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Sample records for mnster germany 4-9

  1. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce DISCLOSURE OF GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by...

  2. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must meet the criteria listed at 11 CFR 4.1(n) and his or her request must not be made for a commercial...) or (2) of this section apply, the administrative time limits prescribed in 11 CFR 4.7(c) will begin... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fees. 4.9 Section 4.9 Federal Elections...

  3. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must meet the criteria listed at 11 CFR 4.1(n) and his or her request must not be made for a commercial...) or (2) of this section apply, the administrative time limits prescribed in 11 CFR 4.7(c) will begin... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Fees. 4.9 Section 4.9 Federal Elections...

  4. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must meet the criteria listed at 11 CFR 4.1(n) and his or her request must not be made for a commercial...) or (2) of this section apply, the administrative time limits prescribed in 11 CFR 4.7(c) will begin... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fees. 4.9 Section 4.9 Federal Elections...

  5. Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Margaret

    Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are…

  6. 16 CFR 4.9 - The public record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The public record. 4.9 Section 4.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.9 The public record. (a) General. (1) Materials on the public record of the Commission are available for public inspection and copying...

  7. 16 CFR 4.9 - The public record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The public record. 4.9 Section 4.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.9 The public record. (a) General. (1) Materials on the public record of the Commission are available for public inspection and copying...

  8. 38 CFR 4.9 - Congenital or developmental defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Congenital or developmental defects. 4.9 Section 4.9 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.9 Congenital or developmental defects. Mere congenital or developmental defects,...

  9. 43 CFR 1610.4-9 - Monitoring and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Monitoring and evaluation. 1610.4-9 Section 1610.4-9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING...

  10. Energy Conservation Education. An Action Approach. Grades 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamm, Michael; Samuel, Barry C.

    Seventeen lessons are provided in this curriculum designed to involve students (grades 4-9) in energy conservation. The lessons are presented in four parts. The three lessons in part I are intended to give students a preliminary conceptual framework for energy conservation and to motivate them to participate in the conservation-action projects…

  11. 2012 BATTERIES GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, MARCH 4-9, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Harris

    2012-03-09

    The Gordon Research Conference on BATTERIES was held at Four Points Sheraton / Holiday Inn Express, Ventura, California, March 4-9, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 176 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  12. 77 FR 45503 - 4.9 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...-4990 MHz (4.9 GHz) band applicants from certified frequency coordination. Next, the Commission corrects.... Finally, the Commission corrects minor errors in the Public Safety Pool Frequency Table and associated... print, audio cassette, and Braille) are available to persons with disabilities or by sending an email...

  13. 4.9 Doses to Infants From Breastfeeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.9 Doses to Infants From Breastfeeding' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  14. 47 CFR 4.9 - Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria. 4.9 Section 4.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications § 4.9 Outage reporting requirements—threshold criteria. (a) Cable. All...

  15. 47 CFR 4.9 - Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria. 4.9 Section 4.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications § 4.9 Outage reporting requirements—threshold criteria. (a) Cable. All...

  16. 47 CFR 4.9 - Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria. 4.9 Section 4.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications § 4.9 Outage reporting requirements—threshold criteria. (a) Cable. All...

  17. Enterocin F4-9, a Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Bacteriocin.

    PubMed

    Maky, Mohamed Abdelfattah; Ishibashi, Naoki; Zendo, Takeshi; Perez, Rodney Honrada; Doud, Jehan Ragab; Karmi, Mohamed; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Enterococcus faecalis F4-9 isolated from Egyptian salted-fermented fish produces a novel bacteriocin, termed enterocin F4-9. Enterocin F4-9 was purified from the culture supernatant by three steps, and its molecular mass was determined to be 5,516.6 Da by mass spectrometry. Amino acid and DNA sequencing showed that the propeptide consists of 67 amino acid residues, with a leader peptide containing a double glycine cleavage site to produce a 47-amino-acid mature peptide. Enterocin F4-9 is modified by two molecules of N-acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to Ser37 and Thr46. The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties are essential for the antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9. Further analysis of the enterocin F4-9 gene cluster identified enfC, which has high sequence similarity to a glycosyltransferase. The antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9 covered a limited range of bacteria, including, interestingly, a Gram-negative strain, Escherichia coli JM109. Enterocin F4-9 is sensitive to protease, active at a wide pH range, and moderately resistant to heat. PMID:25956765

  18. Music Training in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special-issue volume examines music education in the two Germanies and how music has had a great influence in the culture of the nations. The presentation is a professional and objective portrayal of music training and cultivation in Germany in the last decade of the present century. The articles attempt to outline the problems and tasks that…

  19. Germany and NATO

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This work includes the following topics: Road to NATO Germany in NATO, Germany and NATO Defense Policy, Evolution of NATO, German Security in NATO-Domestic Considerations, Toward the Future, The Brussels Treaty, The North Atlantic Treaty, The Future Tasks of Alliance (Harmel Report).

  20. Promoting Literacy in Grades 4-9: A Handbook for Teachers and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Karen D., Ed.; Dickinson, Thomas S., Ed.

    This comprehensive handbook focuses on literacy issues in grades 4-9. It is a reference guide that covers everything from the role of the principal and the characteristics of the learners to teaching the gifted and motivating the reluctant learner. Chapters offer an array of examples of student work, classroom vignettes, sample lessons, and…

  1. Hox-1.11 and Hox-4.9 homeobox genes.

    PubMed Central

    Nazarali, A; Kim, Y; Nirenberg, M

    1992-01-01

    Mouse Hox-1.11 and Hox-4.9 genes were cloned, and the nucleotide sequences of the homeobox regions were determined. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis of the homeobox regions of cloned Hox-4.3 and Hox-4.2 genomic DNA revealed some differences in nucleotide sequences and in the deduced homeodomain amino acid sequences compared with the sequences that have been reported. Images PMID:1348361

  2. Caring Communities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreisle, Beate

    2012-01-01

    "Caring communities" is a great sounding line, but what does it really mean? There are many ways that communities which present themselves as caring make life easier or worse for those who live there. For centuries in Germany, there have been religious groups who claim to care for each member. By definition, this is circumscribed caring as it…

  3. Career Development in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Hubert

    In Germany, after elementary school, the school system splits into three branches, with students either preparing for an apprenticeship or continuing in school. A second system exists, parallel to this education system, which combines general education with basic professional training. The first key career decision point is in Grade 4, when…

  4. Adult Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, John

    This study is limited essentially to adult education in West Germany, although the historical sections include references to earlier experiences and experiments in areas now Russian-occupied. The terms "adult edcuation" and "workers' education" are clarified. Both are presented as separate movements. Brief reference is made to political, social,…

  5. Germany in Europe 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    The results of the 10-week National Defense Education Act (NDEA) Third-Level Institute for Secondary School Teachers of German, conducted by Stanford University in Bad Boll, Germany, are compiled in individual reports written in both German and English by the 25 participants. Emphasizing close contact with the residents in their working and home…

  6. Teacher Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viebahn, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Applies the concepts of idealism, individualism, and pragmatism from the Association for Teacher Education in Europe's scenario model to Germany's teacher education. Discusses the current German teacher training system's scholarly approach to idealism; notes organizational problems; examines the special psychological demands on students made by…

  7. Germany knows mining

    SciTech Connect

    2006-11-15

    Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

  8. Altered Striatal Synaptic Function and Abnormal Behaviour in Shank3 Exon4-9 Deletion Mouse Model of Autism.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Thomas C; Speed, Haley E; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M

    2016-03-01

    Shank3 is a multi-domain, synaptic scaffolding protein that organizes proteins in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Clinical studies suggest that ∼ 0.5% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases may involve SHANK3 mutation/deletion. Patients with SHANK3 mutations exhibit deficits in cognition along with delayed/impaired speech/language and repetitive and obsessive/compulsive-like (OCD-like) behaviors. To examine how mutation/deletion of SHANK3 might alter brain function leading to ASD, we have independently created mice with deletion of Shank3 exons 4-9, a region implicated in ASD patients. We find that homozygous deletion of exons 4-9 (Shank3(e4-9) KO) results in loss of the two highest molecular weight isoforms of Shank3 and a significant reduction in other isoforms. Behaviorally, both Shank3(e4-9) heterozygous (HET) and Shank3(e4-9) KO mice display increased repetitive grooming, deficits in novel and spatial object recognition learning and memory, and abnormal ultrasonic vocalizations. Shank3(e4-9) KO mice also display abnormal social interaction when paired with one another. Analysis of synaptosome fractions from striata of Shank3(e4-9) KO mice reveals decreased Homer1b/c, GluA2, and GluA3 expression. Both Shank3(e4-9) HET and KO demonstrated a significant reduction in NMDA/AMPA ratio at excitatory synapses onto striatal medium spiny neurons. Furthermore, Shank3(e4-9) KO mice displayed reduced hippocampal LTP despite normal baseline synaptic transmission. Collectively these behavioral, biochemical and physiological changes suggest Shank3 isoforms have region-specific roles in regulation of AMPAR subunit localization and NMDAR function in the Shank3(e4-9) mutant mouse model of autism. PMID:26559786

  9. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD. PMID:27082951

  10. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Karoff, Marthin; Held, Klaus; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the rehabilitation measures provided for cardiac patients in Germany and to outline its legal basis and outcomes. In Germany the cardiac rehabilitation system is different from rehabilitation measures in other European countries. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany since 1885 is based on specific laws and the regulations of insurance providers. Cardiac rehabilitation has predominantly been offered as an inpatient service, but has recently been complemented by outpatient services. A general agreement on the different indications for offering these two services has yet to be reached. Cardiac rehabilitation is mainly offered after an acute cardiac event and bypass surgery. It is also indicated in severe heart failure and special cases of percutaneous coronary intervention. Most patients are men (>65%) and the age at which events occur is increasing. The benefits obtained during the 3-4 weeks after an acute event, and confirmed in numerous studies, are often later lost under 'usual care' conditions. Many attempts have been made by rehabilitation institutions to improve this deficit by providing intensive aftercare. One instrument set up to achieve this is the nationwide institution currently comprising more than 6000 heart groups with approximately 120000 outpatients. After coronary artery bypass grafting or acute coronary syndrome cardiac rehabilitation can usually be started within 10 days. The multidisciplinary rehabilitation team consists of cardiologists, psychologists, exercise therapists, social workers, nutritionists and nurses. The positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation are also important economically, for example, for the improvement of secondary prevention and vocational integration. PMID:17301623

  11. The Beni Haoua, Algeria, Mw 4.9 earthquake: source parameters, engineering, and seismotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbes, Khadidja; Dorbath, Louis; Dorbath, Catherine; Djeddi, Mohamed; Ousadou, Farida; Maouche, Said; Benkaci, Nassima; Slimani, Abdennasser; Larbes, Said; Bouziane, Djillali

    2016-04-01

    A moderate Mw 4.9 earthquake struck the Beni Haoua (Algeria) coastal area on April 25, 2012. The mainshock was largely recorded by the accelerograph network of the Centre National de Recherche Appliquée en Génie Parasismique (CGS). The same day the earthquake occurred, eight mobile short period stations were deployed through the epicentral area. In this study, we use accelerogram and seismogram data recorded by these two networks. We combined the focal mechanism built from the first motion of P waves and from waveform inversion, and the distribution of aftershocks to well constrain the source parameters. The mainshock is located with a shallow focal depth, ˜9 km, and the focal mechanism shows a nearly pure left lateral strike slip motion, with total seismic moment of 2.8 × 1016 N.m (Mw = 4.9). The aftershocks mainly cluster on a narrow NS strip, starting at the coast up to 3-4 km inland. This cluster, almost vertical, is concentrated between 6 and 10 km depth. The second part of this work concerns the damage distribution and estimated intensity in the epicentral area. The damage distribution is discussed in connection with the observed maximum strong motion. The acceleration response spectrum with 5 % damping of the mainshock and aftershocks give the maximum amplitude in high frequency which directly affects the performance of the high-frequency structures. Finally, we tie this earthquake with the seismotectonic of the region, leading to conclude that it occurred on a N-S transform zone between two major compressional fault zones oriented NE-SW.

  12. [Prenatal care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Vetter, K; Goeckenjan, M

    2013-12-01

    Prenatal care in Germany is based on a nationwide standardized program of care for pregnant women. Besides support and health counseling, it comprises prevention or early detection of diseases or unfavorable circumstances with risks for mother and child. Prenatal care is regulated by law and structured by directives and standard procedures in maternity guidelines (Mutterschafts-Richtlinien). This includes information and counseling of future mothers on offers of psychosocial and medical assistance in normal pregnancies as well as in unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. Further aspects are clinical examinations and risk determinations for genetic variations or direct genetic analysis. During pregnancy, medical history, clinical examination, and blood testing are part of the sophisticated program, which includes at least three standardized sonographic examinations at 10, 20, and 30 weeks of gestation. The maternity passport allows a pregnant woman to carry the most relevant information on her pregnancy and her personal risks with her. For 45 years now, women in Germany are used to carrying their Mutterpass. Societal changes have influenced the central goals of maternity care: In the beginning, the mortality of mother and child had to be reduced. Today, maternal morbidity and impaired development of the child are the center of interest, with expansion to familial satisfaction. The reduction in the mortality and morbidity of both the mother and the child during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum can be attributed to prenatal care. Thus, investment in a program of nationwide structured prenatal care seems to be worthwhile-despite the lack of evidence concerning its effectiveness. PMID:24337130

  13. Vocational Education in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Research Branch.

    This report describes vocational education in West Germany from a Canadian viewpoint. Chapter 1 discusses education in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1949, including findings and govermental agencies/departments. A resume of the school system is provided in chapter 2. It covers kindergarten and preschool facilities, primary school, three…

  14. Mass Media in East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Antje

    This paper focuses on media politics, guidance and control mechanisms, journalism education, various modes of media in use, and coverage of important news in East Germany. The paper gives special consideration to the influence of West German broadcasting in East Germany. The need for such information is that it will give insight into Eastern bloc…

  15. Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans

    About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…

  16. Phytomedicine research in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, H

    1999-01-01

    In Germany since 1980, more than 300 clinical studies have been carried out with standardized phytopharmaceuticals, including Crataegus, Silybum, Ginkgo, Hypericum, Sabal, Urtica, Kava-Kava, Allium sativum, Valeriana, Aesculus, Echinacea, and Viscum drugs. These studies assessed the efficacy of phytopharmaceuticals for the treatment of moderate or moderately severe diseases and prevention. Several comparative clinical trials showed that these phytopharmaceuticals had full therapeutic equivalence with chemotherapeutics and had the simultaneous advantage of being devoid of any adverse effects. The mechanism of action of herbal drugs and their extract preparations, which differ in many respects from that of synthetic drugs or mono substances, can be characterized as a polyvalent action and interpreted as additive or, in some cases, potentiating. Currently, a rationale for the observed reversal effects and optimal effects with very low doses after a long-term application has not been developed, but is under investigation by systematic research at the molecular level. PMID:10504142

  17. OBSERVATIONAL LIMITS ON THE GAS MASS OF A z = 4.9 GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Livermore, R. C.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Bower, R. G.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Edge, A. C.; Geach, J. E.; Richard, J.; Crain, R. A.

    2012-10-20

    We present the results of a search for molecular gas emission from a star-forming galaxy at z = 4.9. The galaxy benefits from magnification of 22 {+-} 5 Multiplication-Sign due to strong gravitational lensing by the foreground cluster MS1358+62. We target the CO(5-4) emission at a known position and redshift from existing Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging and Gemini/NIFS [O II]3727 imaging spectroscopy, and obtain a tentative detection at the 4.3{sigma} level with a flux of 0.104 {+-} 0.024 Jy km s{sup -1}. From the CO line luminosity and assuming a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor {alpha} = 2, we derive a gas mass M{sub gas} {approx} 1{sup +1}{sub -0.6} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. Combined with the existing data, we derive a gas fraction M{sub gas}/(M{sub gas} + M{sub *}) = 0.59{sup +0.11}{sub -0.06}. The faint line flux of this galaxy highlights the difficulty of observing molecular gas in representative galaxies at this epoch, and suggests that routine detections of similar galaxies in the absence of gravitational lensing will remain challenging even with ALMA in full science operations.

  18. Photophysical properties and semiempirical calculations of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetramethylester (PTME).

    PubMed

    El-Daly, Samy A; Awad, Mohamed K; Abdel-Halim, Shakir T; Dowidar, Dina A

    2008-12-01

    The spectral behavior and fluorescence quantum yield of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetramethylester (PTME) have been measured in different solvents. Both electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are not sensitive to medium polarity. The dye exhibits high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostable. Crystalline solid of PTME gives excimer-like emission at 530 nm. The laser activity of PTME has been investigated. The dye solution in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) gives laser emission around 480 nm upon excitation by 337.1 nm nitrogen laser pulse. The excitation energy transfer from 7-dimethylamino-4-methylcoumarine (DMC) to PTME has also has been studied and the value of energy transfer rate constant, k(ET), and critical transfer distance, R(0) indicate a Förster-type mechanism. The photodecomposition of PTME in chloromethane solvents has been also studied. We applied semiempirical MO calculations using (PM3 and ZINDO-CI) calculations to explain the geometric and electronic behaviors of the PTME molecule in both ground and excited states and make a correlation with the experimental observations. PMID:18436473

  19. Interaction of alkali metals with perylene-3,4,9,10- tetracarboxylic-dianhydride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Wuesten, J.; Berger, S.; Heimer, K.; Lach, S.; Ziegler, Ch.

    2005-07-01

    n doping of the molecular organic semiconductor perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) is often achieved by use of alkali metals as dopants. This doping process is commonly performed in two steps. In the first the dopant is evaporated onto the surface of the PTCDA film. As it has been believed that the dopant shows an inhomogeneous diffusion profile through the layer with most of the dopant accumulated in the first few layers, a subsequent annealing step has been performed in order to reach a homogeneous distribution of the dopant in the whole layer. In this paper experimental results concerning chemical composition ((angle resolved) X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), electronic structure (ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy), as well as electrical properties (conductivity, Seebeck coefficient) are shown before and after doping and before and after annealing. These results suggest that the deposited dopant is redistributed and partially removed during the annealing step. A model for the dopant distribution is suggested.

  20. Germany: Health system review.

    PubMed

    Busse, Reinhard; Blümel, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This analysis of the German health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. In the German health care system, decision-making powers are traditionally shared between national (federal) and state (Land) levels, with much power delegated to self-governing bodies. It provides universal coverage for a wide range of benefits. Since 2009, health insurance has been mandatory for all citizens and permanent residents, through either statutory or private health insurance. A total of 70 million people or 85% of the population are covered by statutory health insurance in one of 132 sickness funds in early 2014. Another 11% are covered by substitutive private health insurance. Characteristics of the system are free choice of providers and unrestricted access to all care levels. A key feature of the health care delivery system in Germany is the clear institutional separation between public health services, ambulatory care and hospital (inpatient) care. This has increasingly been perceived as a barrier to change and so provisions for integrated care are being introduced with the aim of improving cooperation between ambulatory physicians and hospitals. Germany invests a substantial amount of its resources on health care: 11.4% of gross domestic product in 2012, which is one of the highest levels in the European Union. In international terms, the German health care system has a generous benefit basket, one of the highest levels of capacity as well as relatively low cost-sharing. However, the German health care system still needs improvement in some areas, such as the quality of care. In addition, the division into statutory and private health insurance remains one of the largest challenges for the German health care system, as it leads to inequalities. PMID:25115137

  1. Anticancer properties of new synthetic hybrid molecules combining naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione or benzo[f]indole-4,9-dione motif with phosphonate subunit.

    PubMed

    Gach, Katarzyna; Modranka, Jakub; Szymański, Jacek; Pomorska, Dorota; Krajewska, Urszula; Mirowski, Marek; Janecki, Tomasz; Janecka, Anna

    2016-09-14

    In this paper we report an efficient and general synthesis of substituted 3-diethoxyphosphorylnaphtho [2,3-b]furan-4,9-diones and 3-diethoxyphosphorylbenzo [f]indole-4,9-diones which integrate the natural 1,4-naphtalenedione scaffold, present in several anticancer agents with the phosphonate moiety. The cytotoxicity of such hybrid molecules was tested against two leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and NALM-6 and against a breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cell line. Selected compounds were also tested on normal human cells: HUVEC and MCF-10A. In general, naphthofuran-4,9-diones showed much higher cytotoxic activity (IC50 values below 10 μM) than benzoindole-4,9-diones. The most promising 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-diethoxyphosphorylnaphtho [2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, with the highest cytotoxic activity in the MTT test, was chosen for further evaluation of its anticancer potential. This compound, tested on HL-60 and MCF-7 cells inhibited cell proliferation, generated DNA damage and induced apoptosis. The suggested mechanism of its cytotoxic activity was the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the induction of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation. PMID:27187858

  2. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, J D

    1976-09-01

    The concept of cardiac reconditioning centers for the prevention and rehabilitation of coronary patients has been tremendously successful in Germany over the past 20 years. At least 40 such centers are located throughout the country. Physicians, nurses, and physical therapists work closely together in the various facets of the rehabilitation process. The financial backing for these facilities is primarily through governmental and regional insurance companies, whose officials are apparently convinced that in the long run supporting preventive measures is financially sound. Objective data supporting their convictions come from studies such as that of Brusis, who showed that such as that of 1,500 employees was diminished by nearly 70 percent during a two-year period after cardiac reconditioning, as compared to a similar time period before the rehabilitation experience. Subjective benefits, which are extremely difficult to quantitate in meaningful terms, were nonetheless expressed by nearly all the patients with whom I conversed. Perhaps they have experienced the same feelings that Mark Twain did when he observed that "all frets and worries and chafings sank to sleep in the presence of the benignant serenity of the Alps; the Great Spirit of the Mountains breathed his own peace upon their hurt minds and sore hearts and healed them." PMID:959329

  3. [Asylum and immigration in Germany].

    PubMed

    Angenendt, S

    1994-01-01

    "Germany, which used to be one of the most tolerant countries in matters concerning asylum, has, since the eighties, been confronted by very large migratory flows. Immigration to [West Germany] consisted every year of hundreds of thousands of asylum-seekers, a similar number of...Germans from Russia, Kazakhstan, Romania and Poland, as well as a large number of East Germans. On May 26th 1993, the Bundestag adopted a new law making asylum and immigration to Germany increasingly difficult. The problem of immigration has not been resolved, however, as is shown by the situation in the East European countries, Germany's neighbours, who are suffering the consequences of the new asylum policy...." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12346372

  4. Nursing in Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Steppe, H

    1992-12-01

    German nursing did indeed change during the Nazi period. There were external changes, in terms of the improved social status of nursing, the tightening and unification of professional nursing organizations, the laws affecting nursing, and the politicization of the profession. Articles written by nurses at the time and more recent interviews suggest that there were internal changes as well. It appears that at least a portion of German nurses accepted the National Socialism reinterpretation of professional nursing ethics and humanitarian principles in the assumption that through their obedience they were doing good. This historical research points to clear lessons for contemporary nurses. Nurses in Nazi Germany were under the illusion that they were remaining true to their professional ethics, unaffected by the social change around them. This apolitical professional consciousness made it possible for the profession to be subsumed as a part of the larger political system. I believe that we must be clear that nursing never takes place in a value-free, neutral context; it is always a socially significant force. This means that we cannot simply observe what is taking place around us but must take a stand and get involved, helping to shape sociopolitical developments. I also believe that we must deal with the history of our profession, especially its darkest hours, so that we may remain sensitive to any signs of inhumanity. We must call into question traditional principles, such as obedience, and replace them with professional competence, professionalism, and creative self-consciousness. And not least, we have a moral obligation to the millions of victims of National Socialism, even if it only means that, through historical research, we assure that they are not forgotten. By taking responsibility for this part of our history, we can become more sensitive for the future, with eyes and ears open for all social injustices. PMID:1455849

  5. Computerized Writing and Reading Instruction for Students in Grades 4-9 with Specific Learning Disabilities Affecting Written Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanimoto, S.; Thompson, R.; Berninger, V. W.; Nagy, W.; Abbott, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    Computer scientists and educational researchers evaluated effectiveness of computerized instruction tailored to evidence-based impairments in specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in students in grades 4-9 with persisting SLDs despite prior extra help. Following comprehensive, evidence-based differential diagnosis for dysgraphia (impaired…

  6. Elective ECMO support for pulmonary artery stent placement in a 4.9-kg shunt-dependent patient.

    PubMed

    Zampi, Jeffrey D; Rocchini, Albert; Hirsch-Romano, Jennifer C

    2015-01-01

    Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is traditionally used to emergently manage respiratory and/or cardiovascular failure, ECMO can also support cardiorespiratory function in nonemergent settings. Here we present the elective use of ECMO to support a 4.9-kg pediatric patient undergoing a complex percutaneous catheter-based intervention. PMID:25548353

  7. Behavioral Effects of Org 2766, a Synthetic Analog of the Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (4-9), in 14 Outpatient Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buitelaar, Jan K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen autistic children (ages 5-13) were administered Org 2766 (a synthetic analog of the adrenocorticotrophic hormone 4-9) or a placebo for 4 weeks. The hormone appeared to decrease stereotypic behavior and increase such behaviors as "change toys,""locomote," and "talk," though Aberrant Behavior Checklist ratings did not show significant…

  8. Optical absorption and dispersion analysis of nanocrystalline perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-dianhydride film prepared by dip coating and its optoelectronic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, A. A. M.; Fadel, M.

    2013-02-01

    High uniform and good adhesion of nanocrystalline films of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-dianhydride (PTCDA) were successfully deposited by dip coating technique. The surface morphology characteristic of the film was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The X-ray diffraction patterns of PTCDA film is characterized by a single wide peak along (102) orientation. The absorption spectrum of the film shows an intense band in the UV region followed by Q-band in the visible region. The onset optical and transport energy gaps were found to be 1.76 and 3.16 eV, respectively. The dispersion parameters and the ratio of free carrier concentration to the effective mass were also estimated. The photovoltaic characteristics of the device based PTCDA under illumination of 100 mW/cm2 were also considered.

  9. [Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].

    PubMed

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

  10. The Volkshochschulen: Germany's Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinhardt, Harry

    1978-01-01

    Compares the Volkshochschulen (VHS) or "People's Universities" of Germany with the community college system in the United States. Discusses enrollment policies, job-related instructional programs, functions of the national association of the VHS, and the advancement of adult education in developing nations. (TP)

  11. Self-medication in Germany.

    PubMed

    Uehleke, B; Steinhoff, B

    2001-11-01

    We introduce the legal background of self-medication with OTC-drugs in Germany with regard to the pharmacy, drug store and health food shop distribution channels and the qualifications of the sales personnel. We give an overview of the frequency of self-medication and discuss risk/benefit in a pharmacoepidemiological context. PMID:11727968

  12. Lise Meitner's escape from Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1990-03-01

    Lise Meitner (1878-1968) achieved prominence as a nuclear physicist in Germany; although of Jewish origin, her Austrian citizenship exempted her from Nazi racial laws until the annexation of Austria in 1938 precipitated her dismissal. Forbidden to emigrate, she narrowly escaped to the Netherlands with the help of concerned friends in the international physics community.

  13. Adult Education in Western Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Joachim H.; And Others

    Here are abstracts of three books on adult education in Western Germany, where the institutions and methods of continuing education have been nearly unknown. The first, ERWACHSENENBILDUNG IN DER BUNDESREPUBLIK (ADULT EDUCATION IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC), 167 pages, justifies regarding adult education today as a complete changeover from its forms in…

  14. Reform of health care in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jeremy W.

    1991-01-01

    For the past 45 years Germany has had two health care systems: one in the former Federal Republic of Germany and one in the former German Democratic Republic. The system in the Federal Republic was undergoing some important reforms when German reunification took place in October 1990. Now the system in eastern Germany is undergoing a major transformation to bring it more into line with that in western Germany. PMID:10110879

  15. Ionic compound mediated rearrangement of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride molecules on Ag(100) surface.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinmin; Huang, Min; Lu, Shuangzan; Cao, Gengyu

    2015-07-10

    Tailoring of the assembly structure of organic molecular monolayer is of great importance to improve the performance of molecular devices. In this work, a typical ionic compound, namely KCl, was used to mediate the rearrangement of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer on Ag(100). Combined scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) results indicate that both molecule and molecular superlattice would rotate after the dosing of KCl. The density functional theory calculation shows that KCl would exist in the form of molecules rather than ions on Ag(100) and demonstrates that experimentally observed structural transition induced by KCl molecules is energetically favored. PMID:26080855

  16. Ionic compound mediated rearrangement of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride molecules on Ag(100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qinmin; Huang, Min; Lu, Shuangzan; Cao, Gengyu

    2015-07-01

    Tailoring of the assembly structure of organic molecular monolayer is of great importance to improve the performance of molecular devices. In this work, a typical ionic compound, namely KCl, was used to mediate the rearrangement of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer on Ag(100). Combined scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) results indicate that both molecule and molecular superlattice would rotate after the dosing of KCl. The density functional theory calculation shows that KCl would exist in the form of molecules rather than ions on Ag(100) and demonstrates that experimentally observed structural transition induced by KCl molecules is energetically favored.

  17. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years), clinical science (3 years) and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany. PMID:19675742

  18. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  19. Discovery of Benzo[f]indole-4,9-dione Derivatives as New Types of Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You-Ren; Tseng, Chih-Hua; Chen, Yeh-Long; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Tzeng, Cherng-Chyi

    2015-01-01

    Certain benzo[f]indole-4,9-dione derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory effects on superoxide anion generation and neutrophil elastase (NE) release in formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (fMLF)-activated human neutrophils. Results indicated that (Z)-1-benzyl-4-(hydroxyimino)-1H-benzo[f]indol-9(4H)-one (10) showed a potent dual inhibitory effect on NE release and superoxide anion generation with IC50 value of 2.78 and 2.74 μM respectively. The action mechanisms of 10 in human neutrophils were further investigated. Our results showed that compound 10 did not alter fMLF-induced phosphorylation of Src (Src family Y416). Notably, phosphorylation of Akt (S473) and mobilization of [Ca2+]i caused by fMLF was inhibited by compound 10. Further structural optimization of 10 is ongoing. PMID:25807261

  20. Two-dimensional pentacene:3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride supramolecular chiral networks on Ag(111).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Li, Hui; Huang, Han; Fu, Yuanxi; Zhang, Hong Liang; Ma, Jing; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen

    2008-09-17

    Self-assembly of the binary molecular system of pentacene and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on Ag(111) has been investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, molecular dynamics (MD), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) pentacene:PTCDA supramolecular chiral networks are observed to form on Ag(111). The 2D chiral network formation is controlled by the strong interfacial interaction between adsorbed molecules and the underlying Ag(111), as revealed by MD and DFT calculations. The registry effect locks the adsorbed pentacene and PTCDA molecules into specific adsorption sites due to the corrugation of the potential energy surface. The 2D supramolecular networks are further constrained through the directional CO...H-C multiple intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the anhydride groups of PTCDA and the peripheral aromatic hydrogen atoms of the neighboring pentacene molecules. PMID:18722423

  1. Waste management programs of the reunified Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Janberg, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    Germany has been divided into an Eastern and Western part de facto since the end of World War II. The development of the Federal Republic followed the lines of the major Western democracies with respect to its internal organizations, but of course also with respect to the technologies pursued. This report describes radioactive waste management issues in the Federal republic of Germany and discusses the issues with respect to the differences from Eastern and Western Germany.

  2. Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 is focused in part on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas) from coal gasification. This art has been practiced for many years in Germany, South Africa, and the US. The conversion of coal gasification products to commercially valuable alcohols will provide an important new market for current and future gasification plants. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. This support for the active metal is a mixed oxide capable of interaction with the metal sites for catalysis of carbon monoxide reductions. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed and one catalyst was tested under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, this catalyst with low metal loading was inactive. Therefore, a catalyst with a high metal loading and additional metal sites (cobalt, potassium) is now being tested.

  3. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  4. Fascioloides magna--epizootiology in a deer farm in Germany.

    PubMed

    Plötz, Cornelia; Rehbein, Steffen; Bamler, Helmut; Reindl, Hubert; Pfister, Kurt; Scheuerle, Miriam C

    2015-01-01

    After initial observations of suspicious cases in 2009, the occurrence of Fascioloides (F.) magna in deer of a deer farm located in northeastern Bavaria, Germany, at the border to the Czech Republic was confirmed in autumn 2011. In March 2012, the deer were treated for fascioloidosis with triclabendazole. To monitor the epizootiology of fascioloidosis in the farm, 80-100 faecal samples were examined for Fascioloides eggs at monthly intervals from June 2012 to June 2013 inclusive. In addition, livers of 27 red deer and one sika deer collected during winter 2012/2013 were examined for gross lesions suspicious for F. magna infection and 21 of the 28 livers were dissected for F. magna recovery. Fascioloides eggs were recorded in 63 (4.9%) of 1280 faecal samples (range 0.4 to 355 eggs per gram). Both, number of Fascioloides-egg positive samples and egg counts were low during the first eight months of the study but increased notably since February 2013. While Fascioloides egg-positive faecal samples were obtained from red deer (46/948,4.9%) and fallow deer (17/166, 10.2%), no Fascioloides eggs were demonstrated in the 166 samples obtained from sika deer. Livers of five red deer and the sika deer showed gross lesions characteristic for fascioloidosis, and F. magna were recovered from three of the five affected red deer livers (range, five to seven flukes). Results of this study confirm that F. magna is endemic in the deer farm, and measures should be implemented to minimize the transmission of the parasite. PMID:26054221

  5. History of anesthesia in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wawersik, J

    1991-01-01

    The first ether anesthetic was administered in Germany by J.F. Heyfelder (1798-1869) at the Erlangen University Hospital on January 24, 1847. Thereafter, famous discoveries occurred in the field of pharmacology. Albert Niemann isolated cocaine from the coca shrub in 1860; Emil Fischer synthesized the first barbiturate, Veronal, in 1902; and Helmut Weese promoted the first ultra-short-acting barbiturate, hexobarbital (Evipan), in 1932. The local anesthetic effect of cocaine was reported by Koller at the Congress of the German Society for Ophthalmology on September 15, 1884, in Heidelberg. Many new techniques were tried first in German hospitals. Friedrich Trendelenburg carried out, by tracheotomy, the first operation with endotracheal intubation in 1869, and Franz Kuhn promoted and clinically practiced endotracheal intubation in Heidelberg beginning in 1900. August Bier performed the first operation under spinal anesthesia at the Kiel University Hospital on August 16, 1898. Carl Ludwig Schleich (1859-1922) standardized the methods of infiltration anesthesia by using a cocaine solution in sufficient dilution. The development of anesthesia machines was greatly influenced by Heinrich Dräger (1847-1917) and his son Bernhard Dräger (1870-1928). The Dräger Company in Lübeck built the first anesthesia machine with a carbon dioxide (CO2) absorber and circle system in 1925. Paul Sudeck and Helmut Schmidt worked with this system at the Hamburg University Hospital and reported their results in 1926. The first Dräger anesthesia machine was produced in 1902 and introduced into clinical use by Otto Roth (1863-1944) in Lübeck. Before the Second World War, three universities in Germany carried out research in the field of anesthesia: the University of Freiburg with H. Killian, the University of Hamburg with P. Sudeck and H. Schmidt, and the University of Würzburg with C.G. Gauss. Killian and Gauss established the first journals, Der Schmerz and Narkose und Anaesthesie, in

  6. Transforming Higher Education in East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rudder, Helmut

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of higher education in the former German Democratic Republic looks at the common historical roots of central European universities, the different directions higher education took in East and West Germany after 1945, and the current turbulent transformation of higher education in East Germany during German unification. (Author/MSE)

  7. The Economic Development of Postwar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinan, Desmond

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the economic restoration of West Germany through the Marshall Plan following World War II. Traces the development of the European Community from the Schuman Declaration of 1950 to the present. Contends that Germany's economy must remain closely tied to a united Europe in the post-Cold War international system. (CFR)

  8. The Corporate University Landscape in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Maike; Lichtenberger, Bianka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks first to present an overview of the corporate university landscape in Germany contrasting it with the US-American corporate university market and, second, to outline the development in Germany during the last 15 years and to have a look at future trends such as learning alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  9. 2 x Germany; 2 x Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldenhauer, Gebhard

    1991-01-01

    Describes textbooks of both East and West Germany from 1949-56, 1957-62, 1963-69, and 1970 on. Discusses a shift in West German texts from intense antagonism during the Cold War to a more critical comparison by the 1980s. Compares East German text development that increased in hostility over time, viewing West Germany as a negative alternative to…

  10. History of modern genetics in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Friederike

    2002-01-01

    The history of modern genetics in Germany during the 20th century is a story of missed chances. In the USA the genetic revolution opened a fascinating new field for ambitious scientists and created a rapidly growing new industry. Meanwhile Germany stood aside, combating with political and social restrictions. Promising young scientists who wanted to work in the field left Germany for the US, and big companies moved their facilities out of the country. Up until the middle of the 1990s molecular biology in Germany remained a "sleeping beauty" even though many brilliant scientists did their jobs very well. Then a somewhat funny idea changed everything: the German minister for education and science proclaimed the BioRegio contest in order to award the most powerful biotechnology region in Germany concerning academia and especially industry. Since then Germany's biotechnology industry has grown constantly and rapidly due to the foundation of a number of small biotech companies; big companies have returned their interests and their investments to Germany, paralleled by an improvement in academic research because of more funding and better support especially for younger scientists. In respect to biotechnology and molecular biology, Germany is still a developing country, but it has started to move and to take its chances in an exciting global competition. PMID:11783839

  11. Electrical conductivity, optical properties and mechanical stability of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhidride based organic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Mayank; Joshi, Girish M.; Deshmukh, Kalim; Nath Ghosh, Narendra; Nambi Raj, N. Arunai

    2015-05-01

    The 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) doped polymer films were prepared with Polypyrrole (PPy) and Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymers by solution-casting. The change in structure and chemical composition of samples was identified by XRD and FTIR respectively. The UV-visible spectroscopy demonstrates the optical characteristics and band gap properties of sample. The homogeneous morphology of sample for higher wt% of PTCDA was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrate the decrease in melting temperature (Tm) and degree of crystallinity (χc%) of polymeric organic semiconductor. The mechanical property demonstrates the high tensile strength and improved plasticity nature. Impedance spectroscopy was evaluated to determine the conductivity response of polymeric organic semiconductor. The highest DC conductivity (2.08×10-3 S/m) was obtained for 10 wt% of PTCDA at 140 °C. The decrease in activation energy (Ea) represents the non-Debye process and was evaluated from the slope of ln σdc vs. 103/T plot.

  12. Novel hole transporting materials based on 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine derivatives for OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quynh Pham Bao; Baek, Sueng Ji; Kim, Mi Jin; Shin, Na Young; Kim, Gyeong Woo; Choe, Dong Cheol; Kwon, Jang Hyuk; Chai, Kyu Yun

    2014-01-01

    During the past few years, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been increasingly studied due to their emerging applicability. However, some of the properties of existing OLEDs could be improved, such as their overall efficiency and durability; these aspects have been addressed in the current study. A series of novel hole-transporting materials (HTMs) 3a-c based on 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine conjugated with different carbazole or triphenylamine derivatives have been readily synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions. The resulting compounds showed good thermal stabilities with high glass transition temperatures between 148 and 165 °C. The introduction of HTMs 3b and 3c into the standard devices ITO/HATCN/NPB/HTMs 3 (indium tin oxide/dipyrazino(2,3-f:2',3'-h)quinoxaline 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile/N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine/HTMs)/CBP (4,4'-Bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl): 5% Ir(ppy)3/Bphen/LiF/Al (tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline/LiF/Al) resulted in significantly enhanced current, power, and external quantum efficiencies (EQE) as compared to the reference device without any layers of HTMs 3. PMID:25211005

  13. 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride functionalized graphene sheet as labels for ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescent detection of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xianxue; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Yali; Cao, Yaling; Liao, Yuhong; Liu, Huijing

    2012-05-13

    A novel tracer, 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) functionalized graphene sheet (GS) composite (GS-TCDA), is employed to label the secondary anti-thrombin aptamer (TBA) to construct an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescent sandwich-type aptasensor. The GS provided large surface area for loading abundant PTCDA and TBA with good stability and biocompatibility. Because of the excellent electroconductivity of GS and the desirable optical properties of PTCDA, the as-formed Apt II bioconjugate considerably amplified the electrochmiluminescence (ECL) signal of peroxydisulfate (S(2)O(8)(2-)) and worked as the desirable label for Apt II. On the basis of the considerably amplified ECL signal and sandwich format, an extremely wide range from 1 fM to 1 nM with an ultralow detection limit of 0.33 fM for thrombin was obtained. Additionally, the selectivity and stability of the proposed aptasensor were also excellent. Thus, this procedure has great promise for detection of thrombin present at ultra-trace levels during early stage of diseases. PMID:22541015

  14. Complex Stoichiometry-Dependent Reordering of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Dianhydride on Ag(111) upon K Intercalation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alkali metal atoms are frequently used for simple yet efficient n-type doping of organic semiconductors and as an ingredient of the recently discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors. However, the incorporation of dopants from the gas phase into molecular crystal structures needs to be controlled and well understood in order to optimize the electronic properties (charge carrier density and mobility) of the target material. Here, we report that potassium intercalation into the pristine 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer domains on a Ag(111) substrate induces distinct stoichiometry-dependent structural reordering processes, resulting in highly ordered and large KxPTCDA domains. The emerging structures are analyzed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (ST[H]M), and low-energy electron diffraction as a function of the stoichiometry. The analysis of the measurements is corroborated by density functional theory calculations. These turn out to be essential for a correct interpretation of the experimental ST[H]M data. The epitaxy types for all intercalated stages are determined as point-on-line. The K atoms adsorb in the vicinity of the oxygen atoms of the PTCDA molecules, and their positions are determined with sub-Ångström precision. This is a crucial prerequisite for the prospective assessment of the electronic properties of such composite films, as they depend rather sensitively on the mutual alignment between donor atoms and acceptor molecules. Our results demonstrate that only the combination of experimental and theoretical approaches allows for an unambiguous explanation of the pronounced reordering of KxPTCDA/Ag(111) upon changing the K content. PMID:26718635

  15. Complex Stoichiometry-Dependent Reordering of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Dianhydride on Ag(111) upon K Intercalation.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Christian; Baby, Anu; Gruenewald, Marco; Verwüster, Elisabeth; Hofmann, Oliver T; Forker, Roman; Fratesi, Guido; Brivio, Gian Paolo; Zojer, Egbert; Fritz, Torsten

    2016-02-23

    Alkali metal atoms are frequently used for simple yet efficient n-type doping of organic semiconductors and as an ingredient of the recently discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors. However, the incorporation of dopants from the gas phase into molecular crystal structures needs to be controlled and well understood in order to optimize the electronic properties (charge carrier density and mobility) of the target material. Here, we report that potassium intercalation into the pristine 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer domains on a Ag(111) substrate induces distinct stoichiometry-dependent structural reordering processes, resulting in highly ordered and large KxPTCDA domains. The emerging structures are analyzed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (ST[H]M), and low-energy electron diffraction as a function of the stoichiometry. The analysis of the measurements is corroborated by density functional theory calculations. These turn out to be essential for a correct interpretation of the experimental ST[H]M data. The epitaxy types for all intercalated stages are determined as point-on-line. The K atoms adsorb in the vicinity of the oxygen atoms of the PTCDA molecules, and their positions are determined with sub-Ångström precision. This is a crucial prerequisite for the prospective assessment of the electronic properties of such composite films, as they depend rather sensitively on the mutual alignment between donor atoms and acceptor molecules. Our results demonstrate that only the combination of experimental and theoretical approaches allows for an unambiguous explanation of the pronounced reordering of KxPTCDA/Ag(111) upon changing the K content. PMID:26718635

  16. Imported furuncular myiasis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Robert, Leon; Yelton, John

    2002-12-01

    Furuncular myiasis is a parasitic infestation of human and other vertebrate tissues by fly larvae of primarily two species: Dermatobia hominis (human botfly, t6rsalo, or berne) in Mexico and South and Central America and Cordylobia anthropophaga (tumbu fly or mango fly) in Africa. Cuterebra species (rabbit and rodent botflies) are also rarely reported to cause furuncular myiasis only within the United States. Although these species inhabit different geographic regions and have different life cycles, their clinical presentations can be similar. We describe a case of "imported" human botfly (D. hominis) furuncular myiasis in a U.S. Army soldier stationed in Germany. We review the life cycles of human botflies and key aspects of their clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and various therapeutic modalities. Most physicians may never encounter myiasis and attribute a patient's complaints to an insect bite or skin infection that will heal without treatment. However, the diagnosis of furuncular myiasis should be considered by remembering the basic elements of this condition: recent travel history to the tropics and a sterile, persistent furuncle with sensations of movement and pain. PMID:12502173

  17. Silencing the Singer. Antibioethics in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schöne-Seifert, B; Rippe, K P

    1991-01-01

    "Die Gedanken sind frei," in the words of the old song. But in Germany, thoughts are no longer free. Peter Singer, the "death ethicist," has become a special target for activists attempting to silence bioethical debate in Germany. In the context of the trauma inflicted by National Socialism, a profound unease over issues at the end of life is accompanied by an insistence that these issues are not to be discussed. PMID:1837289

  18. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  19. One Germany, Two Identities? Challenges to Political Education in Germany Following Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussmuth, Hans

    After a discussion of the circumstances that led to the unification of the two German states, this paper then evaluates the challenges to political education in Germany after unification. Beginning with the focus by the media and politics on the effects of East German political changes on the two German states, the revolution in East Germany and…

  20. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Privacy Laws and Biobanking in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Nils

    2016-03-01

    While the possibility of enacting a sui generis Biobank Act has been debated in Germany at great length, as of yet the country has not implemented any biobankspecific legislation. Instead, oversight is available via a network of research and privacy laws, including those of the European Union. The Nationale Kohorte, Germany's large-scale, population-based epidemiological research biobank, is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and there are currently 108 registered bio-banks throughout Germany. The current system, including the structure and study design of the Nationale Kohorte, privileges the protection of personal information even at the cost of socially desirable research; it remains to be seen if forthcoming legislation will shift this balance. PMID:27256122

  2. [Pharmacological aspects of pain research in Germany].

    PubMed

    Niederberger, E; Kuner, R; Geißlinger, G

    2015-10-01

    In spite of several approved analgesics, the therapy of pain still constitutes a challenge due to the fact that the drugs do not exert sufficient efficacy or are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, the development of new and improved painkillers is still of great importance. A number of highly qualified scientists in Germany are investigating signal transduction pathways in pain, effectivity of new drugs and the so far incompletely investigated mechanisms of well-known analgesics in preclinical and clinical studies. The highlights of pharmacological pain research in Germany are summarized in this article. PMID:26294077

  3. [Migration in Germany: 1945-1996].

    PubMed

    Munz, R; Ulrich, R

    1998-01-01

    "The authors examine how the immigrant population of Germany has risen despite the fact that the German government has sought to restrict it. They analyze six major streams of migration: refugees and expellees who came immediately after World War II, German resettlers from Eastern Europe (¿Aussiedler'), emigration of (West) Germans, migration between East- and West Germany, foreign labor migrants and asylum seekers. The dynamics of immigration, the chances on the labor market, and the opportunities for social integration were remarkably different for each of these groups. As far as absorption and integration are concerned the authors argue that different groups of immigrants should be treated more equally." (EXCERPT) PMID:12348943

  4. Luminescence and application of red-emitting phosphors of Eu3+-activated R2Zr3(MoO4)9 ( R = La, Sm, Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shuyun; Huang, Yanlin; Cheng, Han; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2016-01-01

    New red-emitting phosphors R2Zr3(MoO4)9:Eu3+ ( R = La, Sm, Gd) were prepared using the convenient solid-state reaction method. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements and structural refinements. The luminescence properties were investigated by photoluminescence spectra, decay curves, and absolute internal quantum efficiency (QE). The phosphors exhibited bright red luminescence corresponding to the electric dipole transition 5D0→7F2 at 615 nm under near UV light excitation. The thermal stability of the luminescence was investigated using temperature-dependent intensities at temperatures from 20 to 170°C. The results indicate that Gd2Zr3(MoO4)9:Eu3+ could be potentially considered for lighting due to its qualities, including their excitation spectra, QEs, red color coordinates, and thermal stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Inclusive spectra of protons emitted in interactions between /sup 3/He nuclei of energy 4. 9 GeV per nucleon and C, Cu, and Pb nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ad'yasevich, B.P.; Antonenko, V.G.; Vinogradov, A.A.; Grigor'yan, Y.I.; Ippolitov, M.S.; Karadzhev, K.V.; Lebedev, A.L.; Man'ko, V.I.; Nikolaev, S.A.; Polunin, Y.P.; and others

    1987-02-01

    We have measured inclusive spectra of protons emitted in interactions between /sup 3/He nuclei of energy 4.9 GeV per nucleon and C, Cu, and Pb nuclei. Data are presented on the invariant cross sections for proton yield in the range of emission angles from 20/sup 0/ to 150/sup 0/ for the momentum interval 350--850 MeV/c. The data obtained are analyzed.

  6. Playscapes of Germany--A Quick Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    While playgrounds in many parts of the world are limited to "fixed" equipment and surfacing, certain progressive countries have made a point to rise above this dull standard and create playscapes filled with sculpture, gardens, and wild elements of the natural world. This article talks about the playscapes of Germany as leader in the world of…

  7. Higher Education in Germany: Problems and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The contribution focuses on the process of merging the East German system of higher education with that of West Germany in the context of German unification in 1990/91. The impact of German unification on East German higher education is described as consisting of five basic measures: (a) de-politicisation; (b) reorganisation and evaluation of…

  8. Americans for Germany in World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Blair R.

    The pro-German American newspaper "The Fatherland," published shortly before the United States entered the First World War (1914-1917), displayed a failure of public relations in terms of defining and offering themes likely to convince a target audience to side with Germany. By looking at a public relations campaign undertaken by the paper, a…

  9. Dobrava-Belgrade Virus Spillover Infections, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, Mathias; Klempa, Boris; Auste, Brita; Bemmann, Margrit; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Büchner, Thomas; Groschup, Martin H.; Meier, Markus; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Zoller, Hinrich; Krüger, Detlev H.

    2009-01-01

    We present the molecular identification of Apodemus agrarius (striped field mouse) as reservoir host of the Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) lineage DOBV-Aa in 3 federal states of Germany. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for multiple spillover of DOBV-Aa to A. flavicollis, a crucial prerequisite for host switch and genetic reassortment. PMID:19961690

  10. Language Science and Orientalism in Imperial Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Judith R. H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a significant gap in the historiography of science: the nature of the language sciences as "science." Focusing on disciplinary and intellectual developments in the context of Imperial Germany (1871-1918), the project anticipates, complicates, and helps to explain a widely recognized theoretical shift, namely,…

  11. "Spiegeldorf": Nazi Appeals in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Gregory A.

    The paper discusses rationales for simulation gaming and describes "Spiegeldorf," a socio-historical game which simulates socioeconomic conditions in early 1930 Germany and Nazi party tactics used to gain mass support. Objectives are to identify characteristic Nazi tactics and points of political ideology, describe German social classes and their…

  12. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are addressed in the…

  13. Germany Provides Higher Education without the Frills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, tuition is low because state governments shoulder a much higher percentage of university budgets than in the United States. As a result, most German universities provide far fewer amenities and services, and require their professors to teach longer hours to larger numbers of students than their American counterparts. Because they are…

  14. Successful overwintering of Aedes albopictus in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pluskota, Björn; Jöst, Artur; Augsten, Xenia; Stelzner, Lilith; Ferstl, Ina; Becker, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is of great concern to public health authorities due to its vector competence and rapid spread across the globe. In 2015, two large local breeding populations of Ae. albopictus were discovered in southwest Germany. In spring 2016, we were able to demonstrate the first evidence of a successful overwintering in Germany of this originally tropical mosquito species in different research projects. Particularly noteworthy is the successful hatching of diapause eggs of an Italian strain (Calabria), which overwintered successfully in the field in St. Georgen im Schwarzwald (Baden-Wuerttemberg) at 820 m above sea level. Furthermore, within the scope of a larvae monitoring, the first larvae that hatched in the field were detected on the April 09, 2016 in a rain barrel within the Heidelberg population. Our first results show that self-extinction due to an unsuccessful overwintering cannot be assumed for populations of the Asian tiger mosquito which settled in Germany in previous years. The evidence of a successful overwintering of a large number of diapause eggs and the hatching of the first larvae in field conditions opens the control year against Ae. albopictus in southwest Germany. PMID:27112761

  15. Codetermination in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schons, Paul A.

    The Federal Republic of Germany has begun an experiment in industrial democracy giving workers federally guaranteed rights and authority in industrial decision making. All workers in companies with five or more employees are entitled to elect a works council with which management must consult concerning all employment policies and conditions. All…

  16. Vocational Training in Germany: Modernisation and Responsiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume presents a report on recent developments and current policy objectives in vocational education and training in Germany. The study is based on a conceptual and analytical framework jointly elaborated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Secretariat and representatives of member countries. Part I is "The…

  17. Becoming Adults in England and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen, Ed.; Heinz, Walter R., Ed.

    A comparison study of the school-to-work transitions of young people aged 16-19 in Germany and England was followed up several years later when the former subjects were in their early twenties. Research was conducted through interviews, case studies, and studies of labor market trends. The analysis of the transition of the young people studied…

  18. Apprenticeships in Germany: Modernising the Dual System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deissinger, Thomas; Hellwig, Silke

    2005-01-01

    Purpose ? This paper proposes to investigate the modernisation of the German Dual System for apprenticeships. Design/methodology/approach ? The paper looks at the history of the development of the Dual System and looks at the challenges it faces today. Findings ? The paper finds that Germany, with its long-standing tradition of dual…

  19. Germany gets largest ever MRI scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2008-07-01

    A 57-tonne cylindrical magnet has arrived at the Jülich Research Centre in Germany, where physicists are putting together the world's largest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. When the machine comes online next year, medical researchers will use it to examine the brain in unprecedented detail, in the hope of gaining new insights into neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's.

  20. Satellite Teleconferencing between Massachusetts and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBaron, John; Warshawsky, Rebecca

    1991-01-01

    In June 1989, eighth graders in 3 Massachusetts schools participated in a live, 2-way, 90-minute video teleconference with students in Karlsruhe, Germany, as part of a multiorganization partnership called KITES (Kids Interactive Telecommunications Experience by Satellite). Although environmental sciences was the official topic, students also…

  1. Integration in Germany: Mainstreaming or Swimming Upstream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Seegert, Carola

    1992-01-01

    This article provides an overview of European trends in integration for persons with disabilities, with emphasis on the slow pace of integration in Germany. The historical, attitudinal, and political context of German disability services are stressed, noting the effects of reunification, community living, workplace and school integration, and…

  2. Dielectron measurements in p+p and p+d interactions from E{sub beam} = 1.0 to 4.9 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.K.; DLS collaboration

    1993-02-01

    The first measurements of dielectron production in p+p and p+d interactions at incident kinetic energies from 1.0--4.9 GeV are summarized. The dielectron yield at 4.9 GeV is found to be in excess of that expected from hadronic decays. The beam energy and invariant mass dependence of the dielectron yield in p+d interactions relative to the yield in p+p interactions are also presented. The ratio of the yield in p+d to that in p+p interactions decreases from nearly 9 at 1.0 GeV to {approx} 2 at 4.9 GeV. The large ratio at 1.0 GeV suggests that dielectron production in the p+d system is dominated by a p+n process. The beam energy dependence of the ratio indicates that this p+n contribution decreases with respect to the other dielectron sources as the incident energy is increased.

  3. High resolution interferometric observations of the solar limb at 4.9 and 10.7 GHz during the solar eclipse of October, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, K. A.; Hurford, G. J.; Zirin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The radial intensity profile of the quiet solar limb has been measured at high spatial resolution using the VLA at 4.9 GHz and the Owens Valley solar interferometer at 10.7 GHz during the partial solar eclipse of October 12, 1977. The spatial resolution (13.8 arcsec at 4.9 GHz and 7.4 arcsec at 10.7 GHz) was provided primarily by the lunar limb. Substantial limb brightening at 4.9 GHz was found with a peak brightness temperature corresponding to an 80% increase over the disk value, and a possible small limb enhancement at 10.7 GHz. The results are consistent with a simple model consisting of a uniform disk (provided by a thoroughly roughened transition zone) overlaid by a corona in hydrostatic equilibrium with a density of 5 x 10 to the 8th at its base. The lack of the secant-like variation in the microwave intensity from center to limb is explained by a corona contained in loop structures rather than in spherically symmetric layers.

  4. Is Germany a model for managers?

    PubMed

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S

    1992-01-01

    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success. PMID:10121315

  5. The Definition of Vocational Diplomas in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobus, Martine; Verdier, Eric

    1997-01-01

    In both France and Germany, the government, employers' organizations, and unions all participate in defining vocational diplomas based on a national framework of procedures of elaborating and standardizing titles. Important differences between the diploma definition processes in France and Germany may be identified. In Germany, the issue is…

  6. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  7. Education in Germany: A Bibliography of English Language Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bildungsforschung, Berlin (West Germany).

    This bibliography cites bibliographies, journals, books, essays, journal articles, and monographs on education in Germany. All publications cited are in English. The three major sections of the bibliography are education in Germany up to 1945, education in the Federal Republic of Germany, and education in the German Democratic Republic. Topics…

  8. Bothkamp - the first astrophysical observatory in Germany. (German Title: Bothkamp - erstes astrophysikalisches Observatorium in Deutschland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Lutz

    In Germany the field of astrophysics was first established in a private observatory, situated on the grounds of the Bothkamp estate in the eastern part of the province of Schleswig-Holstein. This observatory, founded by the chamberlain Gustav von Bülow in 1869/70 following a suggestion by the astronomer Zöllner, far exceeded the rank of a private observatory thanks to its purpose and design. The first astronomers to work there were H.C. Vogel and W.O. Lohse. The programme of work focused mainly on spectroscopic and photometric investigations. Despite the fact that these studies are of fundamental importance to astrophysics, they were at that time essentially virgin territory. The relatively new field of photography was also employed in this context. The Bothkamp refractor, with its aperture of 29.3 cm and a focal length of 4.9 m, was at that time the largest single telescope assembled in Germany. The astronomers working in this observatory until its closure in 1914 changed, as did fields of astronomy being studied.

  9. [Future supply of tuberculin in Germany].

    PubMed

    Sagebiel, D; Hauer, B; Haas, W; Magdorf, K; Priwitzer, M; Loddenkemper, R

    2005-04-01

    The manufacturers of the only tuberculin available up to now in Germany for intradermal TB tests according to Mantoux, Chiron Vaccines Behring, in 2004 unexpectedly stopped the production of the tuberculin Behring GT (GT="gereinigtes Tuberkulin"-purified protein derivative tuberculin). Only residual stocks were sold during the preceding months. The stocks of GT 10 were already depleted at the beginning of 2005, while there are small supplies left of GT 100 and GT 1000. As a temporary solution, Chiron Vaccines Behring is offering to import the Italian tuberculin Biocine PPD 5 IE lyophil produced by Chiron S.r.l. in Siena. As this is not licensed for sale in Germany, it is necessary to obtain an exceptional prescription (Einzelverordnung) according to section sign 73 (3) of the Federal Law Relating to the Manufacture and Distribution of Medicine (Arzneimittelgesetz, AMG). In the long term, Chiron Vaccines Behring plan to secure the supply of tuberculin in Germany by importing, starting in the summer of 2006, the tuberculin produced by Chiron Vaccines Evans in the UK (PPD Evans). However, these plans involve changing over to a different type of tuberculin twice within a very short period of time. Another problem is the unresolved issue of bioequivalence. Besides the above-mentioned tuberculins produced by Chiron Vaccines, a further possibility would be the import of the tuberculin PPD RT23 SSI of the Statens Serums Institute (Copenhagen/Denmark), which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the standard tuberculin and which has already been introduced in several European countries, or of other tuberculins such as Tubersol (PPD CT68), which is used in the US. Together with the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI), the German Central Committee against Tuberculosis (DZK) is striving to find a solution, in view of the urgent need for an uninterrupted supply of tuberculin in Germany for diagnostic purposes and contact tracing

  10. Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rübsamen, Nicole; Castell, Stefanie; Horn, Johannes; Karch, André; Ott, Jördis J.; Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Zoch, Beate; Krause, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks have occurred during the past 5 decades, but none has affected European countries like the 2014 epidemic in West Africa. We used an online questionnaire to investigate risk perceptions in Germany during this epidemic peak. Our questionnaire covered risk perceptions, knowledge about transmission routes, media use, reactions to the outbreak, attitudes toward measures to prevent the spread of EVD and vaccination against EVD, and willingness to volunteer for aid missions. Of 974 participants, 29% indicated that they worried about EVD, 4% correctly stated virus transmission routes, and 75% incorrectly rated airborne transmission and transmission by asymptomatic patients as possible. Many indicated that if a patient were flown to Germany for treatment in a nearby hospital, they would adapt preventive behavior. Although most participants were not worried about EVD at the current stage of the epidemic, misperceptions regarding transmission were common and could trigger inappropriate behavior changes. PMID:25989020

  11. [The reception of Heinz Kohut in Germany].

    PubMed

    Milch, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    First the discussion of Kohut's new ideas in the United States is sketched as a background. The response to these ideas was divided: on the one hand they were hailed as important innovations of psychoanalytic theory, and a circle of colleagues formed around their author; on the other hand they were violently rejected, and old friends distanced themselves from him. In Germany Kuhut's ideas were initially well received. His visits, lectures and supervisions resulted in a lively exchange and a number of friendships. When the differences between Kohutian and classical theory became evident this led increasingly to disillusionment and retreat. De-emphasizing drive and ego psychology had considerable consequences for psychoanalytic technique as well as for the analyst's Menschenbild, his relationship to the patient and his critical self-reflection. In Germany, too, a circle of colleagues emerged, following and elaborating the ideas of Kohut. PMID:27281981

  12. The new gastarbeiter system in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, H

    1996-04-01

    "Germany's new gastarbeiter policy is evaluated in the context of a long tradition of labour recruitment, particularly the last period of active recruitment abroad (1955-1973). The policy's characteristic features (of permission to stay being dependent on a work permit; this being limited to a certain period and linked to the requirements of a specific employer) [imply] that the gastarbeiter regime is a low cost means of increasing flexibility in cases of regional and/or sectoral bottlenecks in the employment system as well as a way of ¿exporting' problems.... The mounting employment crisis in Germany has prompted the German government repeatedly to take advantage of provisions to restrict the conventions on labour movement." PMID:12179821

  13. Leptospirosis in Germany, 1962-2003.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Andreas; Schöneberg, Irene; Frank, Christina; Alpers, Katharina; Schneider, Thomas; Stark, Klaus

    2005-07-01

    Epidemiologic trends of human leptospirosis in Germany were investigated by analyzing national surveillance data from 1962 to 2003 and by conducting a questionnaire-based survey from 1997 to 2000. After a steady decrease of leptospirosis incidence from 1962 to 1997, surveillance data indicate an increase in disease incidence to 0.06 per 100,000 (1998-2003). Of 102 laboratory-confirmed cases in humans from 1997 to 2000, 30% were related to occupational exposures. Recreational exposures were reported in 30% (including traveling abroad in 16%), whereas residential exposure accounted for 37% of the cases. Direct contact with animals, mostly rats and dogs, was observed in 31% of the cases. We conclude that recent changes in transmission patterns of leptospirosis, partially caused by an expanding rat population and the resurgence of canine leptospirosis, may facilitate the spread of the disease in temperate countries like Germany. Preventive measures should be adapted to the changing epidemiology of leptospirosis. PMID:16022779

  14. Leptospirosis in Germany, 1962–2003

    PubMed Central

    Schöneberg, Irene; Frank, Christina; Alpers, Katharina; Schneider, Thomas; Stark, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic trends of human leptospirosis in Germany were investigated by analyzing national surveillance data from 1962 to 2003 and by conducting a questionnaire-based survey from 1997 to 2000. After a steady decrease of leptospirosis incidence from 1962 to 1997, surveillance data indicate an increase in disease incidence to 0.06 per 100,000 (1998–2003). Of 102 laboratory-confirmed cases in humans from 1997 to 2000, 30% were related to occupational exposures. Recreational exposures were reported in 30% (including traveling abroad in 16%), whereas residential exposure accounted for 37% of the cases. Direct contact with animals, mostly rats and dogs, was observed in 31% of the cases. We conclude that recent changes in transmission patterns of leptospirosis, partially caused by an expanding rat population and the resurgence of canine leptospirosis, may facilitate the spread of the disease in temperate countries like Germany. Preventive measures should be adapted to the changing epidemiology of leptospirosis. PMID:16022779

  15. The hospital sector in Germany: an overview.

    PubMed

    Schölkopf, M

    2000-01-01

    The German health care system has recently experienced far reaching reforms within its hospital sector, including a new financing and remuneration system, the life span of which is to the year 2003. The reforms have been based on the DRG-system already in operation in another country. Other regulations of the new reform involve the system of quality assurance and quality management in German hospitals and a new form of supply of services, the so called "integrated care" system, the introduction of which was to overcome the fragmented system of ambulatory and stationary medical care in Germany. This article, in short, presents an overview of the hospital sector in Germany and reports on the latest developments resulting from implementation of the health care reform. PMID:11276937

  16. High efficiency antireflection coating in MWIR region (3.6-4.9 μm) simultaneously effective for Germanium and Silicon optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Meenakshi; Nautiyal, B. B.; Bandyopadhyay, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Antireflection coatings have critical importance in thermal imaging system working in MWIR region (3-5 μm) since optics of high refractive index materials are used. Germanium (Ge) and Silicon (Si) optics are used extensively in the MWIR thermal systems. In this paper a study has been carried out on the design and fabrication of multi-substrate antireflection coating effective for Germanium and Silicon optics in MWIR (3.6-4.9 μm) region. The wave band 3.6-4.9 μm is chosen for the reported work because detector system used in MWIR region has a band selection filter effective in the same wavelength region and atmospheric transmission window in MWIR region is effective in 3-5 μm spectral band. Comprehensive search method was used to design the multilayer stack on the substrate. The coating materials used in the design were Germanium (Ge), Hafnium oxide (HfO 2) and Y-Ba-Fluoride (IR-F625). The fabrication of coating was made in a coating plant fitted with Cryo pump system and residual gas analyzer (RGA). The evaporation was carried out at high vacuum (2-6 × 10 -6 mbar) with the help of electron beam gun system and layer thicknesses were measured with crystal monitor. The result achieved for the antireflection coating was 98.5% average transmission in 3.6-4.9 μm band for Germanium and Silicon optics. This work will be helpful in reducing the plant operation time, material and power consumption, as two different kinds of optics are simultaneously coated in a single coating cycle.

  17. Measurements of Diffuse Sky Emission Components in High Galactic Latitudes at 3.5 and 4.9 um Using Dirbe and WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained from the Cosmic Background Explorer/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) at 3.5 and 4.9 μm, we present a reanalysis of diffuse sky emissions such as zodiacal light (ZL), diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic residual emission including the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our new analysis, which includes an improved estimate of ISL using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, enabled us to find the DGL signal in a direct linear correlation between diffuse near-infrared and 100 μm emission at high Galactic latitudes (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). At 3.5 μm, the high-latitude DGL result is comparable to the low-latitude value derived from the previous DIRBE analysis. In comparison with models of the DGL spectrum assuming a size distribution of dust grains composed of amorphous silicate, graphite, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the measured DGL values at 3.5 and 4.9 μm constrain the mass fraction of PAH particles in the total dust species to be more than ˜2%. This was consistent with the results of Spitzer/IRAC toward the lower Galactic latitude regions. The derived residual emission of 8.9 ± 3.4 nWm-2 sr-1 at 3.5 μm is marginally consistent with the level of integrated galaxy light and the EBL constraints from the γ-ray observations. The residual emission at 4.9 μm is not significantly detected due to the large uncertainty in the ZL subtraction, the same as in previous studies. Combined with our reanalysis of the DIRBE data at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, the residual emission in the near-infrared exhibits the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum.

  18. Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Gethmann, Jörn M.; Staubach, Christoph; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, bluetongue disease had not been reported before 2006. During August 2006–August 2008, >24,000 bluetongue virus serotype 8 infections were reported, most (20,635) in 2007. In 2006 and 2007, respectively, case-fatality rates were 6.4% and 13.1% for cattle and 37.5% and 41.5% for sheep. Vaccination in 2008 decreased cases. PMID:19239757

  19. 250-MHz synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator at 2.25-2.6 μm and 4.1-4.9 μm.

    PubMed

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Fonnum, Helge; Haakestad, Magnus; Gambetta, Alessio; Gatti, Davide; Marangoni, Marco; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2012-09-24

    A compact and versatile femtosecond mid-IR source is presented, based on an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) synchronously pumped by a commercial 250-MHz Er:fiber laser. The mid-IR spectrum can be tuned in the range 2.25-2.6 μm (signal) and 4.1-4.9 μm (idler), with average power from 20 to 60 mW. At 2.5 μm a minimum pulse duration of 110 fs and a power of 40 mW have been obtained. Active stabilization of the OPO cavity length has been achieved in the whole tuning range. PMID:23037354

  20. Interfacial spectroscopic characterization of organic/ferromagnet hetero-junction of 3,4,9,10-perylene-teracarboxylic dianhydride-based organic spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jhen-Yong; Ou Yang, Kui-Hon; Wang, Bo-Yao; Li, Kai-Shin; Shiu, Hung-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hao; Chan, Yuet-Loy; Wei, Der-Hsin; Chang, Fan-Hsiu; Lin, Hong-Ji; Chiang, Wen-Chung; Lin, Minn-Tsong

    2014-02-01

    We report interfacial characterization of 3,4,9,10-perylene-teracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA)-based organic spin valves (OSV) dusted with a thin layer of partially oxidized alumina at the organic semiconductor (OSC)/ferromagnet (FM) interfaces. Up to 13.5% magnetoresistance is achieved at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal interfacial electronic interaction between PTCDA and FM while the application of a thin alumina layer at the PTCDA/FM interfaces prevents the electronic hybridization and effectively preserves the spin injection into the OSC spacer. This finding demonstrates the critical effect of interfacial structure on magnetotransport behavior in OSV.

  1. Charge transfer dynamics of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride molecules on Au(111) probed by resonant photoemission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liang; Wang, Yu-Zhan; Chen, Tie-Xin; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Ibrahim, Kurash; Wang, Jia-Ou; Qian, Hai-Jie; Xu, Fa-Qiang; Qi, Dong-Chen; Wee, Andrew T S

    2011-11-01

    Charge transfer dynamics across the lying-down 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) organic semiconductor molecules on Au(111) interface has been investigated using the core-hole clock implementation of resonant photoemission spectroscopy. It is found that the charge transfer time scale at the PTCDA∕Au(111) interface is much larger than the C 1s core-hole lifetime of 6 fs, indicating weak electronic coupling between PTCDA and the gold substrate due to the absence of chemical reaction and∕or bonding. PMID:22070311

  2. Infrared study on the molecular orientation in bulk-heterojunction films based on perylene and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Keisuke; Pham, John; Furukawa, Yukio

    2012-03-01

    Solid-state structures of thin blend films of perylene and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) formed on the Au surface have been studied by a combination of infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy and the RATIO method of Debe. In the blend films, PTCDA molecules take the face-on orientation in the whole range of PTCDA contents from 7.5 to 88 mol%. On the other hand, the molecular orientation of perylene molecules changes from edge-on toward random as the PTCDA content increases.

  3. Regional Adaptation Strategies in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge on international, national, and regional scale. It affects the scientific world as well as policymakers, representatives of economy, and the public. Consequently, the need for a dialogue between experts in climate change and the people affected is needed. However, structuring and communicating climate change information on the various scales is challenging and demands coordination. Within the Helmholtz community in Germany, four regional Helmholtz climate offices are founded. One of their major goals is to encourage the communication between science and public. Primarily, this is done by close cooperation to the Helmholtz research centers at which each climate office is hosted. Second, a continuous exchange is supported beyond the Helmholtz research centers towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. Each regional Helmholtz climate office represents regional aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting Helmholtz research institutes. In the Climate Office for central Germany, Land use changes are among the most important factors of climate change driven environmental changes which have to be managed by the society in the next years. Since 1991 UFZ scientists research the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. The Climate Office offers information about climate change effects on the environmental compartments, land use strategies as well as regional strategies of adaptation. The three federal states in Central Germany (Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia) handle adaptation to climate change very differently. The presentation focusses on alikeness and differences in the adaptation process.

  4. [Health conferences in Germany: an overview].

    PubMed

    Hollederer, A

    2015-03-01

    Health conferences are a special management instrument of health policy. Less is known about the distribution. There is a lack of systematic evaluation methods.This overview is based on comprehensive literature, data base and internet searches about health conferences in Germany.The establishment of structured conferences is derived from funding projects of the federal states or local initiatives which began in different phases and with various emphases. The strategies varied from individual actions to an implementation in the whole state. Currently there are altogether 130 health conferences in Germany for approximately one third of the county and city districts in 13 federal states. The federal states assist health conferences by providing financial support, health policy, support by health authorities and regulations in the law. In the majority of the cases the office is located within the public health service. There is a great diversity in the composition of the stakeholders and in the contents. A systematic monitoring and outcome evaluation was conducted only in a few cases. Those studies predominantly report positive results but also promoting and inhibiting factors. They referred to restrictions.Health conferences are broadly disseminated, especially in west Germany. They offer opportunities for a community health management. There is a need for more intensive exchange and evaluation to improve their development. PMID:24420647

  5. Energy R and D in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  6. Polymorphic homoeolog of key gene of RdDM pathway, ARGONAUTE4_9 class is associated with pre-harvest sprouting in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjit; Singh, Surinder; Randhawa, Harpinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is an important objective for the genetic improvement of many cereal crops, including wheat. Resistance, or susceptibility, to PHS is mainly influenced by seed dormancy, a complex trait. Reduced seed dormancy is the most important aspect of seed germination on a spike prior to harvesting, but it is influenced by various environmental factors including light, temperature and abiotic stresses. The basic genetic framework of seed dormancy depends on the antagonistic action of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) to promote dormancy and germination. Recent studies have revealed a role for epigenetic changes, predominantly histone modifications, in controlling seed dormancy. To investigate the role of DNA methylation in seed dormancy, we explored the role of ARGONAUTE4_9 class genes in seed development and dormancy in wheat. Our results indicate that the two wheat AGO4_9 class genes i.e. AGO802 and AGO804 map to chromosomes 3L and 1L are preferentially expressed in the embryos of developing seeds [corrected]. Differential expressions of AGO802-B in the embryos of PHS resistant and susceptible varieties also relates with DNA polymorphism in various wheat varieties due to an insertion of a SINE-like element into this gene. DNA methylation patterns of the embryonic tissue from six PHS resistant and susceptible varieties demonstrate a correlation with this polymorphism. These results suggest a possible role for AGO802-B in seed dormancy and PHS resistance through the modulation of DNA methylation. PMID:24130825

  7. Decrease in major amputations in Germany.

    PubMed

    Santosa, Frans; Moysidis, Theodoros; Kanya, Susanne; Babadagi-Hardt, Zeynep; Luther, Bernd; Kröger, Knut

    2015-06-01

    A decrease in rate of amputation has been reported from many countries. This study aims to study the trends in amputation rates in Germany. On the basis of DRG-system, detailed lists of all amputations coded as minor amputations (OPS 5-864) and major amputations (OPS 5-865) performed between 2005 and 2010 were provided by the Federal Statistical Office. There was a significant decrease in age-adjusted major amputation rates per 100 000 population in Germany from 27·0 in 2005 to 22·9 in 2010 (15·2%, P ≪ 0·001) in males and from 19·7 in 2005 to 14·4 in 2010 (26·9%, P ≪ 0·001) in females. Overall, minor amputation rates did not show such a decrease but increased in males (from 47·4 in 2005 to 57·8 in 2010, 21·9%, P ≪ 0·001) and remained almost unchanged in females (23·1 in 2005 and 23·9 in 2010, not significant). Reduction in major amputation rates were even more pronounced in people above 80 years, especially in males from 216 to 150 (30·5%) and in females from 168 to 117 (30·4%). The present data demonstrate an increasing overall burden of foot lesions as indicated by an increase in incidence of minor amputations but an ongoing success in the fight against amputation, resulting in a significant decrease in major amputation rates in Germany, in the 6-year period from 2005 to 2010. PMID:23738682

  8. [Postoperative pain therapy in Germany. Status quo].

    PubMed

    Pogatzki-Zahn, E M; Meissner, W

    2015-10-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the field of postoperative pain therapy in the last 20 years. Beginning from clinical trials on the effectiveness of individual procedures, such as epidural anesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia, a wide range of healthcare services research as well as basic research with human and animal experiments has been established. Whereas health services research in the 1980s and 1990s focused more on the implementation of acute pain services, outcome-oriented research approaches are nowadays the center of attention. Acute pain registries and pain certification projects initiated in Germany have to be mentioned particularly in this respect. Basic research papers from recent years increasingly address specific aspects of acute postoperative pain and have provided translational approaches that are applied around the world for studying neurobiological mechanisms of postoperative pain. At the same time, interdisciplinary cooperation in research projects has led to a better understanding of complex correlations regarding predictors and mechanisms (including psychosocial aspects) of acute and in recent times also chronic pain after surgery. In parallel, evidence-based medicine has found its way into acute pain medicine in Germany. In 2007, clinical acute pain therapy in Germany was enhanced by S3 level guidelines for the first time; however, the implementation is still incomplete. In future, questions concerning mechanism-based therapy of acute pain need to be equally in the center of attention of research, such as prevention of persisting pain after surgery and acute pain of different origins. PMID:26289394

  9. [Jewish veterinarians in Germany, 1918-1945].

    PubMed

    Möllers, G; Schaffer, J

    2005-10-01

    In 1998 there were only twelve Jewish veterinarians known who practised in Germany between 1918 and 1945. 133 of them have now been found. Most of the Jewish veterinarians had their roots in merchant families and were general practitioners in the countryside. To be "Jewish" did not concern until 1933. Compared with the other medical professionals like human medical professionals (10,9 %), in 1933 the number of Jewish veterinarians was low (1,6 %, whole German Jewish population 0,77 %). Right with the beginning of the National Socialistic rule Jewish veterinarians were exposed to different forms of harassment. Soon after, on April 7th 1933, with the so-called Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums (BBG; law for the restoration of civil service), the prosecution took on an official quality. The Reichstierärztekammer (Chamber of veterinary service) was very eager to Aryanize the German veterinary service. The BBG made the Jewish veterinarians who worked in public positions lose their jobs with the single exception of those who had the status of a so-called "Frontkämpfer" (a soldier who fought at the frontline during World War I). Many of the Jewish veterinarians who were still in Germany in November 1938 were arrested after the pogrom of November 9/10th and kept in concentration camps and prisons for about one month. The few students of veterinary medicine who already had started their studies in 1933 still could make their exams in Germany, but they did not get a licence. On January 31st 1939 all Jewish veterinarians in Germany lost their licence. 55 Jewish vets managed to emigrate in time. Nineteen German Jewish Veterinarians died in concentration camps and ghettos. Two are known to have committed suicide. Until 1997, there was no act of appreciation or rehabilitation of German Jewish veterinarians. In 2003 the degrees of two Jewish veterinarians, Hermann Cussel and Paul Stern, were renewed posthumously by the Hanover School of Veterinary Medicine

  10. [Occupational medicine preventive studies in West Germany].

    PubMed

    Valentin, H

    1986-01-01

    Prevention is of increasing importance in medicine, particularly in occupational medicine. The programs of health surveillance at the workplace in the Federal Republic of Germany are discussed. In 1983, 1,400,000 examinations of employees were performed; exclusion criteria were fulfilled in 2.1% (0.9% only temporarily). In 1984 the respective numbers were 1,450,000 examinations (1.8%, 0.8%). During the last few years, health surveillance programs markedly have improved the efficiency of prevention of occupational diseases. They will be an important task for occupational physicians in the future. PMID:3087086

  11. Mapping the geogenic radon potential in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kemski, J; Siehl, A; Stegemann, R; Valdivia-Manchego, M

    2001-05-14

    Mapping the geogenic radon potential in Germany is a research project initiated by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation and Reactor Safety. The project was aimed to develop a standard methodology for the estimation of a geogenic radon potential and to apply this method to map the region of Germany as an overview for planning purposes. The regionalisation results from a distance-weighted interpolation of the site-specific values of radon concentration in soil gas and in situ gas permeability of soils on a regular grid considering the corresponding geological units. The map of Germany in a scale of 1:2 million is based on the radon concentration in soil gas as an estimator of the geogenic radon potential assuming the 'worst case' of uniform highest permeability. The distribution is subdivided into categories of low (< 10 kBq/m3), medium (10-100 kBq/m3), increased (100-500 kBq/m3) and high (> 500 kBq/m3) radon concentration. High values occur especially in regions with granites and basement rocks of Paleozoic age, and are proven by measurements in 0.03% of the total area. Many of these regions are also known for their enhanced indoor values. The class with increased values takes a portion of 7.86% and likewise occurs mainly in regions with outcrops of folded and metamorphic basement, but also of some Meso- and Cenozoic sediments with increased uranium contents and/or higher emanation coefficients. For 67.3% of the country, the radon concentration is classified as 'medium', and an assignment to specific geological units cannot be made at the map scale considered. Low radon contents, where protective measures against radon are usually not considered, are found in the geologically rather homogeneous part of northern Germany with unconsolidated Cenozoic sediments, covering approximately 25% of the total country. It is of course not possible to predict the indoor radon concentration of single houses from these maps, because construction type and

  12. Morphology and molecular arrangement of perylene-3,4,9,10-(n-pentylester) in thin layers obtained by zone-casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamski, Adrian; Nowicka, Ariadna B.; Barszcz, Bolesław; Szybowicz, Mirosław; Piosik, Emilia; Wolarz, Eryk

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-crystalline perylene-3,4,9,10-tetra-(n-pentylester) zone-casted on hydrophilic glass substrates forms characteristic belt-like structures which are observed under optical microscope and atomic force microscope. Polarised Raman scattering spectra reveal the presence of anisotropic alignment of the molecules inside the obtained structures. Moreover, the absorption and fluorescence spectra confirm molecular aggregation in the belt-like structures. The research shows, that the belt-like structures are created by columns of molecules with the edge-on alignment on the glass substrate. Such organisation of the molecules is confirmed by spectroscopic methods. These structures can be interesting from the point of view of organic electronics.

  13. Estimate of Interference from the Aeronautical Mobile Services of the Cities of Glendale and Pasadena to Goldstone Radio Astronomy Stations at 4.9 Gigahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C.; Sue, M.; Manshadi, F.

    2006-05-01

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) recently allocated the 4.9-GHz band to public safety telecommunications services. Radio Astronomy Services (RAS) also has been using this frequency. NASA will primarily use Deep Space Station 28 (DSS 28) at Goldstone, California, for radio astronomy services that are sensitive to radio-frequency interference (RFI). This study is to determine the RFI potential of airborne transmission from two cities to radio astronomy sites in Goldstone. Propagation losses over the terrain between both cities and Goldstone are estimated using the Trans-Horizon Interference Propagation Loss (THIPL) software recently developed at JPL and high-resolution terrain data. The necessary coordination area for protecting the Goldstone radio astronomy station has been defined based on the minimum propagation loss required. Study results and suggestions for modification to the airborne areas proposed by both cities' police departments are presented.

  14. Air-stable n-channel organic field-effect transistors based on N,N‧-bis(4-trifluoromethylbenzyl)perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, Yoshinobu; Tsunami, Daisuke; Ishii, Hisao; Furukawa, Yukio

    2007-02-01

    Air-stable n-channel field-effect transistors based on thin films of the compound, N, N'-bis(4-trifluoromethylbenzyl)perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-TFB), were fabricated, and the effects of surface treatment and substrate temperature at the film deposition on the electron mobility of the transistors were studied. The maximum mobility, 4.1 × 10 -2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in the saturation region (1.7 × 10 -2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in the linear region), was obtained in air for the film deposited at 95 °C on the SiO 2 surface modified with hexamethyldisilazane. The high electron affinity of PTCDI-TFB estimated at 4.8 eV by photoelectron yield spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, which is ascribable to the trifluoromethylbenzyl groups, is likely to result in the observed stable transistor operation in air.

  15. The effect of Hoe-427 (an ACTH sub 4-9 analog) on free-choice ethanol consumption in male and female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, S.; Maickel, R.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Ethanol consummatory patterns of individual male and female rats and the effects of Hoe-427 (Ebiratide), and ACTH{sub 4-9} analog, thereon, were studied in a test system using 24 hour, two-bottle free choice consumption between 0.2% saccharin and 10% ethanol in 0.2% saccharin. Single, daily i.p. doses of either ACTH{sub 4-10} or its analog resulted in a significant reduction of daily ethanol consumption with no effects on saccharin consumption. After 4 days of treatment, male rats consistently exhibited a rebound increase in ethanol consumption; this effect was not seen in females. The daily ethanol consummatory patterns of the female animals seemed to exhibit a 4-6 day cyclic rhythymicity, suggesting an interaction with estrous cycles. These results support a role for ACTH{sub 4-10} in the initiation of ethanol consummatory behavior in rats and suggests the existence of sex differences in this phenomenon.

  16. Spectroscopy of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) attached to rare gas samples: Clusters vs. bulk matrices. II. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Matthieu; Müller, Markus; Knoblauch, Tobias; Bünermann, Oliver; Rydlo, Alexandre; Minniberger, Stefan; Harbich, Wolfgang; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules and solid rare gas samples is studied by means of fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Laser-excited PTCDA-doped large argon, neon, and para-hydrogen clusters along with PTCDA embedded in helium nanodroplets are spectroscopically characterized with respect to line broadening and shifting. A fast non-radiative relaxation is observed before a radiative decay in the electronic ground state takes place. In comparison, fluorescence emission studies of PTCDA embedded in bulk neon and argon matrices result in much more complex spectral signatures characterized by a splitting of the different emission lines. These can be assigned to the appearance of site isomers of the surrounding matrix lattice structure.

  17. Luminescence from 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride on Ag(111) surface excited by tunneling electrons in scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ino, Daisuke; Yamada, Taro; Kawai, Maki

    2008-07-01

    The electronic excitations induced with tunneling electrons into adlayers of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on Ag(111) have been investigated by in situ fluorescence spectroscopy in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). A minute area of the surface is excited by an electron tunneling process in STM. Fluorescence spectra strongly depend on the coverage of PTCDA on Ag(111). The adsorption of the first PTCDA layer quenches the intrinsic surface plasmon originated from the clean Ag(111). When the second layer is formed, fluorescence spectra are dominated by the signals from PTCDA, which are interpreted as the radiative decay from the manifold of first singlet excited state (S(1)) of adsorbed PTCDA. The fluorescence of PTCDA is independent of the bias polarity. In addition, the fluorescence excitation spectrum agrees with that by optical excitation. Both results indicate that S(1) is directly excited by the inelastic impact scattering of electrons tunneling within the PTCDA adlayer. PMID:18624490

  18. Spectroscopy of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) attached to rare gas samples: clusters vs. bulk matrices. I. Absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Matthieu; Müller, Markus; Knoblauch, Tobias; Bünermann, Oliver; Rydlo, Alexandre; Minniberger, Stefan; Harbich, Wolfgang; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2012-10-28

    The interaction between 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and rare gas or para-hydrogen samples is studied by means of laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. The comparison between spectra of PTCDA embedded in a neon matrix and spectra attached to large neon clusters shows that these large organic molecules reside on the surface of the clusters when doped by the pick-up technique. PTCDA molecules can adopt different conformations when attached to argon, neon, and para-hydrogen clusters which implies that the surface of such clusters has a well-defined structure without liquid or fluxional properties. Moreover, a precise analysis of the doping process of these clusters reveals that the mobility of large molecules on the cluster surface is quenched, preventing agglomeration and complex formation. PMID:23126704

  19. Spectroscopy of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) attached to rare gas samples: clusters vs. bulk matrices. II. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Matthieu; Müller, Markus; Knoblauch, Tobias; Bünermann, Oliver; Rydlo, Alexandre; Minniberger, Stefan; Harbich, Wolfgang; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2012-10-28

    The interaction between 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules and solid rare gas samples is studied by means of fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Laser-excited PTCDA-doped large argon, neon, and para-hydrogen clusters along with PTCDA embedded in helium nanodroplets are spectroscopically characterized with respect to line broadening and shifting. A fast non-radiative relaxation is observed before a radiative decay in the electronic ground state takes place. In comparison, fluorescence emission studies of PTCDA embedded in bulk neon and argon matrices result in much more complex spectral signatures characterized by a splitting of the different emission lines. These can be assigned to the appearance of site isomers of the surrounding matrix lattice structure. PMID:23126705

  20. Spectroscopy of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) attached to rare gas samples: Clusters vs. bulk matrices. I. Absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Matthieu; Müller, Markus; Knoblauch, Tobias; Bünermann, Oliver; Rydlo, Alexandre; Minniberger, Stefan; Harbich, Wolfgang; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and rare gas or para-hydrogen samples is studied by means of laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. The comparison between spectra of PTCDA embedded in a neon matrix and spectra attached to large neon clusters shows that these large organic molecules reside on the surface of the clusters when doped by the pick-up technique. PTCDA molecules can adopt different conformations when attached to argon, neon, and para-hydrogen clusters which implies that the surface of such clusters has a well-defined structure without liquid or fluxional properties. Moreover, a precise analysis of the doping process of these clusters reveals that the mobility of large molecules on the cluster surface is quenched, preventing agglomeration and complex formation.

  1. Morphology and molecular arrangement of perylene-3,4,9,10-(n-pentylester) in thin layers obtained by zone-casting.

    PubMed

    Adamski, Adrian; Nowicka, Ariadna B; Barszcz, Bolesław; Szybowicz, Mirosław; Piosik, Emilia; Wolarz, Eryk

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-crystalline perylene-3,4,9,10-tetra-(n-pentylester) zone-casted on hydrophilic glass substrates forms characteristic belt-like structures which are observed under optical microscope and atomic force microscope. Polarised Raman scattering spectra reveal the presence of anisotropic alignment of the molecules inside the obtained structures. Moreover, the absorption and fluorescence spectra confirm molecular aggregation in the belt-like structures. The research shows, that the belt-like structures are created by columns of molecules with the edge-on alignment on the glass substrate. Such organisation of the molecules is confirmed by spectroscopic methods. These structures can be interesting from the point of view of organic electronics. PMID:27104675

  2. Active-site-directed reductive alkylation of xanthine oxidase by imidazo[4,5-g]quinazoline-4,9-diones functionalized with a leaving group.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Skibo, E B

    1987-11-17

    A new class of purine antimetabolites, directed toward xanthine oxidase, was designed by employing some of the features found in the bioreductive alkylator mitomycin C. The design involved functionalizing the purine-like imidazo[4,5-g]quinazoline ring system as a quinone (4,9-dione) bearing a 2 alpha leaving group. Due to the presence of the electron-deficient quinone ring, the leaving group cannot participate in alkylation reactions. Reduction to the hydroquinone (4,9-dihydroxy) derivative, however, permits elimination of the leaving group to afford an alkylating quinone methide. In spite of the electronic differences, both quinone and hydroquinone derivatives of the imidazo[4,5-g]quinazoline system are able to enter the purine-utilizing active site of the enzyme. Thus, the hypoxanthine-like quinone derivative [2-(bromomethyl)-3-methylimidazo[4,5-g]quinazoline-4,8, 9(3H, 7H)-trione] and its hydroquinone derivative can act as reducing substrates for the enzyme, resulting in conversion to the xanthane-like 6-oxo derivatives. Hydrolysis studies described herein indicate that the hypoxanthine-like hydroquinone derivative eliminates HBr to afford an extended quinone methide species. The observed alkylation of the enzyme by this derivative may thus pertain to quinone methide generation and nucleophile trapping during enzymatic oxidation at the 6-position. Enzymatic studies indicate that the hypoxanthine-like quinone is an oxidizing suicide substrate for the enzyme. Thus, the reduced enzyme transfers electrons to this quinone, and the resulting hydroquinone inactivates the enzyme. As with mitomycin C, reduction and quinone methide formation are necessary for alkylation by the title quinone. This system is therefore an example of a purine active-site-directed reductive alkylator.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3427077

  3. Final year medical education in Germany.

    PubMed

    Nikendei, Christoph; Krautter, Markus; Celebi, Nora; Obertacke, Udo; Jünger, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Medical education in Germany has undergone significant changes. The current article attempts to give an overview of final year medical education in Germany and implications for further developments. Challenges in final year medical education mainly arise from the lack of clearly defined learning objectives, the provision of structure, independent patient management and professional guidance and supervision. The abolition of the one-and-a-half-year period of pre-registration medical training in 2004 and the changes in the structure of state examinations in line with the amendment of medical licensing regulations in 2002, meant pressure on the efficiency of final year medical education on the one hand, and additional burden on final year students on the other. In this article, a broad variety of innovative models that have been implemented at different medical faculties, and which address final year students' needs, will be reported. Further challenges, such as the integration of general medicine rotations, the abolishment of the second state examination in its present form, and the integration of final year students' individual career plans will be discussed. PMID:22480889

  4. Environmental medicine in Germany--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hans Joachim

    2002-01-01

    In this review I describe the development of environmental medicine as a specialized field of clinical medicine in Germany. New scientific societies were founded, based on traditions of public hygiene and occupational medicine, as a reaction to environmental issues concerning human health. Environmental medicine issues were also addressed by independent "critical" physicians. The first institutions to accept patients were centers for environmental medicine affiliated with research institutions and/or with the public health service. Medical professional organizations, particularly the German General Medical Council, described the need for and formulated conditions for additional qualification for doctors in environmental medicine, including a 200-hr course. This course and a qualifying exam were passed by about 3,000 doctors, mainly from the public health service and from occupational medicine. Unfortunately, few general physicians in primary outpatient care were similarly trained. To date, no representative study has been conducted on environmental patients, but I include in this review a typical list of patients' complaints. I also summarize research activities typical for environmental medicine in Germany. Present problems concern accounting systems and, for example, diagnosis and treatment of patients with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). A coordinated research program on MCS has been started. PMID:11834469

  5. Status of wind energy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K.

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Germany and America: Crisis of confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Asmus, R.D.

    1991-02-01

    The paper examines the deterioration in German-American relations. The reasons for this downturn in German-American relations are quite simple. Washington views the Persian Gulf crisis as a defining moment in European-American relations and in the creation of a new world order. It is also the first diplomatic test of a unified Germany and a new German-American relationship. It is a test that Germany is thus far seen as having failed for three reasons. First, from the outset many Americans sensed that Germans did not comprehend what this crisis meant for the United States. A second and, in many ways, more worrying factor was the growing sense that the Germans were not being good Europeans. The third and most serious American concern, however, was the unsettling appearance of a very selective German definition of collective defense and common security. The result has been a crisis of confidence in the performance of the German political elite that goes beyond the problems in German-American relations during the early 1980s and the INF debate.

  7. [Children-orientated tobacco advertising in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pumpe, K

    2002-04-01

    Since 1990 the percentage of smokers among the 12 to 17-year-olds in Germany has risen from 21 % to about 28 %. Most of them start between the age of 11 and 13. 85 % favour a certain brand by the age of 18. Despite the prohibition of tobacco commercials on radio and TV the cigarette industry has continually increased their budget for advertising aimed more and more at women and children. According to the author's knowledge, this report describes for the first time the strategies most frequently applied in Germany to incite children and teenagers to smoking. The publicity campaigns are not restricted to billboards and the printed press, but use the internet also. Indirect conditioning to a certain brand by music videos, movies and merchandising of attractive clothes and trips as well as the sponsoring of special music and sports events are also shown.The report analyses and evaluates examples of messages in printed advertisements aimed at children. With psychological skill interest in smoking is created with teenagers and a conditioning for smoking in certain situations is promoted. PMID:11951159

  8. Thuringische builds large PET plant in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-02-03

    East Germany fibers producer Thuringische Faser AG Schwarza (TFS; Rudolstadt) is entering the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) business. The company, owned by India's Dalmia Group (New Delhi), is building an 80,000-m.t./year PET granulate plant, one of the largest in Europe, for completion at the end of 1995. The product will be used to make PET bottles and film for food packaging. TFS will need to buy 70,000 m.t./year of purified terephthalic acid and 27,000 m.t./year of ethylene glycol to feed the new plant. When acquiring TFS, Dalmia's chairman, Sanjay Dalmia, pledged to invest DM150 million ($95.4 million) in the Germany firm and keep 1,200 of the 3,000 workers. John Brown Deutsche Engineering (Essen) has been awarded a contract covering engineering, know-how, and turnkey supply of the complete plant, and will share of the complete plant, and will share the work with Austrian associate, Voest John Brown Industrieanlagenbau (Linz). The company, which completed against Zimmer (Frankfurt), will use its own technology. TFS, with 1992 sales of DM120 million, has capacities to produce 20,000 m.t/year of viscose staple fiber, 18,000 m.t./year of nylon-6 filament yarn, and 6,300 m.t./year of textile-grade polyester granulate, which will be converted to produce bottle-grade PET.

  9. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Stöver, Heino; Gerlach, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP), who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years) and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a history of substitution

  10. The Geography of Germany: Lessons for Teaching the Five Themes of Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Tinkler, D. William

    This activity guide contains five lessons. Lesson 1 deals with "Location of Germany on the Earth's Surface" with two activities: (1) "Germany's Location in the World"; and (2) "Germany's Location in Europe." Lesson 2 is on the "Physical and Human Characteristics of Germany" with four activities on: (1) "Physical Features of Germany"; (2)…

  11. Child Care in East Germany: A Visit after the Fall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Describes contrasts in the author's visits to East and West Berlin in 1972 and 1990. Discusses visits to child care centers in East and West Germany in 1990 and concludes with speculation about the future of child care services in a reunited Germany. (DR)

  12. Special Education in East Germany under Communist Domination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengstock, Wayne L.; Ruttgardt, Sieglind Ellger

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the development of special education in East Germany from the close of World War II through the cold war period, and examines the problems and challenges currently facing special education in a reunified Germany. These include a lack of infrastructure, economic needs, staffing problems, and needed curriculum changes. (DB)

  13. National Student Governance in Germany: The Case of fzs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungblut, Jens; Weber, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organizational development of freier zusammenschluss von studentInnenschaften (fzs), the national union of students in Germany from its foundation until 2010. It situates it within the variety of student organizations acting on behalf of students within the multi-level system of higher education governance in Germany.…

  14. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Veterinary Clinics, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Weiss, Reinhard; van der Reijden, Tanny; van den Broek, Peterhans; Baljer, Georg; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2011-01-01

    An increase in prevalence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. in hospitalized animals was observed at the Justus-Liebig-University (Germany). Genotypic analysis of 56 isolates during 2000–2008 showed 3 clusters that corresponded to European clones I–III. Results indicate spread of genotypically related strains within and among veterinary clinics in Germany. PMID:21888812

  15. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  16. Training and Further Training in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakleppa, Hans

    The Federal Republic of Germany uses its development aid policy to support the growth of manpower resources in developing countries by means of a broad spectrum of training and further training programs of foreign specialists. In planning these programs and arranging scholarships, Germany tries to orient itself toward the educational policy…

  17. Further Education in Germany: Qualification in a Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IN Press, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The further education of adults in Germany has its roots in the 19th century. In a unified Germany, further education and training enjoy a key position in the establishment of free market economy structures. Further education enjoys equal status with all other educational sectors. It is distinguished by the plurality of organizing bodies and…

  18. An American Social Worker in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    This report resulted from a 14-day Study Tour for American Experts in Youth Work arranged and financed by the Federal Republic of Germany Ministry for Youth, Family and Health which provided American youth workers with an opportunity to study the youth services structure and culture of West Germany. The structure of the West German Ministry for…

  19. A Decade of Skill Formation in Britain and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steedman, Hilary

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of training and qualifications in engineering and construction in Germany and Britain showed that National Vocational Qualifications have not improved training activity in Britain. Britain lags behind Germany in production of intermediate engineering skills and craft qualifications in the building trades. (SK)

  20. American Fulbright Grantees' Experience in Germany: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Barbara B.

    The effect of Fulbright grantees' experience in West Germany is analyzed in terms of subsequent careers, involvement with international education activities, personal values and life styles, and German language proficiency. Some comparisons are made between Fulbright scholars to Germany and those to other Western European countries. Data were…

  1. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  2. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  3. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  4. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  5. An Active Old Age--Senior Citizens in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    Life expectancies are rising all over the world, leading to higher proportions of older adults in the population. This is especially true in Japan and Germany. In Germany today, "old" no longer means necessarily "poor and frail." Through volunteer work, lifelong learning, study tours, and participation in sports, older Germans are changing the…

  6. Muslim-Turkish Children in Germany: Sociocultural Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onder, Zehra

    1996-01-01

    The sociocultural problems of Turkish children living in Germany are explored. Turkish immigrant children in Germany must be socialized in two societies, the traditional Turkish culture of their parents and that of German society. Religion and the Islamic-value system are often at odds with German values. (SLD)

  7. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  8. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with the provisions of the Agreement Between the United States of America and Germany Concerning... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in...

  9. Racialised Norms in Apprenticeship Systems in England and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte; Wischmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the issue of the under-representation of young people from minority ethnic/migrant backgrounds in apprenticeships in England and Germany. Whilst there are many studies on apprenticeships in England and Germany, few focus on under-representation or discrimination, even fewer on ethnic under-representation, and there are…

  10. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  11. Labor, Business, and Change in Germany and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wever, Kirsten S., Ed.

    This book explores how two nations with widely divergent political economies, Germany and the United States (U.S.), embraced change in four contemporary settings. "Mutual Learning with Trade-Offs" (Kirsten Wever) discusses mutual learning and the distinguishing characteristics of the political economies of Germany and the U.S. "Deregulation and…

  12. Childhood Leukemia in the Vicinity of the Geesthacht Nuclear Establishments near Hamburg, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Terschueren, Claudia; Richardson, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Background During 1990–1991 a childhood leukemia cluster was observed in the sparsely populated region surrounding two nuclear establishments southeast of Hamburg, Germany. Since then, several new cases have been reported. Recently a possible accidental release of radionuclides in 1986 was hypothesized. Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the childhood leukemia incidence in this area since 1990. Methods All incident cases (< 15 years of age) were ascertained during 1990–2005 within a 5-km radius of the Krümmel nuclear power plant. We derived standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using county and national leukemia incidence rates as referents. We stratified analyses by calendar period and attained age, and by subdividing the study region into areas north versus south of the Elbe river. Results Fourteen cases were ascertained in the study area, whereas 4.0 were expected based on national referent rates [1990–2005: SIR = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.9–5.9]. The excess was not confined to the early 1990s; for the more recent time period 1999–2005, the SIR is still elevated (SIR = 2.7; 95% CI, 0.9–6.2). SIRs of greatest magnitude were observed for children 0–4 years of age (SIR = 4.9; 95% CI, 2.4–9.0) and for residents south of the Elbe (SIR = 7.5; 95% CI, 2.8–16.4). Conclusions The incidence in this region is significantly higher than the childhood leukemia incidence for Germany as a whole. To date, no unique hazards have been identified in this population. The fact that the elevated rates have persisted in this community for > 15 years warrants further investigation. PMID:17589605

  13. An amplified electrochemiluminescent aptasensor using Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites as a signal enhancement tag.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng-Nan; Zhang, Xia; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-02-01

    A novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal tag of Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites (AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs) was developed for thrombin (TB) aptasensor construction based on the peroxydisulfate/oxygen (S2O8(2-)/O2) system. For signal tag fabrication, the C60 nanoparticles (C60NPs) were prepared and then coated with 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid (PTCA) by π-π stacking interactions. Afterwards, thiosemicarbazide (TSC) was linked with PTCA functionalized C60NPs via amidation for further assembling Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Finally, detection aptamer of thrombin (TBA 2) was labeled on the ECL signal amplification tag of AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs. Herein, TSC, with the active groups of -NH2 and -SH, was selected and introduced into the ECL S2O8(2-)/O2 system for the first time, which could not only offer the active groups of -SH to absorb AuNPs for TBA 2 anchoring but also remarkably enhance the ECL signal of the S2O8(2-)/O2 system by the formation of TSC-PTC/C60NPs for signal amplification. Meanwhile, the sensing interface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by AuNPs/graphene (AuNPs/GR) nanocomposites with the large specific surface area and the active sites, followed by immobilization of thiol-terminated thrombin capture aptamer (TBA 1). With the formation of the sandwich-type structure of TBA 1, TB, and TBA 2 signal probes, a desirable enhanced ECL signal was measured in the testing buffer of an S2O8(2-)/O2 solution for detecting TB. The aptasensor exhibited a good linear relationship for TB detection in the range of 1 × 10(-5)-10 nM with a detection limit of 3.3 fM. PMID:25559492

  14. Dow agrees on pipeline in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-05-01

    The often fragile relationship between Dow Europe and eastern Germany strengthened this week with an agreement to build a feedstock pipeline from the Baltic Sea to the Buna BSL petrochemical complex at Boehlen. Dow recently agreed to go ahead with its 80% investment in the BSL venture following fears it might withdraw from the project because of European Commission cuts in the amount of state aid available. The multi-feedstock liquid pipeline is expected to transport naphtha, crude oil, and, possibly, liquid petroleum gas from Rostock on the Baltic to the Boehlen site. Besides Dow, the participants are BSL Olefinverbund and Elf subsidiary Mider. Dow is expected to contribute DM450 million toward the investment.

  15. [Population developments in Germany until 2050].

    PubMed

    Osterkamp, R

    2005-01-01

    While the total population in Germany is expected to diminish until 2050, the proportion of old and very old persons will rise considerably. The annual frequency of sicknesses, clinic days, and fatalities of old persons will likewise strongly increase. This raises difficult problems for the future design of the German public health care system. In any case, reforms will contain elements of rationing which will lead to a less expansion of the field of activity for geriatric physicians and surgeons than the purely demographic development would suggest. This dampening effect of rationing reforms on geriatric medical treatment and surgery, however, might possibly be least when done in an age-specific way and combined with long-term individual provisions through savings and health insurance. PMID:15551009

  16. Temporal clustering of floods across Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, B.; Nguyen, V. D.; Vorogushyn, S.

    2015-12-01

    The repeated occurrence of exceptional floods within a few years, such as the Rhine floods in 1993 and 1995 and the Elbe and Danube floods in 2002 and 2013, suggests that floods in Central Europe are temporally organized in flood-rich and flood-poor periods. This suggestion is studied by testing the significance of temporal clustering in flood occurrence for 67 catchments across Germany. To assess the robustness of the results, different methods are used: Firstly, the index of dispersion which quantifies the degree of temporal clustering and the departure from a homogeneous Poisson process is investigated. Further, the flood occurrence rate is derived by nonparametric kernel implementation. For the latter, the significance of clustering is evaluated via parametric and nonparametric tests. To understand whether clustering changes with flood severity and time scale, the significance is assessed for different thresholds and time scales, from the intra-annual to the decadal time scale. It is found that the large majority of catchments show temporal clustering at the 5 % significance level for low thresholds and intra-annual to inter-annual time scales. However, the relevance of clustering decreases substantially with increasing threshold and time scale. These results suggest that flood clustering is mainly caused by catchment memory effects and that decadal climate variability plays a minor role in Germany. Although the methods give consistent overall results, i.e. decreasing clustering with increasing severity and time scale, the specific results differ considerably. Hence, it is advisable to apply different methods when investigating flood clustering.

  17. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schütt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the ‘TMF – Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research’, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of “research registers”. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  18. Monitoring of Climate Change in Germany - Data, products and services of Germany's National Climate Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, F.; Penda, E.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Zimmermann, K.; Mächel, H.

    2012-04-01

    Germany's meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) is responsible for monitoring climate change in Germany. The section "National Climate Monitoring" is responsible for operating the National Climate Data Centre (NCDC, "Nationales KlimaDatenZentrum NKDZ") and for provision of statistical data derived from these observations. The NCDC database mainly comprises 'conventional' in-situ observations that are observed within the station network of DWD, but also other categories of data, e.g. phenological observations. The main aim of the NCDC is the sustained development of a comprehensive data base of high quality, which provides basic information for climate research and applied climatology. A major focus of the activity is to guarantee a defined data quality by means of validation and correction of the data (or at least a description of errors), as well as a detailed description of the data base. The main focus of these quality assurance tasks has been shifted to the quality control of previously insufficiently verified historical data. The data base can be used to analyse the climate in Germany over a period of more than 100 years. DWD's National Climate Data Centre is thus the reference for climate data from stations in Germany and acts as data supplier especially for national climate research, but data and products are also used in international projects. In order to complete the data base for historic periods (esp. the first half of the 20th century), original paper documents are currently digitized and integrated into the data base. External customers may obtain data and products directly via Internet-based access tools. DWD currently starts to provide access to its climate data based on standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), e.g. Web Mapping Services (WMS) to provide access to the derived gridded data products of NCDC.

  19. An amplified electrochemiluminescent aptasensor using Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites as a signal enhancement tag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Meng-Nan; Zhang, Xia; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal tag of Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites (AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs) was developed for thrombin (TB) aptasensor construction based on the peroxydisulfate/oxygen (S2O82-/O2) system. For signal tag fabrication, the C60 nanoparticles (C60NPs) were prepared and then coated with 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid (PTCA) by π-π stacking interactions. Afterwards, thiosemicarbazide (TSC) was linked with PTCA functionalized C60NPs via amidation for further assembling Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Finally, detection aptamer of thrombin (TBA 2) was labeled on the ECL signal amplification tag of AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs. Herein, TSC, with the active groups of -NH2 and -SH, was selected and introduced into the ECL S2O82-/O2 system for the first time, which could not only offer the active groups of -SH to absorb AuNPs for TBA 2 anchoring but also remarkably enhance the ECL signal of the S2O82-/O2 system by the formation of TSC-PTC/C60NPs for signal amplification. Meanwhile, the sensing interface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by AuNPs/graphene (AuNPs/GR) nanocomposites with the large specific surface area and the active sites, followed by immobilization of thiol-terminated thrombin capture aptamer (TBA 1). With the formation of the sandwich-type structure of TBA 1, TB, and TBA 2 signal probes, a desirable enhanced ECL signal was measured in the testing buffer of an S2O82-/O2 solution for detecting TB. The aptasensor exhibited a good linear relationship for TB detection in the range of 1 × 10-5-10 nM with a detection limit of 3.3 fM.A novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal tag of Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites (AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs) was developed for thrombin (TB) aptasensor construction based on the peroxydisulfate/oxygen (S2O82-/O2) system. For signal

  20. Initial growth of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) on Au(1 1 1): a scanning tunneling microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhov, I.; Kahn, A.; Scoles, G.

    2000-01-01

    The structure and morphology of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) films deposited on Au(1 1 1) surface in ultrahigh vacuum is studied via scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In the first monolayer, PTCDA molecules form well-ordered domains with two distinct structural phases. The first phase is characterized by a "herring-bone" arrangement of PTCDA molecules similar to that of a bulk PTCDA molecular crystal. The second phase, which had not been reported so far, is characterized by a molecular arrangement in a square pattern that does not have a known bulk analog. This second phase is less dense than the first. Only the "herring-bone" phase is consistently observed in the second and subsequent layers. The crystallographic orientation of the PTCDA layers, with respect to the Au substrate as well as with respect to each other, is directly determined from the STM images. At coverages above 2 monolayers, the formation of PTCDA islands with good molecular order is observed. Transient effects related to STM-induced dynamic changes in the PTCDA molecular layer are also discussed.

  1. 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid/hemin nanocomposites act as redox probes and electrocatalysts for constructing a pseudobienzyme-channeling amplified electrochemical aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yali; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Zhuo, Ying; Gan, Xianxue; Bai, Lijuan

    2012-10-29

    A simple wet-chemical strategy for the synthesis of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid (PTCA)/hemin nanocomposites through π-π interactions is demonstrated. Significantly, the hemin successfully conciliates PTCA redox activity with a pair of well-defined redox peaks and intrinsic peroxidase-like activity, which provides potential application of the PTCA self-derived redox activity as redox probes. Additionally, PTCA/hemin nanocomposites exhibit a good membrane-forming property, which not only avoids the conventional fussy process for redox probe immobilization, but also reduces the participation of the membrane materials that act as a barrier of electron transfer. On the basis of these unique properties, a pseudobienzyme-channeling amplified electrochemical aptasensor is developed that is coupled with glucose oxidase (GOx) for thrombin detection by using PTCA/hemin nanocomposites as redox probes and electrocatalysts. With the addition of glucose to the electrolytic cell, the GOx on the aptasensor surface bioelectrocatalyzed the reduction of glucose to produce H(2)O(2), which in turn was electrocatalyzed by the PTCA/hemin nanocomposites. Cascade schemes, in which an enzyme is catalytically linked to another enzyme, can produce signal amplification and therefore increase the biosensor sensitivity. As a result, a linear relationship for thrombin from 0.005 to 20 nM and a detection limit of 0.001 nM were obtained. PMID:23001991

  2. Photoinduced Charge and Energy Transfer within meta- and para-Linked Chlorophyll a-Perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) Donor-Acceptor Dyads.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Jhih; Harris, Michelle A; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Margulies, Eric A; Dyar, Scott M; Lindquist, Rebecca J; Wu, Yilei; Roznyatovskiy, Vladimir V; Wu, Yi-Lin; Young, Ryan M; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    Connecting electron donors and acceptors to a benzene ring in a meta or para relationship results in quantum interference effects that can strongly influence charge separation (CS) and charge recombination (CR) processes in these systems. We report on the energy and electron transfer behavior of chlorophyll-based para- and meta-linked donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) dyads, where the semisynthetic chlorophyll a derivative, zinc methyl 3-ethyl-pyrochlorophyllide a (D), is covalently attached at its 20-position to the para position of one phenyl of diphenylacetylene (B). The meta or para position of the phenyl in B distal to the donor is in turn attached to perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) (A). Photoexcitation of the D-B-A dyads produces long-lived radical ion pairs D(•+)-B-A(•-), which recombine to the ground state and to both (3*)D-B-A and D-B-(3*)A. Time-resolved optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies were used to monitor the charge transfer and triplet energy transfer (TEnT) processes. At longer times, TEnT occurs from (3*)D-B-A to D-B-(3*)A. Surprisingly, the D-B-A molecules linked via the meta linkage exhibit faster CS, CR, and TEnT rates than do those with the para linkage in contrast to most other meta/para-linked D-B-A molecules previously examined. PMID:26731377

  3. Gamma and pizero production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation. [4. 9 to 7. 4 GeV (c. m. )

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, A.

    1980-01-01

    Inclusive cross sections of ..gamma..'s and ..pi../sup 0/ mesons in hadronic events produced by electron-positron annihilation for the center-of-mass energy range 4.9 to 7.4 GeV are presented. Scale invariance of the inclusive spectra is exhibited in this energy range, and their normalization and shape are seen to be consistent with those of spectra arising from the decay of the ..pi../sup 0/. The fraction of center-of-mass energy carried away by the ..gamma..'s at high energies is found to be < E/sub ..gamma..//E/sub c.m./> = 0.24 +- 0.01. The ..pi../sup 0/ inclusive cross section is seen to be consistent in normalization and shape with half the charged-..pi.. cross section between x = 0.15 and 0.75, with an integrated inclusive cross-section ratio of sigma(..pi../sup 0/)/(sigma(..pi../sup +/) + sigma(..pi../sup -/)) = 0.48 +- 0.05. 60 figures, 7 tables.

  4. N-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)-N-phenyl-4-(9,10-diphenylanthracen-3-yl)benzenamine for blue organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Dong Young; Lee, Song Eun; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we have synthesized two blue fluorescent materials based on anthracene derivatives with electron-donating diphenylamine moieties by Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. To explore their electroluminescent properties as blue emitting materials, multilayer devices were fabricated in following sequence: indium–tin-oxide (180 nm)/4,4‧-bis(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)biphenyl (50 nm)/blue emitters (30 nm)/bathophenanthroline (30 nm)/lithium quinolate (2 nm)/Al (100 nm). Among them, a device using N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-phenyl-4-(9,10-diphenylanthracen-3-yl)benzenamine exhibited efficient blue emission with a luminous, power and external quantum efficiency of 3.11 cd/A, 2.39 lm/W, and 1.82% at 20 mA/cm2, respectively. The Commission International de L’Eclairage coordinates of this device were (x,y) = (0.14,0.15) at 6.0 V.

  5. Effects of the ACTH(4-9) analogue, ORG 2766, on vincristine cytotoxicity in two human lymphoma cell lines, U937 and U715.

    PubMed Central

    Kiburg, B.; van de Loosdrecht, A. A.; Schweitzer, K. M.; Ossenkoppele, G. J.; Müller, L. J.; Heimans, J. J.; Huijgens, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of cytotoxic drug vincristine (VCR) is limited by the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy. A neurotrophic ACTH(4-9) analogue, ORG 2766, is being studied for its protective effect. Possible modulatory effects of ORG 2766 on tumour cell growth and interference with the cytotoxic efficacy of VCR were studied in two human lymphoma cell lines, U937 and U715. The effects of ORG 2766 on cell growth and survival and on VCR-mediated cytotoxicity were investigated using two MTT-based assays to study direct cytotoxic effects and to assess residual growth after pretreatment. Treatment with ORG 2766 alone had no effect on cell growth and survival. Neither did this drug affect VCR cytotoxicity. However, after 96 h pretreatment with ORG 2766 and a culture period of 7 days, a reduction in residual growth and a potentiation of VCR-induced inhibition of growth capacity was observed in U715 cells, and to some extent also in U937 cells. It is concluded that ORG 2766 has no stimulatory effects on tumour growth and does not negatively interfere with VCR-mediated cytotoxicity. Rather it enhances the cytostatic effect of VCR. It is suggested that ORG 2766 can safely be used in clinical trials investigating the ability of ORG 2766 to counteract VCR-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:8123480

  6. Patterned growth of single-crystal 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride nanowire arrays for field-emission and optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Huanhuan; Zhang, Xiujuan; Yang, Yang; Shao, Zhibin; Deng, Wei; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Yu; Jie, Jiansheng

    2015-07-01

    3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) organic nanostructures possess extraordinary electronic and optoelectronic properties. However, it remains a challenge to achieve patterned growth of PTCDA nanowire (NW) arrays for integrated device applications. Here, we demonstrated the high-density, large-area, uniform, and cross-aligned growth of single-crystalline PTCDA NW arrays by using Au nanoparticles (NPs) as the growth templates. The high surface energy of Au NPs led to the cross-aligned growth of organic NWs, enabling the growth of PTCDA NW arrays with any desirable patterns by pre-patterning the Au films on a Si substrate. The PTCDA NW arrays as field emitters show good performance with a large emission current density and high emission stability. Furthermore, photodetectors based on PTCDA NW arrays were constructed via a simple in-situ growth approach, which exhibited high sensitivity to a wideband light ranging from 400-800 nm and surpassed the individual NW-based photodetectors in terms of higher photocurrent and faster response speed. Successful applications of PTCDA NW arrays in field emission and photodetectors show a great potential application of organic NW arrays in future efficient electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  7. Determination of the individual atomic site contribution to the electronic structure of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S. W.; Newby, D.; DeMasi, A.; Smith, K. E.; Piper, L. F. J.; Jones, T. S.

    2013-11-01

    We have studied the element and orbital-specific electronic structure of thin films of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) using a combination of synchrotron radiation-exited resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as density functional theory calculations. Resonant and non-resonant x-ray emission spectroscopies were used to measure the C and O 2p partial densities of state in PTCDA. Furthermore, resonant x-ray emission at the C and O K-edges is shown to be able to measure the partial densities of states associated with individual atomic sites. The flat molecular orientation of PTCDA on various substrates is explained in terms of the carbonyl O atom acting as a hydrogen-bond acceptor leading to multiple in-plane intermolecular C=O...H-C hydrogen bonding between carbonyl groups and the perylene core of the neighboring PTCDA molecules. We support this conclusion by comparison of our calculations to measurements of the electronic structure using element-, site-, and orbital-selective C and O K-edge resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, and photoemission spectroscopy.

  8. Patterned growth of single-crystal 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride nanowire arrays for field-emission and optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huanhuan; Zhang, Xiujuan; Yang, Yang; Shao, Zhibin; Deng, Wei; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Yu; Jie, Jiansheng

    2015-07-24

    3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) organic nanostructures possess extraordinary electronic and optoelectronic properties. However, it remains a challenge to achieve patterned growth of PTCDA nanowire (NW) arrays for integrated device applications. Here, we demonstrated the high-density, large-area, uniform, and cross-aligned growth of single-crystalline PTCDA NW arrays by using Au nanoparticles (NPs) as the growth templates. The high surface energy of Au NPs led to the cross-aligned growth of organic NWs, enabling the growth of PTCDA NW arrays with any desirable patterns by pre-patterning the Au films on a Si substrate. The PTCDA NW arrays as field emitters show good performance with a large emission current density and high emission stability. Furthermore, photodetectors based on PTCDA NW arrays were constructed via a simple in-situ growth approach, which exhibited high sensitivity to a wideband light ranging from 400-800 nm and surpassed the individual NW-based photodetectors in terms of higher photocurrent and faster response speed. Successful applications of PTCDA NW arrays in field emission and photodetectors show a great potential application of organic NW arrays in future efficient electronic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:26135069

  9. Determination of the individual atomic site contribution to the electronic structure of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA).

    PubMed

    Cho, S W; Newby, D; DeMasi, A; Smith, K E; Piper, L F J; Jones, T S

    2013-11-14

    We have studied the element and orbital-specific electronic structure of thin films of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) using a combination of synchrotron radiation-exited resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as density functional theory calculations. Resonant and non-resonant x-ray emission spectroscopies were used to measure the C and O 2p partial densities of state in PTCDA. Furthermore, resonant x-ray emission at the C and O K-edges is shown to be able to measure the partial densities of states associated with individual atomic sites. The flat molecular orientation of PTCDA on various substrates is explained in terms of the carbonyl O atom acting as a hydrogen-bond acceptor leading to multiple in-plane intermolecular C=O···H-C hydrogen bonding between carbonyl groups and the perylene core of the neighboring PTCDA molecules. We support this conclusion by comparison of our calculations to measurements of the electronic structure using element-, site-, and orbital-selective C and O K-edge resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, and photoemission spectroscopy. PMID:24320295

  10. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of lapacho analogues. 2. Modification of the basic naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, redox activation, and suppression of human keratinocyte hyperproliferation by 8-hydroxynaphtho[2,3-b]thiophene-4,9-diones.

    PubMed

    Bannwitz, Sven; Krane, Dirk; Vortherms, Silke; Kalin, Tobias; Lindenschmidt, Cathrin; Zahedi Golpayegani, Nader; Tentrop, Jan; Prinz, Helge; Müller, Klaus

    2014-07-24

    The basic structure of linearly anellated lapacho quinones, naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (7), was modified in the search for novel agents against keratinocyte hyperproliferation. The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of several heterocycle-fused naphthoquinones as well as a full range of 2- and 7-substituted derivatives of one of these, 8-hydroxynaphtho[2,3-b]thiophene-4,9-dione (8a), are described. Out of a total of 71 analogues, particularly 2-thenoyl-substituted 26l, 2-nicotinoyl-substituted 26m, and 2-oxadiazole-substituted 35a compared favorably with the antipsoriatic agent anthralin. Their potency for suppression of keratinocyte hyperproliferation, which was evaluated using HaCaT cells as a model, was combined with comparably low membrane-damaging effects toward keratinocytes, as established by the release of lactate dehydrogenase activity from the cytoplasm of the cells. With respect to the mechanism of action, redox activation of lapacho quinones by one- and two-electron reduction in isolated enzymatic assays was studied, and their potential to generate superoxide was confirmed in the keratinocyte-based hyperproliferation assay. PMID:24964246

  11. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score <-2 was categorised as underweight, height-for-age-z-score <-2 as stunted, and BMI-z-score >+1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all P<0.01). Stunting and underweight were related to lower birth weight, being breastfed for 6 months or more, having parents who were underweight or had short stature, and mothers who never attended formal education. Stunting was also higher in rural areas. Being at-risk, or overweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  12. First record of Aedes koreicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Werner, Doreen; Zielke, Dorothee E; Kampen, Helge

    2016-03-01

    Within the framework of a national mosquito monitoring programme, a mosquito specimen collected in mid-2015 in southern Germany was identified as Aedes koreicus, a non-endemic species originating from East Asia. After the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus, which is already established in Germany and widely distributed, and the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, which is increasingly often introduced from southern Europe, A. koreicus is the third demonstrated invasive mosquito species in Germany supposed to have significant vector potential for disease agents. PMID:26614356

  13. [The state of outpatient psychotherapy in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zepf, Siegfried; Mengele, Ute; Hartmann, Sebastian

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the state of adult outpatient psychotherapy in Germany after the PTG came into force. 1042 psychotherapists were questioned on certain issues. One result was that patients have to wait 4.6 months for psychotherapy and that every second patient asking for a diagnostic interview and possible treatment was refused. Of those who were given a diagnostic interview 35 % were not taken into treatment, although disturbances were diagnosed--such as tinnitus, pain, organic disturbances with psychic complications, suicidal tendencies, anorexia nervosa, addiction, psychosomatic illnesses, personality disorders, psychotic disorders--would normally demand psychotherapeutic treatment. Furthermore only 56 % of those patients who Löcherbach et al. considered needing and wanting psychotherapeutic treatment were actually in a G IV psychotherapy. Apart from this the possibility of getting psychotherapy as well as the kind of psychotherapy proved to be dependent on the kind of medical insurance. Different payments by the insurance companies caused longer waiting times for patients and determined the choice of psychotherapy by the psychotherapists. PMID:12649759

  14. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of metropolitan Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Krüger, A; Börstler, J; Badusche, M; Lühken, R; Garms, R; Tannich, E

    2014-08-01

    In Europe, mosquito-related public health concerns are growing due to the increasing spread of invasive mosquito species and the recent emergence of mosquito-borne arboviruses. A vital backbone in the assessment of these issues is detailed knowledge of the mosquito fauna, i.e. regional mosquito inventories. It was therefore decided to intensify nationwide investigations on the occurrence and distribution of mosquitoes in Germany in order to update old records and to detect possible faunal changes. This paper is focussing on a densely populated metropolitan region, the federal state of Hamburg and its adjacent environs, taking two historical baseline inventories into consideration, spanning almost 100 years of mosquito research in Hamburg. In the period between 2010 and 2014, more than 10,000 juvenile, neonate and adult mosquito specimens were sampled and trapped at 105 sites in Hamburg and its environs, of which about 60% have been identified to species level, resulting in a total of 33 recorded species. Of these, Anopheles algeriensis, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus nigrinus and Ochlerotatus sticticus are new to the area. The most common species in Hamburg are Culex pipiens/torrentium and Ochlerotatus annulipes/cantans. In contrast, two previously common species, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus excrucians, were not detected. Despite substantial environmental changes due to reconstruction, urbanisation and renaturation in the Hamburg metropolitan region in recent decades, there has been remarkably little change within the mosquito fauna during the last century. PMID:24870250

  15. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    PubMed

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings. PMID:25324132

  16. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on. PMID:23727765

  17. Space Radar Image of Munich, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Munich, Germany illustrates the capability of a multi-frequency radar system to highlight different land use patterns in the area surrounding Bavaria's largest city. Central Munich is the white area at the middle of the image, on the banks of the Isar River. Pink areas are forested, while green areas indicate clear-cut and agricultural terrain. The Munich region served as a primary 'supersite' for studies in ecology, hydrology and radar calibration during the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) missions. Scientists were able to use these data to map patterns of forest damage from storms and areas affected by bark beetle infestation. The image was acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 37 kilometers by 32 kilometers (23 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 48.2 degrees North latitude, 11.5 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  18. [The situation of emergency psychiatry in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pajonk, F-G B

    2015-09-01

    The impact of psychiatric emergencies for the care of patients in preclinical emergency medicine, in emergency departments and in psychiatric hospitals has been underestimated for a long time. There is still insufficient knowledge and a need for further research. There are, however, sufficient reasons to assume that annually approximately 500,000 patients with a psychiatric emergency receive treatment from a preclinical emergency physician and another 1.5 million in emergency departments in Germany. Further, approximately 500,000 patients are admitted to psychiatric hospitals as an emergency. The most frequent reasons are intoxication, agitation, aggressiveness and suicidal ideation, posing a threat of self-harm to the patient or to other persons and evoking other life-threatening conditions. Emergency psychiatry also plays a role in collective injuries, such as mass disasters, catastrophes and rampage situations. There is some evidence that the number of psychiatric emergencies is increasing. Reasons are, among others, changes in the services provided for inpatient and outpatient treatment, a reduction in stabilizing psychosocial factors and a general increase in the utilization of emergency healthcare services. PMID:26099496

  19. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term. PMID:22142877

  20. CO2 exchange in Thuringia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthoni, P. M.; Knohl, A.; Freibauer, A.; Ziegler, W.; Kolle, O.; Schulze, E.-D.

    2003-04-01

    Eddy covariance technique is used to measure the net CO_2 exchange (NEE) over forest and agricultural areas in Thuringia, Germany. Measurements are performed at a managed and unmanaged Beech stand, a managed Spruce stand and an agricultural field with Winter Wheat in 2001 and Potato in 2002. Large contrasts were found in NEE rates between the ecosystems. Though managed and unmanaged Beech had very similar NEE rates, main differences between those two sites arose because of an earlier leaf emergence at the managed beech site. Spruce had higher NEE in spring but substantially lower NEE in summer than the Beech stands. Overall resulting in a substantially lower annual NEE, which is mainly attributable to an almost two times higher ecosystem respiration, despite lower ecosystem temperatures at the Spruce site. Crops had high NEE uptake rates, but growing season length is short compared to the forest ecosystems. Therefore agricultural land had moderate annual NEE uptake rates (1--2tC ha-1), but when harvest is taken into account the agricultural ecosystems are a source for CO_2 (1--3tC ha-1). Forests cover about 30% of the area in Thuringia, 50% is agriculture, and 20% grassland and other land-use types. Agriculture seems to loose carbon and forest gain carbon, indicating that Thuringia would probably be a carbon source, or not be statistically different from being carbon neutral.

  1. Women in Physics in Germany, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Hanna

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics in Germany has not changed dramatically in the three years since the last IUPAP Women in Physics Conference was held in 2005. The salary of a woman remains approximately 25% lower than that of a man in a comparable professional position. The number of female professors is growing slowly. The number of young women beginning to study physics is around 20%. There is, however, a noticeable increase in organization and societal acceptance of female physicists, and an increasing amount of men taking part in this process. There is also increased acceptance and support of dual-career couples. The Helmholtz Alliance for "Physics at the Terascale" founded a dual-career option program. In 2008, the annual Conference of German Female Physicists (DPT) held in Muenster became an official conference of the DPG (German Physical Society). Various scientific groups working for equal opportunity have formed a "network of networks." At the DESY (German Electron Synchrotron), a group of women led by an equal opportunity officer is involved in the entire process of hiring new staff members in all positions, including directors.

  2. Early retirement and mortality in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kühntopf, Stephan; Tivig, Thusnelda

    2012-02-01

    Differences in mortality by retirement age have an important impact on the financing of pension insurance, yet no clear-cut results for Germany exist so far. We calculate mortality rates by retirement age from microdata on all German old-age pensioners and 1.84 million deceases. The life expectancies and survival probabilities at age 65 are estimated for population subgroups according to creditable periods because of disease and pension income. Early-retired men who reach the age of 65 years live significantly longer the later early retirement occurs; the life expectancy at age 65 ranges from 13 to 17.8 years. For each retirement age, mortality of men is higher the more periods of disease are credited in the pension insurance system. For a given length of credited periods of disease, mortality of early retirees decreases with the retirement age. 'Healthy worker selection effects' operating in the labour market may contribute to these results. The 'work longer, live longer'-result is found for each pension income quintile, which resolves the J-curve pattern found in the literature. The mortality of female old-age pensioners varies little with retirement age. PMID:22350223

  3. Arms control and the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrieder, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    These essays explore the implications of arms control negotiations for the FRG and consider why Germany has traditionally found it impossible to divorce considerations of arms control from their larger political context.

  4. Extraterrestrial research in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This German program for basic extraterrestrial research is an essential, successful, and worldwide recognized part of the space program and has the same attributes for basic research in the Federal Republic of Germany. It covers all major scientific disciplines.

  5. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    PubMed

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking. PMID:24749879

  6. [Parasitic diseases in sheep and goats in Germany].

    PubMed

    Barutzki, D

    1990-06-01

    A review is presented on the species spectrum, biology and epidemiology of endo- and ectoparasites of sheep and goats in Germany. Current therapeutic, prophylactic and metaphylactic measures are given and discussed. PMID:2198682

  7. Is thyroid surgery performed too often in Germany?

    PubMed

    Verburg, Frederik A

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid surgery is one of the more common surgical procedures in Germany. This is in contrast with the situation in some other countries, where this procedure is performed comparatively rarely. In this paper the number of thyroid surgeries in Germany is compared with other western countries (Netherlands, USA, England). In contrast to e. g. the USA and England the number of thyroid surgeries in Germany is declining, however with approximately 109/100,000/year in 2012 is still elevated (Netherlands: 16/100,000/year, USA: at least 42/100,000/year, England: at least 27/100,000/year). Possible contributing factors to this higher number of thyroid surgeries in Germany are explored. These factors include iodine deficiency, the frequent use of advanced diagnostics such as ultrasound, insufficient use of preoperative diagnostic measures such as fine needle biopsy and the practice of "defensive medicine". How much each of these factors contributes is however unclear. PMID:26105718

  8. Standardization of open-path FTIR measurements in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Konradin; Eickel, Karl-Heinz

    1997-05-01

    The 'Commission of Air Pollution Prevention in VDI and DIN', which is officially responsible for the setting of written standards in the field of air pollution in Germany, has established a working group for standardization of open-path FTIR measurements in Germany. This group has presently worked out has worked out a draft for a VDI-guideline, in which it is laid down, how to perform measurements with the open-path FTIR to get reliable results.

  9. The evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian

    2002-07-01

    In the past five years, the climate for commercial biotechnology in Germany has improved significantly and has resulted in an increase in the number of biotechnology companies. On examination of the underlying factors of the evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany, and against the background of the current situation, it is predicted that many German biotech companies will have to change their business models to focus on product development rather than on platform technologies. PMID:12062972

  10. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info: Social Policy. In-Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen

    This report describes sports in Germany, explaining that sport is part of Germany's culture. Popular sports are enjoyed by both the public and private sector. Germany has a well-developed club and association sector. One in three Germans belongs to a sports organization. A major feature of sport in Germany is its autonomy. Popular sports begin in…

  11. Transferring climate research results to stakeholder needs in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, Insa

    2013-04-01

    The North German Climate Office was established in 2006 at the Institute for Coastal Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany as consequence of an increased public information need regarding coastal climate change and its impacts in Northern Germany. The service is characterized by an intensive dialogue between regional climate research and stakeholders in Northern Germany. About once a week scientists of the North German climate office are invited to contribute to public dialogue events. Also, numerous direct inquiries are answered and expert interviews are conducted. From this dialogue process specific stakeholder information needs are localized and analysed to develop tailored information products. To provide easy and user specific access to research results interactive web tools are developed. One example is the North German climate atlas, an interactive web tool on possible future climate change in Northern Germany. Another interactive web tool is informing on present and future coastal protection needs in Northern Germany. Another aim of our information products is to assess and summarize the existing scientific knowledge on climate, climate change and impacts in Northern Germany. A mini IPCC-like regional assessment report has been published in 2010, which is summarizing, discussing and assessing the scientific knowledge on regional climate, climate change and impacts as well as possible adaptation strategies in the metropolitan region of Hamburg.

  12. Leibis/Lichte Dam in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnel, Markus

    In Thuringia the second highest dam of Germany is under construction (figure 1). The new Leibis/Lichte dam is a 370 m long and 102.5 m high gravity dam of concrete with straight axis. With the completion of the Leibis/Lichte dam in 2005 more than 300.000 inhabitants of the Eastern Regions of Thuringia will be supplied with high quality drinking water. The foundation rocks at the dam site are exclusively greyish-blue argillaceous schist, silt schist and cleaved fine sandstones from the Ordovician period (phycode schist). The main joint system consists of three differently orientated joints. Geomechanically of main interest is the shallow dipping bedding, especially in the left abutment because of its downhill dip. The other joints show a generally steep dip. Wide extending faults with thick mylonites or fractured zones, which could influence the foundation of the dam, do not exist within the dam site. The engineering geological field mapping of the foundation surface confirms the rock mass parameters. The excavation works are carried out in four different stages to avoid loosening of the foundation rock. Great care is taken to assure that the foundation rock is protected against weathering. Based on the results of preliminary investigations the foundation level was planned in a depth of 4 to14 m. The abutments of the dam correspond to the expectations. Predominantly the argillaceous rock shows a low permeability. The permeability is exclusively linked to faults respectively few large joints. In order to prevent seepage and to reduce the uplift pressure, a grout curtain in two rows is arranged with a depth of 5 to 44 metres.

  13. Germany's Option for a Moon Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantius, Dominik

    The German non-profit amateur satellite organisation AMSAT-Deutschland successfully de-signed, built and launched four HEO satellites in the last three decades. Now they are going to build a satellite to leave the Earth orbit based on their flight-proven P3-D satellite design. Due to energetic constraints the most suitable launch date for the planned P5-A satellite to Mars will be in 2018. To efficiently use the relatively long time gap until launch a possible prior Moon mission came into mind. In co-operation with the DLR-Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, two studies on systems level for a first P5 satellite towards Moon and a following one towards Mars have been performed. By using the DLR's Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) two consistent satellite concepts were designed including mission analysis, configuration, propulsion, subsystem dimensioning, payload selection, budgeting and cost. The present paper gives an insight in the accomplished design process and the results of the performed study towards Moon. The developed Moon orbiter is designed to carry the following four main instruments besides flexible communication abilities: • slewable HDTV camera combined with a high gain antenna that allows receiving lunar television using a commercially available satellite TV dish on Earth • sensor imaging infrared spectrometer for mineralogy of lunar silicates and lunar surface temperature measurements • camera for detection and monitoring of impact flashes in visible light (VIS) on lunar night side caused by meteoroid impact events • camera technology test for interplanetary navigation and planetary approach navigation. This study presents a non-industrial satellite concept that could be launched as piggyback load on Ariane 5 into GTO. Due to the fact, that the satellite would be built by the private sector, the mission costs would remain low. Otherwise the scientific and public output would be high using that satellite bus for the instruments

  14. [The hospital at Hillersleben Germany, April 1945].

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Varda

    2014-01-01

    On 6th April 1945, nine days before the liberation of the Bergen Belsen Concentration Camp, about 2,500 Jewish prisoners were ordered to prepare to leave the camp on the next day. On 7th April, the prisoners left through the gates of the camp and began to walk about 10 kilometers to the train station near the city of Celle. There they were ordered to board a train that would take them to the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp. After six days of travel, the train stopped near the village of Farsleben, Germany, where it was liberated by the 743rd Tank Battalion of the 30th Infantry Division, of the U.S. 9th Army, on 13th April 1945. The 105th Medical Battalion of the same Division was the primary care provider for the survivors, who were then taken in vehicles available from the 30th Infantry Division, and organized into a convoy by the Division's Liaison Officer, Lt. Frank W. Towers, to the town of Hillersleben. A former German Air Force Base was located at Hillersleben with a small hospital that could not provide medical attention to all the survivors. On 21st April, Company C of the 95th Medical Battalion, received an order to go to Hillersleben. Colonel Dr. William W. Hurteau, the Commanding Officer of this Battalion, determined that the biggest task given to the Battalion during World War II, was establishing another hospital in the town of Hillersleben and providing additional beds in the existing hospital, which was a structure that had served as a boarding school. Furthermore, they needed to acquire hospital equipment which was obtained from German equipment and supplies that had been captured by the U.S. MiLitary. Also, they took care of obtaining food supplies from German warehouses, and meat and milk from local dairy farms. The lives of the prisoners on this train were saved by the heroism and dedicated work of those brave soldiers of the 30th Infantry Division and the 95th Medical Battalion. PMID:24791569

  15. [Mosquitoes as vectors for exotic pathogens in Germany].

    PubMed

    Becker, N; Krüger, A; Kuhn, C; Plenge-Bönig, A; Thomas, S M; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Tannich, E

    2014-05-01

    As a result of intensified globalization of international trade and of substantial travel activities, mosquito-borne exotic pathogens are becoming an increasing threat for Europe. In Germany some 50 different mosquito species are known, several of which have vector competence for pathogens. During the last few years a number of zoonotic arboviruses that are pathogenic for humans have been isolated from mosquitoes in Germany including Usutu, Sindbis and Batai viruses. In addition, filarial worms, such as Dirofilaria repens have been repeatedly detected in mosquitoes from the federal state of Brandenburg. Other pathogens, in particular West Nile virus, are expected to emerge sooner or later in Germany as the virus is already circulating in neighboring countries, e.g. France, Austria and the Czech Republic. In upcoming years the risk for arbovirus transmission might increase in Germany due to increased occurrence of new so-called "invasive" mosquito species, such as the Asian bush mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus or the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus. These invasive species are characterized by high vector competence for a broad range of pathogens and a preference for human blood meals. For risk assessment, a number of mosquito and pathogen surveillance projects have been initiated in Germany during the last few years; however, mosquito control strategies and plans of action have to be developed and put into place to allow early and efficient action against possible vector-borne epidemics. PMID:24781910

  16. The Integrated Carbon Observation System in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo

    2013-04-01

    will enable the researchers to calculate the European carbon fluxes with a resolution of 10 km. The ICOS-D Atmospheric Observational Network for Germany, when fully established, will comprise 9 atmospheric sites. In the Ocean Program, volunteer observing ships (VOS) plying regular routes in the Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea will be instrumented to make autonomous observations of physical and biochemical parameters (temperature, salinity) and sea surface fugacity of CO2 (fCO2). In addition, two ocean observatories at the Cape Verde Islands and Svalbard ('Hausgarten') will be part of the long-term research infrastructure. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Program will provide continuous measurements of trace gas fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere. The measurements will be conducted in forests, grasslands, croplands and wetlands and will partly build on sites that have been run for a decade or more in the framework of EU-projects such as CarboEuropeIP. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Program will be designed in 5 - 6 clusters. A cluster is a group of sites at close range but under different land use. This will ensure high representativeness for climate, soils properties and regional land use criteria. The CAL will provide calibration gases for the entire network in order to minimize offsets and calibration uncertainties between the measurements at different stations. It will further provide a centralized analysis of grab samples taken within the whole ICOS RI network for additional trace gases and isotope ratios, including radiocarbon which provides an independent method to quantify regional fossil fuel emissions.

  17. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a 'natural oil' like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more

  18. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  19. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground. The image covers a 27- by 36-kilometer (17- by 22-mile) area. The center of the site is 48.09 degrees north and 11.29 degrees east. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994, just after a heavy storm which covered the all area with 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. The dark area in the center of the image is Lake Ammersee. The two smaller lakes above the Ammersee are the Worthsee and the Pilsensee. On the right of the image is the tip of the Starnbergersee. The outskirt of the city of Munich can be seen at the top of the image. The Oberpfaffenhofen supersite is the major test site for X-SAR calibration and scientific experiments such as ecology, hydrology and geology. This color composite image is a three-frequency overlay. L-band total power was assigned red, the C-band total power is shown in green and the X-band VV polarization appears blue. The colors on the image stress the differences between the L-band, C-band and X-band images. If the three frequencies were seeing the same thing, the image will appear in black and white. For example, the blue areas corresponds to area for which the X-band backscatter is relatively higher than the backscatter at L-and C-band; this behavior is characteristic of clear cuts or shorter vegetation. Similarly, the forested areas have a reddish tint. Finally, the green areas seen at the southern tip of both the Ammersee and the Pilsensee lakes indicate a marshy area. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR

  20. The protection of the person in medical research in Germany.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, E

    1999-01-01

    Because of its history Germany has many rules concerning the protection of persons in medical research. In fact Germany was the first state to issue a directive regulating medical experimentation with human beings in the year 1900. The ten principles of Nuremberg originated out of the medical case. Germany adheres to the Revised Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association and will probably sign the European convention on biomedicine. The pharmaceutical act contains elaborate provisions for the protection of the patient or proband, e.g. informed consent, risk-benefit ratio, no experimentation on prisoners, approval of a local ethics committee. Moreover in pharmaceutical trials there has to be third party accident insurance for the experimental subject. There is no strict liability for medical experimentation, but the standard of care is high. In general the German law seems to be adequate for the protection of experimental subjects. PMID:10436740

  1. [Cancer incidence estimates for Germany via log-linear models].

    PubMed

    Haberland, J; Bertz, J; Görsch, B; Schön, D

    2001-01-01

    In Germany presently no nationwide cancer registration exists. To estimate national cancer incidence, Poisson regression models were fitted to incidence/mortality ratios using age and sex specific data of the cancer registry of Saarland, Germany and were then applied to national mortality. The models estimate the absolute number of incident cases at a given point in time and moreover allow the assessment of time trends. Applied to nationwide mortality the models imply a total of 347,000 new cancer cases in Germany for 1998 with 179,000 females and 168,000 males. During the nineties the age-standardised rate (European standard) has slightly decreased for males and slightly increased for females. PMID:11561205

  2. Risk Factors for Human Infection with Puumala Virus, Southwestern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Ranft, Ulrich; Piechotowski, Isolde; Childs, James E.; Brockmann, Stefan O.

    2009-01-01

    Puumala virus, which causes nephropathia epidemica (NE), is the most prevalent hantavirus in Germany; bank voles serve as the main reservoir. During 2001–2007, most NE cases reported from Germany occurred in the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg. We investigated the influence of bank vole habitats (beech forest, seed plants), vole food supply (beechnut mast), climate factors (winter and spring temperatures), and human population density on spatial and temporal occurrence of NE cases in Baden-Württemberg. Using Poisson-regression analyses, we found that all these factors influenced disease incidence. Furthermore, an independent trend of increasing incidence predicted that incidence will nearly double each year. The regression model explained 75% of the annual variation in NE incidence. The results suggest that environmental drivers lead to increasing incidence of NE infections in the southern part or even other parts of Germany. PMID:19624917

  3. Germany and its immigrants: a socio-demographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Munz, R; Ulrich, R

    1998-01-01

    "Germany is today, along with the USA and Russia, one of the three most important immigration countries worldwide. The authors examine how the immigrant population of Germany has risen despite the fact that the German government has sought to restrict it. They analyse six major streams of migration: refugees and expellees who came immediately after World War II, German resettlers from Eastern Europe (¿Aussiedler'), emigration of (West) Germans, migration between East and West Germany, foreign labour migrants and asylum seekers. The dynamics of immigration within each of these channels was remarkably different. As far as absorption and integration are concerned the authors argue that different groups of immigrants should be treated more equally." PMID:12321659

  4. Tobacco Industry Influence on Science and Scientists in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Grüning, Thilo; Gilmore, Anna B.; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Using tobacco industry documents, we examined how and why the tobacco industry sought to influence science and scientists in Germany as a possible factor in explaining the German opposition to stricter tobacco regulation. Smoking and health research programs were organized both separately by individual tobacco companies and jointly through their German trade organization. An extensive network of scientists and scientific institutions with tobacco industry links was developed. Science was distorted in 5 ways: suppression, dilution, distraction, concealment, and manipulation. The extent of tobacco industry influence over the scientific establishment in Germany is profound. The industry introduced serious bias that probably influenced scientific and public opinion in Germany. This influence likely undermined efforts to control tobacco use. PMID:16317203

  5. [The question of further rabies control in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schenzle, D

    1995-11-01

    By means of a mathematical model the question is considered whether and how rabies can be controlled in Germany by oral vaccination of foxes. The model shows that from the success obtained so far one should not yet assume to have rabies under control. Because immunization of foxes causes an increase in the fox population size, the number of available vaccine baits per fox decreases. Model calculations indicate, at least in some areas of Germany, it may be necessary to increase vaccine baits per area i order to reach and maintain a rabies free stage. PMID:8646999

  6. Increased Prevalence of Trichinella spp., Northeastern Germany, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Pannwitz, Gunter; Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra; Nöckler, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a Trichinella spp. outbreak occurred on a small family-owned pig farm in Mecklenburg–Western Pomerania in northeastern Germany. To obtain epidemiologic information on this outbreak, we determined that after 2005 the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wild boars has increased in this region of Germany. We discuss the potential role of the raccoon dog in the increase in Trichinella spp. prevalence in the sylvatic cycle in this region. We believe that this increase could pose a threat to pigs kept in back yard conditions, and we provide recommendations to ensure public health safety. PMID:20507743

  7. The Development of Oral Proficiency during a Semester in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindseth, Martina U.

    2010-01-01

    This study measures and analyzes improvements in students' oral proficiency during a study abroad semester in Germany. Oral proficiency interviews were conducted with participants before and after the program during three consecutive years. All interviews were assigned official ratings. Usage of two specific grammar structures associated with the…

  8. Environmental Education in Germany: Concepts, History, Projects, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document presents the history of environmental education in Germany and reports on the diversions and solutions in the search for sustainable education. Five sections include: (1) "Environmental Education: Learning with All One's Senses"; (2) "Sustainability as the New Model: Knowledge of a New Quality"; (3) "Tomorrow's Education in…

  9. Cultural Life in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter Nationes, Bonn (West Germany).

    By the nature of the subject, it is impossible to do justice to the cultural developments of more than 40 years in a brief survey. The aim of this document is to explore the diverse cultural life of West Germany complete with photographs of past and present artists, art products, and other aspects of German culture. The subject areas treated are:…

  10. Semantic Change in the German of East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Richard E.

    The language of East Germany has undergone distinct semantic change since the arrival of the Soviet occupation forces in 1945, especially in the areas of politics, philosophy, and social organization. This is evident in governmental publications and in the shortwave transmissions of the official broadcasting station. Four sources of the change can…

  11. Educational Responses to Reforms in East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Val D.

    1992-01-01

    In the former East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Poland, striking educational changes have occurred, including elimination of communist-oriented curricula, textbooks, and instruction; reintroduction of religious studies, resurgence of private and alternative schools, elimination of Russian as a mandatory second language, decentralization of…

  12. Teacher Union Blitz in the Former East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Expansion of the powerful former West German teacher union (the Trade Union for Educators and Scholars) into the former East Germany is chronicled, and potential problems of the recruitment effort are examined. Declining teacher morale and unfulfilled promises of opportunity and freedom of speech are seen as serious threats to positive change.…

  13. Continuing Education in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibl, H. J.; Bartz, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides an analysis of continuing education in West Germany. Discusses the pluralistic nature of financing, the corporate sponsorship, and internal versus external educational activities. Presents advantages and disadvantages, reasons, and criteria for selecting either internal or external methods of continuing education. (JM)

  14. Development and Prospects of Academic Entrepreneurship Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klandt, Heinz; Volkmann, Christine

    2006-01-01

    This contribution deals with the development of entrepreneurship education at university level in Germany. Starting with a definition of the concept, the article focuses on relevant issues of entrepreneurship education, such as target groups and teaching formats. With particular emphasis on empirical studies carried out by the German Association…

  15. Education in Germany since Unification. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses issues related to education in Germany since its unification. The papers include: "The Legacy of Unification" (David Phillips); "Change and Continuity in Education After the 'Wende'" (E. J. Neather); "A Study of Teachers' Perceptions in Brandenburg 'Gesamtschulen'" (Stephanie Wilde); "Memory and Judgement: How…

  16. Higher Education at a Distance: Developments and Projects in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidt, Erhard U.

    1975-01-01

    A case study in the planning for a possible distance-study system in Germany. Three project areas are described (the Quadringa radio colleges, the German Institute of Distance Study, and multi-media study teams in universities). Efforts to establish a national system are analyzed and compared to the development of Britain's Open University. (JT)

  17. Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes historical attitudes toward people with disabilities in Germany and how this context produced mass murder of people with disabilities prior to and during World War II. Key marker variables are examined, including the rise of Darwinism and eugenics. Resistance to disability as a genocidal marker is discussed. (Contains…

  18. The Life Expectancy of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieckmann, Friedrich; Giovis, Christos; Offergeld, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study presents age group-specific mortality rates and the average life expectancy of people with intellectual disabilities in Germany. Method: For two samples from Westphalia-Lippe and Baden-Wuerttemberg, person-related data for the years 2007-2009 were analysed. Age group-specific mortality rates were estimated by exponential…

  19. Risk Factors for Hantavirus Infection in Germany, 2005

    PubMed Central

    Abu Sin, Muna; Stark, Klaus; van Treeck, Ulrich; Dieckmann, Helga; Uphoff, Helmut; Hautmann, Wolfgang; Bornhofen, Bernhard; Jensen, Evelin; Pfaff, Günter

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, a marked increase in hantavirus infections was observed in Germany. Large cities and areas where hantaviruses were not known to be endemic were affected. A case–control study identified the following independent risk factors for infection: occupational exposure for construction workers, living <100 m from forested areas, and exposure to mice. PMID:18252110

  20. Restructuring Schools for Democracy in the Former East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Wayne; Dumas, Alesia; Lee, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the contentious relationship between educators within the former East Germany and their West German cohorts following reunification. The problems have stemmed from conflicting ideologies and traditions (Marxist versus Christian Democrat and Social Democrat) as well as differences concerning school organization and educational objectives.…

  1. Germany and Europe Since World War II: Resources for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, James F., Ed.; Metcalf, Fay, Ed.

    Designed as a resource for teachers to help high school students understand the new Germany, six background papers and nine lessons provide information on the difficult transition from the Third Reich to defeat and military occupation, on the establishment of two successor states, and on revolution and reunification. The six background papers…

  2. Germany's ECEC Workforce: A Difficult Path to Professionalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenbach, Thomas; Riedel, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    In a European comparison, the childcare profession in Germany has taken a distinct path of development which is closely interwoven with the history of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in general. Institutional choices critical to this path are the assignment of childcare as part of social welfare, the pursuit of a maternalist tradition in…

  3. Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease, Germany, 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Dirk; de Roux, Andrés; Diel, Roland; Hohmann, David; Hickstein, Lennart; Welte, Tobias; Rademacher, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed routine statutory health insurance claim data to determine prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in Germany. Documented prevalence rates of this nonnotifiable disease increased from 2.3 to 3.3 cases/100,000 population from 2009 to 2014. Prevalence showed a strong association with advanced age and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:27191473

  4. How to Encourage Studying Germany and Europe in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Presents two activities from an "Idea Bank for Teaching Germany and Europe U.S. Classrooms K-12." Includes a role playing exercise involving significant individuals from European history and a student project involving cooperative learning about individual European nations. Provides an address for obtaining a free copy of the "Idea Bank." (CFR)

  5. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  6. Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Reemergence in Germany, 2007 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Bernd; Saßerath, Michael; Thalheim, Sabine; Bunzenthal, Claudia; Strebelow, Günter

    2008-01-01

    Reemerging bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in Germany was detected first in May 2007 in a sentinel cow and in February 2008 in an export heifer. Reemergence was confirmed by retesting the samples, experimental inoculation, fingerprinting analysis, and virus isolation. Overwintering of BTV-8 and continuous low-level infections are assumed. PMID:18760009

  7. Governance and Funding of Higher Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufner, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Describes the complex functioning of decision making in relation to legal, administrative, planning, and financial matters in Germany, examining the current increase of privatization of higher education and the ensuring legal and financial problem, and discussing the introduction of new funding schemes based on performance indicators which augur…

  8. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  9. Foreign Students and Government Policy: Britain, France, and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Alice

    The impact of European government policy on the movement of foreign students in Great Britain, France, and West Germany is discussed by a member of the American Council on Education Committee on Foreign Students. Foreign student enrollments have increased dramatically in these three countries in the 1960s and 1970s, and foreign students also make…

  10. Germany's Social Movement Sector, the Greens, and the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankowski, Carl

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a new political culture has developed since the 1960s in West Germany. Discusses the interest in issues related to the environment, women's rights, peace, and similar issues. Describes the development of the Green Party and its impact on mainstream political parties and the movement toward European unity. (CFR)