful in the prevention of Ara-C collateral damage associated with standard, conventional protocols of chemotherapy administration. PMID:25625234

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 as inflammation markers of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis infections in mice.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, F; Bianchi, C; Fornaro, M; Naccarato, G; Menicagli, M; Gomez-Morales, M A; Pozio, E; Pinto, B

    2014-10-01

    Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis exhibit differences in the host-parasite relationship such as the inflammatory response in parasitized muscles. Several studies indicate that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent a marker of inflammation since they regulate inflammation and immunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of gelatinases (MMP-9 and MMP-2) in mice experimentally infected with T. spiralis or T. pseudospiralis, to elucidate the involvement of these molecules during the inflammatory response to these parasites. Gelatin zymography on SDS polyacrilamide gels was used to assess the serum levels and in situ zymography on muscle histological sections to show the gelatinase-positive cells. In T. spiralis infected mice, the total MMP-9 serum level increased 6 days post-infection whereas, the total MMP-2 serum level increased onward. A similar trend was observed in T. pseudospiralis infected mice but the MMP-9 level was lower than that detected in T. spiralis infected mice. Significant differences were also observed in MMP-2 levels between the two experimental groups. The number of gelatinase positive cells was higher in T. spiralis than in T. pseudospiralis infected muscles. We conclude that MMP-9 and MMP-2 are markers of the inflammatory response for both T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infections. PMID:25124689

  5. Synthesis and radiosensitization properties of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hyaluronate complex

    SciTech Connect

    Rosli, Nur Ratasha Alia Md.; Mohamed, Faizal; Heng, Cheong Kai; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Ahmad, Ainee Fatimah; Mohamad, Hur Munawar Kabir

    2014-09-03

    Cancer cells which are large in size are resistant towards radiation therapy due to the presence of large amount of anti-oxidative enzymes and hypoxic cancer cells. Thus radiosensitizer agents have been developed to enhance the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy by increasing the sensitivity of these cancer cells towards radiation. This study is conducted to investigate the radiosensitization properties of radiosensitizer complex containing hydrogen peroxide and sodium hyaluronate. Combination with sodium hyaluronate may decrease reactivity of hydrogen peroxide but maintain the oxygen concentration needed for radiosensitizing effect. HepG2 cancer cells are cultured as the mean of test subject. Cancer cell samples which are targeted and not targeted with these radiosensitizers are irradiated with 2Gy single fractionated dose. Results obtained shows that the cancer cells which are not targeted with radiosensitizers has a cell viability of 98.80±0.37% after a time interval of 48 hours and has even repopulated over 100% after a 72 hour time interval. This shows that the cancer cells are resistant towards radiation. However, when the cancer cells are targeted with radiosensitizers prior to irradiation, there is a reduction of cell viability by 25.50±10.81% and 10.30±5.10% at time intervals of 48 and 72 hours respectively. This indicates that through the use of these radiosensitizers, cancer cells are more sensitive towards radiation.

  6. MMP-9 genetic polymorphism may confer susceptibility to COPD.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Yang, Z H; Chen, Y Y; He, Z; Zhou, Y; Gao, Y; Zhang, Q; Tan, M Q

    2016-01-01

    Correlations between genetic polymorphisms of three matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes and susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were investigated. Relevant case-control studies were selected using rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria. The comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 software was used to conduct the statistical analysis. An odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals was applied to assess the correlation between genetic polymorphisms of MMPs and susceptibility to COPD. Twelve high-quality studies were selected for inclusion in this meta-analysis. These studies included a combined total of 1533 COPD patients and 1530 healthy controls. The result of the meta-analysis showed that MMP-9 rs3918242 C > T was significantly correlated with increased susceptibility to COPD. However, MMP-1 rs1799750 1G > 2G and MMP-3 rs3025058 5A > 6A were not associated with COPD risk (all P > 0.05). Based on our meta-analysis, MMP-9 rs3918242 C > T is correlated with susceptibility to COPD, but MMP-1 rs1799750 1G > 2G and MMP-3 rs3025058 5A > 6A are not. These results should be further confirmed using a larger sample size. PMID:27173221

  7. MMP(-2) expression in skeletal muscle after strength training.

    PubMed

    Deus, A P L; Bassi, D; Simões, R P; Oliveira, C R; Baldissera, V; Marqueti, R de Cássia; Araujo, H S S; Arena, R; Borghi-Silva, A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of resistance training on ladders (RTL) on MMP(-2) expression and blood lactate concentration [La-]. 30 male (3 months of age), albino rats were divided into 3 groups: sedentary control (SC, n=10), low resistance exercise training (Low-IntRT, n=10) and high-intensive exercise training (High-IntRT, n=10). Animals of High-IntRT were submitted to a progressively increasing overload in relation to body weight until exhaustion, while the Low-IntRT group performed the same exercise regimen with no external load. The program had a frequency of 3 times per week over 8 weeks. MMP(-2) expression of tibialis anterior muscle and [La-] were measured. While there was a significant increase of MMP(-2) (pro-form) in both groups, only High-IntRT significantly increased MMP(-2) in active-form (p<0.05). Both trained groups exhibited an increase in [La-] when compared to controls, however, the increase in [La-] was significantly higher in the High-IntRT compared to Low-IntRT (p<0.05). Strong correlation was found between MMP(-2) (active form) and [La-] in High-IntRT (r=0.91). RTL in using low and high-intensity exercise can serve as a model to demonstrate different responses of MMP(-2) expression in an animal model. It appears active form expression of MMP(-2) is modulated by exercise intensity. PMID:22095325

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-19-deficient fibroblasts display a profibrotic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Jara, Paul; Calyeca, Jazmin; Romero, Yair; Plácido, Luis; Yu, Guoying; Kaminski, Naftali; Maldonado, Vilma; Cisneros, José; Selman, Moisés; Pardo, Annie

    2015-03-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and usually lethal interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology characterized by aberrant activation of epithelial cells that induce the migration, proliferation and activation of fibroblasts. The resulting distinctive fibroblastic/myofibroblastic foci are responsible for the excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) production and abnormal lung remodeling. We have recently found that matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP-19)-deficient (Mmp19-/-) mice develop an exaggerated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, but the mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of MMP-19 deficiency on fibroblast gene expression and cell behavior. Microarray analysis of Mmp19-/- lung fibroblasts revealed the dysregulation of several profibrotic pathways, including ECM formation, migration, proliferation, and autophagy. Functional studies confirmed these findings. Compared with wild-type mice, Mmp19-/- lung fibroblasts showed increased α1 (I) collagen gene and collagen protein production at baseline and after transforming growth factor-β treatment and increased smooth muscle-α actin expression (P < 0.05). Likewise, Mmp19-deficient lung fibroblasts showed a significant increase in proliferation (P < 0.01) and in transmigration and locomotion over Boyden chambers coated with type I collagen or with Matrigel (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that, in lung fibroblasts, MMP-19 has strong regulatory effects on the synthesis of key ECM components, on fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation, and in migration and proliferation. PMID:25575513

  9. Altered fracture repair in the absence of MMP9

    PubMed Central

    Colnot, Céline; Thompson, Zachary; Miclau, Theodore; Werb, Zena; Helms, Jill A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The regeneration of adult skeletal tissues requires the timely recruitment of skeletal progenitor cells to an injury site, the differentiation of these cells into bone or cartilage, and the re-establishment of a vascular network to maintain cell viability. Disturbances in any of these cellular events can have a detrimental effect on the process of skeletal repair. Although fracture repair has been compared with fetal skeletal development, the extent to which the reparative process actually recapitulates the fetal program remains uncertain. Here, we provide the first genetic evidence that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) regulates crucial events during adult fracture repair. We demonstrate that MMP9 mediates vascular invasion of the hypertrophic cartilage callus, and that Mmp9−/− mice have non-unions and delayed unions of their fractures caused by persistent cartilage at the injury site. This MMP9-dependent delay in skeletal healing is not due to a lack of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or VEGF receptor expression, but may instead be due to the lack of VEGF bioavailability in the mutant because recombinant VEGF can rescue Mmp9−/− non-unions. We also found that Mmp9−/− mice generate a large cartilage callus even when fractured bones are stabilized, which implicates MMP9 in the regulation of chondrogenic and osteogenic cell differentiation during early stages of repair. In conclusion, the resemblance between Mmp9−/− fetal skeletal defects and those that emerge during Mmp9−/− adult repair offer the strongest evidence to date that similar mechanisms are employed to achieve bone formation, regardless of age. PMID:12874132

  10. Triclosan Blocks Mmp 13 Expression in Hormone-Stimulated Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Virginia Monsul; Xu, Tao; Shimizu, Emi; Jefcoat, Steven; Vasilov, Anatoliy; Qin, Ling; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (Mmp-13) is an important enzyme for the modulation of bone turnover and gingival recession. Elevated levels of Mmp-13 are associated with alveolar bone resorption, periodontal ligament destruction, and gingival attachment loss, which are the clinical symptoms of periodontal disease. Continued evidence suggests periodontal disease contributes to oral tissue destruction and is linked to numerous systemic conditions. Triclosan is a long standing, proven antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agent found in the only FDA-approved dentifrice for the treatment of plaque and gingivitis. Methods This study examined the inhibitory effects of triclosan on lipopolysaccharide (LPS), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced expression of Mmp-13 in UMR 106-01 cells, an osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line. The cells were stimulated with PTH or PGE2 to induce Mmp-13 mRNA expression and Real Time RT-PCR was performed to determine gene expression levels. Western blot analysis assessed the presence or absence of protein degradation or inhibition of protein synthesis. Mmp-13 Promoter Reporter Assay was utilized to explore possible direct effects of triclosan on the Mmp-13 promoter. Results Triclosan significantly reduced PTH or PGE2 elevated expression of Mmp-13 in osteoblastic cells without affecting basal levels of the mRNA. Surprisingly, triclosan enhanced the expression of c-fos and amphiregulin mRNA. A promoter assay indicated triclosan directly inhibits the activation of the PTH-responsive minimal promoter of Mmp-13. Conclusion Our data appear to have identified a nuclear mechanism of action of triclosan which accounts for triclosan’s ability to inhibit PTH or PGE2 induced Mmp-13 expression in osteoblastic cells. PMID:23368947

  11. Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) Is an Endogenous Activator of the MMP-9 Secreted by Placental Leukocytes: Implication in Human Labor

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Pliego, Arturo; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Castillo-Castrejon, Marisol; Meraz-Cruz, Noemi; Beltran-Montoya, Jorge; Zaga-Clavellina, Veronica; Nava-Salazar, Sonia; Sanchez-Martinez, Maribel; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Background The activity of matrix degrading enzymes plays a leading role in the rupture of the fetal membranes under normal and pathological human labor, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) it is considered a biomarker of this event. To gain further insight into local MMP-9 origin and activation, in this study we analyzed the contribution of human placental leukocytes to MMP-9 secretion and explored the local mechanisms of the pro-enzyme activation. Methods Placental blood leukocytes were obtained from women at term gestation without labor and maintained in culture up to 72 h. MMP-9 activity in the culture supernatants was determined by zymography and using a specific substrate. The presence of a potential pro-MMP-9 activator in the culture supernatants was monitored using a recombinant biotin-labeled human pro-MMP-9. To characterize the endogenous pro-MMP-9 activator, MMP-1, -3, -7 and -9 were measured by multiplex assay in the supernatants, and an inhibition assay of MMP-9 activation was performed using an anti-human MMP-3 and a specific MMP-3 inhibitor. Finally, production of MMP-9 and MMP-3 in placental leukocytes obtained from term pregnancies with and without labor was assessed by immunofluorescence. Results Placental leukocytes spontaneously secreted pro-MMP-9 after 24 h of culture, increasing significantly at 48 h (P≤0.05), when the active form of MMP-9 was detected. Culture supernatants activated the recombinant pro-MMP-9 showing that placental leukocytes secrete the activator. A significant increase in MMP-3 secretion by placental leukocytes was observed since 48 h in culture (P≤0.05) and up to 72 h (P≤0.001), when concentration reached its maximum value. Specific activity of MMP-9 decreased significantly (P≤0.005) when an anti-MMP-3 antibody or a specific MMP-3 inhibitor were added to the culture media. Placental leukocytes from term labor produced more MMP-9 and MMP-3 compared to term non-labor cells. Conclusions In this work we confirm that

  12. Inhibitory effect of the carnosine-gallic acid synthetic peptide on MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Rae; Eom, Tae-Kil; Byun, Hee-Guk

    2014-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade extracellular matrix components and play important roles in a variety of biological and pathological processes such as malignant tumor metastasis and invasion. In this study, we constructed carnosine-gallic acid peptide (CGP) to identify a better MMP inhibitor than carnosine. The inhibitory effects of CGP on MMP-2 and MMP-9 were investigated in the human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cell line. As a result, CGP significantly decreased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression levels without a cytotoxic effect. Moreover, CGP may inhibit migration and invasion in HT1080 cells through the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-uPA receptor signaling pathways to inhibit MMP-2 and MMP-9. Based on these results, it appears that CGP may play an important role in preventing and treating several MMP-2 and MMP-9-mediated health problems such as metastasis. PMID:24956509

  13. Potent, selective spiropyrrolidine pyrimidinetrione inhibitors of MMP-13.

    PubMed

    Freeman-Cook, Kevin D; Reiter, Lawrence A; Noe, Mark C; Antipas, Amy S; Danley, Dennis E; Datta, Kaushik; Downs, James T; Eisenbeis, Shane; Eskra, James D; Garmene, David J; Greer, Elaine M; Griffiths, Richard J; Guzman, Roberto; Hardink, Joel R; Janat, Fouad; Jones, Christopher S; Martinelli, Gary J; Mitchell, Peter G; Laird, Ellen R; Liras, Jennifer L; Lopresti-Morrow, Lori L; Pandit, Jayvardhan; Reilly, Usa D; Robertson, Donald; Vaughn-Bowser, Marcie L; Wolf-Gouviea, Lilli A; Yocum, Sue A

    2007-12-01

    Explorations in the pyrimidinetrione series of MMP-13 inhibitors led to the discovery of a series of spiro-fused compounds that are potent and selective inhibitors of MMP-13. While other spiro-fused motifs are hydrolytically unstable, presumably due to electronic destabilization of the pyrimidinetrione ring, the spiropyrrolidine series does not share this liability. Greater than 100-fold selectivity versus other MMP family members was achieved by incorporation of an extended aryl-heteroaryl P1'group. When dosed as the sodium salt, these compounds displayed excellent oral absorption and pharmacokinetic properties. Despite the selectivity, a representative of this series produced fibroplasia in a 14 day rat study. PMID:17935984

  14. Effect of hyaluronic acid on chondrocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Ronald Bispo; Sadigursky, David; de Rezende, Marcia Uchoa; Hernandez, Arnaldo José

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of apoptotic cells in a contusion model of osteoarthritis (OA) and to assess whether intra-articular injection of high doses of hyaluronic acid (HA) immediately after trauma reduces chondrocyte apoptosis. METHODS: Forty knees from adult rabbits were impacted thrice with a 1 kg block released through a 1 meter tall cylinder (29.4 Joules). Subsequently, 2 mL of HA was injected in one knee and 2 mL saline in the contra-lateral knee. Medication were administered twice a week for 30 days, when animals were sacrificed. Specimens were prepared for optical microscopy exam and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase end labeling assay (TUNEL). RESULTS: The apoptosis rate in the contusion model was 68.01% (± 19.73%), a higher rate than previously described. HA significantly reduced the rate of apoptosis to 53.52% (± 18.09) (p <0.001). CONCLUSION: Intra-articular HA administration started immediately after trauma reduces impact-induced chondrocyte apoptosis rates in rabbits. Level of Evidence I, Experimental Study. PMID:27069407

  15. Electrostatic effects on hyaluronic acid configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezney, John; Saleh, Omar

    2015-03-01

    In systems of polyelectrolytes, such as solutions of charged biopolymers, the electrostatic repulsion between charged monomers plays a dominant role in determining the molecular conformation. Altering the ionic strength of the solvent thus affects the structure of such a polymer. Capturing this electrostatically-driven structural dependence is important for understanding many biological systems. Here, we use single molecule manipulation experiments to collect force-extension behavior on hyaluronic acid (HA), a polyanion which is a major component of the extracellular matrix in all vertebrates. By measuring HA elasticity in a variety of salt conditions, we are able to directly assess the contribution of electrostatics to the chain's self-avoidance and local stiffness. Similar to recent results from our group on single-stranded nucleic acids, our data indicate that HA behaves as a swollen chain of electrostatic blobs, with blob size proportional to the solution Debye length. Our data indicate that the chain structure within the blob is not worm-like, likely due to long-range electrostatic interactions. We discuss potential models of this effect.

  16. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka

    2015-04-01

    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

  17. Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, Jason A.; Prestwich, Glenn D.

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), an immunoneutral polysaccharide that is ubiquitous in the human body, is crucial for many cellular and tissue functions and has been in clinical use for over thirty years. When chemically modified, HA can be transformed into many physical forms -- viscoelastic solutions, soft or stiff hydrogels, electrospun fibers, non-woven meshes, macroporous and fibrillar sponges, flexible sheets, and nanoparticulate fluids -- for use in a range of preclinical and clinical settings. Many of these forms are derived from the chemical crosslinking of pendant reactive groups by addition/condensation chemistry or by radical polymerization. Clinical products for cell therapy and regenerative medicine require crosslinking chemistry that is compatible with the encapsulation of cells and injection into tissues. Moreover, an injectable clinical biomaterial must meet marketing, regulatory, and financial constraints to provide affordable products that can be approved, deployed to the clinic, and used by physicians. Many HA-derived hydrogels meet these criteria, and can deliver cells and therapeutic agents for tissue repair and regeneration. This progress report covers both basic concepts and recent advances in the development of HA-based hydrogels for biomedical applications. PMID:21394792

  18. Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the rat trigeminal ganglion during the development of temporomandibular joint inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, G.C.; Rizzi, E.; Gerlach, R.F.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial pain is a prevalent symptom in modern society. Some musculoskeletal orofacial pain is caused by temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). This condition has a multi-factorial etiology, including emotional factors and alteration of the masticator muscle and temporomandibular joints (TMJs). TMJ inflammation is considered to be a cause of pain in patients with TMD. Extracellular proteolytic enzymes, specifically the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), have been shown to modulate inflammation and pain. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the expression and level of gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the trigeminal ganglion are altered during different stages of temporomandibular inflammation, as determined by gelatin zymography. This study also evaluated whether mechanical allodynia and orofacial hyperalgesia, induced by the injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the TMJ capsule, were altered by an MMP inhibitor (doxycycline, DOX). TMJ inflammation was measured by plasma extravasation in the periarticular tissue (Evans blue test) and infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils into the synovial fluid (myeloperoxidase enzyme quantification). MMP expression in the trigeminal ganglion was shown to vary during the phases of the inflammatory process. MMP-9 regulated the early phase and MMP-2 participated in the late phase of this process. Furthermore, increases in plasma extravasation in periarticular tissue and myeloperoxidase activity in the joint tissue, which occurred throughout the inflammation process, were diminished by treatment with DOX, a nonspecific MMP inhibitor. Additionally, the increases of mechanical allodynia and orofacial hyperalgesia were attenuated by the same treatment. PMID:24270905

  19. The potpourri approach to hyaluronic acid filler injections.

    PubMed

    Lim, Adrian C

    2010-02-01

    There is an ever-expanding range of hyaluronic acid fillers with varying physical characteristics available to cosmetic dermatologists. These fillers are commercially packaged in syringes of approximately 1 mL (range 0.5-2 mL) volume. Filler injectors are currently qualitatively and quantitatively restricted to fillers packaged in ready-to-go syringes. Patients often present for pan-facial rejuvenation requiring varying amounts of fillers as well as more than one type/subtype of filler for optimum correction. The potpourri approach allows access to a range of prepared hyaluronic acid filler subtypes that can be used on the same patient in the one session. The potpourri method centres on the use of multiple 31-gauge insulin syringes prepared with a range of different hyaluronic acid filler products that are ready for use. This increases flexibility with filler selection and has the potential to provide better filler-to-tissue match for patients. PMID:20148852

  20. Hyaluronic acid filler injections with a 31-gauge insulin syringe.

    PubMed

    Lim, Adrian C

    2010-02-01

    Hyaluronic acid gel is a commonly used skin/soft tissue filler in cosmetic dermatology. Hyaluronic acid fillers are packaged in proprietary luer-lock syringes that can be injected via a 30-gauge, 27-gauge or larger diameter needle depending on the consistency of the gel. A method of decanting proprietary hyaluronic acid fillers into multiple 31-gauge insulin syringes for injection is described. The use of a 31-gauge insulin syringe for filler injections can potentially enhance the injection process through more accurate product delivery and placement. This has the potential to produce a more balanced and symmetrical outcome for patients. Additional benefits include less injection pain, less bleeding/bruising and higher levels of patient satisfaction. PMID:20148851

  1. Extracellular depolymerization of hyaluronic acid in cultured human skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T.; Takagaki, K.; Kubo, K.; Morikawa, A.; Tamura, S.; Endo, M. )

    1990-10-15

    The chain length of ({sup 3}H)hyaluronic acid synthesized by cultivating human skin fibroblasts in the presence of ({sup 3}H)glucosamine was investigated. ({sup 3}H)Hyaluronic acid obtained from the matrix fraction was excluded from a Sepharose CL-2B column irrespective of the incubation period, whereas that from the medium was depolymerized into a constant chain length (Mr = 40,000). The reducing and non-reducing terminals of the depolymerized hyaluronic acid were N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid, respectively. Prolonged incubation produced no oligosaccharides as shown by examination of hyaluronidase digests, suggesting the presence of a novel endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

  2. Chemical functionalization of hyaluronic acid for drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Vasi, Ana-Maria; Popa, Marcel Ionel; Butnaru, Maria; Dodi, Gianina; Verestiuc, Liliana

    2014-05-01

    Functionalized hyaluronic acid (HA) derivatives were obtained by ring opening mechanism of maleic anhydride (MA). FTIR and H(1) NMR spectroscopy were used to confirm the chemical linkage of MA on the hyaluronic acid chains. Thermal analysis (TG-DTG and DSC) and GPC data for the new products revealed the formation of new functional groups, without significant changes in molecular weight and thermal stability. New gels based on hyaluronic acid modified derivatives were obtained by acrylic acid copolymerization in the presence of a redox initiation system. The resulted circular and interconnected pores of the gels were visualized by SEM. The release profiles of an ophthalmic model drug, pilocarpine from tested gels were studied in simulated media. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity and cell proliferation properties indicates the potential of the new systems to be used in contact with biological media in drug delivery applications. PMID:24656366

  3. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  4. Sodium hyaluronate eyedrops in the treatment of dry eyes.

    PubMed Central

    Shimmura, S; Ono, M; Shinozaki, K; Toda, I; Takamura, E; Mashima, Y; Tsubota, K

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Several studies in the past have attempted to demonstrate the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of dry eyes. However, results have been conflicting and a definite conclusion has not yet been reached. This study recruited a larger group of patients and has incorporated for the first time both fluorescein and rose bengal staining in the evaluation of the epithelium. METHODS--Eighteen albino rabbit corneas were used in a basic animal study to demonstrate the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate by comparing the effects on the rate of epithelial healing. The optimal concentration to be used in the clinical trial was determined from the results of the basic study. In the clinical study 104 patients with dry eye syndrome were enrolled in a double masked controlled clinical trial. Patients received sodium hyaluronate drops in one eye and control medication in the other eye for 4 weeks. Grading of subjective symptoms and clinical examinations were performed at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS--In the animal study sodium hyaluronate at concentrations of 0.1% and 0.5% significantly accelerated the recovery time of iodine vapour induced corneal erosions (p < 0.01). In the clinical study no statistical significance was observed in the improvement of subjective symptoms or rose bengal staining, while fluorescein scores significantly improved in eyes receiving sodium hyaluronate (p = 0.0001) at 4 weeks. CONCLUSION--Sodium hyaluronate drops applied in six daily doses could not be demonstrated to offer advantages over conventional tear supplies in the improvement of subjective symptoms, but may play a role in maintaining a healthy corneal epithelium. Images PMID:8534643

  5. Development of a Novel PET Tracer [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 Targeting MMP2 for Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chao; Zhang, Dazhi; Zhang, Anyu; Wang, Lizhen; Jiang, Hongdie; Wang, Tao; Liu, Hongrui; Xu, Yuping; Yang, Runlin; Chen, Fei; Yang, Min; Zuo, Changjing

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The overexpression of gelatinases, that is, matrix metalloproteinase MMP2 and MMP9, has been associated with tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. To image MMP2 in tumors, we developed a novel ligand termed [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6, with consideration that: c(KAHWGFTLD)NH2 (herein, C6) is a selective gelatinase inhibitor; Cy5.5-C6 has been visualized in many in vivo tumor models; positron emission tomography (PET) has a higher detection sensitivity and a wider field of view than optical imaging; fluorine-18 (18F) is the optimal PET radioisotope, and the creation of a [18F]AlF-peptide complex is a simple procedure. Methods C6 was conjugated to the bifunctional chelator NOTA (1, 4, 7-triazacyclononanetriacetic acid) for radiolabeling [18F]AlF conjugation. The MMP2-binding characteristics and tumor-targeting efficacy of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 were tested in vitro and in vivo. Results The non-decay corrected yield of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was 46.2–64.2%, and the radiochemical purity exceeded 95%. [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was favorably retained in SKOV3 and PC3 cells, determined by cell uptake. Using NOTA-C6 as a competitive ligand, the uptake of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 in SKOV3 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In biodistribution and PET imaging studies, higher radioactivity concentrations were observed in tumors. Pre-injection of C6 caused a marked reduction in tumor tissue uptake. Immunohistochemistry showed MMP2 in tumor tissues. Conclusions [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was easy to synthesize and has substantial potential as an imaging agent that targets MMP2 in tumors. PMID:26540114

  6. Polyamine/salt-assembled microspheres coated with hyaluronic acid for targeting and pH sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan; Yang, Hui; Wang, Guojun; Tong, Weijun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-06-01

    The poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/trisodium citrate aggregates were fabricated and further covalently crosslinked via the coupling reaction of carboxylic sites on trisodium citrate with the amine groups on polyamine, onto which poly-L-lysine and hyaluronic acid were sequentially assembled, forming stable microspheres. The pH sensitive dye and pH insensitive dye were further labeled to enable the microspheres with pH sensing property. Moreover, these microspheres could be specifically targeted to HeLa tumor cells, since hyaluronic acid can specifically recognize and bind to CD44, a receptor overexpressed on many tumor cells. Quantitative pH measurement by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the microspheres were internalized into HeLa cells, and accumulated in acidic compartments. By contrast, only a few microspheres were adhered on the NIH 3T3 cells surface. The microspheres with combined pH sensing property and targeting ability can enhance the insight understanding of the targeted drug vehicles trafficking after cellular internalization. PMID:26954089

  7. Mechanical Characterization of a Dynamic and Tunable Methacrylated Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Ondeck, Matthew G; Engler, Adam J

    2016-02-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a commonly used natural polymer for cell scaffolding. Modification by methacrylate allows it to be polymerized by free radicals via addition of an initiator, e.g., light-sensitive Irgacure, to form a methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) hydrogel. Light-activated crosslinking can be used to control the degree of polymerization, and sequential polymerization steps allow cells plated onto or in the hydrogel to initially feel a soft and then a stiff matrix. Here, the elastic modulus of MeHA hydrogels was systematically analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) for a number of variables including duration of UV exposure, monomer concentration, and methacrylate functionalization. To determine how cells would respond to a specific two-step polymerization, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured on the stiffening MeHA hydrogels and found to reorganize their cytoskeleton and spread area upon hydrogel stiffening, consistent with cells originally cultured on substrates of the final elastic modulus. PMID:26746491

  8. Effects of prunetin on the proteolytic activity, secretion and gene expression of MMP-3 in vitro and production of MMP-3 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nam, Dae Cheol; Kim, Bo Kun; Lee, Hyun Jae; Shin, Hyun-Dae; Lee, Choong Jae; Hwang, Sun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    We investigated whether prunetin affects the proteolytic activity, secretion, and gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in primary cultured rabbit articular chondrocytes, as well as in vivo production of MMP-3 in the rat knee joint to evaluate the potential chondroprotective eff ect of prunetin. Rabbit articular chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced expression of MMP-3, MMP-1, MMP-13, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4 (ADAMTS-4), and ADAMTS-5. In rabbit articular chondrocytes, the effects of prunetin on IL-1β-induced secretion and proteolytic activity of MMP-3 were investigated using western blot analysis and casein zymography, respectively. The eff ect of prunetin on MMP-3 protein production was also examined in vivo. The results were as follows: (1) prunetin inhibited the gene expression of MMP-3, MMP-1, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, and ADAMTS-5; (2) prunetin inhibited the secretion and proteolytic activity of MMP-3; (3) prunetin suppressed the production of MMP-3 protein in vivo. These results suggest that prunetin can regulate the gene expression, secretion, and proteolytic activity of MMP-3, by directly acting on articular chondrocytes. PMID:26937219

  9. Effects of prunetin on the proteolytic activity, secretion and gene expression of MMP-3 in vitro and production of MMP-3 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Dae Cheol; Kim, Bo Kun; Lee, Hyun Jae; Shin, Hyun-Dae

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether prunetin affects the proteolytic activity, secretion, and gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in primary cultured rabbit articular chondrocytes, as well as in vivo production of MMP-3 in the rat knee joint to evaluate the potential chondroprotective eff ect of prunetin. Rabbit articular chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced expression of MMP-3, MMP-1, MMP-13, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4 (ADAMTS-4), and ADAMTS-5. In rabbit articular chondrocytes, the effects of prunetin on IL-1β-induced secretion and proteolytic activity of MMP-3 were investigated using western blot analysis and casein zymography, respectively. The eff ect of prunetin on MMP-3 protein production was also examined in vivo. The results were as follows: (1) prunetin inhibited the gene expression of MMP-3, MMP-1, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, and ADAMTS-5; (2) prunetin inhibited the secretion and proteolytic activity of MMP-3; (3) prunetin suppressed the production of MMP-3 protein in vivo. These results suggest that prunetin can regulate the gene expression, secretion, and proteolytic activity of MMP-3, by directly acting on articular chondrocytes. PMID:26937219

  10. MT1-MMP: Endosomal delivery drives breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Linder, Stefan

    2015-10-26

    The membrane-tethered membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) mediates proteolysis-based invasive tumor growth. In this issue, Marchesin et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201506002) describe a tug-of-war mechanism regulating dynein and kinesin motors to drive endosome tubulation and MT1-MMP delivery to the surface of cancer cells, identifying a crucial regulatory axis for tumor metastasis. PMID:26504163

  11. MT1-MMP: Endosomal delivery drives breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The membrane-tethered membrane type 1–matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) mediates proteolysis-based invasive tumor growth. In this issue, Marchesin et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201506002) describe a tug-of-war mechanism regulating dynein and kinesin motors to drive endosome tubulation and MT1-MMP delivery to the surface of cancer cells, identifying a crucial regulatory axis for tumor metastasis. PMID:26504163

  12. A new redox-dependent mechanism of MMP-1 activity control comprising reduced low-molecular-weight thiols and oxidizing radicals.

    PubMed

    Koch, Sabine; Volkmar, Christine M; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria; Korth, Hans-Gert; Kirsch, Michael; Horn, Anselm H C; Sticht, Heinrich; Pallua, Norbert; Suschek, Christoph V

    2009-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of zinc-dependent proteinases, participate in remodeling and degradation of the extracellular matrix proteins. The activity of MMPs is thought to be predominately posttranslationally regulated via proteolytic activation of precursor zymogens or via their naturally occurring endogenous inhibitors. Here, using recombinant MMP-1, we investigated new redox-dependent mechanisms of proteinase activity regulation by low-molecular-weight thiols. We find that glutathione (GSH), cysteine, homocysteine, and N-acetylcysteine at physiological concentrations competitively reduce MMP-1 activity up to 75% with an efficiency of cysteine > or = GSH > homocysteine > N-acetylcysteine. In contrast, S-derivatized thiols completely lack this inhibitory activity. Interestingly, the competitive GSH-mediated inhibition of MMP-1-activity can be fully reversed abrogated by oxidizing radicals like (*)NO(2) or Trolox radicals, here generated by UVA irradiation of nitrite or Trolox, two relevant agents in human skin physiology. This redox-dependent reactivation of the inactive GSH-MMP-1-complex comprises GSH oxidation and is significantly inhibited in the presence of ascorbic acid, an effective (*)NO(2) and Trolox radical scavenger. We here offer a new concept of redox-sensitive control of MMP-1 activity based on the inhibitory effect of reduced thiols and reactivation by a mechanism comprising derivatization or oxidation of the MMP-1-bound inhibitory-acting thiol. PMID:19034402

  13. Effects of a vegetable extract from Lupinus albus (LU105) on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP2, MMP9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP1, TIMP2) by human gingival fibroblasts in culture.

    PubMed

    Gaultier, F; Foucault-Bertaud, A; Lamy, E; Ejeil, A L; Dridi, S M; Piccardi, N; Piccirilli, A; Msika, P; Godeau, G; Gogly, B

    2003-12-01

    This study examined the effects of a vegetable extract from Lupinus albus (LU105) on MMPs and TIMPs secreted by human gingival fibroblasts in culture. LU105 was extracted from seeds of L. albus and is freely soluble in water. Gelatin zymography showed that control human gingival fibroblasts maintained in culture for 48 h express pro-MMP2 (progelatinase A) in the culture medium while the active form of MMP2 (gelatinase A), the active form of MMP9 (gelatinase B), and pro-MMP9 (progelatinase B) are not detected. Fibroblasts derived from inflamed gingiva expressed in the culture medium increased amounts of pro-MMP2 (progelatinase A) compared with controls and significant amounts of pro-MMP9 (progelatinase B). LU105 diminished the expression by gingival fibroblasts derived from inflamed tissue of both pro-MMP2 and pro-MMP9. Furthermore LU105 did not modify the amount of TIMP2 expressed in culture by controls or by gingival fibroblasts derived from inflamed tissue. TIMP1 and MMP1 significantly decreased when LU105 was added in the culture media of gingival fibroblasts derived from inflamed tissue compared with control fibroblasts. Thus LU105 seems to offer an opportunity to restore a correct balance between MMP2, MMP9, MMP1, and their natural inhibitors, i.e., TIMP1 and TIMP2 in human inflamed gingiva. PMID:12802622

  14. MT4-(MMP17) and MT6-MMP (MMP25), A unique set of membrane-anchored matrix metalloproteinases: properties and expression in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Anjum; Sun, Qing; Zhao, Huiren; Bernardo, M. Margarida; Cho, Jin-Ah

    2014-01-01

    The process of cancer progression involves the action of multiple proteolytic systems, among which the family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a pivotal role. The MMPs evolved to accomplish their proteolytic tasks in multiple cellular and tissue microenvironments including lipid rafts by incorporation and deletions of specific structural domains. The membrane type-MMPs (MT-MMPs) incorporated membrane anchoring domains that display these proteases at the cell surface, and thus they are optimal pericellular proteolytic machines. Two members of the MT-MMP subfamily, MMP-17 (MT4-MMP) and MMP-25 (MT6-MMP), are anchored to the plasma membrane via a glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor, which confers these enzymes a unique set of regulatory and functional mechanisms that separates them from the rest of the MMP family. Discovered almost a decade ago, the body of work on GPI-MT-MMPs today is still surprisingly limited when compared to other MT-MMPs. However, new evidence shows that the GPI-MT-MMPs are highly expressed in human cancer, where they are associated with progression. Accumulating biochemical and functional evidence also highlights their distinct properties. In this review, we summarize the structural, biochemical, and biological properties of GPI-MT-MMPs and present an overview of their expression and role in cancer. We further discuss the potential implications of GPI-anchoring for enzyme function. Finally, we comment on the new scientific challenges that lie ahead to better understand the function and role in cancer of these intriguing but yet unique MMPs. PMID:18286233

  15. Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and MMP9/NGAL complex activity in women with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Ranjbaran, Javad; Farimani, Marzieh; Tavilani, Heidar; Ghorbani, Marzieh; Karimi, Jamshid; Poormonsefi, Faranak; Khodadadi, Iraj

    2016-04-01

    It is believed that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in follicular development and pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, conflicting results are available about the alteration of MMP2 and MMP9 concentrations or activities in PCOS. In fact, there is no study entirely investigating both concentration and activity of these MMPs and serum levels of their tissue inhibitors TIMP2 and TIMP1, as well as lipocalin-bound form of MMP9 (MMP9/NGAL). Therefore, the thoroughness of previous studies is questionable. This study was conducted to determine circulatory concentration of MMP2, MMP9, MMP9/NGAL complex, TIMP1 and TIMP2 as well as gelatinase activities of MMP2, MMP9 and MMP9/NGAL complex in women with PCOS and controls. Mean age and BMI as well as serum levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, HDL-C, LDL-C, fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin did not differ between groups, whereas a marked decrease in FSH and significant increases in LH, LH/FSH ratio, testosterone and free androgen index were observed. Women with PCOS and controls showed closed concentrations of MMP2, MMP9, MMP9/NGAL, TIMP1 and TIMP2. Gelatinase activity of MMP9 was found significantly higher in PCOS than in controls (64.53±15.32 vs 44.61±18.95 respectively) while patients and healthy subjects showed similar activities of MMP2 and MMP9/NGAL complex. Additionally, PCOS patients showed a higher MMP9/TIMP1 ratio compared with control women. Direct correlations were also observed between circulatory MMP9 level and the concentration and activity of MMP9/NGAL complex. In conclusion, based on the results of present study, we believe that MMP9 may be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. PMID:26733727

  16. Levofloxacin increases apoptosis of rat annulus fibrosus cells via the mechanism of upregulating MMP-2 and MMP-13

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hai-Kun; Yang, Si-Dong; Bai, Zhi-Long; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Da-Long; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Levofloxacin was previously reported to induce apoptosis of rat annulus fibrosus (AF) cells by upregulating active caspase-3 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 expression in vitro. However, the effects of levofloxacin on rat AF cells, as well as the related mechanism, have not been revealed completely. The purpose of this study was to further explore the changes in extracellular matrix and MMPs of rat AF cells based on levofloxacin-induced apoptosis. AF cells isolated from rat AF regions were cultured in monolayers and treated with levofloxacin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. To determine the cytotoxic effects of levofloxacin, inverted phase-contrast microscopy was used to perform morphological observation of apoptotic cells. The mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, -9 and -13 were quantified by reverse transcription and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Protein level of MMP-2 and MMP-13 were determined by western blot. The results showed that levofloxacin induced marked AF cell apoptosis, which was observed by inverted phase-contrast microscopy, and indicated by the increased expression of active caspase-3. Both RT-qPCR and western blot revealed that MMP-2 and MMP-13 expression were upregulated by levofloxacin treatment in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, cellular binding to type I collagen was found to be decreased by levofloxacin. In conclusion, the results above suggest that the possible cytotoxic effects of levofloxacin on AF cells in vitro may be attributed to the decreased cell binding to type I collagen and up-regulated expression of MMP-2 and MMP-13. PMID:26884932

  17. Immunolocalization of MMP9 and MMP2 in osteolytic metastasis originating from MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Cui, Jian; Sun, Jing; Li, Juan; Han, Xiuchun; Guo, Jie; Yi, Min; Amizuka, Norio; Xu, Xin; Li, Minqi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9 and MMP2, and their potential roles in bone metastasis nests using a well-standardized model of breast cancer bone metastasis in nude mice. BALB/c nu/nu mice (5-week-old; n=10) were subjected to intracardiac injection of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. After 4 weeks, the mice exhibiting radiolucent lesions in tibiae were sacrificed, and the tibiae were removed for histochemical analysis. The gene expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in the tumor cells, metaphysis and diaphysis of normal BALB/c nu/nu mice were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The metastatic tumor tissue occupied almost the entire bone marrow cavity. Numerous tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts were found in the metastasized lesions. The invaded tumor cells positive for mammaglobin 1 exhibited different proliferation activities and apoptosis between the metaphysis and diaphysis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was expressed at high levels in the metaphyseal area, whereas TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were more evident in the diaphysis area. Of note, MMP9 was expressed predominantly in the proliferating cell nuclear antigen‑positive area, whereas the expression of MMP2 was observed predominantly in the diaphysis, which had more TUNEL‑positive cells. Taken together, the results suggested that MMP9 and MMP2 may have their own importance in extracellular matrix degradation and trabecular bone damage in different zones of bone metastasis, including the metaphysis and diaphysis. PMID:27278284

  18. Immunolocalization of MMP9 and MMP2 in osteolytic metastasis originating from MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Cui, Jian; Sun, Jing; Li, Juan; Han, Xiuchun; Guo, Jie; Yi, Min; Amizuka, Norio; Xu, Xin; Li, Minqi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9 and MMP2, and their potential roles in bone metastasis nests using a well-standardized model of breast cancer bone metastasis in nude mice. BALB/c nu/nu mice (5-week-old; n=10) were subjected to intracardiac injection of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. After 4 weeks, the mice exhibiting radiolucent lesions in tibiae were sacrificed, and the tibiae were removed for histochemical analysis. The gene expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in the tumor cells, metaphysis and diaphysis of normal BALB/c nu/nu mice were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The metastatic tumor tissue occupied almost the entire bone marrow cavity. Numerous tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts were found in the metastasized lesions. The invaded tumor cells positive for mammaglobin 1 exhibited different proliferation activities and apoptosis between the metaphysis and diaphysis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was expressed at high levels in the metaphyseal area, whereas TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were more evident in the diaphysis area. Of note, MMP9 was expressed predominantly in the proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive area, whereas the expression of MMP2 was observed predominantly in the diaphysis, which had more TUNEL-positive cells. Taken together, the results suggested that MMP9 and MMP2 may have their own importance in extracellular matrix degradation and trabecular bone damage in different zones of bone metastasis, including the metaphysis and diaphysis. PMID:27278284

  19. Activity of MMP1 and MMP13 and Amino Acid Metabolism in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Szpetnar, Maria; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Sak, Jarosław; Załuska, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcoholic liver disease remains one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of metalloproteinases (MMP1 and MMP13) as diagnostic markers of alcoholic liver disease and to determine the changes in free amino acid profile in the patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Material/Methods Sixty patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis treated in various hospitals of the Lublin region were randomly enrolled. The control group consisted of 10 healthy individuals without liver disease, who did not drink alcohol. Additionally, a group of alcoholics (22 persons) without liver cirrhosis was included in the study. The activity of MMP-1 and MMP-13 in blood plasma of patients and controls was measured using the sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique with commercially available quantitative ELISA test kits. Amino acids were determined by automated ion-exchange chromatography. Results No significant differences were observed in the activity of MMP-1 in alcoholics with or without liver cirrhosis or in controls. Increased serum MMP-13 was found in patients with liver cirrhosis (stage A, B, C) compared to the control group. Patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (stage A, B, C) demonstrated reduced concentrations of glutamic acid and glutamine compared to the control group. Plasma levels of valine, isoleucine, leucine, and tryptophan were significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (stage C) than in controls. Conclusions MMP-13 can be useful to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, but levels of MMP-1 are not significantly increased in patients with liver cirrhosis compared to controls. The serum branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is markedly reduced in patients with stage C alcoholic liver cirrhosis. PMID:25863779

  20. Knee loading reduces MMP13 activity in the mouse cartilage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Moderate loads with knee loading enhance bone formation, but its effects on the maintenance of the knee are not well understood. In this study, we examined the effects of knee loading on the activity of matrix metalloproteinase13 (MMP13) and evaluated the role of p38 MAPK and Rac1 GTPase in the regulation of MMP13. Methods Knee loading (0.5–3 N for 5 min) was applied to the right knee of surgically-induced osteoarthritis (OA) mice as well as normal (non-OA) mice, and MMP13 activity in the femoral cartilage was examined. The sham-loaded knee was used as a non-loading control. We also employed primary non-OA and OA human chondrocytes as well as C28/I2 chondrocyte cells, and examined MMP13 activity and molecular signaling in response to shear at 2–20 dyn/cm2. Results Daily knee loading at 1 N for 2 weeks suppressed cartilage destruction in the knee of OA mice. Induction of OA elevated MMP13 activity and knee loading at 1 N suppressed this elevation. MMP13 activity was also increased in primary OA chondrocytes, and this increase was attenuated by applying shear at 10 dyn/cm2. Load-driven reduction in MMP13 was associated with a decrease in the phosphorylation level of p38 MAPK (p-p38) and NFκB (p-NFκB). Molecular imaging using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique showed that Rac1 activity was reduced by shear at 10 dyn/cm2 and elevated by it at 20 dyn/cm2. Silencing Rac1 GTPase significantly reduced MMP13 expression and p-p38 but not p-NFκB. Transfection of a constitutively active Rac1 GTPase mutant increased MMP13 activity, while a dominant negative mutant decreased it. Conclusions Knee loading reduces MMP13 activity at least in part through Rac1-mediated p38 MAPK signaling. This study suggests the possibility of knee loading as a therapy not only for strengthening bone but also preventing tissue degradation of the femoral cartilage. PMID:24180431

  1. Hyperbaric oxygen effect on MMP-9 after a vascular insult.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Francis J; Gentene, Laurie J

    2010-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinease-9 (MMP-9) is involved in a host of processes. Many of its processes are physiologically beneficial as well as detrimental. The over-expression of this enzyme has been implicated as a contributory factor to some of the sequalae associated with cerebral ischemia, cell death, non-healing wounds, traumatic brain injury, aneurysms, and plaque instability in atherosclerosis. Several studies have examined the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on MMP-9 expression. Because this proteinase is involved in both chronic and acute pathology, we wanted to investigate an acute expression model and see if, and how quickly, its expression would respond to HBO therapy. Our patient was scheduled to have elective surgery with an overnight stay followed by a series of HBO exposures. The patient served as her own control. An MMP-9 and urine pH was obtained prior to surgery to establish a baseline. On days 1, 3, and 4 post-op, samples were obtained before and after hyperbaric exposure. The patient was exposed to 100% O2 at 2.5 ATA for 60 min during each treatment for 5 days. The patient's MMP-9 values were dramatically elevated after surgery as compared to the baseline readings. The percentage increase from baseline was 400%. Our patient showed a significant reduction in MMP-9 expression after each hyperbaric exposure with the greatest decrease seen on post-op day 1 and subsequent exposures showing slightly less expression. Reduction in MMP-9 expression ranged from 46% on day 1 to 30% on post-op day 4. This case study suggests that if done relatively soon after a vascular or tissue insult, HBO can reduce MMP-9 expression. Chronic vascular pathologies, such as atherosclerotic plaque and aneurysms where over-expression of MMP-9 may result in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or cerebral vascular accidents (CVAs), may be mitigated by a series of HBO treatments that reduce MMP-9 expression. Causality and/or contributory effects of MMP-9 expression in both pathologic and

  2. Editorial Commentary: Knee Hyaluronic Acid Viscosupplementation Reduces Osteoarthritis Pain.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the AAOS knee osteoarthritis guidelines, systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses shows that viscosupplementation with intra-articular hyaluronic acid injection reduces knee osteoarthritis pain and improves function according to the highest level of evidence. PMID:26433240

  3. Body shaping and volume restoration: the role of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Hedén, Per; Sellman, Gabriella; von Wachenfeldt, Mats; Olenius, Michael; Fagrell, Dan

    2009-05-01

    Driven by the rising popularity of minimally invasive techniques, the demand for cosmetic procedures is increasing. Cosmetic body-shaping procedures can be categorized into those that remove tissue and those that add volume. This review focuses on the latter of these categories, particularly on the use of resorbable hyaluronic acid gels specifically developed for minimally invasive volume enhancement. Pilot studies of hyaluronic acid involving its injection to contour various body deformities and its recent use in female breast augmentation are discussed. Injectable hyaluronic acid is effective and well tolerated. It represents an attractive treatment option for volume restoration or augmentation by providing predictable long-lasting results after minimally invasive administration. Alternative treatment options for volume enhancement also are summarized including fat transfer, silicone implants, and the use of injectable nonresorbable products such as silicone, polyalkylimide, and polyacrylamide gels. As patients continue to opt for nonsurgical procedures that offer predictable results, the development of minimally invasive products such as hyaluronic acid is increasingly important. PMID:19280248

  4. Regulation of glioma cell phenotype in 3D matrices by hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Pedron, Sara; Becka, Eftalda; Harley, Brendan A C

    2013-10-01

    Human glioblastoma multiforme (hGBM) is the most common, aggressive, and deadly form of brain cancer. A major obstacle to understanding the impact of extracellular cues on glioblastoma invasion is the absence of model matrix systems able to replicate compositional and structural elements of the glioma mass as well as the surrounding brain tissue. Contact with a primary extracellular matrix component in the brain, hyaluronan, is believed to play a pivotal role in glioma cell invasion and malignancy. In this study we report use of gelatin and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based hydrogel platforms to evaluate the effect of extracellular (composition, mechanics, HA incorporation) and intracellular (epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression) factors on the malignant transformation of U87MG glioma cells. Three-dimensional culture platforms elicit significantly different responses of U87MG glioma cells versus standard 2D culture. Critically, grafting brain-mimetic hyaluronic acid (HA) into the hydrogel network was found to induce significant, dose-dependent alterations of markers of glioma malignancy versus non-grafted 3D gelatin or PEG hydrogels. Clustering of glioma cells was observed exclusively in HA containing gels and expression profiles of malignancy-associated genes were found to vary biphasically with incorporated HA content. We also found HA-induced expression of MMP-2 is blocked by +EGFR signaling, suggesting a connection between CD44 and EGFR in glioma malignancy. Together, this work describes an adaptable platform for manipulating the local extracellular microenvironment surrounding glioma cells and highlights the importance of developing such systems for investigating the etiology and early growth of glioblastoma multiforme tumors. PMID:23827186

  5. Distinct expression profiles of stromelysin-2 (MMP-10), collagenase-3 (MMP-13), macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) in intestinal ulcerations.

    PubMed Central

    Vaalamo, M.; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, M. L.; Puolakkainen, P.; Kere, J.; Saarialho-Kere, U.

    1998-01-01

    Programmed expression of matrix metalloproteinases is involved in wound healing in various organs. We have previously demonstrated enhanced expression of collagenase-1, stromelysin-1, matrilysin, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) in gastrointestinal ulcerations. To further define the role of matrix-degrading enzymes and their inhibitors in intestinal inflammation and ulcerations, the expression of stromelysin-2 (MMP-10), collagenase-3 (MMP-13), macrophage metalloelastase (HME, MMP-12), and TIMP-3 mRNAs was studied using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in 38 samples representing ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, ischemic colitis, and normal intestine. As controls for normally healing intestinal wounds, 12 postoperative samples of rat experimental jejunal anastomoses were also examined. The colitis types studied did not essentially differ in their MMP expression. We found stromelysin-2 mRNA in laminin-5-positive and Ki-67-negative enterocytes bordering the ulcerations. HME was abundantly expressed by macrophages in the vicinity of shedding mucosal epithelium and beneath the necrotic surface of the ulcers. Collagenase-3 and TIMP-3 were expressed by fibroblast-like cells deeper in the remodeling intestinal wall. Expression for stromelysin-2 and collagenase-3 was observed in granulation tissue, but not the epithelium, of the rat anastomoses. Our results suggest a role for stromelysin-2 in epithelial migration and for metalloelastase in macrophage movement and epithelial cell shedding. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9546361

  6. A comparative study of the binding of cartilage link protein and the hyaluronate-binding region of the cartilage proteoglycan to hyaluronate-substituted Sepharose gel.

    PubMed Central

    Tengblad, A

    1981-01-01

    The hyaluronate-binding proteins from bovine nasal cartilage, i.e. the hyaluronate-binding region of the proteoglycan and the link protein, were labelled with 125I and separated from each other by gel chromatography. The proteins were characterized by molecular-weight determinations and their purity was established by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and immunodiffusion. The binding properties of the two proteins by hyaluronate-substituted Sepharose gel were compared. It was found that both proteins behaved similarly. They bound with the same efficiency to the gel, they showed the same time course of binding, had slightly different pH optima for binding and both proteins had a decreasing affinity for the gel with increasing ionic strength. The binding to the gel could be inhibited by soluble hyaluronate, and the minimum size of a hyaluronate oligosaccharide required for inhibition was in both cases a decasaccharide (only even-numbered oligosaccharides were tested). The proteins did not show any co-operative binding in the system tested, which could be explained by the large number of binding sites in the hyaluronate-substituted gel. Binding constants for the protein-hyaluronate interaction were estimated. A value of 1.3 x 10(7) M-1 was obtained for the hyaluronate-binding region of the proteoglycan, in agreement with literature data. The corresponding value for the link protein was 0.7 x 10(7) M-1. Images Fig. 3. PMID:7340806

  7. New insights into the substrate specificity of macrophage elastase MMP-12.

    PubMed

    Lamort, Anne-Sophie; Gravier, Rodolphe; Laffitte, Anni; Juliano, Luiz; Zani, Marie-Louise; Moreau, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Macrophage elastase, or MMP-12, is mainly produced by alveolar macrophages and is believed to play a major role in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The catalytic domain of MMP-12 is unique among MMPs in that it is very highly active on numerous substrates including elastin. However, measuring MMP-12 activity in biological fluids has been hampered by the lack of highly selective substrates. We therefore synthesized four series of fluorogenic peptide substrates based on the sequences of MMP-12 cleavage sites in its known substrates. Human MMP-12 efficiently cleaved peptide substrates containing a Pro at P3 in the sequence Pro-X-X↓Leu but lacked selectivity towards these substrates compared to other MMPs, including MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and MMP-13. On the contrary, the substrate Abz-RNALAVERTAS-EDDnp derived from the CXCR5 chemokine was the most selective substrate for MMP-12 ever reported. All substrates were cleaved more efficiently by full-length MMP-12 than by its catalytic domain alone, indicating that the C-terminal hemopexin domain influences substrate binding and/or catalysis. Docking experiments revealed unexpected interactions between the peptide substrate Abz-RNALAVERTAS-EDDn and MMP-12 residues. Most of our substrates were poorly cleaved by murine MMP-12 suggesting that human and murine MMP-12 have different substrate specificities despite their structural similarity. PMID:26760307

  8. Physical exercise modulates the level of serum MMP-2 and MMP-9 in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giganti, Maria Gabriella; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Sorge, Roberto; Melchiorri, Giovanni; Triossi, Tamara; Masuelli, Laura; Lido, Paolo; Albonici, Loredana; Foti, Calogero; Modesti, Andrea; Bei, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) exhibit an important function in extracellular matrix degradation. MMPs modulate the activation of growth factors, cytokines and metastasis. At present, the effect of exercise on serum levels of MMP-2 and −9 remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of various physical activities on the circulating levels of MMP-2 and −9 in breast cancer (BC) survivors and healthy subjects. A total of 66 female subjects were enrolled in the present study. The cohort included 46 BC survivors and 20 healthy subjects divided into 5 groups: Group A (17 BC survivors, participating in recreational dragon boat paddling), group B (14 BC survivors, participating in recreational physical activity), group C (15 sedentary BC survivors), group D (10 healthy subjects, participating in recreational physical activity) and group E (10 sedentary healthy subjects). ELISA assays revealed a significant increase in the level of circulating MMP-2 in group B compared with all other groups. Recreational physical activity increased the levels of MMP-9 in healthy subjects (group D vs. E), however, the differences were not statistically significant, while in the BC survivor groups the results were opposite, with exercise reducing MMP-9 levels (group B vs. C). Furthermore, a significant increase in MMP-2 was observed in group B lymph node metastasis-positive (N+) subjects compared with group A and C N+ subjects. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that various physical activities modulate the levels of circulating MMP-2 and −9 in BC survivors, and the same exercise program induces a different effect when undertaken by healthy subjects and BC survivors. These results may have important implications with regard to the selection of appropriate physical activities for BC survivors, leading to improvements to their survival and prevention of recurrence, as well as amelioration of physical function, quality of life and fatigue. PMID

  9. Mechanistic insight into mycobacterial MmpL protein function.

    PubMed

    Székely, R; Cole, S T

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterial cell walls are complex structures containing a broad range of unusual lipids, glycolipids and other polymers, some of which act as immunomodulators or virulence determinants. Better understanding of the enzymes involved in export processes would enlighten cell wall biogenesis. Bernut et al. () present the findings of a structural and functional investigation of one of the most important transporter families, the MmpL proteins, members of the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily. A Tyr842His missense mutation in the mmpL4a gene was shown to be responsible for the smooth-to-rough morphotype change of the near untreatable opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium bolletii due to its failure to export a glycopeptidolipid (GPL). This mutation was pleiotropic and markedly increased virulence in infection models. Tyr842 is well conserved in all actinobacterial MmpL proteins suggesting that it is functionally important and this was confirmed by several approaches including replacing the corresponding residue in MmpL3 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Structural modelling combined with experimental results showed Tyr842 to be a critical residue for mediating the proton motive force required for GPL export. This mechanistic insight applies to all MmpL proteins and probably to all RND transporters. PMID:26710752

  10. Determination of the presence of hyaluronic acid in preparations containing amino acids: the molecular weight characterization.

    PubMed

    Bellomaria, A; Nepravishta, R; Mazzanti, U; Marchetti, M; Piccioli, P; Paci, M

    2014-10-15

    Several pharmaceutical preparations contain hyaluronic acid in the presence of a large variety of low molecular weight charged molecules like amino acids. In these mixtures, it is particularly difficult to determine the concentration and the molecular weight of the hyaluronic acid fragments. In fact zwitterionic compounds in high concentration behave by masking the hyaluronic acid due to the electrostatic interactions between amino acids and hyaluronic acid. In such conditions the common colorimetric test of the hyaluronic acid determination appears ineffective and in the (1)H NMR spectra the peaks of the polymer disappear completely. By a simple separation procedure the presence of hyaluronic acid was revealed by the DMAB test and (1)H NMR while its average molecular weight in the final product was determined by DOSY NMR spectroscopy alone. The latter determination is very important due to the healthy effects of some sizes of this polymer's fragments. PMID:25078662

  11. Electrical behavior of polymer hydrogel composed of poly(vinyl alcohol)/hyaluronic acid in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seon Jeong; Yoon, Seoung Gil; Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Chang Kee; Shin, Su Ryon; Lee, Young Moo; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I.

    2003-07-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were prepared and exhibited electrical sensitive behavior. The swelling behavior of the PVA/HA IPN was studied by immersion of the gel in aqueous NaCl solutions at various concentrations and pHs. Also, the stimuli response of the PVA/HA IPN in electric fields was investigated. When swollen IPN was placed between a pair of electrodes, the PVA/HA IPN exhibited bending behavior upon the application of an electric field. The PVA/HA IPN also showed stepwise bending behavior depending on the electric stimulus. Also, for using biomedical application, the bending behavior of PVA/HA IPN has been studied in hank"s solution at pH 7.4

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase expression and function during fin regeneration in zebrafish: analysis of MT1-MMP, MMP2 and TIMP2.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shan; Thummel, Ryan; Godwin, Alan R; Nagase, Hideaki; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Li, Li; Evans, Richard; McDermott, Jeffrey; Seiki, Motoharu; Sarras, Michael P

    2005-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play key roles in the turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) and, thereby, function as key regulators of cell-ECM interactions during development. In spite of their importance during developmental processes, relatively little has been reported about the role of these metalloproteinases during limb development and regeneration. To approach the problem of cell-ECM interactions during limb (fin) regeneration, we have utilized zebrafish as an experimental model. Based on previous MMP cloning studies from our laboratory, the current study has focused on the expression of membrane-type 1 metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), gelatinase A (MMP-2) and endogenous tissue inhibitor 2 of metalloproteinases (TIMP-2) during fin regeneration in adult zebrafish. In situ analysis indicated co-expression of zmt1-mmp, zmmp-2, and ztimp-2 mRNA transcripts in regenerating caudal fins. In situ gelatin-zymography confirmed the presence of active metalloproteinases in regenerating fins. zmt1-mmp, zmmp-2, and ztimp-2 mRNA transcripts were expressed in the blastema and basal epithelium during caudal fin regeneration while expression of type IV collagen [zcol-IV(a5)] transcripts (a basal lamina component) was restricted to the basal epithelium. Fin outgrowth was greatly reduced in the presence of GM6001 (an inhibitor of MMP activity) indicating the importance of these enzymes during fin regeneration. Previous studies by Itoh (EMBO, 2001) indicated that expression of a vertebrate MT1-MMP construct containing only the hemopexin-transmembrane-cytoplasmic domains (MT1HPX) resulted in blockage of MT1-MMP homophilic complex formation and subsequent inhibition of pro-MMP-2 activation. Interference with homophilic complex formation was attributed to expression of the hemopexin domain at the cell surface. Building upon these earlier findings, the current study found that ectopic expression of MT1HPX in fin regenerates inhibited the regeneration process and resulted in a

  13. Streptococcus pyogenes degrades extracellular matrix in chondrocytes via MMP-13

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Atsuo; Okahashi, Nobuo; Maruyama, Fumito; Ooshima, Takashi; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2008-08-29

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide range of human diseases, including bacterial arthritis. The pathogenesis of arthritis is characterized by synovial proliferation and the destruction of cartilage and subchondral bone in joints. We report here that GAS strain JRS4 invaded a chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 and induced the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas an isogenic mutant of JRS4 lacking a fibronectin-binding protein, SAM1, failed to invade the chondrocytes or degrade the ECM. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was strongly elevated during the infection with GAS. A reporter assay revealed that the activation of the AP-1 transcription factor and the phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinase participated in MMP-13 expression. These results suggest that MMP-13 plays an important role in the destruction of infected joints during the development of septic arthritis.

  14. Shikonin inhibits invasiveness of osteosarcoma through MMP13 suppression.

    PubMed

    Deng, Biyong; Qiu, Bing

    2015-12-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor, notorious for its metastasis. We have recently shown that shikonin, an effective constituent extracted from Chinese medicinal herb, induces necroptosis in OS cells. Nevertheless, the effects of low-dose shikonin on the invasiveness of OS cells are unknown. Here, we showed that shikonin dose-dependently decreased OS cell invasiveness in both scratch wound healing assay and transwell cell migration assay. Moreover, the direct target of shikonin on cell invasiveness was found to be matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13. Further, the inhibitory effects of shikonin on cell invasiveness were completely abolished in MMP13-overexpressing OS cells. Together, these data suggest that shikonin may suppress OS invasiveness through MMP13 suppression. Thus, our data highlight a previous unappreciated role for shikonin in suppressing OS cell metastasis. PMID:26104765

  15. Porous Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels for Localized Non-Viral DNA Delivery in a Diabetic Wound Healing Model

    PubMed Central

    Tokatlian, Talar; Cam, Cynthia; Segura, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of impaired wounds requires the use of biomaterials that can provide mechanical and biological queues to the surrounding environment to promote angiogenesis, granulation tissue formation, and wound closure. Porous hydrogels have previously been shown to promote angiogenesis even in the absence of pro-angiogenic factors. We hypothesized that the added delivery of non-viral DNA encoding for pro-angiogenic growth factors could further enhance this effect. Here, 100 and 60 μm porous and non-porous (n-pore) hyaluronic acid-MMP hydrogels with encapsulated reporter (pGFPluc) or pro-angiogenic (pVEGF) plasmids were used to investigate scaffold-mediated gene delivery for local gene therapy in a diabetic wound healing mouse model. Porous hydrogels allowed for significantly faster wound closure compared to n-pore hydrogels, which did not degrade and essentially provided a mechanical barrier to closure. Interestingly, the delivery of pDNA/PEI polyplexes positively promoted granulation tissue formation even when the DNA did not encode for an angiogenic protein. And although transfected cells were present throughout the granulation tissue surrounding all hydrogels at 2 weeks, pVEGF delivery did not further enhance the angiogenic response. Despite this, the presence of transfected cells shows promise for the use of polyplex-loaded porous hydrogels for local gene delivery in the treatment of diabetic wounds. PMID:25694196

  16. MMP7-mediated cleavage of nucleolin at Asp255 induces MMP9 expression to promote tumor malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, T-I; Lin, S-C; Lu, P-S; Chang, W-C; Hung, C-Y; Yeh, Y-M; Su, W-C; Liao, P-C; Hung, J-J

    2015-02-12

    Nucleolin (NCL) participates in DNA transcription, ribosomal biogenesis and the regulation of RNA stability. However, the contribution of NCL to tumor development is still not clear. Herein, we found that NCL expression correlated with poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. Overexpressed NCL was predominantly cleaved to C-terminal truncated NCL (TNCL). In lung cancer formation, activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway induced NCL expression, and also the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 7, which then cleaved NCL at Asp255 to generate TNCL of 55 kDa. TNCL increased the expression of several oncogenes, including MMP9, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), HIF1a and CBLB, and decreased the expression of tumor suppressors including BRD4, PCM1, TFG and KLF6 by modulating mRNA stability through binding to the 3'-untranslated regions of their transcripts, thus ultimately enhancing metastasis activity. In conclusion, this study identified a novel role of the cleavage form of NCL generated by MMP7 in stabilizing MMP9 mRNA. We also provide a new insight that MMP7 not only cleaves the extracellular matrix to promote tumor invasion but also cleaves NCL, which augment oncogenesis. Blocking NCL cleavage may provide a useful new strategy for lung cancer therapy. PMID:24632608

  17. Polyethylene wear particles do not induce inflammation or gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) activity in fibrous tissue interfaces of loosening total hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    De Jong, Pieter T; Tigchelaar, Wikky; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F; Van der Vis, Harm M

    2011-09-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that polyethylene wear particles are the main cause for osteolysis in prosthetic loosening. Elevated amounts of proteases including gelatinases (or matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9) have been found in fibrous tissue interfaces of loosened total hip arthroplasties suggesting that proteolysis plays a role in osteolysis. The presence of proteases does not mean that they are active, because activity of proteases is highly regulated at the post-translational level. We investigated whether the activity of two major proteases that are active extracellularly and have been associated with loosening, MMP-2 and MMP-9, is involved in loosening of non-cemented hip implants with polyethylene acetabular components. Eight interface tissues retrieved during revision were studied with light and electron microscopy and by in situ zymography to localize MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in combination with immunohistochemistry to localize MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins. All interface tissues contained large amounts of polyethylene wear particles, either in large accumulations or dispersed in the extracellular matrix or intracellularly in fibroblasts. Particles were not encountered in association with MMP-2 or MMP-9 activity or leukocytes. Inflammation was never found. MMP-9 activity was restricted to macrophages and MMP-2 activity was restricted to microvascular endothelial cells mainly outside areas where particles were present. Our data indicate that wear particles do not induce activation of leukocytes or MMP-2 or MMP-9 activity. Therefore, aseptic loosening may not be particle induced but initiated by other mechanisms such as mechanical stress. PMID:20656340

  18. Grape seed extracts inhibit dentin matrix degradation by MMP-3

    PubMed Central

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Denmat, Dominique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gaël Y.; Boukpessi, Tchilalo

    2014-01-01

    Since Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to dentin caries progression, the hypothesis that MMP inhibition would affect the progression of dentin caries is clinically relevant. Grape seed extracts (GSE) have been previously reported to be natural inhibitors of MMPs. Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a GSE mouthrinse to prevent the degradation of demineralized dentin matrix by MMP-3 (stromelysin-1). Materials and Methods: Standardized blocks of dentin obtained from sound permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were demineralized with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pretreated either with (A) GSE (0.2% w/v), (B) amine fluoride (AmF) (20% w/v), (C) a mouthrinse which contains both, (D) placebo, (E) sodium fluoride (0.15 mg.ml−1), (F) PBS, (G) Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), or (H) zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The dentin blocks were then incubated with activated recombinant MMP-3. The supernatants were analyzed by Western Blot for several dentin matrix proteins known to be MMP-3 substrate. In parallel, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on resin replica of the dentin blocks. Results: Western blot analysis of the supernatants revealed that MMP-3 released from the dentin matrix small proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in the AmF, sodium fluoride, PBS and placebo pretreated groups, but not in the GSE and mouthrinse pretreated groups. SEM examination of resin replica showed that the mouthrinse and its active components not only had an anti-MMP action but also modified the dentin surface accessibility. Conclusion: This study shows that GSE either alone or combined with AmF as in the evaluated mouthrinse limits dentin matrix degradation. This association may be promising to prevent the progression of caries within dentin. However, the procedure should be adapted to clinically relevant durations. PMID:25400590

  19. Matrilysin/Matrix Metalloproteinase-7(MMP7) Cleavage of Perlecan/HSPG2 Creates A Molecular Switch to Alter Prostate Cancer Cell Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Grindel, B.J.; Martinez, J.R.; Pennington, C.L.; Muldoon, M.; Stave, J.; Chung, L.W.; Farach-Carson, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Perlecan/HSPG2, a large heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan, normally is expressed in the basement membrane (BM) underlying epithelial and endothelial cells. During prostate cancer (PCa) cell invasion, a variety of proteolytic enzymes are expressed that digest BM components including perlecan. An enzyme upregulated in invasive PCa cells, matrilysin/matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), was examined as a candidate for perlecan proteolysis both in silico and in vitro. Purified perlecan showed high sensitivity to MMP-7 digestion even when fully decorated with HS or when presented in native context connected with other BM proteins. In both conditions, MMP-7 produced discrete perlecan fragments corresponding to an origin in immunoglobulin (Ig) repeat region domain IV. While not predicted by in silico analysis, MMP-7 cleaved every subpart of recombinantly generated perlecan domain IV. Other enzymes relevant to PCa that were tested had limited ability to cleave perlecan including prostate specific antigen, hepsin, or fibroblast activation protein α. A long C-terminal portion of perlecan domain IV, Dm IV-3, induced a strong clustering phenotype in the metastatic PCa cell lines, PC-3 and C4-2. MMP-7 digestion of Dm IV-3 reverses the clustering effect into one favoring cell dispersion. In a C4-2 Transwell® invasion assay, perlecan-rich human BM extract that was pre-digested with MMP-7 showed loss of barrier function and permitted a greater level of cell penetration than untreated BM extract. We conclude that enzymatic processing of perlecan in the BM or territorial matrix by MMP-7 as occurs in the invasive tumor microenvironment acts as a molecular switch to alter PCa cell behavior and favor cell dispersion and invasiveness. PMID:24833109

  20. An integrated computational and experimental approach to gaining selectivity for MMP-2 within the gelatinase subfamily.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Benjamin; Filipiak, Kamila; Díaz, Natalia; Zapico, José María; Suárez, Dimas; Ramos, Ana; de Pascual-Teresa, Beatriz

    2014-02-10

    Looking for water-soluble inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 or gelatinase A), we have previously reported compound 1, a potent MMP-2 inhibitor with a promising selectivity over the structurally homologous MMP-9 (gelatinase B). Here we report the results of Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations for both gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and for the corresponding MMP/1 complexes, in an attempt to shed light on the observed selectivity between the two enzymes. These studies indicated a higher plasticity of MMP-2 at the S1' pocket and suggested an induced-fit effect at the "back door" of this pocket. On the basis of these observations, we designed 11 a-d to aid further discrimination between MMP-2 and MMP-9. Those compounds displayed notably lower inhibitory activities against MMP-9; in particular, 11 b proved to be over 100 times more active against MMP-2 than against MMP-9. MD simulations of the MMP/11 b complexes and thermodynamic integration calculations provided structural insight and relative binding energies consistent with the experimentally observed activity data. These findings demonstrate that structural differences in the S1' pocket bottom permit an improvement in selectivity in the inhibition of MMP-2 over that of MMP-9; this is of great relevance for future structure-based drug design because MMP-2 is a validated target for cancer therapy, whereas MMP-9 plays both detrimental and protective roles in cancer. This study also supports the need to consider the dynamics of the S1' pocket in order to achieve selectivity in the inhibition of MMPs. PMID:24449516

  1. MMP-9-hemopexin domain hampers adhesion and migration of colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Burg-Roderfeld, M; Roderfeld, M; Wagner, S; Henkel, C; Grötzinger, J; Roeb, E

    2007-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-2 and MMP-9, are involved in colon cancer progression and metastasis due to their ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) components. In previous studies we described the MMP-9 hemopexin like domain (MMP-9-PEX) as an MMP-9 antagonist. In the present study it was examined whether recombinant MMP-9-PEX has an inhibitory effect on migration and adhesion of colorectal carcinoma cells. Furthermore, we searched for MMP-9 substrate binding sites within the MMP-9-PEX by surface plasmon resonance. Migration of SW620 and LS174 cells was investigated in a modified Boyden chamber assay. In the presence of 0.2 microg/ml MMP-9-PEX migration of SW620 was decreased by 34%, while addition of 0.4 microg/ml diminished migration by 56%. Migration of LS174 cells was not affected by MMP-9-PEX. Adhesion studies were performed on 96-well plates coated with gelatin, collagen type I, and laminin, respectively. In the presence of MMP-9-PEX, adhesion of SW620 cells to these coating substrates was significantly inhibited. Surface plasmon resonance studies revealed binding of collagen type I and IV, elastin, and fibrinogen to proMMP-9 as well as to MMP-9-PEX. However, equilibrium constants (Kd) indicated a higher affinity of proMMP-9 to the matrix proteins. This could indicate that there is more than one binding site for matrix components within the entire proMMP-9 molecule. Since migration and adhesion of metastatic colorectal carcinoma cells were reduced by MMP-9-PEX, this recombinant MMP-9 antagonist might be of therapeutical interest. PMID:17332939

  2. Focal MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity at the blood-brain barrier promotes chemokine-induced leukocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Wu, Chuan; Korpos, Eva; Zhang, Xueli; Agrawal, Smriti M; Wang, Ying; Faber, Cornelius; Schäfers, Michael; Körner, Heinrich; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Hallmann, Rupert; Sorokin, Lydia

    2015-02-24

    Although chemokines are sufficient for chemotaxis of various cells, increasing evidence exists for their fine-tuning by selective proteolytic processing. Using a model of immune cell chemotaxis into the CNS (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis [EAE]) that permits precise localization of immigrating leukocytes at the blood-brain barrier, we show that, whereas chemokines are required for leukocyte migration into the CNS, additional MMP-2/9 activities specifically at the border of the CNS parenchyma strongly enhance this transmigration process. Cytokines derived from infiltrating leukocytes regulate MMP-2/9 activity at the parenchymal border, which in turn promotes astrocyte secretion of chemokines and differentially modulates the activity of different chemokines at the CNS border, thereby promoting leukocyte migration out of the cuff. Hence, cytokines, chemokines, and cytokine-induced MMP-2/9 activity specifically at the inflammatory border collectively act to accelerate leukocyte chemotaxis across the parenchymal border. PMID:25704809

  3. Effect of hyaluronic acid molecular weight on the morphology of quantum dot-hyaluronic acid conjugates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiseok; Park, Kitae; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2008-01-01

    The morphological analysis of novel quantum dot-hyaluronic acid (QDot-HA) conjugates was carried out with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Adipic acid dihydrazide-modified HA (HA-ADH) was synthesized and conjugated to quantum dots (QDots) having carboxyl terminal ligands which were activated with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS). HA molecules with a molecular weight (MW) of 20K, 234 K and 3000 K were used to investigate the effect of MW on the morphology of QDot-HA conjugates. The TEM micrographs of QDot-HA conjugates showed branched and multi-layered chain type morphology formed by inter- and intra-molecular conjugation of QDots to HA molecules. The size of QDot-HA conjugate increased with the MW of HA. QDot-HA conjugate could be successfully used for real-time bio-imaging of HA derivatives in nude mice. The novel QDot-HA conjugate will be further used to investigate the biological roles of HA with a different MW in the body. PMID:17936350

  4. 1- and 2-particle Microrheology of Hyaluronic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagan, Austin; Kearns, Sarah; Ross, David; Das, Moumita; Thurston, George; Franklin, Scott

    2015-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid (also called HA or Hyaluronan) is a high molecular weight polysaccaride ubiquitous in the extracellular matrix of soft tissue such as cartilage, skin, the eye's vitreous gel and synovial fluid. It has been shown to play an important role in mechanotransduction, cell migration and proliferation, and in tissue morphodynamics. We present a confocal microrheology study of hyaluronic acid of varying concentrations. The mean squared displacement (MSD) of sub-micron colloidal tracer particles is tracked in two dimensions and shows a transition from diffusive motion at low concentrations to small-time trapping by the protein network as the concentration increases. Correlations between particle motion can be used to determine an effective mean-squared displacement which deviates from the single-particle MSD as the fluid becomes less homogeneous. The real and effective mean-squared displacements are used to probe the local and space-averaged frequency dependent rheological properties of the fluid as the concentration changes.

  5. [Biocompatibility analysis of hyaluronic acid sodium gels for medical application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaning; Yuan, Tun; Jia, Lifang; Zou, Wen; Liang, Jie

    2012-08-01

    Hyaluronan acid sodium gels are used in ophthalmic surgery, orthopedic treatment and cosmetic surgery. In 2009,there were 12 domestic manufacturers in China producing 33 kinds of products. 23 kinds of imported products were allowed by SFDA to sale in the meantime. Since manufacturers use different production processes, product performances are quite different. According to the GB/T 16886. 1-2001, we designed a pilot program to evaluate the sodium hyaluronate gel products comprehensively in this paper. The results showed that, except chromosome aberration test of gel A and subchronic systemic toxicity of gel C appeared positive, the remaining samples of the test results were negative. This article provides a reference to write standard of cross-linked hyaluronic sodium gel and the revision of standard YY0308-2004. PMID:23016423

  6. Chemical Sintering Generates Uniform Porous Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Cam, Cynthia; Segura, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Implantation of scaffolds for tissue repair has been met with limited success primarily due to the inability to achieve vascularization within the construct. Many strategies have shifted to incorporate pores into these scaffolds to encourage rapid cellular infiltration and subsequent vascular ingrowth. We utilized an efficient chemical sintering technique to create a uniform network of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microspheres for porous hyaluronic acid hydrogel formation. The porous hydrogels generated from chemical sintering possessed comparable pore uniformity and interconnectivity as the commonly used non- and heat sintering techniques. Moreover, similar cell response to the porous hydrogels generated from each sintering approach was observed in cell viability, spreading, proliferation in vitro, as well as, cellular invasion in vivo. We propose chemical sintering of PMMA microspheres using a dilute acetone solution as an alternative method to generating porous hyaluronic acid hydrogels since it requires equal or ten-fold less processing time as the currently used non-sintering or heat sintering technique, respectively. PMID:24120847

  7. Effectiveness and utility of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, Alberto; Procopio, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease characterized by pain and progressive functional limitation. Viscosupplementation with intra-articular hyaluronic acid is a treatment option in knee OA that is included in the professional guidelines for treatment of this joint disease, but potentially should apply to all synovial joints in order to reduce pain and improve joint lubrication. Exogenous HA can enhance chondrocyte HA synthesis, prevent the degradation of cartilage and promote its regeneration. Moreover it can reduce the production of proinflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases involved in OA pathogenesis. This mini review highlights the evidence of hyaluronic acid in reducing osteoarthritis symptoms and structural damage, as well as its ability to delay prosthetic surgery. Viscosupplementation should be considered as a long-term therapy. PMID:26136793

  8. Advances and Refinement in Hyaluronic Acid Facial Fillers.

    PubMed

    Costa, Christopher R; Kordestani, Reza; Small, Kevin H; Rohrich, Rod J

    2016-08-01

    Fillers temporarily augment deflated or ptotic facial compartments to restore a youthful appearance. Hyaluronic acids predominate the fillers market because of their focal volumization, duration of effect, low incidence of adverse reactions, and reversibility. Being able to properly perform these in-office procedures will ensure safety for patients and provide aesthetically optimal results. This communication provides the senior author's (R.J.R.) stepwise approach to facial aging and deflation with soft-tissue injectable fillers. PMID:27465184

  9. Development of an aptamer-conjugated fluorescent nanoprobe for MMP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Baek, Sungmin; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Jung Hwan; Ryu, Sung-Ho; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2014-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) plays critical roles in various diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer, and has been suggested to contribute to the instability of atherosclerotic plaque. To visualize MMP2 in pathologic tissues, we developed an aptamer targeting MMP2 protein by performing eight rounds of modified DNA systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The aptamer showed high affinity for MMP2 ( K d = 5.59 nM), precipitated MMP2, and detected MMP2 protein in pathological tissues such as atherosclerotic plaque and gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, a MMP2 aptamer-conjugated fluorescent nanoprobe successfully visualized atherosclerotic plaques in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice. These results suggest that the devised MMP2 aptamer could be useful for the development of various diagnostic tools.

  10. Development of an aptamer-conjugated fluorescent nanoprobe for MMP2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) plays critical roles in various diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer, and has been suggested to contribute to the instability of atherosclerotic plaque. To visualize MMP2 in pathologic tissues, we developed an aptamer targeting MMP2 protein by performing eight rounds of modified DNA systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The aptamer showed high affinity for MMP2 (Kd = 5.59 nM), precipitated MMP2, and detected MMP2 protein in pathological tissues such as atherosclerotic plaque and gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, a MMP2 aptamer-conjugated fluorescent nanoprobe successfully visualized atherosclerotic plaques in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice. These results suggest that the devised MMP2 aptamer could be useful for the development of various diagnostic tools. PMID:24589243

  11. Tiron Inhibits UVB-Induced AP-1 Binding Sites Transcriptional Activation on MMP-1 and MMP-3 Promoters by MAPK Signaling Pathway in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Mei; Zhang, Quan-Wu; Gao, Feng-Hou

    2016-01-01

    Recent research found that Tiron was an effective antioxidant that could act as the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger or alleviate the acute toxic metal overload in vivo. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Tiron on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 expression in human dermal fibroblast cells. Western blot and ELISA analysis revealed that Tiron inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced protein expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that Tiron could inhibit UVB-induced mRNA expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Furthermore, Tiron significantly blocked UVB-induced activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and activator protein (AP)-1 in the downstream of this transduction pathway in fibroblasts. Through the AP-1 binding site mutation, it was found that Tiron could inhibit AP-1-induced upregulation of MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression through blocking AP-1 binding to the AP-1 binding sites in the MMP-1 and MMP-3 promoter region. In conclusion, Tiron may be a novel antioxidant for preventing and treating skin photoaging UV-induced. PMID:27486852

  12. Biological evaluation of paclitaxel-peptide conjugates as a model for MMP2-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Roppei; Kostova, Maya B; Anchoori, Ravi Kumar; Xu, Shili; Neamati, Nouri; Khan, Saeed R

    2010-02-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is a highly effective cytotoxic agent widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors. However, PTX shows dose-limiting cytotoxicity and in most cases induces drug resistance followed by failure in treatment. To enhance the therapeutic index of a given drug, various drug delivery methods have been explored to systemically deliver sufficient amount of the drug to the desired site. In the present study, we designed and synthesized two PTX prodrugs by conjugating PTX at different sites with an octapeptide (AcGPLGIAGQ) that can be cleaved by MMP2 at tumor sites. As a result, PTX is expected to be released at the tumor sites, absorbed by the tumor cells, and thereby inhibit the tumor growth. We evaluated the in vitro activities of the two drugs in a panel of drug-sensitive and -resistant cancer cell lines and their in vivo efficacies in a HT1080 fibrosarcoma mouse xenograft model that overexpresses MMP2. Our in vitro results showed that the PTX-AcGPLGIAGQ conjugates inhibited cancer cell proliferation with higher activity compared to that observed for free PTX, both of which were mediated by an arrest of G(2)/M-phase of the cell cycle. Consistent with the in vitro results, treatment with PTX-octapeptide conjugate resulted in extensive areas of necrosis and a lower percentage of proliferating cells in xenograft tumor sections. Together, our results indicate the potential of the tumor-targeted delivery of PTX to exploit the specific recognition of MMP2, reduce toxicity, and selectively kill tumor cells. PMID:20023432

  13. Effect of Sodium Hyaluronate on Recovery after Arthroscopic Knee Surgery.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sanjeev; Singisetti, Kiran; Srikanth, Koppa N; Bamforth, Cathy; Asumu, Theophilus; Buch, Keyur

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single immediate postoperative instillation of 10 mL of sodium hyaluronate (Viscoseal) into the knee following arthroscopy. A single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled study was undertaken. Consenting knee arthroscopy patients were randomized into two groups following surgery: the study group received 10 mL of sodium hyaluronate intra-articularly, while the control group received an intra-articular instillation of 10 mL of Bupivacaine. Pre- and postoperative visual analogue scale scores for pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) scores for knee function were obtained. Overall, 48 patients under the care of a single surgeon were randomized into two groups of 24. There were no statistically significant demographic differences at baseline. Three patients were lost to follow-up. There was a statistically significant difference in pain scores favoring the study group compared with the control group at 3 and 6 weeks postoperatively (p < 0.05), and a statistically significant difference in WOMAC scores favoring the study group compared with the control group at 3 and 6 weeks postoperatively (p = 0.01). Synovial fluid replacement with sodium hyaluronate following arthroscopic knee surgery conferred statistically significant improvements in pain and function scores compared with Bupivacaine in the short term (3-6 weeks). PMID:26551066

  14. Associations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9, and their inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, with obesity-related biomarkers in apparently healthy adolescent boys

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Kim, Ki Eun; Lee, Yong-Jae; Nam, Jae-Hwan; Hong, Young Mi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in atherosclerosis, and therefore, are considered risk factors for metabolic dysfunction in adults. However, there is little data on circulating levels of MMPs and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) with regard to obesity-related biomarkers in the general adolescent population. In the present study, we determined the associations of MMP-8, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 levels and MMP-8/TIMP-1 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios with obesity-related biomarkers in apparently healthy adolescent boys. Methods We measured MMP and TIMP concentrations in plasma samples using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and analyzed their associations with obesity-related biomarkers, such as liver enzymes and lipid profiles, in a sample of 91 Korean boys aged 13-14 years who participated in a general health check-up. Results The mean age of the boys was 13.8±0.3 years; 72 boys were normal weight and 19 were overweight/obese. The Pearson correlation coefficients revealed a significant correlation between MMP-8 and aspartate aminotransferase (r=0.217, P=0.039) and alanine aminotransferase (r=0.250, P=0.017) and between TIMP-1 and aspartate aminotransferase (r=0.267, P=0.011). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, serum alanine aminotransferase was positively associated with the MMP-8 level. There were no significant differences in the MMP-8, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 levels or MMP-8/TIMP-1 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios between control and overweight/obese subjects. Conclusion We found a significant association between the MMP-8 level and alanine aminotransferase in the apparently healthy adolescent boys. These findings indicate that there may be a pathophysiological mechanism underlying the relationship between MMP-8 and liver enzymes in young adolescents. PMID:25653686

  15. Hypomethylation of the MMP7 promoter and increased expression of MMP7 distinguishes the basal-like breast cancer subtype from other triple-negative tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sizemore, Steven T.; Sizemore, Gina M.; Booth, Christine N.; Thompson, Cheryl L.; Silverman, Paula; Bebek, Gurkan; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W.; Avril, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Identification of novel targets for the treatment of basal-like breast cancer is essential for improved outcomes in patients with this disease. This study investigates the association of MMP7 expression and MMP7 promoter methylation with subtype and outcome in breast cancer patient cohorts. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on a breast cancer tissue microarray and validated in independent histological samples. MMP7 expression significantly correlated with patient age, tumor size, triple-negative (TN) status, and recurrence. Analysis of publically available datasets confirmed MMP7 gene expression as a prognostic marker of breast cancer metastasis, particularly metastasis to the brain and lungs. Methylation of the MMP7 promoter was assessed by methylation-specific PCR in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and patient tumor samples. Hypomethylation of the MMP7 promoter significantly correlated with TN status in DNA from patient tumor samples, and this association was confirmed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Evaluation of a panel of breast cancer cell lines and data from the Curtis and TCGA breast carcinoma datasets revealed that elevated MMP7 expression and MMP7 promoter hypomethylation are specific biomarkers of the basal-like molecular subtype which shares considerable, but not complete, overlap with the clinical TN subtype. Importantly, MMP7 expression was identified as an independent predictor of pathological complete response in a large breast cancer patient cohort. Combined, these data suggest that MMP7 expression and MMP7 promoter methylation may be useful as prognostic biomarkers. Furthermore, MMP7 expression and promoter methylation analysis may be effective mechanisms to distinguish basal-like breast cancers from other triple-negative subtypes. Finally, these data implicate MMP7 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of basal-like breast cancers. PMID:24847890

  16. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels, MMP-9 gene haplotypes, and cardiovascular risk in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Luizon, Marcelo R; Belo, Vanessa A; Fernandes, Karla S; Andrade, Vanessa L; Tanus-Santos, Jose E; Sandrim, Valeria C

    2016-06-01

    Plasma matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality, and MMP-9 polymorphisms affect plasma MMP-9 levels. However, no study examined whether MMP-9 haplotypes affect MMP-9 levels in obese adults. We examined whether MMP-9 polymorphisms and haplotypes are associated with obesity, and whether they affect MMP-9 levels in obese subjects. We examined the plasma levels of MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in 105 subjects with normal weight (controls), 100 obese subjects, and 156 obese subjects with ≥3 metabolic risk factors (MRFs). We determined genotypes for three polymorphisms: C-1562T (rs3918242), Q279R (A>G, rs17576), and R668Q (G>A, rs17577). MMP-9 levels and activity (MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio) were higher in obese subjects than in controls (P < 0.05). However, MMP-9 levels were higher in obese subjects with ≥3 MRFs than in obese subjects (P < 0.05). Obese subjects with ≥3 MRFs carrying the GA+AA genotypes for R668Q (G>A) polymorphism had higher MMP-9 levels than subjects carrying the AA genotype (P < 0.05). The "T, G, A" haplotype was more common in both groups of obese subjects than in controls (OR 3.95 and 4.39, respectively; P < 0.01). Notably, obese subjects with ≥3 MRFs carrying the "T, G, A" haplotype had higher MMP-9 levels than subjects carrying the "C, A, G" reference haplotype (P < 0.05). The "T, G, A" haplotype was associated with an increased risk of obesity and affected MMP-9 levels in obese subjects with ≥3 MRFs. Our findings suggest that plasma MMP-9 levels and MMP-9 haplotypes may help to discriminate obese subjects at an increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:27146834

  17. Gels containing MMP inhibitors prevent dental erosion in situ.

    PubMed

    Kato, M T; Leite, A L; Hannas, A R; Buzalaf, M A R

    2010-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition has been shown to reduce dentin caries progression, but its role in dental erosion has not yet been assessed. This study tested the hypothesis that gels containing MMP inhibitors (epigallocatechin gallate-EGCG and chlorhexidine) can prevent dental erosion. Volunteers (n = 10) wore palatal devices containing bovine dentin blocks (n = 10/group) treated for 1 min with EGCG at 10 (EGCG10) or 400 microM (EGCG400), chlorhexidine at 0.012%, F at 1.23% (NaF), and no vehicle (placebo). Erosion was performed with Coca-Cola (5 min) 4X/day during 5 days. The wear, assessed by profilometry (mean +/- SD, microm), was significantly reduced by the gels containing MMP inhibitors (0.05 +/- 0.02(a), 0.04 +/- 0.02(a), and 0.05 +/- 0.02(a) for EGCG10, EGCG400, and chlorhexidine, respectively) when compared with NaF (0.79 +/- 0.35(b)) and placebo gels (1.77 +/- 0.35(b)) (Friedman and Dunn's tests, p < 0.01). The use of gels delivering MMP inhibitors was shown to prevent erosion and opens a new perspective for protection against dental erosion. PMID:20200409

  18. Cortical spreading depression activates and upregulates MMP-9

    PubMed Central

    Gursoy-Ozdemir, Yasemin; Qiu, Jianhua; Matsuoka, Norihiro; Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Bermpohl, Daniela; Jin, Hongwei; Wang, Xiaoying; Rosenberg, Gary A.; Lo, Eng H.; Moskowitz, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a propagating wave of neuronal and glial depolarization and has been implicated in disorders of neurovascular regulation such as stroke, head trauma, and migraine. In this study, we found that CSD alters blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability by activating brain MMPs. Beginning at 3–6 hours, MMP-9 levels increased within cortex ipsilateral to the CSD, reaching a maximum at 24 hours and persisting for at least 48 hours. Gelatinolytic activity was detected earliest within the matrix of cortical blood vessels and later within neurons and pia arachnoid (≥3 hours), particularly within piriform cortex; this activity was suppressed by injection of the metalloprotease inhibitor GM6001 or in vitro by the addition of a zinc chelator (1,10-phenanthroline). At 3–24 hours, immunoreactive laminin, endothelial barrier antigen, and zona occludens-1 diminished in the ipsilateral cortex, suggesting that CSD altered proteins critical to the integrity of the BBB. At 3 hours after CSD, plasma protein leakage and brain edema developed contemporaneously. Albumin leakage was suppressed by the administration of GM6001. Protein leakage was not detected in MMP-9–null mice, implicating the MMP-9 isoform in barrier disruption. We conclude that intense neuronal and glial depolarization initiates a cascade that disrupts the BBB via an MMP-9–dependent mechanism. PMID:15146242

  19. Allele-specific MMP-3 transcription under in vivo conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Chaoyong; Odeberg, Jacob; Hamsten, Anders; Eriksson, Per . E-mail: Per.Eriksson@ki.se

    2006-09-29

    A common matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3) -1612 5A/6A promoter polymorphism is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and other diseases. Here we used the haplotype chromatin immunoprecipitation method to study allele-specific MMP-3 expression under in vivo conditions in heterozygous THP-1 cells. Pyrosequencing was used to analyse the ratio of 5A-allele to 6A-allele after chromatin immunoprecipitation using an antibody against phosphorylated active RNA polymerase II. There was no allele-specific difference in transcriptional activity during basal conditions, i.e., in unstimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. However, after stimulation of MMP-3 expression by monocyte differentiation or incubation with IL-1{beta}, the haplotype containing the 5A-allele was associated with higher transcriptional activity compared with the 6A-containing haplotype. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated increased binding of nuclear proteins to the 5A-allele after monocyte differentiation. In conclusion, the common MMP-3 5A/6A promoter polymorphism appears to be functional only during specific environmental conditions involving inflammation.

  20. Fibroblast-Derived MMP-14 Regulates Collagen Homeostasis in Adult Skin.

    PubMed

    Zigrino, Paola; Brinckmann, Jürgen; Niehoff, Anja; Lu, Yinhui; Giebeler, Nives; Eckes, Beate; Kadler, Karl E; Mauch, Cornelia

    2016-08-01

    Proteolytic activities in the extracellular matrix by the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 have been implicated in the remodeling of collagenous proteins during development. To analyze the function of fibroblast-derived MMP-14 in adult skin homeostasis, we generated mice with inducible deletion of MMP-14 in the dermal fibroblast (MMP-14(Sf-/-)). These mice are smaller and display a fibrosis-like phenotype in the skin. The skin of these mice showed increased stiffness and tensile strength but no altered collagen cross-links. In vivo, we measured a significantly increased amount of collagen type I accumulated in the skin of MMP-14(Sf-/-) mice without an increase in collagen fibril diameters. However, bleomycin-induced fibrosis in skin proceeded in a comparable manner in MMP-14(Sf+/+) and MMP-14(Sf-/-) mice, but resolution over time was impaired in MMP-14(Sf-/-) mice. Increased accumulation of collagen type I was detected in MMP-14(Sf-/-) fibroblasts in culture without significant enhancement of collagen de novo synthesis. This points to a degradative but not synthetic phenotype. In support of this, MMP-14(Sf-/-) fibroblasts lost their ability to process fibrillar collagen type I and to activate proMMP-2. Taken together, these data indicate that MMP-14 expression in fibroblasts plays a crucial role in collagen remodeling in adult skin and largely contributes to dermal homeostasis underlying its pathogenic role in fibrotic skin disease. PMID:27066886

  1. MMP profile in paired serum and synovial fluid samples of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tchetverikov, I; Ronday, H; van El, B; Kiers, G; Verzijl, N; TeKoppele, J; Huizinga, T; DeGroot, J; Hanemaaijer, R

    2004-01-01

    Methods: ProMMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, TIMP-1, levels of MMP/α2-macroglobulin complexes, and collagen degradation products were measured by sandwich ELISA, activity assays, and HPLC in paired SF and serum samples from 15 patients with RA and 13 with OA. Results: MMPs were higher in SF of patients with RA than in OA or controls. MMP levels in SF of patients with OA were higher than in controls. In serum, levels of proMMP-3, -8 and -9 were higher in patients with RA than in OA or controls, whereas only proMMP-8 and -9 were higher in serum of patients with OA than in controls. A strong correlation was seen between serum and SF levels of MMP-8 and -9 in RA. Increased levels of MMP/α2-macroglobulin complexes indicated an MMP/TIMP imbalance in serum and SF in RA. SF hydroxyproline correlated significantly with SF levels of proMMP-9 in RA. Conclusions: Systemic MMP-8 and -9 levels represent the situation in the inflamed joint; MMP-9 is likely to be involved in degradation of joint collagen. The hypothesis of MMP/TIMP imbalance in RA is strengthened. PMID:15194590

  2. Synthesis of hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides and exploration of a fluorous-assisted approach.

    PubMed

    Macchione, Giuseppe; de Paz, José L; Nieto, Pedro M

    2014-07-23

    The synthesis of hyaluronic acid oligomers (tri- and tetrasaccharide) is described. We have followed a pre-glycosylation oxidation strategy. Glucuronic acid units were directly employed in coupling reactions with suitably protected glucosamine derivatives. In order to simplify the purification of synthetic intermediates, a fluorous-assisted strategy has been also explored. Using this approach, a hyaluronic acid trisaccharide was prepared. PMID:24930061

  3. Aggregation of macrophages and fibroblasts is inhibited by a monoclonal antibody to the hyaluronate receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Green, S.J.; Underhill, C.B. ); Tarone, G. )

    1988-10-01

    To examine the role of the hyaluronate receptor in cell to cell adhesion, the authors have employed the K-3 monoclonal antibody (MAb) which specifically binds to the hyaluronate receptor and blocks its ability to interact with hyaluronate. In the first set of experiments, they investigated the spontaneous aggregation of SV-3T3 cells, which involves two distinct mechanisms, one of which is dependent upon the presence of divalent cation and the other is independent. The divalent cation-independent aggregation was found to be completely inhibited by both intact and Fab fragments of the K-3 MAb. In contrast, the K-3 MAb had no effect on the divalent cation-dependent aggregation of cells. In a second set of experiments, we examined alveolar macrophages. The presence of hyaluronate receptors on alveolar macrophages was demonstrated by the fact that detergent extracts of these cells could bind ({sup 3})hyaluronate, and this binding was blocked by the K-3 MAb. Immunoblot analysis of alveolar macrophages showed that the hyaluronate receptor had a M{sub r} of 99,500, which is considerably larger than the 85,000 M{sub r} for that on BHK cells. When hyaluronate was added to suspensions of alveolar macrophages, the cells were induced to aggregate. This effect was inhibited by the K-3 MAb, suggesting that the hyaluronate-induced aggregation was mediated by the receptor.

  4. Bovine endometrial metallopeptidases MMP14 and MMP2 and the metallopeptidase inhibitor TIMP2 participate in maternal preparation of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Susanne E; Meyer, Swanhild U; Zitta, Karina; Hiendleder, Stefan; Sinowatz, Fred; Bauersachs, Stefan; Büttner, Mathias; Fröhlich, Thomas; Arnold, Georg J; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Wolf, Eckhard; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2011-01-30

    Early embryonic development is critically dependent on both maternal preparation and embryonic signalling of pregnancy. Matrix metallopeptidases (MMP) contribute to spatial and temporal matrix remodeling in the bovine endometrium. In this study we observed distinct changes in expression of MMP2, MMP14, and the metallopeptidase inhibitor TIMP2 between different phases of the estrous cycle indicating an endocrine regulation. An increase of TIMP2 protein abundance was ascertained in the uterine lumen during the time of embryo elongation. The expression pattern and cellular localization correlate well with the assumed effects of MMPs on release and activation of cytokines and growth factors directing cell migration, differentiation, and vascularization during this pivotal period of development. Specifically, active MMP2 in the endometrium may determine the allocation of growth factors supporting conceptus development. The presence of a day 18 conceptus in vivo and day 8 blastoysts in vitro induced endometrial TIMP2 mRNA expression. The results imply that TIMP2 is involved in very early local maternal recognition of pregnancy. Matrix metallopeptidases are likely to participate in remodeling processes preparing a receptive endometrium for a timely and precise regulation of embryo development. PMID:20887771

  5. Enzymatic processing by MMP-2 and MMP-9 of wild-type and mutated mouse β-dystroglycan.

    PubMed

    Sbardella, Diego; Inzitari, Rosanna; Iavarone, Federica; Gioia, Magda; Marini, Stefano; Sciandra, Francesca; Castagnola, Massimo; Van den Steen, Philippe E; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Giardina, Bruno; Brancaccio, Andrea; Coletta, Massimo; Bozzi, Manuela

    2012-12-01

    Dystroglycan (DG) is a membrane-associated protein complex formed by two noncovalently linked subunits, α-DG, a highly glycosylated extracellular protein, and β-DG, a transmembrane protein. The interface between the two DG subunits, which is crucial to maintain the integrity of the plasma membrane, involves the C-terminal domain of α-DG and the N-terminal extracellular domain of β-DG. It is well known that under both, physiological and pathological conditions, gelatinases (i.e. MMP-9 and/or MMP-2) can degrade DG, disrupting the connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. However, the molecular mechanisms and the exact cleavage sites underlying these events are still largely unknown. In a previous study, we have characterized the enzymatic digestion of the murine β-DG ectodomain by gelatinases, identifying a main cleavage site on the β-DG ectodomain produced by MMP-9. In this article, we have deepened the pattern of the β-DG ectodomain digestion by MMP-2 by using a combined approach based on SDS-PAGE, Orbitrap, and HPLC-ESI-IT mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we have characterized the kineticparameters of the digestion of some β-DG ectodomain mutants by gelatinases. PMID:23129308

  6. Serotonin-Exacerbated DSS-Induced Colitis Is Associated with Increase in MMP-3 and MMP-9 Expression in the Mouse Colon

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; Feng, Dandan; Jiang, Yalin; Jin, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background. 5-HT enhances dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis and is involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play roles in the process of intestinal inflammation. Aims. To examine whether 5-HT induces MMPs expression in mouse colon to enhance DSS-induced colitis. Materials and Methods. C57BL/6J (B6) mice were treated with either low-dose (1.0 mg/kg) or high-dose (2.0 mg/kg) 5-HT by enema, low-dose (1.0%) or high-dose (2.5%) DSS, or combined low-dose (1.0%) DSS and (1.0 mg/kg) 5-HT. Mouse colitis was analyzed. MMPs and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) mRNA were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in mouse colon and in human Caco-2 cells and neutrophils. MMP-3 and MMP-9 protein levels were quantified from immunohistochemistry (IHC) images of mouse colons. Results. 5-HT exacerbated DSS-induced colitis, low-dose 5-HT induces both MMP-3 and MMP-9, and high-dose 5-HT only increased MMP-3 mRNA expression in mouse colon. Mouse colon MMP-3 and MMP-9 protein levels were also elevated by 5-HT treatment. The MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA levels were increased in the inflamed colon. 5-HT induced MMP-3 and MMP-9 mRNA expression in Caco-2 and human neutrophils, respectively, in vitro. Conclusion. 5-HT induced MMP-3 and MMP-9 expression in mouse colon; these elevated MMPs may contribute to DSS-induced colitis. PMID:27478308

  7. Prediction of antiarthritic drug efficacies by monitoring active matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) levels in collagen-induced arthritic mice using the MMP-3 probe.

    PubMed

    Lee, Aeju; Park, Kyeongsoon; Choi, Sung-Jae; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kim, Han Sung; Choi, Kuiwon; Kwon, Ick Chan; Yoon, Soo-Young; Youn, Inchan

    2014-05-01

    Active matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is a prognostic marker of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We recently developed an MMP-3 probe that can specifically detect the active form of MMP-3. The aim of this study was to investigate whether detection and monitoring of active MMP-3 could be useful to predict therapeutic drug responses in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. During the period of treatment with drugs such as methotrexate (MTX) or infliximab (IFX), MMP-3 mRNA and protein levels were correlated with fluorescence signals in arthritic joint tissues and in the serum of CIA mice. Also, bone volume density and erosion in the knee joints and the paws of CIA mice were measured with microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), X-ray, and histology to confirm drug responses. In joint tissues and serum of CIA mice, strong fluorescence signals induced by the action of active MMP-3 were significantly decreased when drugs were applied. The decrease in RA scores in drug-treated CIA mice led to fluorescence reductions, mainly as a result of down-regulation of MMP-3 mRNA or protein. The micro-CT, X-ray, and histology results clearly showed marked decreases in bone and cartilage destruction, which were consistent with the reduction of fluorescence by down-regulation of active MMP-3 in drug-treated CIA mice. We suggest that the MMP-3 diagnostic kit could be used to detect and monitor the active form of MMP-3 in CIA mice serum during a treatment course and thereby used to predict the drug response or resistance to RA therapies at an earlier stage. We hope that monitoring of active MMP-3 levels in arthritis patients using the MMP-3 diagnostic kit will be a promising tool for drug discovery, drug development, and monitoring of drug responses in RA therapy. PMID:24673659

  8. Accelerated neointima formation after vascular injury in mice with stromelysin-3 (MMP-11) gene inactivation.

    PubMed

    Lijnen, H R; Van Hoef, B; Vanlinthout, I; Verstreken, M; Rio, M C; Collen, D

    1999-12-01

    The hypothesis that stromelysin-3 (MMP-11), a unique member of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family, plays a role in neointima formation was tested with the use of a vascular injury model in wild-type (MMP-11(+/+)) and MMP-11-deficient (MMP-11(-/-)) mice. Neointima formation 2 to 3 weeks after electric injury of the femoral artery was significantly enhanced in MMP-11(-/-) as compared with MMP-11(+/+) mice, in both mice of a pure 129SV genetic background (0.014 versus 0.0010 mm(2) at 2 weeks, P<0.001) and those of a 50/50 mixed 129SV/BL6 background (0.030 versus 0.013 mm(2) at 3 weeks, P<0.05). The medial areas were comparable, resulting in intima/media ratios that were significantly increased in MMP-11(-/-) as compared with MMP-11(+/+) arteries, in mice of both the 129SV (1. 0 versus 0.18, P<0.001) and mixed (1.5 versus 0.70, P<0.05) backgrounds. Nuclear cell counts in cross-sectional areas of the intima of the injured region were higher in arteries from MMP-11(-/-) mice than in those from MMP-11(+/+) mice (210 versus 48, P<0.001, in pure 129SV mice and 290 versus 150, P<0.01, in mice of the mixed genetic background). Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that alpha-actin-positive and CD45-positive cells were more abundant in intimal sections of MMP-11(-/-) mice. Degradation of the internal elastic lamina was more extensive in arteries of MMP-11(-/-) mice than in those of MMP-11(+/+) mice (39% versus 6.8% at 3 weeks, P<0. 005). The mechanisms by which MMP-11 could impair elastin degradation and cellular migration in this model remain, however, unknown. PMID:10591662

  9. MT1-MMP Inhibits the Activity of Bst-2 via Their Cytoplasmic Domains Dependent Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Long; Liu, Li; Zhu, Cuicui; Zhu, Qingyi; Lu, Shan; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bst-2 (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2) is a type II membrane protein, and it acts as a tetherin to inhibit virion releasing from infectious cells. Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a protease. It plays a pivotal role in cellular growth and migration by activating proMMP-2 into active MMP2. Our results here elaborate that MT1-MMP inhibits the tetherin activity of Bst-2 by interacting with Bst-2, and the cytoplasmic domains of both Bst-2 and MT1-MMP play critical roles within this interaction. Based on our experimental data, the assays for virion release and co-immunoprecipitation have clearly demonstrated that the activity of Bst-2 is markedly inhibited by MT1-MMP via their interaction; and both the N-terminal domain of Bst-2 and the C-terminal domain of MT1-MMP are important in the interaction. Immunostaining and Confocal Microscopy assay shows that MT1-MMP interacts with Bst-2 to form granular particles trafficking into cytoplasm from membrane and, finally, results in Bst-2 and MT1-MMP both being inhibited. In addition, mutant experiments elucidate that the N-terminal domain of Bst-2 is not only important in relating to the activity of Bst-2 itself, but is important for inhibiting the MT1-MMP/proMMP2/MMP2 pathway. These findings suggest that MT1-MMP is a novel inhibitor of Bst-2 in MT1-MMP expressed cell lines and also indicate that both the N-terminal domain of Bst-2 and the C-terminal domain of MT1-MMP are crucial in down-regulation. PMID:27240342

  10. The Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: Current Understanding of the Tissue Device Interface.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jacqueline J; Sidle, Douglas M

    2015-11-01

    The article is a detailed update regarding cosmetic injectable fillers, specifically focusing on hyaluronic acid fillers. Hyaluronic acid-injectable fillers are used extensively for soft tissue volumizing and contouring. Many different hyaluronic acid-injectable fillers are available on the market and differ in terms of hyaluronic acid concentration, particle size, cross-linking density, requisite needle size, duration, stiffness, hydration, presence of lidocaine, type of cross-linking technology, and cost. Hyaluronic acid is a natural component of many soft tissues, is identical across species minimizing immunogenicity has been linked to wound healing and skin regeneration, and is currently actively being studied for tissue engineering purposes. The biomechanical and biochemical effects of HA on the local microenvironment of the injected site are key to its success as a soft tissue filler. Knowledge of the tissue-device interface will help guide the facial practitioner and lead to optimal outcomes for patients. PMID:26505539

  11. Effect of hyaluronic acid on postoperative intraperitoneal adhesion formation in the rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Urman, B.; Gomel, V.; Jetha, N. )

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid solution in preventing intraperitoneal (IP) adhesions. The study design was prospective, randomized and blinded and involved 83 rats. Measured serosal injury was inflicted using a CO2 laser on the right uterine horn of the rat. Animals randomized to groups 1 and 2 received either 0.4% hyaluronic acid or its diluent phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally before and after the injury. In groups 3 and 4, the same solutions were used only after the injury. Postoperative adhesions were assessed at second-look laparotomy. Histologic assessment of the fresh laser injury was carried out on uteri pretreated with hyaluronic acid, PBS, or nothing. Pretreatment with hyaluronic acid was associated with a significant reduction in postoperative adhesions and a significantly decreased crater depth. Hyaluronic acid appears to reduce postoperative IP adhesion formation by coating the serosal surfaces and decreasing the extent of initial tissue injury.

  12. MT5-MMP, just a new APP processing proteinase in Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Baranger, Kévin; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Rivera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We have recently identified in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) membrane-type 5-MMP (MT5-MMP) as a new player in Alzheimer's pathogenesis, which displays pro-amyloidogenic features and proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Another group has reported that MT5-MMP processing of APP may release a novel neurotoxic APP fragment. Although MT5-MMP-mediated APP processing appears to be a key pathogenic step, we hypothesize that MT5-MMP may also contribute to AD pathogenesis through complementary mechanisms that involve the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and/or APP trafficking. PMID:27349644

  13. Golgi protein 73 activation of MMP-13 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Wang, Yanan; Li, Li; Hu, Zhongdong; Zhou, Zhenzhen; Chang, Xiuli; Qu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Golgi Protein 73 (GP73) is a serum biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), however its role in HCC is not clear. We report that GP73 promotes cell invasion, the hallmark of malignancy, through the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13). GP73 enhances MMP-13 expression through cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription activation. Levels of GP73 and MMP-13 are increased and positively correlated in human HCC tissues. Augmented MMP-13 potentiates HCC cell metastasis. Thus, the GP73-CREB-MMP-13 axis potentiates cancer cell invasion and may be a target for HCC treatment. PMID:26378022

  14. The localization of matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20, enamelysin) in mature human teeth.

    PubMed

    Sulkala, M; Larmas, M; Sorsa, T; Salo, T; Tjäderhane, L

    2002-09-01

    MMP-20 (enamelysin), the matrix metalloproteinase family member discovered in the enamel organ, has also been detected in odontoblasts during dentin formation. We studied the presence and localization of MMP-20 in mature human teeth in health and disease. In immunohistochemistry, MMP-20-positive staining was observed most intensively in the radicular odontoblastic layer and also in dilated dentinal tubuli of caries lesions. By Western blotting, MMP-20 was detected in odontoblasts and pulp tissue of both sound and carious teeth, in dentinal fluid and dentin of sound teeth, but not in soft carious dentin. We conclude that MMP-20 produced during primary dentinogenesis is incorporated into dentin and may be released during caries progression. The main cellular source of MMP-20 in the dentin-pulp complex is the odontoblasts, which secrete MMP-20 into the dentinal fluid. PMID:12202640

  15. A hyaluronic acid nanogel for photo-chemo theranostics of lung cancer with simultaneous light-responsive controlled release of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Zehedina; Nurunnabi, Md; Nafiujjaman, Md; Reeck, Gerald R; Khan, Haseeb A; Cho, Kwang Jae; Lee, Yong-kyu

    2015-06-28

    The combined delivery of photo- and chemo-therapeutic agents is an emerging strategy to overcome drug resistance in treating cancer, and controlled light-responsive drug release is a proven tactic to produce a continuous therapeutic effect for a prolonged duration. Here, a combination of light-responsive graphene, chemo-agent doxorubicin and pH-sensitive disulfide-bond linked hyaluronic acid form a nanogel (called a graphene-doxorubicin conjugate in a hyaluronic acid nanogel) that exerts an activity with multiple effects: thermo and chemotherapeutic, real-time noninvasive imaging, and light-glutathione-responsive controlled drug release. The nanogel is mono-dispersed with an average diameter of 120 nm as observed by using TEM and a hydrodynamic size analyzer. It has excellent photo-luminescence properties and good stability in buffer and serum solutions. Graphene itself, being photoluminescent, can be considered an optical imaging contrast agent as well as a heat source when excited by laser irradiation. Thus the nanogel shows simultaneous thermo-chemotherapeutic effects on noninvasive optical imaging. We have also found that irradiation enhances the release of doxorubicin in a controlled manner. This release synergizes therapeutic activity of the nanogel in killing tumor cells. Our findings demonstrate that the graphene-doxorubicin conjugate in the hyaluronic acid nanogel is very effective in killing the human lung cancer cell line (A549) with limited toxicity in the non-cancerous cell line (MDCK). PMID:26030737

  16. Characterization of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel and differential stem cell responses in the hydrogel microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungju; Park, Yongdoo; Tae, Giyoong; Lee, Kyu Back; Hwang, Chang Mo; Hwang, Soon Jung; Kim, In Sook; Noh, Insup; Sun, Kyung

    2009-03-15

    Hyaluronic acid is a natural glycosaminoglycan involved in biological processes. Low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kDa)-based hydrogel was synthesized using derivatized hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid was acrylated by two steps: (1) introduction of an amine group using adipic acid dihydrazide, and (2) acrylation by N-acryloxysuccinimide. Injectable hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel was prepared by using acrylated hyaluronic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) tetra-thiols via Michael-type addition reaction. Mechanical properties of the hydrogel were evaluated by varying the molecular weight of acrylated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kDa) and the weight percent of hydrogel. Hydrogel based on 50-kDa hyaluronic acid showed the shortest gelation time and the highest complex modulus. Next, human mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in cell-adhesive RGD peptide-immobilized hydrogels together with bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). Cells cultured in the RGD/BMP-2-incorporated hydrogels showed proliferation rates higher than that of control or RGD-immobilized hydrogels. Real-time RT-PCR showed that the expression of osteoblast marker genes such as CBFalpha1 and alkaline phosphatase was increased in hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel, and the expression level was dependent on the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid, RGD peptide, and BMP-2. This study indicates that low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel can be applied to tissue regeneration as differentiation guidance materials of stem cells. PMID:18384163

  17. Epb41l3 suppresses esophageal squamous cell carcinoma invasion and inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 expression.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rong; Huang, Jun-Peng; Li, Xu Feng; Xiong, Wei-Bin; Wu, Gang; Jiang, Zhao-Jing; Song, Shu-Jie; Li, Ji-Qiang; Zheng, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Ji-Ren

    2016-04-01

    EPB41L3 may play a role as a metastasis suppressor by supporting regular arrangements of actin stress fibres and alleviating the increase in cell motility associated with enhanced metastatic potential. Downregulation of epb41l3 has been observed in many cancers, but the role of this gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. Our study aimed to determine the effect of epb41l3 on ESCC cell migration and invasion. We investigated epb41l3 protein expression in tumour and non-tumour tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Expression in the non-neoplastic human esophageal cell line Het-1a and four ESCC cell lines - Kyse150, Kyse510, Kyse450 and Caes17 - was assessed by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting. Furthermore, an EPB41L3 overexpression plasmid and EPB41L3-specific small interfering RNA were used to upregulate EPB41L3 expression in Kyse150 cells and to downregulate EPB41L3 expression in Kyse450 cells, respectively. Cell migration and invasion were evaluated by wound healing and transwell assays, respectively. The expression levels of p-AKT, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP9 were evaluated. Expression of epb41l3 was significantly lower in tumour tissues than in non-tumour tissues and in ESCC cell lines compared with the Het-1a cell line. Kyse450 and Caes17 cells exhibited higher expression of epb41l3 than Kyse150 and Kyse510 cells. Overexpressing epb41l3 decreased Kyse150 cell migration and invasion, whereas EPB41L3-specific small interfering RNA silencing increased these functions in Kyse450 cells. Furthermore, overexpressing epb41l3 led to downregulation of MMP2 and MMP9 in Kyse150 and Kyse510 cells. Our findings reveal that EPB41L3 suppresses tumour cell invasion and inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 expression in ESCC cells. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26916087

  18. The Angiogenic Effect of microRNA-21 Targeting TIMP3 through the Regulation of MMP2 and MMP9

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianzhong; Ni, Shuangfei; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Tianding; Yin, Xianzhen; Lang, Ye; Lu, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs are a novel set of small, non-protein-coding nucleotide RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of target mRNAs. miRNA-21 is a microRNA that is highly enriched in endothelial cells. miRNA-21 has been shown to be a potential pro-angiogenic factor in some biological systems. Our previous study showed that the expression of miRNA-21 was up-regulated after spinal cord injury. However, the effect of miRNA-21 on angiogenesis in the spinal cord was unclear. In this study, to understand the role of miRNA-21 on injured endothelial cells exclusively, an oxygen and glucose deprivation model of endothelial cells was constructed, and the up-regulation of miRNA-21 was discovered in this model. An increased level of miRNA-21 by mimics promoted the survival, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells, which simultaneously inhibited tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) expression and promoted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) expression and secretion. A decreased level of miRNA-21 by antagomir exerted an opposite effect. As is well known, survival, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells are necessary prerequisites for angiogenesis after injury. TIMP3 was validated as a direct target of miRNA-21 by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Silencing with small interfering RNA against TIMP3 promoted tube formation and increased MMP2 and MMP9 expression at the protein level. In vivo, we found that decreased levels of miRNA-21 inhibited angiogenesis after spinal cord injury in rats using synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography. In summary, these findings suggest that miRNA-21 has a protective effect on angiogenesis by reducing cell death and promoting cell survival, migration and tube formation via partially targeting the TIMP3 by potentially regulating MMP2 and MMP9. TIMP3 is a functional target gene. Identifying the role of miRNA-21 in the protection of angiogenesis might offer a novel therapeutic target

  19. Human glans penis augmentation using injectable hyaluronic acid gel.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Kwak, T I; Jeon, B G; Cheon, J; Moon, D G

    2003-12-01

    Although augmentation phalloplasty is not an established procedure, some patients still need enlargement of their penis. Current penile augmentation is girth enhancement of penile body by dermofat graft. We performed this study to identify the efficacy and the patient's satisfaction of human glans penis augmentation with injectable hyaluronic acid gel. In 100 patients of subjective small penis (Group I) and 87 patients of small glans after dermofat graft (Group II), 2 cm(3) of hyaluronic acid gel was injected into the glans penis, subcutaneously. At 1 y after injection, changes of glandular diameter were measured by tapeline. Patient's visual estimation of glandular size (Gr 0-4) and patient's satisfaction (Grade (Gr) 0-4) were evaluated, respectively. Any adverse reactions were also evaluated. The mean age of patients was 42.2 (30-70) y in Group I and 42.13 (28-61) y in Group II. The maximal glandular circumference was significantly increased compared to basal circumference of 9.13+/-0.64 cm in Group I (P<0.01) and 9.49+/-1.05 cm in Group II (P<0.01) at 1 y after injection. Net increase of maximal glandular circumference after glans augmentation was 14.93+/-0.80 mm in Group I and 14.78+/-0.89 mm in Group II. In patient's visual estimation, more than 50% of injected volume was maintained in 95% of Group 1 and 100% of Group II. The percentage of postoperative satisfaction (Gr 4, 5) was 77% in Group 1 and 69% in Group II. There was no abnormal reaction in area feeling, texture, and color. In most cases, initial discoloration by glandular swelling recovered to normal within 2 weeks. There were no signs of inflammation and no serious adverse reactions in all cases. These results suggest that injectable hyaluronic acid gel is a safe and effective material for augmentation of glans penis. PMID:14671664

  20. [Non perforating trabecular surgery with reticulated hyaluronic acid implant].

    PubMed

    Robe-Collignon, N J; Collignon-Brach, J D

    2000-01-01

    Non perforating trabecular surgery (NPTS) with reticulated hyaluronic acid implant (Skgel) allows aqueous humor to leave anterior chamber through a thin trabeculo-Descemet's membrane into a sclerocorneal space filled with Skgel implant and then via the outflow physiological channels. Good intraocular pressure results are obtained with less or without external filtration decreasing the incidence of per- and postoperative complications found after trabeculectomy. This surgery is actually only indicated for primary open angle glaucoma, the trabeculectomy still remaining the gold standard procedure for the other glaucoma cases. PMID:11262887

  1. Stromal regulation of vessel stability by MMP14 and TGFβ

    PubMed Central

    Sounni, Nor E.; Dehne, Kerstin; van Kempen, Leon; Egeblad, Mikala; Affara, Nesrine I.; Cuevas, Ileana; Wiesen, Jane; Junankar, Simon; Korets, Lidiya; Lee, Jake; Shen, Jennifer; Morrison, Charlotte J.; Overall, Christopher M.; Krane, Stephen M.; Werb, Zena; Boudreau, Nancy; Coussens, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    Innate regulatory networks within organs maintain tissue homeostasis and facilitate rapid responses to damage. We identified a novel pathway regulating vessel stability in tissues that involves matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1). Whereas plasma proteins rapidly extravasate out of vasculature in wild-type mice following acute damage, short-term treatment of mice in vivo with a broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor, neutralizing antibodies to TGFβ1, or an activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5) inhibitor significantly enhanced vessel leakage. By contrast, in a mouse model of age-related dermal fibrosis, where MMP14 activity and TGFβ bioavailability are chronically elevated, or in mice that ectopically express TGFβ in the epidermis, cutaneous vessels are resistant to acute leakage. Characteristic responses to tissue damage are reinstated if the fibrotic mice are pretreated with metalloproteinase inhibitors or TGFβ signaling antagonists. Neoplastic tissues, however, are in a constant state of tissue damage and exhibit altered hemodynamics owing to hyperleaky angiogenic vasculature. In two distinct transgenic mouse tumor models, inhibition of ALK5 further enhanced vascular leakage into the interstitium and facilitated increased delivery of high molecular weight compounds into premalignant tissue and tumors. Taken together, these data define a central pathway involving MMP14 and TGFβ that mediates vessel stability and vascular response to tissue injury. Antagonists of this pathway could be therapeutically exploited to improve the delivery of therapeutics or molecular contrast agents into tissues where chronic damage or neoplastic disease limits their efficient delivery. PMID:20223936

  2. Effects of MMP Inhibitors Incorporated within Dental Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Almahdy, A.; Koller, G.; Sauro, S.; Bartsch, J.W.; Sherriff, M.; Watson, T.F.; Banerjee, A.

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition has been shown to reduce adhesive bond degradation when applied as a pre-conditioner, adding to clinical steps in the placement of adhesives, but their incorporation within dental adhesives has not been fully explored. This study examined the effect of including 2 MMP inhibitors (BB94 and GM6001) within the primers of 3 commercially available adhesives. Fluorometric assay and zymography showed that adhesives with MMP inhibitors had high affinity toward both synthetic fluorogenic FRET peptides (95%) and dentin powder substrates, respectively. The immediate microtensile bond strength was enhanced for 2 types of adhesives following the addition of both inhibitors. However, no changes were detected between the control and the inhibitor groups following 3-month storage. The modified two-step etch-and-rinse and single-step systems showed less Rhodamine B penetration to the “hybrid layer” and to the “adhesive”, respectively. The incorporation of BB94 and GM6001 within the primers resulted in the inhibition of dentin MMPs with improved initial bond strength and enhanced sealing ability. PMID:22518030

  3. Effects of MMP inhibitors incorporated within dental adhesives.

    PubMed

    Almahdy, A; Koller, G; Sauro, S; Bartsch, J W; Sherriff, M; Watson, T F; Banerjee, A

    2012-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition has been shown to reduce adhesive bond degradation when applied as a pre-conditioner, adding to clinical steps in the placement of adhesives, but their incorporation within dental adhesives has not been fully explored. This study examined the effect of including 2 MMP inhibitors (BB94 and GM6001) within the primers of 3 commercially available adhesives. Fluorometric assay and zymography showed that adhesives with MMP inhibitors had high affinity toward both synthetic fluorogenic FRET peptides (95%) and dentin powder substrates, respectively. The immediate microtensile bond strength was enhanced for 2 types of adhesives following the addition of both inhibitors. However, no changes were detected between the control and the inhibitor groups following 3-month storage. The modified two-step etch-and-rinse and single-step systems showed less Rhodamine B penetration to the "hybrid layer" and to the "adhesive", respectively. The incorporation of BB94 and GM6001 within the primers resulted in the inhibition of dentin MMPs with improved initial bond strength and enhanced sealing ability. PMID:22518030

  4. Rational Design of MMP Degradable Peptide-Based Supramolecular Filaments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures formed by self-assembly of small molecule peptides have been extensively explored for use as biomaterials in various biomedical contexts. However, unlike individual peptides that can be designed to be specifically degradable by enzymes/proteases of interest, their self-assembled nanostructures, particularly those rich in β-sheets, are generally resistant to enzymatic degradation because the specific cleavage sites are often embedded inside the nanostructures. We report here on the rational design of β-sheet rich supramolecular filaments that can specifically dissociate into less stable micellar assemblies and monomers upon treatment with matrix metalloproteases-2 (MMP-2). Through linkage of an oligoproline segment to an amyloid-derived peptide sequence, we first synthesized an amphiphilic peptide that can undergo a rapid morphological transition in response to pH variations. We then used MMP-2 specific peptide substrates as multivalent cross-linkers to covalently fix the amyloid-like filaments in the self-assembled state at pH 4.5. Our results show that the cross-linked filaments are stable at pH 7.5 but gradually break down into much shorter filaments upon cleavage of the peptidic cross-linkers by MMP-2. We believe that the reported work presents a new design platform for the creation of amyloid-like supramolecular filaments responsive to enzymatic degradation. PMID:24611531

  5. Mechanical Stretching of Mouse Calvarial Osteoblasts In Vitro Models Changes in MMP-2 and MMP-9 Expression at the Bone-Implant Interface.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Richard A; Niagro, Frank D; Borke, James L; Cuenin, Michael F

    2016-04-01

    Bone to mechanical loading elicits a biological response that has clinical significance for several areas in dental medicine, including orthodontic tooth movement, tempromandibular joint disease, and endosseous dental implant osseointegration. Human orthopedic studies of failed hip implant sites have identified increased mRNA expression of several collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), while in vitro experiments have shown increases in MMP secretion after exposure to inflammatory mediators. This investigation evaluates the effects of mechanical deformation on in vitro osteoblasts by assessing changes in MMP gene expression and enzyme activity. We seeded mouse neonatal calvarial osteoblasts onto flexible 6-well plates and subjected to continuous cyclic mechanical stretching. The expression and activity of mRNA for several MMPs (2, 3, 9, and 10) was assessed. When subjected to mechanical stress in culture, only mRNA specific for MMP-9 was significantly increased compared to nonstretched controls (P < .005). Measurement of MMP activity by gelatin zymography demonstrated that none of the MMPs showed increased activity with stretching; however, MMP-2 activity decreased. Our results suggest that in response to stretch, MMP-2 responds rapidly by inhibiting conversion of a MMP-2 to the active form, while a slower up-regulation of MMP-9 may play a role in the long-term remodeling of extracellular matrix in response to continuous mechanical loading. This study suggests that the regulation of metalloproteinases at both the mRNA and protein level are important in the response of bone to mechanical stress. PMID:25961753

  6. Pathophysiological Changes Induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection Are Involved in MMP-12 and MMP-13 Upregulation in Human Carcinoma Epithelial Cells and a Pneumonia Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Won; Shin, In-Sik; Ha, Un-Hwan; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections persist in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and drive lung disease progression. P. aeruginosa potently activates the innate immune system mostly through the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as flagellin. Matrix metalloproteinases 12 and 13 (MMP-12 and MMP-13, respectively) exacerbate chronic lung infection and inflammation by promoting uncontrolled tissue rearrangements and fibrosis, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. In this study, we used quantitative bacteriology, histological examination, and proinflammatory cytokine levels to evaluate the effects of MMP-12 and MMP-13 on P. aeruginosa strain K-induced infection and pneumonia in H292 epithelial cells and mice, respectively. Under inflammatory stimulation, mRNA and protein expression levels of proinflammatory mediators were higher in strain K-infected mice and cells than in uninfected counterparts, in which MMP-12 and MMP-13 expression reached levels similar to those observed in epithelial cells. Moreover, we also found that the NF-κB pathway might be involved in the induction of cytokines in response to strain K infection. Taken together, these data suggest that MMP-12 and MMP-13 alter strain K infection in mice and play a role in inflammatory regulation by modulating cytokine levels. PMID:26438797

  7. Sulfonamide derivatives containing dihydropyrazole moieties selectively and potently inhibit MMP-2/MMP-9: Design, synthesis, inhibitory activity and 3D-QSAR analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Chang; Li, Zhen; Wang, Peng-Fei; Qiu, Han-Yue; Chen, Long-Wang; Lu, Xiao-Yuan; Lv, Peng-Cheng; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2015-10-15

    New series of sulfonamide derivatives containing a dihydropyrazole moieties inhibitors of MMP-2/MMP-9 were discovered using structure-based drug design. Synthesis, antitumor activity, structure-activity relationship and optimization of physicochemical properties were described. In vitro the bioassay results revealed that most target compounds showed potent inhibitory activity in the enzymatic and cellular assays. Among the compounds, compound 3i exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 0.21 μM inhibiting MMP-2 and 1.87 μM inhibiting MMP-9, comparable to the control positive compound CMT-1 (1.26 μM, 2.52 μM). Docking simulation was performed to position compound 3i into the MMP-2 active site to determine the probable binding pose. Docking simulation was further performed to position compound 3i into the MMP-2 active site to determine the probable binding model the 3D-QSAR models were built for reasonable design of MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitors at present and in future. PMID:26346367

  8. Fine-structural distribution of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the rat skeletal muscle upon training: a study by high-resolution in situ zymography.

    PubMed

    Yeghiazaryan, Marine; Żybura-Broda, Katarzyna; Cabaj, Anna; Włodarczyk, Jakub; Sławińska, Urszula; Rylski, Marcin; Wilczyński, Grzegorz M

    2012-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key regulators of extracellular matrix remodeling, but have also important intracellular targets. The purpose of this study was to examine the activity and subcellular localization of the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in skeletal muscle of control and physically trained rats. In control hind limb muscle, the activity of the gelatinases was barely detectable. In contrast, after 5 days of intense exercise, in Soleus (Sol), but not Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle, significant upregulation of gelatinolytic activity in myofibers was observed mainly in the nuclei, as assessed by high resolution in situ zymography. The nuclei of quiescent satellite cells did not contain the activity. Within the myonuclei, the gelatinolytic activity colocalized with an activated RNA Polymerase II. Also in Sol, but not in EDL, there were few foci of mononuclear cells with strongly positive cytoplasm, associated with apparent necrotic myofibers. These cells were identified as activated satellite cells/myoblasts. No extracellular gelatinase activity was observed. Gel zymography combined with subcellular fractionation revealed training-related upregulation of active MMP-2 in the nuclear fraction, and increase of active MMP-9 in the cytoplasmic fraction of Sol. Using RT-PCR, selective increase in MMP-9 mRNA was observed. We conclude that training activates nuclear MMP-2, and increases expression and activity of cytoplasmic MMP-9 in Sol, but not in EDL. Our results suggest that the gelatinases are involved in muscle adaptation to training, and that MMP-2 may play a novel role in myonuclear functions. PMID:22419075

  9. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Secreted Protein Rv0203 Transfers Heme to Membrane Proteins MmpL3 and MmpL11*

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Cedric P.; Chim, Nicholas; Graves, Amanda B.; Harmston, Christine A.; Iniguez, Angelina; Contreras, Heidi; Liptak, Matthew D.; Goulding, Celia W.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis, which is becoming an increasingly global public health problem due to the rise of drug-resistant strains. While residing in the human host, M. tuberculosis needs to acquire iron for its survival. M. tuberculosis has two iron uptake mechanisms, one that utilizes non-heme iron and another that taps into the vast host heme-iron pool. To date, proteins known to be involved in mycobacterial heme uptake are Rv0203, MmpL3, and MmpL11. Whereas Rv0203 transports heme across the bacterial periplasm or scavenges heme from host heme proteins, MmpL3 and MmpL11 are thought to transport heme across the membrane. In this work, we characterize the heme-binding properties of the predicted extracellular soluble E1 domains of both MmpL3 and MmpL11 utilizing absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopic methods. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rv0203 transfers heme to both MmpL3-E1 and MmpL11-E1 domains at a rate faster than passive heme dissociation from Rv0203. This work elucidates a key step in the mycobacterial uptake of heme, and it may be useful in the development of anti-tuberculosis drugs targeting this pathway. PMID:23760277

  10. Involvement of TSP1 and MMP9/NGAL in Angiogenesis during Orthodontic Periodontal Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Surlin, Petra; Silosi, Isabela; Rauten, Anne Marie; Cojocaru, Manole; Foia, Lili

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the aim was to measure the levels of Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) and Lipocalin-2/matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9/NGAL) complex in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) at different time points of orthodontic treatment, to determine the relationship between these values and those of total-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and theirs implication in angiogenesis balance, in the situation of a good control of the bacterial plaque, emphasizing the role of TSP1 and MMP9/NGAL complex. GCF samples were collected from 16 young orthodontic patients requiring upper canine distalization (test tooth) with first premolar extraction. The contralateral canine (control tooth) was free from orthodontic force. For the orthodontic appliance, brackets Roth 0.018 inch with 0.012 inch NiTi archwire and a laceback were used. TSP1, MMP9/NGAL, and MMP9 increased from 1 hour before activation of orthodontic appliance to a maximum at 8 hours for MMP9 and 72 hours for MMP9/NGAL and TSP1. The results show a change in time of TSP1, MMP9/NGAL, and MMP9 levels in GCF of patients with this method of orthodontic treatment. The powerful correlation of MMP9/NGAL with TSP1 suggests their stronger involvement in angiogenesis processes in PDL during orthodontic periodontal remodeling, in the situation of a healthy periodontium and a good control of the bacterial plaque. PMID:24967433

  11. Involvement of TSP1 and MMP9/NGAL in angiogenesis during orthodontic periodontal remodeling.

    PubMed

    Surlin, Petra; Silosi, Isabela; Rauten, Anne Marie; Cojocaru, Manole; Foia, Lili

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the aim was to measure the levels of Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) and Lipocalin-2/matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9/NGAL) complex in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) at different time points of orthodontic treatment, to determine the relationship between these values and those of total-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and theirs implication in angiogenesis balance, in the situation of a good control of the bacterial plaque, emphasizing the role of TSP1 and MMP9/NGAL complex. GCF samples were collected from 16 young orthodontic patients requiring upper canine distalization (test tooth) with first premolar extraction. The contralateral canine (control tooth) was free from orthodontic force. For the orthodontic appliance, brackets Roth 0.018 inch with 0.012 inch NiTi archwire and a laceback were used. TSP1, MMP9/NGAL, and MMP9 increased from 1 hour before activation of orthodontic appliance to a maximum at 8 hours for MMP9 and 72 hours for MMP9/NGAL and TSP1. The results show a change in time of TSP1, MMP9/NGAL, and MMP9 levels in GCF of patients with this method of orthodontic treatment. The powerful correlation of MMP9/NGAL with TSP1 suggests their stronger involvement in angiogenesis processes in PDL during orthodontic periodontal remodeling, in the situation of a healthy periodontium and a good control of the bacterial plaque. PMID:24967433

  12. MMP13 as a stromal mediator in controlling persistent angiogenesis in skin carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lederle, Wiltrud; Hartenstein, Bettina; Meides, Alice; Kunzelmann, Heike; Werb, Zena; Angel, Peter; Mueller, Margareta M.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP13 promote tumour growth and progression by mediating extracellular matrix (ECM) reorganization and regulating the biological activity of cytokines. Using Mmp13−/− mice, we demonstrate an essential role of this single collagenase for highly malignant and invasive growth in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Lack of host MMP13 strongly impaired tumour growth of malignant SCC cells, leading to small, mostly avascular cysts. While initial stromal activation in tumour transplants of Mmp13+/+ and Mmp13−/− animals was similar, MMP13 was essential for maintenance of angiogenesis and for invasion. MMP13 was induced in fibroblasts of the wild-type animals at the onset of invasion and correlated with a strong increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and its association with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 on endothelial cells in invasive areas. In contrast, VEGF protein in the stroma was barely detectable and tumour invasion was downregulated in Mmp13−/− animals, despite ongoing VEGF messenger RNA expression. Taken together with in vitro data showing the release of VEGF from the ECM by MMP13 expressing fibroblasts, these data strongly suggest a crucial role of MMP13 in promoting angiogenesis via releasing VEGF from the ECM and thus allowing the invasive growth of the SCC cells. PMID:19892798

  13. MMP13 as a stromal mediator in controlling persistent angiogenesis in skin carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lederle, Wiltrud; Hartenstein, Bettina; Meides, Alice; Kunzelmann, Heike; Werb, Zena; Angel, Peter; Mueller, Margareta M

    2010-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP13 promote tumour growth and progression by mediating extracellular matrix (ECM) reorganization and regulating the biological activity of cytokines. Using Mmp13-/- mice, we demonstrate an essential role of this single collagenase for highly malignant and invasive growth in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Lack of host MMP13 strongly impaired tumour growth of malignant SCC cells, leading to small, mostly avascular cysts. While initial stromal activation in tumour transplants of Mmp13+/+ and Mmp13-/- animals was similar, MMP13 was essential for maintenance of angiogenesis and for invasion. MMP13 was induced in fibroblasts of the wild-type animals at the onset of invasion and correlated with a strong increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and its association with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 on endothelial cells in invasive areas. In contrast, VEGF protein in the stroma was barely detectable and tumour invasion was downregulated in Mmp13-/- animals, despite ongoing VEGF messenger RNA expression. Taken together with in vitro data showing the release of VEGF from the ECM by MMP13 expressing fibroblasts, these data strongly suggest a crucial role of MMP13 in promoting angiogenesis via releasing VEGF from the ECM and thus allowing the invasive growth of the SCC cells. PMID:19892798

  14. Loss of epidermal MMP-14 expression interferes with angiogenesis but not with re-epithelialization.

    PubMed

    Zigrino, Paola; Ayachi, Ouissam; Schild, Alexander; Kaltenberg, Jennifer; Zamek, Jan; Nischt, Roswitha; Koch, Manuel; Mauch, Cornelia

    2012-10-01

    Synthesis and activation of matrix metalloproteinases during wound healing are important for remodeling the extracellular matrix and modulating various cellular functions. The membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-14) has been shown to play a key role during these processes. To analyze the function of epidermal-derived MMP-14 during skin repair we generated mice lacking MMP-14 expression in the epidermis (MMP-14(ep-/-)). These mice displayed overall normal skin morphology and epidermal differentiation patterns. Wound repair in MMP-14(ep-/-) followed the same kinetics as in wild type mice (MMP-14(ep+/+)), and infiltration of neutrophils, leukocytes, and macrophages into the wound site was comparable. Microscopic analysis showed no altered re-epithelialization in the absence of epidermal MMP-14. Furthermore, epidermal differentiation at the end of the repair process and scar formation was normal. However, at day 14 post wounding, sustained angiogenesis was observed in MMP-14(ep-/-) mice in contrast to control mice. Interestingly, decreased levels of endostatin were detected in wound lysates of MMP-14(ep-/-) mice as well as in cultured keratinocytes. Taken together, these data indicate that MMP-14 expression in keratinocytes is dispensable for skin homeostasis and repair, but plays a crucial role in the epidermal-dermal crosstalk leading to modulation of vessel density. PMID:22717126

  15. MMP-19 deficiency causes aggravation of colitis due to defects in innate immune cell function.

    PubMed

    Brauer, R; Tureckova, J; Kanchev, I; Khoylou, M; Skarda, J; Prochazka, J; Spoutil, F; Beck, I M; Zbodakova, O; Kasparek, P; Korinek, V; Chalupsky, K; Karhu, T; Herzig, K-H; Hajduch, M; Gregor, M; Sedlacek, R

    2016-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are potential biomarkers for disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, clinical trials targeting MMPs have not succeeded, likely due to poor understanding of the biological functions of individual MMPs. Here, we explore the role of MMP-19 in IBD pathology. Using a DSS-induced model of colitis, we show evidence for increased susceptibility of Mmp-19-deficient (Mmp-19(-/-)) mice to colitis. Absence of MMP-19 leads to significant disease progression, with reduced survival rates, severe tissue destruction, and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory modulators in the colon and plasma, and failure to resolve inflammation. There was a striking delay in neutrophil infiltration into the colon of Mmp-19(-/-) mice during the acute colitis, leading to persistent inflammation and poor recovery; this was rescued by reconstitution of irradiated Mmp-19(-/-) mice with wild-type bone marrow. Additionally, Mmp-19-deficient macrophages exhibited decreased migration in vivo and in vitro and the mucosal barrier appeared compromised. Finally, chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) was identified as a novel substrate of MMP-19, suggesting a link between insufficient processing of CX3CL1 and cell recruitment in the Mmp-19(-/-) mice. MMP-19 proves to be a critical factor in balanced host response to colonic pathogens, and for orchestrating appropriate innate immune response in colitis. PMID:26555704

  16. Mechanical stretch induces MMP-2 release and activation in lung endothelium: role of EMMPRIN.

    PubMed

    Haseneen, Nadia A; Vaday, Gayle G; Zucker, Stanley; Foda, Hussein D

    2003-03-01

    High-volume mechanical ventilation leads to ventilator-induced lung injury. This type of lung injury is accompanied by an increased release and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). To investigate the mechanism leading to the increased MMP release, we systematically studied the effect of mechanical stretch on human microvascular endothelial cells isolated from the lung. We exposed cells grown on collagen 1 BioFlex plates to sinusoidal cyclic stretch at 0.5 Hz using the Flexercell system with 17-18% elongation of cells. After 4 days of cell stretching, conditioned media and cell lysate were collected and analyzed by gelatin, casein, and reverse zymograms as well as Western blotting. RT-PCR of mRNA extracted from stretched cells was performed. Our results show that 1) cyclic stretch led to increased release and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-1; 2) the activation of MMP-2 was accompanied by an increase in membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP) and inhibited by a hydroxamic acid-derived inhibitor of MMPs (Prinomastat, AG3340); and 3) the MMP-2 release and activation were preceded by an increase in production of extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN). These results suggest that cyclic mechanical stretch leads to MMP-2 activation through an MT1-MMP mechanism. EMMPRIN may play an important role in the release and activation of MMPs during lung injury. PMID:12456388

  17. UVA-mediated down-regulation of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP coincides with impaired angiogenic phenotype of human dermal endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cauchard, Jean-Hubert; Robinet, Arnaud; Poitevin, Stephane; Bobichon, Helene; Maziere, Jean-Claude; Bellon, Georges; Hornebeck, William . E-mail: william.hornebeck@univ-reims.fr

    2006-06-30

    UVA irradiation, dose-dependently (5-20 J/cm{sup 2}), was shown to impair the morphogenic differentiation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) on Matrigel. Parallely, UVA down-regulated the expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. On the contrary, the production of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 by HMECs increased following UVA treatment. The inhibitory effect of UVA on MMP expression and pseudotubes formation was mediated by UVA-generated singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}). The contribution of MT1-MMP, but not TIMP-1, to the regulation of HMECs' angiogenic phenotype following UVA irradiation was suggested using elastin-derived peptides and TIMP-1 blocking antibody, respectively.

  18. MMP28 promotes macrophage polarization toward M2 cells and augments pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Sina A.; Johnston, Laura K.; Huizar, Isham; Birkland, Timothy P.; Hanson, Josiah; Wang, Ying; Parks, William C.; Manicone, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the MMP family function in various processes of innate immunity, particularly in controlling important steps in leukocyte trafficking and activation. MMP28 (epilysin) is a member of this family of proteinases, and we have found that MMP28 is expressed by macrophages and regulates their recruitment to the lung. We hypothesized that MMP28 regulates other key macrophage responses, such as macrophage polarization. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these MMP28-dependent changes in macrophage polarization would alter fibrotic responses in the lung. We examined the gene expression changes in WT and Mmp28−/− BMDMs, stimulated with LPS or IL-4/IL-13 to promote M1 and M2 cells, respectively. We also collected macrophages from the lungs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-exposed WT and Mmp28−/− mice to evaluate changes in macrophage polarization. Lastly, we evaluated the macrophage polarization phenotypes during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in WT and Mmp28−/− mice and assessed mice for differences in weight loss and total collagen levels. We found that MMP28 dampens proinflammatory macrophage function and promots M2 programming. In both in vivo models, we found deficits in M2 polarization in Mmp28−/− mice. In bleomycin-induced lung injury, these changes were associated with reduced fibrosis. MMP28 is an important regulator of macrophage polarization, promoting M2 function. Loss of MMP28 results in reduced M2 polarization and protection from bleomycin-induced fibrosis. These findings highlight a novel role for MMP28 in macrophage biology and pulmonary disease. PMID:23964118

  19. Overexpression of MMP-7 increases collagen 1A2 in the aging kidney

    PubMed Central

    Ślusarz, Anna; Nichols, LaNita A; Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A; Chen, Gang; Akintola, Adebayo D; Catania, Jeffery M; Burghardt, Robert C; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Parrish, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    The percentage of the U.S. population over 65 is rapidly increasing, as is the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The kidney is susceptible to age-dependent alterations in structure, specifically tubulointerstitial fibrosis that leads to CKD. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were initially characterized as extracellular matrix (ECM) proteinases; however, it is clear that their biological role is much larger. We have observed increased gene expression of several MMPs in the aging kidney, including MMP-7. MMP-7 overexpression was observed starting at 16 months, with over a 500-fold upregulation in 2-year-old animals. Overexpression of MMP-7 is not observed in age-matched, calorically restricted controls that do not develop fibrosis and renal dysfunction, suggesting a role in the pathogenesis. In order to delineate the contributions of MMP-7 to renal dysfunction, we overexpressed MMP-7 in NRK-52E cells. High-throughput sequencing of the cells revealed that two collagen genes, Col1a2 and Col3a1, were elevated in the MMP-7 overexpressing cells. These two collagen genes were also elevated in aging rat kidneys and temporally correlated with increased MMP-7 expression. Addition of exogenous MMP-7, or conditioned media from MMP-7 overexpressing cells also increased Col1A2 expression. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA), src, and MAPK signaling at p38 and ERK was able to attenuate the MMP-7 upregulation of Col1a2. Consistent with this finding, increased phosphorylation of PKA, src, and ERK was seen in MMP-7 overexpressing cells and upon exogenous MMP-7 treatment of NRK-52E cells. These data suggest a novel mechanism by which MMP-7 contributes to the development of fibrosis leading to CKD. PMID:24273653

  20. Overexpression of MMP-7 Increases Collagen 1A2 in the Aging Kidney.

    PubMed

    Oelusarz, Anna; Nichols, Lanita A; Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A; Chen, Gang; Akintola, Adebayo D; Catania, Jeffery M; Burghardt, Robert C; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Parrish, Alan R

    2013-10-01

    The percentage of the U.S. population over 65 is rapidly increasing, as is the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The kidney is susceptible to age-dependent alterations in structure, specifically tubulointerstitial fibrosis, that lead to CKD. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were initially characterized as extracellular matrix (ECM) proteinases; however it is clear that their biological role is much larger. We have observed increased gene expression of several MMPs in the aging kidney, including MMP-7. MMP-7 overexpression was observed starting at 16 months, and over a 500 fold up-regulation in 2 year-old animals. Overexpression of MMP-7 is not observed in age-matched, calorically restricted controls that do not develop fibrosis and renal dysfunction, suggesting a role in the pathogenesis. In order to delineate the contributions of MMP-7 to renal dysfunction, we overexpressed MMP-7 in NRK-52E cells. High-throughput sequencing of the cells revealed that two collagen genes, Col1a2 and Col3a1, were elevated in the MMP-7 overexpressing cells. These two collagen genes were also elevated in aging rat kidneys and temporally correlated with increased MMP-7 expression. Addition of exogenous MMP-7, or conditioned media from MMP-7 overexpressing cells also increased Col1A2 expression. Inhibition of PKA, src, and MAPK signaling at p38 and ERK was able to attenuate the MMP-7 up-regulation of Col1a2. Consistent with this finding, increased phosphorylation of PKA, src and ERK was seen in MMP-7 overexpressing cells and upon exogenous MMP-7 treatment of NRK-52E cells. These data suggest a novel mechanism by which MMP-7 contributes to the development of fibrosis leading to CKD. PMID:24273653

  1. Effect of adipic dihydrazide modification on the performance of collagen/hyaluronic acid scaffold.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Xiao, Yumei; Jiang, Bo; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2010-02-01

    Collagen and hydrazide-functionalized hyaluronic acid derivatives were hybridized by gelating and genipin crosslinking to form composite hydrogel. The study contributed to the understanding of the effects of adipic dihydrazide modification on the physicochemical and biological properties of the collagen/hyaluronic acid scaffold. The investigation included morphology observation, mechanical measurement, swelling evaluation, and collagenase degradation. The results revealed that the stability of composites was increased through adipic dihydrazide modification and genipin crosslinking. The improved biocompatibility and retention of hyaluronic acid made the composite material more favorable to chondrocytes growing, suggesting the prepared scaffold might be high potential for chondrogenesis. PMID:19810117

  2. Hyaluronic acid fragments enhance the inflammatory and catabolic response in human intervertebral disc cells through modulation of toll-like receptor 2 signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is characterized by extracellular matrix breakdown and is considered to be a primary cause of discogenic back pain. Although increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels within degenerating discs are associated with discogenic back pain, the mechanisms leading to their overproduction have not yet been elucidated. As fragmentation of matrix components occurs during IVD degeneration, we assessed the potential involvement of hyaluronic acid fragments (fHAs) in the induction of inflammatory and catabolic mediators. Methods Human IVD cells isolated from patient biopsies were stimulated with fHAs (6 to 12 disaccharides) and their effect on cytokine and matrix degrading enzyme production was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The involvement of specific cell surface receptors and signal transduction pathways in mediating the effects of fHAs was tested using small interfering RNA (siRNA) approaches and kinase inhibition assays. Results Treatment of IVD cells with fHAs significantly increased mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and -13. The stimulatory effects of fHAs on IL-6 protein production were significantly impaired when added to IVD cells in combination with either Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 siRNA or a TLR2 neutralizing antibody. Furthermore, the ability of fHAs to enhance IL-6 and MMP-3 protein production was found to be dependent on the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway. Conclusions These findings suggest that fHAs may have the potential to mediate IVD degeneration and discogenic back pain through activation of the TLR2 signaling pathway in resident IVD cells. PMID:23968377

  3. A hyaluronic acid-salmon calcitonin conjugate for the local treatment of osteoarthritis: chondro-protective effect in a rabbit model of early OA.

    PubMed

    Mero, Anna; Campisi, Monica; Favero, Marta; Barbera, Carlo; Secchieri, Cynthia; Dayer, Jean M; Goldring, Mary B; Goldring, Steven R; Pasut, Gianfranco

    2014-08-10

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by chronic degeneration of joints, involving mainly the articular cartilage and the underlying bone, and severely impairing the quality of life of the patient. Although with limited efficacy, currently available pharmacological treatments for OA aim to control pain and to retard disease progression. Salmon calcitonin (sCT) is a drug which has been shown to have therapeutic effects in experimental arthritis by inhibiting both bone turnover and cartilage degradation and reducing the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). High molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) is used as a lubricant in OA therapy, and, interestingly, HA polymers may normalize the levels of MMP-1, -3 and -13. We demonstrated that sCT rapidly clears from the knee joint of rat animal model, after intra-articular (i.a.) administration, and it induces systemic effects. Here, sCT was conjugated to HA (200kDa) with the aim of prolonging the residence time of the polypeptide in the joint space by reducing its clearance. An aldehyde derivative of HA was used for N-terminal site-selective coupling of sCT. The activity of sCT was preserved, both in vitro and in vivo, after its conjugation and the i.a. injection of HA-sCT did not trigger any systemic effects in rats. The efficacy of HA-sCT treatment was tested in a rabbit OA model and clear chondro-protective effect was proven by macro- and microscopic assessments and histological findings. Our results indicate that HAylation of sCT increases the size of the polypeptide in a stable covalent manner and delays its passage into the blood stream. We conclude that HA conjugation prolongs the anti-catabolic effects of sCT in joint tissues, including the synovial membrane and cartilage. PMID:24837189

  4. MMP1-1607 polymorphism increases the risk for periapical lesion development through the upregulation MMP-1 expression in association with pro-inflammatory milieu elements

    PubMed Central

    TROMBONE, Ana Paula Favaro; CAVALLA, Franco; SILVEIRA, Elcia Maria Varize; ANDREO, Camile Bermejo; FRANCISCONI, Carolina Favaro; FONSECA, Angélica Cristina; LETRA, Ariadne; SILVA, Renato Menezes; GARLET, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is a hallmark of periapical granulomas. However, the factors underlying the MMPs expression modulation in healthy and diseased periapical tissues remains to be determined. Objective In this study, we evaluated the association between the MMP1-1607 polymorphism (rs1799750) and pro-inflammatory milieu elements with MMP-1 mRNA levels in vivo. Material and Methods MMP1-1607 SNP and the mRNA levels of MMP-1, TNF-a, IFN-g, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-10, IL-4, IL-9, and FOXp3 were determined via RealTimePCR in DNA/RNA samples from patients presenting periapical granulomas (N=111, for both genotyping and expression analysis) and control subjects (N=214 for genotyping and N=26 for expression analysis). The Shapiro-Wilk, Fisher, Pearson, Chi-square ordinal least squares regression tests were used for data analysis (p<0.05 was considered statistically significant). Results The MMP1-1607 1G/2G and 1G/2G+2G/2G genotypes were significantly more prevalent in the patients than in controls, comprising a risk factor for periapical lesions development. MMP-1 mRNA levels were higher in periapical lesions than in healthy periodontal ligament samples, as well as higher in active than in inactive lesions. The polymorphic allele 2G carriers presented a significantly higher MMP-1 mRNA expression when compared with the 1G/1G genotype group. The ordered logistic regression demonstrated a significant correlation between the genetic polymorphism and the expression levels of MMP-1. Additionally, the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-17A, IFN-g, TNF-a, IL-21, IL-10, IL-9, and IL-4 were significant as complementary explanatory variables of MMP-1 expression. Conclusion The MMP1-1607 SNP was identified as a risk factor for periapical lesions development, possibly due to its association with increased MMP-1 mRNA levels in periapical lesions. The MMP-1 expression is also under the control of the inflammatory milieu elements, being the

  5. MMpI: A WideRange of Available Compounds of Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Muvva, Charuvaka; Patra, Sanjukta; Venkatesan, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent proteinases involved in the regulation of the extracellular signaling and structural matrix environment of cells and tissues. MMPs are considered as promising targets for the treatment of many diseases. Therefore, creation of database on the inhibitors of MMP would definitely accelerate the research activities in this area due to its implication in above-mentioned diseases and associated limitations in the first and second generation inhibitors. In this communication, we report the development of a new MMpI database which provides resourceful information for all researchers working in this field. It is a web-accessible, unique resource that contains detailed information on the inhibitors of MMP including small molecules, peptides and MMP Drug Leads. The database contains entries of ~3000 inhibitors including ~72 MMP Drug Leads and ~73 peptide based inhibitors. This database provides the detailed molecular and structural details which are necessary for the drug discovery and development. The MMpI database contains physical properties, 2D and 3D structures (mol2 and pdb format files) of inhibitors of MMP. Other data fields are hyperlinked to PubChem, ChEMBL, BindingDB, DrugBank, PDB, MEROPS and PubMed. The database has extensive searching facility with MMpI ID, IUPAC name, chemical structure and with the title of research article. The MMP inhibitors provided in MMpI database are optimized using Python-based Hierarchical Environment for Integrated Xtallography (Phenix) software. MMpI Database is unique and it is the only public database that contains and provides the complete information on the inhibitors of MMP. Database URL: http://clri.res.in/subramanian/databases/mmpi/index.php. PMID:27509041

  6. Genetic polymorphism of MMP family and coronary disease susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Shi, Jingpu; Fu, Lingyu; Wang, Hailong; Zhou, Bo; Wu, Xiaomei

    2012-03-01

    The issue that genetic polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family is in association with coronary disease is controversial. So we did a meta-analysis to clarify it clearly. We made a literature search of PubMed, the Web of Science, and Cochrane Collaboration's database to identify eligible reports. The methodological quality of each included studies was assessed. We calculated the pooled ORs with their 95%CI for each genetic polymorphism in STATA 11 software. Separate analysis was performed to address the consistency of results across the subgroup with different continents. A total of 39 studies were included, with a sample of 42269 individuals. This meta-analysis provided evidence that genetic polymorphism of MMP1-1607 1G/2G, MMP3-Gly45lys, MMP3-376 G/C, MMP3-1171 5A/6A, MMP9-1562 C/T and MMP9-R279Q have a small to medium effect on incidence of coronary disease. There was no evidence that MMP1-519 A/G, MMP1-340 T/C and MMP2-1306 C/T polymorphism could increase risk of coronary disease. Results from subgroup analysis supported a relation between MMP3-1711 5A allele, MMP9-1562 C allele and coronary disease especially in Asian population. The results provide moderate association between the six common genetic polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase family and coronary disease. However, the challenge for researcher is identifying separate effect on different races. PMID:22226810

  7. MMP-9 expression is associated with leukocytic but not endothelial markers in brain arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongmei; Fan, Yongfeng; Poon, K Y Trudy; Achrol, Achal S; Lawton, Michael T; Zhu, Yiqian; McCulloch, Charles E; Hashimoto, Tomoki; Lee, Chanhung; Barbaro, Nicholas M; Bollen, Andrew W; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Young, William L

    2006-01-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) have high matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression, the source of which is unclear. We hypothesized MMP-9 production might be due to inflammation in BAVM. Compared to control brain tissues (n = 5), BAVM tissue (n = 139) had a higher expression (by ELISA) of myeloperoxidase (MPO) (193 +/- 189 vs. 6 +/- 3, ng/mg, P < .001), MMP-9 (28 +/- 32 vs. 0.7 +/- 0.6, ng/mg, P < .001), and IL-6 (102 +/- 218 vs. 0.1 +/- 0.1, pg/mg, P < .001), but not eNOS (114 +/- 87 vs. 65 +/- 9, pg/mg, P = .09). MMP-9 expression in BAVM highly correlated with myeloperoxidase (R2 = .76, P < .001), as well as with IL-6 (R2 = .32, P < .001). In contrast, MMP-9 in BAVM poorly correlated with the endothelial marker, eNOS (R2 = .03, P = .05), and CD31 (R2 = .004, P = .57). Compared to non-embolized patients (n = 46), patients with pre-operative embolization (n = 93) had higher levels of myeloperoxidase (236 +/- 205 vs. 106 +/- 108, ng/mg, P < .001) and MMP-9 (33 +/- 35 vs. 16 +/- 20, ng/mg, P < .001), however the correlation between MMP-9 and myeloperoxidase was equally strong for both groups (R2 = .69, n = 93, P < .001, for both). MMP-9 expression correlated with the lipocalin-MMP-9 complex, suggesting neutrophils as the MMP-9 source. MPO co-localized with majority of MMP-9 signal by immunohistochemistry. Our data suggest that inflammation is a prominent feature of BAVM lesional phenotype, and neutrophils appear to be a major source of MMP-9 in these lesions. PMID:16720380

  8. MMpI: A WideRange of Available Compounds of Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Muvva, Charuvaka; Patra, Sanjukta; Venkatesan, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent proteinases involved in the regulation of the extracellular signaling and structural matrix environment of cells and tissues. MMPs are considered as promising targets for the treatment of many diseases. Therefore, creation of database on the inhibitors of MMP would definitely accelerate the research activities in this area due to its implication in above-mentioned diseases and associated limitations in the first and second generation inhibitors. In this communication, we report the development of a new MMpI database which provides resourceful information for all researchers working in this field. It is a web-accessible, unique resource that contains detailed information on the inhibitors of MMP including small molecules, peptides and MMP Drug Leads. The database contains entries of ~3000 inhibitors including ~72 MMP Drug Leads and ~73 peptide based inhibitors. This database provides the detailed molecular and structural details which are necessary for the drug discovery and development. The MMpI database contains physical properties, 2D and 3D structures (mol2 and pdb format files) of inhibitors of MMP. Other data fields are hyperlinked to PubChem, ChEMBL, BindingDB, DrugBank, PDB, MEROPS and PubMed. The database has extensive searching facility with MMpI ID, IUPAC name, chemical structure and with the title of research article. The MMP inhibitors provided in MMpI database are optimized using Python-based Hierarchical Environment for Integrated Xtallography (Phenix) software. MMpI Database is unique and it is the only public database that contains and provides the complete information on the inhibitors of MMP. Database URL: http://clri.res.in/subramanian/databases/mmpi/index.php. PMID:27509041

  9. Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) deficiency protects C57BL/6 mice from antibody-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important in tissue remodelling. Here we investigate the role of collagenase-3 (MMP-13) in antibody-induced arthritis. Methods For this study we employed the K/BxN serum-induced arthritis model. Arthritis was induced in C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and MMP-13-deficient (MMP-13–/–) mice by intraperitoneal injection of 200 μl of K/BxN serum. Arthritis was assessed by measuring the ankle swelling. During the course of the experiments, mice were sacrificed every second day for histological examination of the ankle joints. Ankle sections were evaluated histologically for infiltration of inflammatory cells, pannus tissue formation and bone/cartilage destruction. Semi-quantitative PCR was used to determine MMP-13 expression levels in ankle joints of untreated and K/BxN serum-injected mice. Results This study shows that MMP-13 is a regulator of inflammation. We observed increased expression of MMP-13 in ankle joints of WT mice during K/BxN serum-induced arthritis and both K/BxN serum-treated WT and MMP-13–/– mice developed progressive arthritis with a similar onset. However, MMP-13–/– mice showed significantly reduced disease over the whole arthritic period. Ankle joints of WT mice showed severe joint destruction with extensive inflammation and erosion of cartilage and bone. In contrast, MMP-13–/– mice displayed significantly decreased severity of arthritis (50% to 60%) as analyzed by clinical and histological scoring methods. Conclusions MMP-13 deficiency acts to suppress the local inflammatory responses. Therefore, MMP-13 has a role in the pathogenesis of arthritis, suggesting MMP-13 is a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24369907

  10. LOX-1 inhibition in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: modulation of MMP-1 and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Li, Dayuan; Williams, Victor; Liu, Ling; Chen, Hongjiang; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Antakli, Tamim; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2002-11-01

    A recently identified lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1) mediates endothelial cell injury and facilitates inflammatory cell adhesion. We studied the role of LOX-1 in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 60 min of left coronary artery (LCA) ligation, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Rats were treated with saline, LOX-1 blocking antibody JXT21 (10 mg/kg), or nonspecific anti-goat IgG (10 mg/kg) before I/R. Ten other rats underwent surgery without LCA ligation and served as a sham control group. LOX-1 expression was markedly increased during I/R (P < 0.01 vs. sham control group). Simultaneously, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and adhesion molecules (P-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1) was also increased in the I/R area (P < 0.01 vs. sham control group). There was intense leukocyte accumulation in the I/R area in the saline-treated group. Treatment of rats with the LOX-1 antibody prevented I/R-induced upregulation of LOX-1 and reduced MMP-1 and adhesion molecule expression as well as leukocyte recruitment. LOX-1 antibody, but not nonspecific IgG, also reduced myocardial infarct size (P < 0.01 vs. saline-treated I/R group). To explore the link between LOX-1 and adhesion molecule expression, we measured expression of oxidative stress-sensitive p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). The activity of p38 MAPK was increased during I/R (P < 0.01 vs. sham control), and use of LOX-1 antibody inhibited p38 MAPK activation (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that myocardial I/R upregulates LOX-1 expression, which through p38 MAPK activation increases the expression of MMP-1 and adhesion molecules. Inhibition of LOX-1 exerts an important protective effect against myocardial I/R injury. PMID:12384456