Science.gov

Sample records for mobile broadband networks

  1. R&D on wireless broadband communication systems: new generation ubiquitous mobile network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Hiroyo

    2007-09-01

    R&D on new generation mobile network has attracted a growing interest over the world on the background of rapid market growth for 2nd and 3rd - generation cellular networks and wireless LANs/MANs. The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) has been carried out the New Generation Mobile Network Project from April 2002 to March 2006, and has developed fundamental technologies to enable seamless and secure integration of various wireless access networks such as existing cellular networks, wireless LANs, home networks, intelligent transport systems (ITS), the Beyond-3G (B3G) cellular and other wireless access systems. From April 2006, Ubiquitous Mobile Network project focused on cognitive radio technology and integrated seamless networking technology was started. This paper overviews the achievement and the future plan of these projects.

  2. Dynamic subframe allocation for mobile broadband m-health using IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay networks.

    PubMed

    Alinejad, Ali; Istepanian, R S H; Philip, N

    2012-01-01

    The concept of 4G health will be one of the key focus areas of future m-health research and enterprise activities in the coming years. WiMAX technology is one of the constituent 4G wireless technologies that provides broadband wireless access (BWA). Despite the fact that WiMAX is able to provide a high data rate in a relatively large coverage; this technology has specific limitations such as: coverage, signal attenuation problems due to shadowing or path loss, and limited available spectrum. The IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay (MMR) technology is a pragmatic solution designed to overcome these limitations. The aim of IEEE 802.16j MMR is to expand the IEEE 802.16e's capabilities with multihop features. In particular, the uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) subframe allocation in WiMAX network is usually fixed. However, dynamic frame allocation is a useful mechanism to optimize uplink and downlink subframe size dynamically based on the traffic conditions through real-time traffic monitoring. This particular mechanism is important for future WiMAX based m-health applications as it allows the tradeoff in both UL and DL channels. In this paper, we address the dynamic frame allocation issue in IEEE 802.16j MMR network for m-health applications. A comparative performance analysis of the proposed approach is validated using the OPNET Modeler(®). The simulation results have shown an improved performance of resource allocation and end-to-end delay performance for typical medical video streaming application. PMID:23365886

  3. 47 CFR 90.1405 - Shared wireless broadband network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shared wireless broadband network. 90.1405... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership § 90.1405 Shared wireless broadband network. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network developed by the 700 MHz Public/Private...

  4. Heterogeneous broadband network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Lars

    1995-11-01

    Although the vision for the future Integrated Broadband Communication Network (IBCN) is an all optical network, it is certain that for a long period to come, the network will remain very heterogeneous, with a mixture of different physical media (fiber, coax and twisted pair), transmission systems (PDH, SDH, ADSL) and transport protocols (TCP/IP, AAL/ATM, frame relay). In the current work towards the IBCN, the ATM concept is considered the generic network protocol for both public and private network, with the ability to use different underlying transmission protocols and, through adaptation protocols, provide the appropriate services (old as well as new) to the customer. One of the major difficulties of heterogeneous network is the restriction that is usually given by the lowest common denominator, e.g. in terms of single channel capacity. A possible way to overcome these limitations is by extending the ATM concept with a multilink capability, that allows us to use separate resources as one common. The improved flexibility obtained by this protocol extension further allows a real time optimization of network and call configuration, without any impact on the quality of service seen from the user. This paper describes an example of an ATM based multilink protocol that has been experimentally implemented within the RACE project 'STRATOSPHERIC'. The paper outlines the complexity of introducing an extra network functionality compared with the added value, such as an improved ability to recover an error due to a malfunctioning network component.

  5. 75 FR 33303 - Comment Sought on Measurement of Mobile Broadband Network Performance and Coverage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... significance of mobile internet access. Additionally, the Bureau seeks comment on how providers can improve... services given the growing significance of mobile internet access. Additionally, the Bureau seeks comment... the following methods: Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the Internet...

  6. Broadband accelerator control network

    SciTech Connect

    Skelly, J.; Clifford, T.; Frankel, R.

    1983-01-01

    A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AG) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating system has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel.

  7. Broadband network selection issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leimer, Michael E.

    1996-01-01

    Selecting the best network for a given cable or telephone company provider is not as obvious as it appears. The cost and performance trades between Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC), Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line networks lead to very different choices based on the existing plant and the expected interactive subscriber usage model. This paper presents some of the issues and trades that drive network selection. The majority of the Interactive Television trials currently underway or planned are based on HFC networks. As a throw away market trial or a short term strategic incursion into a cable market, HFC may make sense. In the long run, if interactive services see high demand, HFC costs per node and an ever shrinking neighborhood node size to service large numbers of subscribers make FTTC appear attractive. For example, thirty-three 64-QAM modulators are required to fill the 550 MHz to 750 MHz spectrum with compressed video streams in 6 MHz channels. This large amount of hardware at each node drives not only initial build-out costs, but operations and maintenance costs as well. FTTC, with its potential for digitally switching large amounts of bandwidth to an given home, offers the potential to grow with the interactive subscriber base with less downstream cost. Integrated telephony on these networks is an issue that appears to be an afterthought for most of the networks being selected at the present time. The major players seem to be videocentric and include telephony as a simple add-on later. This may be a reasonable view point for the telephone companies that plan to leave their existing phone networks untouched. However, a phone company planning a network upgrade or a cable company jumping into the telephony business needs to carefully weigh the cost and performance issues of the various network choices. Each network type provides varying capability in both upstream and downstream bandwidth for voice channels. The noise characteristics

  8. 47 CFR 90.1405 - Shared wireless broadband network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shared wireless broadband network. 90.1405... broadband network. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network developed by the 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership must be designed to meet requirements associated with a nationwide, public safety broadband network....

  9. 47 CFR 27.1305 - Shared wireless broadband network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shared wireless broadband network. 27.1305... broadband network. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network developed by the 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership must be designed to meet requirements associated with a nationwide, public safety broadband network....

  10. 47 CFR 27.1305 - Shared wireless broadband network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shared wireless broadband network. 27.1305... broadband network. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network developed by the 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership must be designed to meet requirements associated with a nationwide, public safety broadband network....

  11. 47 CFR 90.1405 - Shared wireless broadband network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shared wireless broadband network. 90.1405... broadband network. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network developed by the 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership must be designed to meet requirements associated with a nationwide, public safety broadband network....

  12. 47 CFR 90.19 - Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network. 90... Safety Broadband Network. Pursuant to the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012, Public... First Responder Network Authority to deploy a nationwide public safety broadband network as...

  13. 47 CFR 90.19 - Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network. 90... Safety Broadband Network. Pursuant to the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012, Public... First Responder Network Authority to deploy a nationwide public safety broadband network as...

  14. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  15. 47 CFR 27.1305 - Shared wireless broadband network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shared wireless broadband network. 27.1305... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership § 27.1305 Shared wireless broadband network. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network developed by the 700 MHz Public/Private...

  16. NAT Usage in Residential Broadband Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Gregor; Schneider, Fabian; Feldmann, Anja

    Many Internet customers use network address translation (NAT) when connecting to the Internet. To understand the extend of NAT usage and its implications, we explore NAT usage in residential broadband networks based on observations from more than 20,000 DSL lines. We present a unique approach for detecting the presence of NAT and for estimating the number of hosts connected behind a NAT gateway using IP TTLs and HTTP user-agent strings. Furthermore, we study when each of the multiple hosts behind a single NAT gateway is active. This enables us to detect simultaneous use. In addition, we evaluate the accuracy of NAT analysis techniques when fewer information is available.

  17. A Distributed Network Mobility Management Scheme for Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Keita; Kinoshita, Kazuhiko; Yamai, Nariyoshi

    Route optimization for network mobility is a key technique for providing a node in a mobile network (Mobile Network Node or MNN) with high quality broadband communications. Many schemes adding route optimization function to Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support protocol, the standardized network mobility management protocol from the IETF nemo working group, have already been proposed in recent years. One such scheme, a scheme using Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) aims to overcome micromobility management issues as well by applying a mechanism based on HMIPv6. The traditional scheme, however, suffers from a significant number of signaling messages as the number of MNNs and/or the number of their Correspondent Nodes (CNs) increase, because many messages notifying the MNNs' Home Agents (HAMNNs) and the CNs of the mobile network's movement are generated simultaneously each time the mobile network moves to the domain of another micromobility management router (Mobility Anchor Point or MAP). This paper proposes a scheme to overcome this problem. Our scheme reduces the number of signaling messages generated at the same time by managing the mobility of MNNs using multiple MAPs distributed within a network for load sharing. The results of simulation experiments show that our scheme works efficiently compared to the traditional scheme when a mobile network has many MNNs and/or these MNNs communicate with many CNs.

  18. Broadband passive optical network media access control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quayle, Alan

    1996-11-01

    Most telecommunication operators are currently deciding on how to respond to customers' needs stimulated by the synergy between compression coding of multimedia and the emergence of broadband digital networks. This paper describes a range of broadband access architectures under consideration in the full services access network initiative. All architectures have a common requirement for a broadband ATM PON. A common broadband PON applicable to many operators increases the world-wide market for the product. With greater production volumes manufacturers' costs reduce because of the experience curve effect making broadband access systems economic.

  19. Future large broadband switched satellite communications networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Harvey, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Critical technical, market, and policy issues relevant to future large broadband switched satellite networks are summarized. Our market projections for the period 1980 to 2000 are compared. Clusters of switched satellites, in lieu of large platforms, etc., are shown to have significant advantages. Analysis of an optimum terrestrial network architecture suggests the proper densities of ground stations and that link reliabilities 99.99% may entail less than a 10% cost premium for diversity protection at 20/30 GHz. These analyses suggest that system costs increase as the 0.6 power of traffic. Cost estimates for nominal 20/30 GHz satellite and ground facilities suggest optimum system configurations might employ satellites with 285 beams, multiple TDMA bands each carrying 256 Mbps, and 16 ft ground station antennas. A nominal development program is outlined.

  20. Future integrated broadband fiber, wireless, and satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Vincent W. S.

    2006-10-01

    With the increasing technical maturity in fiber, wireless and satellite communication technologies, new horizons are becoming feasible for future broadband networks, providing economical data rates well in excess of Gbps for stationary and mobile users as well as novel applications these advanced network services will permit. This talk explores the future architecture possibilities of such a network using new and radical technology building blocks such as: free space laser communications, multiple access multi-beam data satellite communications, novel all-optical network transport/switching and analog transmission and processing over optical carriers that support coherent distributed platform sensing and communications. We will articulate why we have to design this new network across layers from the Physical Layer to the Network and Transport Layers (even the Application Layer). Not only can future network performance and cost undergo quantum-leap improvements; such a network can have profound transforming effects on space and terrestrial system architectures for sensing, healthcare, early warning systems, disaster relief, research collaborations and other new commercial applications.

  1. Networked Nation: Broadband in America, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Telecommunications and Information Administration, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report highlights the dramatic growth of broadband in the United States. The report shows that the Administration's technology, regulatory and fiscal policies have stimulated innovation and competition, and encouraged investment in the U.S. broadband market contributing to significantly increased accessibility of broadband services. The…

  2. Broadband Access Network Planning Optimization Considering Real Copper Cable Lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peternel, Blaž Kos, Andrej

    Broadband access network planning strategies with techno-economic calculations are important topics, when optimal broadband network deployments are considered. This paper analyzes optimal deployment combination of digital subscriber line technologies (xDSL) and fiber to the home technologies (FTTx), following different user bandwidth demand scenarios. For this reason, optimal placement of remote digital subscriber line multiplexer (RDSLAM) is examined. Furthermore, the article also discusses the economy of investments, depending on certain investment threshold and the reach of different xDSL technologies. Finally, the difference between broadband network deployment in a characteristic urban and rural area in Republic of Slovenia, in terms of required optical cable dig length per household is shown. A tree structure network model of a traditional copper access network is introduced. A dynamic programming logic, with recursion as a basis of a tree structure examination and evaluation of optimal network elements placement is used. The tree structure network model considers several real network parameters (e. g.: copper cable lengths, user coordinates, node coordinates). The main input for the optimization is a local loop distance between each user and a candidate node for RDSLAM placement. Modelling of copper access networks with a tree structure makes new extensions in planning optimization of broadband access networks. Optimization of network elements placement has direct influence on efficiency and profitability of broadband access telecommunication networks.

  3. Mobile infostation network technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajappan, Gowri; Acharya, Joydeep; Liu, Hongbo; Mandayam, Narayan; Seskar, Ivan; Yates, Roy

    2006-05-01

    Inefficient use of network resources on the battlefield is a serious liability: if an asset communicates with the network command for data-a terrain map, for instance-it ties up the end-to-end network resources. When many such assets contend for data simultaneously, traffic is limited by the slowest link along the path from the network command to the asset. A better approach is for a local server, known as an infostation, to download data on an anticipated-need basis when the network load is low. The infostation can then dump data when needed to the assets over a high-speed wireless connection. The infostation serves the local assets over an OFDM-based wireless data link that has MIMO enhancements for high data rate and robustness. We aim for data rate in excess of 100 Mbps, spectral efficiency in excess of 5 bits/sec/Hz, and robustness to poor channel conditions and jammers. We propose an adaptive physical layer that determines power levels, modulation schemes, and the MIMO enhancements to use based on the channel state and the level of interference in the system. We also incorporate the idea of superuser: a user who is allowed preferential use of the high data rate link. We propose a MAC that allows for this priority-based bandwidth allocation scheme. The proposed infostation MAC is integrated tightly with the physical layer through a cross-layer design. We call the proposed infostation PHY, MAC, and network technology, collectively, as the Mobile Infostation Network Technology (MINT).

  4. The Glenview Model: Community Networking via Broadband Cable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundt, John P.

    This paper describes the installation of a data network in the community of Glenview, Illinois, which uses broadband cable equipment to connect schools, libraries, and governmental agencies to each other and to the Internet via a high speed Ethernet network. The history of the project is outlined followed by a discussion of the implementation of…

  5. Fixed mobile convergence (FMC) architectures for broadband access: integration of EPON and WiMax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Gangxiang; Tucker, Rodney

    2007-11-01

    Many of the features of EPON and WiMAX are complementary. In [1] we proposed four basic architectures for the integration of EPON and WiMAX, which employs an EPON as a backhaul to interconnect multiple WiMAX base stations. The integration takes advantage of the high capacity of fibre communication as well as the mobile and non-line of sight (NLOS) features of wireless communication. In this article, we recap these basic architectures and relevant operational issues. We further propose more integrated architectures that are extended from the four basic architectures. In addition, more design and operational issues relevant to the architectures are discussed. We expect that integration of EPON and WiMAX can help realize fixed mobile convergence, and significantly reduce overall design and operational costs for the new-generation broadband access networks.

  6. Old Buildings Broadband Home Networks: Technologies and Services Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantacci, Romano; Pecorella, Tommaso; Micciullo, Luigia; Viti, Roberto; Pasquini, Vincenzo; Calì, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Internet broadband access is becoming a reality in many countries. To fully exploit the benefits from high-speed connection, both suitable home network connectivity and advanced services support have to be made available to the user. In this article, issues relative to the upgrade of existing home networks, particularly in old buildings, together with networking and security requirements are addressed, and possible solutions are proposed.

  7. Data stream mobility across shipboard satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, S.; Meyer, J.; Berger, J.; Orcutt, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    As global research vessels in the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) fleet send more real-time data to shore during cruises, the need for satellite bandwidth, footprint coverage, transport reliability, and data mobility is increasing. A growing amount of science is becoming reliant on real-time feedback from resources on shore. To address this need, the HiSeasNet project brings Internet connectivity to shipboard scientists and sensors. Beginning with ships operated by Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the HiSeasNet project has been working to automatically adapt IP communications in the UNOLS fleet to changing network and bandwidth needs. Access points include the HiSeasNet satellite network, shore-based 3G data networks, Fleet Broadband services, and other internet service providers. With flexible data pipes and quick recovery between connections, data streams are more reliable and adaptable to the science being done on the ship.

  8. Global Interoperability of Broadband Networks (GIBN): Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DePaula, Ramon P.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with the Global Interoperability of Broadband Networks (GIBN) are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include GIBN principles, objectives and goals, and background. GIBN/NASA status, the Transpacific High Definition Video experiment, GIBN experiment selection criteria, satellite industry involvement, and current experiments associated with GIBN are also discussed.

  9. 76 FR 51271 - Implementing a Nationwide, Broadband, Interoperable Public Safety Network in the 700 MHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 90 Implementing a Nationwide, Broadband, Interoperable Public Safety Network in the... interoperable public safety broadband network. The establishment of a common air interface for 700 MHz public safety broadband networks will create a foundation for interoperability and provide a clear path for...

  10. Broadband networks for interactive telemedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graschew, Georgi; Roelofs, Theo A.; Rakowsky, Stefan; Schlag, Peter M.

    2002-08-01

    Using off-the-shelf hardware components and a specially developed high-end software communication system (WinVicos) satellite networks for interactive telemedicine have been designed and developed. These networks allow for various telemedical applications, like intraoperative teleconsultation, second opinioning, teleteaching, telementoring, etc.. Based on the successful GALENOS network, several projects are currently being realized: MEDASHIP (Medical Assistance for Ships); DELTASS (Disaster Emergency Logistic Telemedicine Advanced Satellites Systems) and EMISPHER (Euro-Mediterranean Internet-Satellite Platform for Health, medical Education and Research).

  11. On-board processing satellite network architectures for broadband ISDN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inukai, Thomas; Faris, Faris; Shyy, Dong-Jye

    1992-01-01

    Onboard baseband processing architectures for future satellite broadband integrated services digital networks (B-ISDN's) are addressed. To assess the feasibility of implementing satellite B-ISDN services, critical design issues, such as B-ISDN traffic characteristics, transmission link design, and a trade-off between onboard circuit and fast packet switching, are analyzed. Examples of the two types of switching mechanisms and potential onboard network control functions are presented. A sample network architecture is also included to illustrate a potential onboard processing system.

  12. Economic viability of access broadband multiservice networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Francesco; Dammicco, Giacinto; Mocci, Ugo

    1995-02-01

    In this paper the economic viability of alternative architectures for optical access networks providing broad band services to different subscriber classes in a metropolitan environment, is investigated by a specific tool, NEVE (Network Economic Viability Evaluator), developed for broad band multiservice network planning, service evolutionary scenarios assessment, evaluation of tariff strategies and other actions taken at stimulating the demand growth. As the viability target can be achieved in different ways, different studies can be carried out by NEVE. In the paper some of them are discussed, particularly the ones addressed: to evaluate the impact on viability of alternative service scenarios; to determine the critical mass of broad band subscribers and the critical joint service adoption cost; to evaluate cross subsidiary policies among different subscriber classes and services; to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to variations of demand parameters and tariffs.

  13. 76 FR 23812 - Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed... on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe Overload...: Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe...

  14. Efficient Mobility Management Signalling in Network Mobility Supported PMIPV6.

    PubMed

    Samuelraj, Ananthi Jebaseeli; Jayapal, Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPV6 (PMIPV6) is a network based mobility management protocol which supports node's mobility without the contribution from the respective mobile node. PMIPV6 is initially designed to support individual node mobility and it should be enhanced to support mobile network movement. NEMO-BSP is an existing protocol to support network mobility (NEMO) in PMIPV6 network. Due to the underlying differences in basic protocols, NEMO-BSP cannot be directly applied to PMIPV6 network. Mobility management signaling and data structures used for individual node's mobility should be modified to support group nodes' mobility management efficiently. Though a lot of research work is in progress to implement mobile network movement in PMIPV6, it is not yet standardized and each suffers with different shortcomings. This research work proposes modifications in NEMO-BSP and PMIPV6 to achieve NEMO support in PMIPV6. It mainly concentrates on optimizing the number and size of mobility signaling exchanged while mobile network or mobile network node changes its access point. PMID:26366431

  15. Efficient Mobility Management Signalling in Network Mobility Supported PMIPV6

    PubMed Central

    Jebaseeli Samuelraj, Ananthi; Jayapal, Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPV6 (PMIPV6) is a network based mobility management protocol which supports node's mobility without the contribution from the respective mobile node. PMIPV6 is initially designed to support individual node mobility and it should be enhanced to support mobile network movement. NEMO-BSP is an existing protocol to support network mobility (NEMO) in PMIPV6 network. Due to the underlying differences in basic protocols, NEMO-BSP cannot be directly applied to PMIPV6 network. Mobility management signaling and data structures used for individual node's mobility should be modified to support group nodes' mobility management efficiently. Though a lot of research work is in progress to implement mobile network movement in PMIPV6, it is not yet standardized and each suffers with different shortcomings. This research work proposes modifications in NEMO-BSP and PMIPV6 to achieve NEMO support in PMIPV6. It mainly concentrates on optimizing the number and size of mobility signaling exchanged while mobile network or mobile network node changes its access point. PMID:26366431

  16. K/Ka-band Antenna for Broadband Aeronautical Mobile Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Densmore, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has recently begun the development of a Broadband Aeronauical Terminal (BAT) for duplex video satellite communications on commercial or business class aircraft. The BAT is designed for use with NASA's K/Ka-band Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS).

  17. 47 CFR 90.18 - Public Safety 700 MHz Nationwide Broadband Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Network. 90.18 Section 90.18 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... 700 MHz Nationwide Broadband Network. The 763-768/793-798 MHz band is dedicated to a broadband public..., pursuant to a Network Sharing Agreement and such other agreements as the Commission may require....

  18. 47 CFR 90.18 - Public Safety 700 MHz Nationwide Broadband Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Network. 90.18 Section 90.18 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... 700 MHz Nationwide Broadband Network. The 763-768/793-798 MHz band is dedicated to a broadband public..., pursuant to a Network Sharing Agreement and such other agreements as the Commission may require....

  19. 47 CFR 90.18 - Public Safety 700 MHz Nationwide Broadband Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Network. 90.18 Section 90.18 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... 700 MHz Nationwide Broadband Network. The 763-768/793-798 MHz band is dedicated to a broadband public..., pursuant to a Network Sharing Agreement and such other agreements as the Commission may require....

  20. On-demand hypermedia/multimedia service over broadband networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bouras, C.; Kapoulas, V.; Spirakis, P. |

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a unified approach for delivering hypermedia/multimedia objects over broadband networks. Documents are stored in various multimedia servers, while the inline data may reside in their own media servers, attached to the multimedia servers. The described service consists of several multimedia servers and a set of functions that intend to present to the end user interactive information in real-time. Users interact with the service requesting multimedia documents on demand. Various media streams are transmitted over different parallel connections according lo their transmission requirements. The hypermedia documents are structured using a hypermedia markup language that keeps information of the spatiotemporal relationships among document`s media components. In order to deal with the variant network behavior, buffering manipulation mechanisms and grading of the transmitted media quality techniques are proposed to smooth presentation and synchronization anomalies.

  1. Energy optimization in mobile sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shengwei

    Mobile sensor networks are considered to consist of a network of mobile robots, each of which has computation, communication and sensing capabilities. Energy efficiency is a critical issue in mobile sensor networks, especially when mobility (i.e., locomotion control), routing (i.e., communications) and sensing are unique characteristics of mobile robots for energy optimization. This thesis focuses on the problem of energy optimization of mobile robotic sensor networks, and the research results can be extended to energy optimization of a network of mobile robots that monitors the environment, or a team of mobile robots that transports materials from stations to stations in a manufacturing environment. On the energy optimization of mobile robotic sensor networks, our research focuses on the investigation and development of distributed optimization algorithms to exploit the mobility of robotic sensor nodes for network lifetime maximization. In particular, the thesis studies these five problems: 1. Network-lifetime maximization by controlling positions of networked mobile sensor robots based on local information with distributed optimization algorithms; 2. Lifetime maximization of mobile sensor networks with energy harvesting modules; 3. Lifetime maximization using joint design of mobility and routing; 4. Optimal control for network energy minimization; 5. Network lifetime maximization in mobile visual sensor networks. In addressing the first problem, we consider only the mobility strategies of the robotic relay nodes in a mobile sensor network in order to maximize its network lifetime. By using variable substitutions, the original problem is converted into a convex problem, and a variant of the sub-gradient method for saddle-point computation is developed for solving this problem. An optimal solution is obtained by the method. Computer simulations show that mobility of robotic sensors can significantly prolong the lifetime of the whole robotic sensor network while

  2. 76 FR 10295 - Implementing a Nationwide, Broadband, Interoperable Public Safety Network in the 700 MHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 90 Implementing a Nationwide, Broadband, Interoperable Public Safety Network in the... framework for the nationwide public safety broadband network. This document considers and...

  3. Analysis and research on technology system of space broadband network based on laser link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chengwu; Fei, Ligang; Chen, Erhu; Kou, Baohua; Cheng, Liyu

    2015-10-01

    Space broadband network based on laser link represents the future development direction, Europe, the United States, Japan and other space powers have been researching the theory of space laser communication and the key technology constantly, and have carried out the key technology test of inter-satellite laser communication and satellite-ground laser communication on orbit. However, what is the technology system of space broadband network based on laser link? up to now, it is still controversial, such as wavelength, coding, and modulation mode, exchange mode and so on. Here, by analyzing all kinds of space laser communication test and its technology parameters, combined with the application requirement of space broadband network, a set of technology system for space broadband network based on laser link is put forward, although just a preliminary research result. At first, this paper introduces the basic conception of space broadband network based on laser link, defines the space laser broadband network technology system and its research scope. Then analyze the main contents of space laser broadband network technology system, especially the technical route choice involved, and by studying, the related suggestions are given. Finally, with the development of space broadband network, the issue of standardization in space laser communication technology system is put forward, in order to cause attaches great importance to scientific research institutes and relevant experts.

  4. Insight into landslide kinematics from a broadband seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2015-01-01

    The kinematic features of the 2009 Hsiaolin landslide were analyzed using a broadband seismic network in Taiwan. Both the final impact velocity and acceleration of the landslide were calculated based on the traveling distance and time of the landslide. A distance of approximately 2,500 m was observed on the surface, and the time from the initial collapse to the final impact was of 60.38 s according to broadband seismic data recorded nearby. The initial collapse time was determined using very-long-period seismic signals (20 to 50 s) created by the elastic rebound of the shallow crust as the overlying landslide initially moved downhill. The final impact time was determined by detecting the largest amplitudes of high-frequency seismic signals (1 to 10 Hz). The final impact velocity of approximately 298 km/h exhibited by this landslide had never before been recorded and thus might mark a world record; these speeds can be attributed mainly to a low friction coefficient (approximately 0.12) and a long run-out (approximately 2,500 m) along a gentle dip-slope surface (approximately 15°).

  5. Applications of satellite technology to broadband ISDN networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Kwan, Robert K.; Chitre, D. M.; Henderson, T. R.; White, L. W.; Morgan, W. L.

    1992-01-01

    Two satellite architectures for delivering broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) service are evaluated. The first is assumed integral to an existing terrestrial network, and provides complementary services such as interconnects to remote nodes as well as high-rate multicast and broadcast service. The interconnects are at a 155 Mbs rate and are shown as being met with a nonregenerative multibeam satellite having 10-1.5 degree spots. The second satellite architecture focuses on providing private B-ISDN networks as well as acting as a gateway to the public network. This is conceived as being provided by a regenerative multibeam satellite with on-board ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) processing payload. With up to 800 Mbs offered, higher satellite EIRP is required. This is accomplished with 12-0.4 degree hopping beams, covering a total of 110 dwell positions. It is estimated the space segment capital cost for architecture one would be about $190M whereas the second architecture would be about $250M. The net user cost is given for a variety of scenarios, but the cost for 155 Mbs services is shown to be about $15-22/minute for 25 percent system utilization.

  6. Advanced Networks in Motion Mobile Sensorweb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced mobile networking technology applicable to mobile sensor platforms was developed, deployed and demonstrated. A two-tier sensorweb design was developed. The first tier utilized mobile network technology to provide mobility. The second tier, which sits above the first tier, utilizes 6LowPAN (Internet Protocol version 6 Low Power Wireless Personal Area Networks) sensors. The entire network was IPv6 enabled. Successful mobile sensorweb system field tests took place in late August and early September of 2009. The entire network utilized IPv6 and was monitored and controlled using a remote Web browser via IPv6 technology. This paper describes the mobile networking and 6LowPAN sensorweb design, implementation, deployment and testing as well as wireless systems and network monitoring software developed to support testing and validation.

  7. Securing Mobile Networks in an Operational Setting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Shell, Dan

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a network demonstration and three month field trial of mobile networking using mobile-IPv4. The network was implemented as part of the US Coast Guard operational network which is a ".mil" network and requires stringent levels of security. The initial demonstrations took place in November 2002 and a three month field trial took place from July through September of 2003. The mobile network utilized encryptors capable of NSA-approved Type 1 algorithms, mobile router from Cisco Systems and 802.11 and satellite wireless links. This paper also describes a conceptual architecture for wide-scale deployment of secure mobile networking in operational environments where both private and public infrastructure is used. Additional issues presented include link costs, placement of encryptors and running routing protocols over layer-3 encryption devices.

  8. Assessing Quality of Experience while comparing competing mobile broadband services from the user perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, Ewerton L.; David, Rodrigo; Sabóia de Souza, Rodolfo; Dantas, Romulo

    2015-01-01

    The growth of mobile traffic is exploding globally, and users can already choose their best smartphone or tablet options from a handful of manufacturers based on specific criteria such as price and usability. It is much less clear when the user needs to pick from various mobile broadband service providers when choices are available. After all, how does one know what is the best provider for a given usage profile? This work uses drive tests to investigate the variation of radio frequency conditions and relate them to the quality of experience from the viewpoint of the user.

  9. New broadband access technology: Ethernet passive optical network (EPON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lili; Fan, Xiliang; He, Yan

    2004-04-01

    A newly broadband access technology comes into being with the combination of IP and access technique, which is considered as EPON (Ethernet passive optical network). EPON system resolves the limitation of point-to-point, instead uses the topology architecture of point-to-multipoint. It extends the fiber cable to the last mile, so we can get the end-to-end network system with high efficiency, well expansibility and low maintenance cost. There are many key techniques and problems in EPON system, for example, CDR (Clock and data recovery), RTT (Round-Trip Time), DBA (Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation) and ULSLE (Upper-Layer Shared LAN Emulation). The essential character of MPCP (Multi-Point Control Protocol) used in EPON is to schedule the transmission of the upstream data packets, and to avoid data collision. A central counter is applied to synchronize the upstream data through a time-stamp flag. A REPORT control frame is transmitted, which give the length of the different priority queues. On receiving this control frame, central office device modifies the bandwidth allocation in the grant table. The function relating to the ULSLE protocol is similar with IEEE802.1D Bridge, and also includes point-to-multipoint, therefore so many problems are resolved, such as the frame reflection, the communication among different ONUs.

  10. The Evolution of the Policy Objectives of South Korea's Broadband Convergence Network from 2004 to 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Siddhartha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the South Korean government's policy objectives for the Broadband Convergence Network (BcN) between 2004 and 2007. The BcN is envisioned as conduit for broadband content and applications. This paper uses generativity as a conceptual framework to determine whether the objectives for the BcN, based on a…

  11. Study of LEO-SAT microwave link for broad-band mobile satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujise, Masayuki; Chujo, Wataru; Chiba, Isamu; Furuhama, Yoji; Kawabata, Kazuaki; Konishi, Yoshihiko

    1993-01-01

    In the field of mobile satellite communications, a system based on low-earth-orbit satellites (LEO-SAT's) such as the Iridium system has been proposed. The LEO-SAT system is able to offer mobile telecommunication services in high-latitude areas. Rain degradation, fading and shadowing are also expected to be decreased when the system is operated at a high elevation angle. Furthermore, the propagation delay generated in the LEO-SAT system is less pronounced than that in the geostationary orbit satellite (GEO-SAT) system and, in voice services, the effect of the delay is almost negligible. We proposed a concept of a broad-band mobile satellite communication system with LEO-SAT's and Optical ISL. In that system, a fixed L-band (1.6/1.5 GHz) multibeam is used to offer narrow band service to the mobile terminals in the entire area covered by a LEO-SAT and steerable Ka-band (30/20 GHz) spot beams are used for the wide band service. In this paper, we present results of a study of LEO-SAT microwave link between a satellite and a mobile terminal for a broad-band mobile satellite communication system. First, the results of link budget calculations are presented and the antennas mounted on satellites are shown. For a future mobile antenna technology, we also show digital beamforming (DBF) techniques. DBF, together with modulation and/or demodulation, is becoming a key technique for mobile antennas with advanced functions such as antenna pattern calibration, correction, and radio interference suppression. In this paper, efficient DBF techniques for transmitting and receiving are presented. Furthermore, an adaptive array antenna system suitable for this LEO-SAT is presented.

  12. Architecture, Infrastructure, and Broadband Civic Network Design: An Institutional View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Murali; Chango, Mawaki

    Cultural values frame architectures, and architectures motivate infrastructures — by which we mean the foundational telecommunications and Internet access services that software applications depend on. Design is the social process that realizes architectural elements in an infrastructure. This process is often a conflicted one where transformative visions confront the realities of entrenched power, where innovation confronts pressure from institutionalized interests and practices working to resist change and reproduce the status quo in the design outcome. We use this viewpoint to discuss design aspects of the Urban-net, a broadband civic networking case. Civic networks are embodiments of distinctive technological configurations and forms of social order. In choosing some technological configurations over others, designers are favoring some social structural configurations over alternatives. To the extent that a civic network sets out to reconfigure the prevailing social order (as was the case in the Urban-net project considered here), the design process becomes the arena where challengers of the prevailing order encounter its defenders. In this case, the defenders prevailed and the design that emerged was conservative and reproduced the status quo. What steps can stakeholders take so that the project’s future development is in line with the original aim of structural change? We outline two strategies. We argue the importance of articulating cultural desiderata in an architecture that stakeholders can use to open up the infrastructure to new constituents and incremental change. Next, we argue the importance of designing the conditions of design. The climate in which social interactions occur can powerfully shape design outcomes, but this does not usually figure in stakeholders’ design concerns.

  13. Study of bidirectional broadband passive optical network (BPON) using EDFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almalaq, Yasser

    Optical line terminals (OLTs) and number of optical network units (ONUs) are two main parts of passive optical network (PON). OLT is placed at the central office of the service providers, the ONUs are located near to the end subscribers. When compared with point-to-point design, a PON decreases the number of fiber used and central office components required. Broadband PON (BPON), which is one type of PON, can support high-speed voice, data and video services to subscribers' residential homes and small businesses. In this research, by using erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), the performance of bi-directional BPON is experimented and tested for both downstream and upstream traffic directions. Ethernet PON (E-PON) and gigabit PON (G-PON) are the two other kinds of passive optical network besides BPON. The most beneficial factor of using BPON is it's reduced cost. The cost of the maintenance between the central office and the users' side is suitable because of the use of passive components, such as a splitter in the BPON architecture. In this work, a bidirectional BPON has been analyzed for both downstream and upstream cases by using bit error rate analyzer (BER). BER analyzers test three factors that are the maximum Q factor, minimum bit error rate, and eye height. In other words, parameters such as maximum Q factor, minimum bit error rate, and eye height can be analyzed utilized a BER tester. Passive optical components such as a splitter, optical circulator, and filters have been used in modeling and simulations. A 12th edition Optiwave simulator has been used in order to analyze the bidirectional BPON system. The system has been tested under several conditions such as changing the fiber length, extinction ratio, dispersion, and coding technique. When a long optical fiber above 40km was used, an EDFA was used in order to improve the quality of the signal.

  14. The wireless networking system of Earthquake precursor mobile field observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Teng, Y.; Wang, X.; Fan, X.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    The mobile field observation network could be real-time, reliably record and transmit large amounts of data, strengthen the physical signal observations in specific regions and specific period, it can improve the monitoring capacity and abnormal tracking capability. According to the features of scatter everywhere, a large number of current earthquake precursor observation measuring points, networking technology is based on wireless broadband accessing McWILL system, the communication system of earthquake precursor mobile field observation would real-time, reliably transmit large amounts of data to the monitoring center from measuring points through the connection about equipment and wireless accessing system, broadband wireless access system and precursor mobile observation management center system, thereby implementing remote instrument monitoring and data transmition. At present, the earthquake precursor field mobile observation network technology has been applied to fluxgate magnetometer array geomagnetic observations of Tianzhu, Xichang,and Xinjiang, it can be real-time monitoring the working status of the observational instruments of large area laid after the last two or three years, large scale field operation. Therefore, it can get geomagnetic field data of the local refinement regions and provide high-quality observational data for impending earthquake tracking forecast. Although, wireless networking technology is very suitable for mobile field observation with the features of simple, flexible networking etc, it also has the phenomenon of packet loss etc when transmitting a large number of observational data due to the wireless relatively weak signal and narrow bandwidth. In view of high sampling rate instruments, this project uses data compression and effectively solves the problem of data transmission packet loss; Control commands, status data and observational data transmission use different priorities and means, which control the packet loss rate within

  15. 76 FR 62309 - Implementing a Nationwide, Broadband, Interoperable Public Safety Network in the 700 MHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Chapter I Implementing a Nationwide, Broadband, Interoperable Public Safety Network in the 700 MHz Band AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this...

  16. Upgrade to the Broadband Observation network for Lightning and Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Y.; Wu, T.; Stock, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Kikuchi, H.; Yoshida, S.; Ushio, T.; Kawasaki, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Observation sensors for lightning discharges sense electromagnetic waves, mainly in the ELF to UHF range, and especially in the LF and VHF bands. VHF band sensor sensors can observe lightning discharge process in detail but its observation coverage is limited. On the other hand, LF band sensor can observe lightning at much great distances. Therefore, LF sensors are well adapted to observe lightning throughout a thunderstorm's life cycle. Our research group has been designing and developing the Broadband Observation network for Lightning and Thunderstorm (BOLT), which locates radiation sources associated with lightning discharge in three spatial dimensions. BOLT consists of 11 LF band sensors which detect lightning pulses wide frequency range from 5 kHz to 500 kHz. We have been operating BOLT in Kansai area of Japan, locating both cloud-to-ground and intracloud discharges. Currently, the BOLT system observes about 100 to 1000 lightning pulses per flash, but we are striving to improve both the detection efficiency and the location accuracy. Preliminary investigation show that the number of sources located, increases dramatically when only the highest portion of the BLOT frequency band is used far location. So, our research group has proposed improving a new "DDT" antenna sensor design to improve the high frequency sensitivity of the antenna. The DDT antenna consists of a modified charge amplifier circuit. In this research, we present a comparison of the DDT antenna and show the advantages of the DDT antenna.

  17. Mobile-ip Aeronautical Network Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Tran, Diepchi T.

    2001-01-01

    NASA is interested in applying mobile Internet protocol (mobile-ip) technologies to its space and aeronautics programs. In particular, mobile-ip will play a major role in the Advanced Aeronautic Transportation Technology (AATT), the Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM), and the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) aeronautics programs. This report presents the results of a simulation study of mobile-ip for an aeronautical network. The study was performed to determine the performance of the transmission control protocol (TCP) in a mobile-ip environment and to gain an understanding of how long delays, handoffs, and noisy channels affect mobile-ip performance.

  18. The improved broadband Real-Time Seismic Network in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagoe, C.; Ionescu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Starting with 2002 the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) has developed its real-time digital seismic network. This network consists of 96 seismic stations of which 48 broad band and short period stations and two seismic arrays are transmitted in real-time. The real time seismic stations are equipped with Quanterra Q330 and K2 digitizers, broadband seismometers (STS2, CMG40T, CMG 3ESP, CMG3T) and strong motions sensors Kinemetrics episensors (+/- 2g). SeedLink and AntelopeTM (installed on MARMOT) program packages are used for real-time (RT) data acquisition and exchange. The communication from digital seismic stations to the National Data Center in Bucharest is assured by 5 providers (GPRS, VPN, satellite communication, radio lease line and internet), which will assure the back-up communications lines. The processing centre runs BRTT's AntelopeTM 4.10 data acquisition and processing software on 2 workstations for real-time processing and post processing. The Antelope Real-Time System is also providing automatic event detection, arrival picking, event location and magnitude calculation. It provides graphical display and reporting within near-real-time after a local or regional event occurred. Also at the data center was implemented a system to collect macroseismic information using the internet on which macro seismic intensity maps are generated. In the near future at the data center will be install Seiscomp 3 data acquisition processing software on a workstation. The software will run in parallel with Antelope software as a back-up. The present network will be expanded in the near future. In the first half of 2009 NIEP will install 8 additional broad band stations in Romanian territory, which also will be transmitted to the data center in real time. The Romanian Seismic Network is permanently exchanging real -time waveform data with IRIS, ORFEUS and different European countries through internet. In Romania, magnitude and location of an earthquake are now

  19. Broadband nanophotonic wireless links and networks using on-chip integrated plasmonic antennas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanqing; Li, Qiang; Qiu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Owing to their high capacity and flexibility, broadband wireless communications have been widely employed in radio and microwave regimes, playing indispensable roles in our daily life. Their optical analogs, however, have not been demonstrated at the nanoscale. In this paper, by exploiting plasmonic nanoantennas, we demonstrate the complete design of broadband wireless links and networks in the realm of nanophotonics. With a 100-fold enhancement in power transfer superior to previous designs as well as an ultrawide bandwidth that covers the entire telecommunication wavelength range, such broadband nanolinks and networks are expected to pave the way for future optical integrated nanocircuits. PMID:26783033

  20. Broadband nanophotonic wireless links and networks using on-chip integrated plasmonic antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanqing; Li, Qiang; Qiu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Owing to their high capacity and flexibility, broadband wireless communications have been widely employed in radio and microwave regimes, playing indispensable roles in our daily life. Their optical analogs, however, have not been demonstrated at the nanoscale. In this paper, by exploiting plasmonic nanoantennas, we demonstrate the complete design of broadband wireless links and networks in the realm of nanophotonics. With a 100-fold enhancement in power transfer superior to previous designs as well as an ultrawide bandwidth that covers the entire telecommunication wavelength range, such broadband nanolinks and networks are expected to pave the way for future optical integrated nanocircuits.

  1. Broadband nanophotonic wireless links and networks using on-chip integrated plasmonic antennas

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuanqing; Li, Qiang; Qiu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Owing to their high capacity and flexibility, broadband wireless communications have been widely employed in radio and microwave regimes, playing indispensable roles in our daily life. Their optical analogs, however, have not been demonstrated at the nanoscale. In this paper, by exploiting plasmonic nanoantennas, we demonstrate the complete design of broadband wireless links and networks in the realm of nanophotonics. With a 100-fold enhancement in power transfer superior to previous designs as well as an ultrawide bandwidth that covers the entire telecommunication wavelength range, such broadband nanolinks and networks are expected to pave the way for future optical integrated nanocircuits. PMID:26783033

  2. 77 FR 60680 - Development of the Nationwide Interoperable Public Safety Broadband Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Interoperable Public Safety Broadband Network AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration... Information Administration (NTIA) issues this Notice of Inquiry (NOI) on behalf of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) to seek public comment on the conceptual network architecture presentation made at...

  3. 77 FR 66588 - Development of the Nationwide Interoperable Public Safety Broadband Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... other network design and business plan considerations. Notice of Inquiry, 77 FR 60680 (Oct. 4, 2012... Interoperable Public Safety Broadband Network AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration... meeting of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) as well as to invite input on other...

  4. Mobile Botnet Detection Using Network Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vural, Ickin; Venter, Hein

    Malicious software (malware) infects large numbers of computers around the world. This malware can be used to promote unwanted products, disseminate offensive content, or provide unauthorized access to personal and financial information. Until recently mobile networks have been relatively isolated from the Internet, so there has been little need to protect them against Botnets. Mobile networks are now well integrated with the internet, so threats on the internet such as Botnets have started to migrate onto mobile networks. Botnets on mobile devices will probably appear very soon, there are already signs that this is happening. This paper studies the potential threat of Botnets based on mobile networks, and proposes the use of computational intelligence techniques to detect Botnets. We then simulate anomaly detection followed by an interpretation of the simulated values.

  5. Neural networks using broadband spectral discriminators reduces illumination required for broccoli identification in weedy fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Federico

    1996-03-01

    Statistical discriminative analysis and neural networks were used to prove that crop/weed/soil discrimination by optical reflectance was feasible. The wavelengths selected as inputs on those neural networks were ten nanometers width, reducing the total collected radiation for the sensor. Spectral data collected from several farms having different weed populations were introduced to discriminant analysis. The best discriminant wavelengths were used to build a wavelength histogram which selected the three best spectral broadbands for broccoli/weed/soil discrimination. The broadbands were analyzed using a new single broadband discriminator index named the discriminative integration index, DII, and the DII values obtained were used to train a neural network. This paper introduces the index concept, its results and its use for minimizing artificial lightning requirements with broadband spectral measurements for broccoli/weed/soil discrimination.

  6. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  7. Amplified CWDM-based Next Generation Broadband Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiris, Sasanthi Chamarika

    The explosive growth of both fixed and mobile data-centric traffic along with the inevitable trend towards all-IP/Ethernet transport protocols and packet switched networks will ultimately lead to an all-packet-based converged fixed-mobile optical transport network from the core all the way out to the access network. To address the increasing capacity and speed requirements in the access networks, Wavelength-Division Multiplexed (WDM) and/or Coarse WDM (CWDM)-based Passive Optical Networks (PONs) are expected to emerge as the next-generation optical access infrastructures. However, due to several techno-economic hurdles, CWDM-PONs are still considered an expensive solution and have not yet made any significant inroads into the current access area. One of the key technology hurdles is the scalability of the CWDM-based PONs. Passive component optical insertion losses limit the reach of the network or the number of served optical network units (ONUs). In the recent years, optical amplified CWDM approaches have emerged and new designs of optical amplifiers have been proposed and demonstrated. The critical design parameter for these amplifiers is the very wide optical amplification bandwidth (e.g., 340 nm combined for both directions). The objective of this PhD dissertation work is first to engineer ring and tree-ring based PON architectures that can achieve longer unamplified PON reach and/or provide service to a greater number of ONUs and customers. Secondly is to develop new novel optical amplifier schemes to further address the scalability limitation of the CWDM-based PONs. Specifically, this work proposes and develops novel ultra wide-band hybrid Raman-Optical parametric amplifier (HROPA) schemes that operate over nearly the entire specified CWDM band to provide 340 nm bidirectional optical gain bandwidth over the amplified PON's downstream and upstream CWDM wavelength bands (about 170 nm in each direction). The performance of the proposed HROPA schemes is assessed

  8. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  9. Advanced Mobility Handover for Mobile IPv6 Based Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches. PMID:25614890

  10. Advanced mobility handover for mobile IPv6 based wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches. PMID:25614890

  11. Using satellite communications for a mobile computer network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyman, Douglas J.

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: patrol car automation, mobile computer network, network requirements, network design overview, MCN mobile network software, MCN hub operation, mobile satellite software, hub satellite software, the benefits of patrol car automation, the benefits of satellite mobile computing, and national law enforcement satellite.

  12. Modeling and Analysis of Mobility Management in Mobile Communication Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Chesoong

    2014-01-01

    Many strategies have been proposed to reduce the mobility management cost in mobile communication networks. This paper studies the zone-based registration methods that have been adopted by most mobile communication networks. We focus on two special zone-based registration methods, called two-zone registration (2Z) and two-zone registration with implicit registration by outgoing calls (2Zi). We provide a new mathematical model to analyze the exact performance of 2Z and 2Zi. We also present various numerical results, to compare the performance of 2Zi with those of 2Z and one-zone registration (1Z), and show that 2Zi is superior to 2Z as well as 1Z in most cases. PMID:24883368

  13. Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

  14. Broadband ubiquitous femto-cell network with MIMO distributed antenna system over WDM-PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwatsuki, Katsumi; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Hara, Kazutaka; Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Kani, Jun-ichi; Yoshimoto, Naoto; Miyamoto, Kenji; Nishiumi, Tatsuya; Higashino, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi; Komaki, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel architecture of broadband ubiquitous femto-cell network with MIMO distributed antenna systems accommodated in WDM-PON. A technical convergence of WDM-PON and time division multiplexed RoF techniques can realize the universality of base stations with various types of broadband air interfaces, the increase of wireless access throughput, and the scalability of service area covered by MIMO distributed antenna systems. We discuss the configuration of MIMO antenna systems, transmission scheme of MIMO RF signals over WDM-PON, and configurations of center station and base stations. The preliminary experiments of proposed network architecture are demonstrated.

  15. Multiple power-saving MSSs scheduling methods for IEEE802.16e broadband wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chang

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes two enhanced multiple mobile subscriber stations (MSSs) power-saving scheduling methods for IEEE802.16e broadband wireless networks. The proposed methods are designed for the Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) of IEEE802.16e. To reduce the active periods of all power-saving MSSs, the base station (BS) allocates each MSS fewest possible transmission frames to retrieve its data from the BS. The BS interlaces the active periods of each MSS to increase the amount of scheduled MSSs and splits the overflowing transmission frames to maximize the bandwidth utilization. Simulation results reveal that interlacing the active periods of MSSs can increase the number of scheduled MSSs to more than four times of that in the Direct scheduling method. The bandwidth utilization can thus be improved by 60%-70%. Splitting the overflowing transmission frames can improve bandwidth utilization by more than 10% over that achieved using the method of interlacing active periods, with a sacrifice of only 1% of the sleep periods in the interlacing active period method. PMID:24523656

  16. Multiple Power-Saving MSSs Scheduling Methods for IEEE802.16e Broadband Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes two enhanced multiple mobile subscriber stations (MSSs) power-saving scheduling methods for IEEE802.16e broadband wireless networks. The proposed methods are designed for the Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) of IEEE802.16e. To reduce the active periods of all power-saving MSSs, the base station (BS) allocates each MSS fewest possible transmission frames to retrieve its data from the BS. The BS interlaces the active periods of each MSS to increase the amount of scheduled MSSs and splits the overflowing transmission frames to maximize the bandwidth utilization. Simulation results reveal that interlacing the active periods of MSSs can increase the number of scheduled MSSs to more than four times of that in the Direct scheduling method. The bandwidth utilization can thus be improved by 60%–70%. Splitting the overflowing transmission frames can improve bandwidth utilization by more than 10% over that achieved using the method of interlacing active periods, with a sacrifice of only 1% of the sleep periods in the interlacing active period method. PMID:24523656

  17. Pinning synchronization of a mobile agent network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, You-xian

    2009-11-01

    We investigate the problem of controlling a group of mobile agents in a plane in order to move them towards a desired orbit via pinning control, in which each agent is associated with a chaotic oscillator coupled with those of neighboring agents, and the pinning strategy is to have the common linear feedback acting on a small fraction of agents by random selection. We explore the effects of the pinning probability, feedback gains and agent density in the pinning synchronization of a mobile agent network under a fast-switching constraint, and perform numerical simulations for validation. In particular, we show that there exists a critical pinning density for network synchronization with an unbounded region: above the threshold, the dynamical network can be controlled by pinning; below it, anarchy prevails. And for the network with a single bounded synchronization region, pinning control has little effect as regards enhancing network synchronizability.

  18. Secure, Mobile, Wireless Network Technology Designed, Developed, and Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.

    2004-01-01

    The inability to seamlessly disseminate data securely over a high-integrity, wireless broadband network has been identified as a primary technical barrier to providing an order-of-magnitude increase in aviation capacity and safety. Secure, autonomous communications to and from aircraft will enable advanced, automated, data-intensive air traffic management concepts, increase National Air Space (NAS) capacity, and potentially reduce the overall cost of air travel operations. For the first time ever, secure, mobile, network technology was designed, developed, and demonstrated with state-ofthe- art protocols and applications by a diverse, cooperative Government-industry team led by the NASA Glenn Research Center. This revolutionary technology solution will make fundamentally new airplane system capabilities possible by enabling secure, seamless network connections from platforms in motion (e.g., cars, ships, aircraft, and satellites) to existing terrestrial systems without the need for manual reconfiguration. Called Mobile Router, the new technology autonomously connects and configures networks as they traverse from one operating theater to another. The Mobile Router demonstration aboard the Neah Bay, a U.S. Coast Guard vessel stationed in Cleveland, Ohio, accomplished secure, seamless interoperability of mobile network systems across multiple domains without manual system reconfiguration. The Neah Bay was chosen because of its low cost and communications mission similarity to low-Earth-orbiting satellite platforms. This technology was successfully advanced from technology readiness level (TRL) 2 (concept and/or application formation) to TRL 6 (system model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment). The secure, seamless interoperability offered by the Mobile Router and encryption device will enable several new, vehicle-specific and systemwide technologies to perform such things as remote, autonomous aircraft performance monitoring and early detection and

  19. An access alternative for mobile satellite networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, W. W.

    1988-01-01

    Conceptually, this paper discusses strategies of digital satellite communication networks for a very large number of low density traffic stations. These stations can be either aeronautical, land mobile, or maritime. The techniques can be applied to international, domestic, regional, and special purpose satellite networks. The applications can be commercial, scientific, military, emergency, navigational or educational. The key strategy is the use of a non-orthogonal access method, which tolerates overlapping signals. With n being either time or frequency partitions, and with a single overlapping signal allowed, a low cost mobile satellite system can be designed with n squared (n squared + n + 1) number of terminals.

  20. Research and Simulation on Application of the Mobile IP Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yibing, Deng; Wei, Hu; Minghui, Li; Feng, Gao; Junyi, Shen

    The paper analysed the mobile node, home agent, and foreign agent of mobile IP network firstly, some key technique, such as mobile IP network basical principle, protocol work principle, agent discovery, registration, and IP packet transmission, were discussed. Then a network simulation model was designed, validating the characteristic of mobile IP network, and some advantages, which were brought by mobile network, were testified. Finally, the conclusion is gained: mobile IP network could realize the expectation of consumer that they can communicate with others anywhere.

  1. Analysis and Testing of Mobile Wireless Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Evenson, Darin; Rundquist, Victor; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Wireless networks are being used to connect mobile computing elements in more applications as the technology matures. There are now many products (such as 802.11 and 802.11b) which ran in the ISM frequency band and comply with wireless network standards. They are being used increasingly to link mobile Intranet into Wired networks. Standard methods of analyzing and testing their performance and compatibility are needed to determine the limits of the technology. This paper presents analytical and experimental methods of determining network throughput, range and coverage, and interference sources. Both radio frequency (BE) domain and network domain analysis have been applied to determine wireless network throughput and range in the outdoor environment- Comparison of field test data taken under optimal conditions, with performance predicted from RF analysis, yielded quantitative results applicable to future designs. Layering multiple wireless network- sooners can increase performance. Wireless network components can be set to different radio frequency-hopping sequences or spreading functions, allowing more than one sooner to coexist. Therefore, we ran multiple 802.11-compliant systems concurrently in the same geographical area to determine interference effects and scalability, The results can be used to design of more robust networks which have multiple layers of wireless data communication paths and provide increased throughput overall.

  2. The National Broadband Network and the Challenges of Creating Connectivity in Education: The Case of Tasmania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Sue; Watson, Jane; Abbott-Chapman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Tasmania, one of the first locations to have communities connected to the national broadband network (NBN), provided the context within which to ask significant questions about the implications of the NBN for all levels and sectors of education. This paper reports findings from a research project that developed innovative methodology to explore…

  3. 76 FR 54977 - Implementing a Nationwide, Broadband, Interoperable Public Safety Network in the 700 MHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ...), published at 76 FR 51271, August 18, 2011, are effective on September 6, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...; WT Docket 06-150; WP Docket 07-100; FCC 11-6, 76 FR 51271, August 18, 2011. Synopsis As required by... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 90 Implementing a Nationwide, Broadband, Interoperable Public Safety Network in...

  4. Communication cliques in mobile phone calling networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Xia; Xie, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-11-01

    People in modern societies form different social networks through numerous means of communication. These communication networks reflect different aspects of human's societal structure. The billing records of calls among mobile phone users enable us to construct a directed calling network (DCN) and its Bonferroni network (SVDCN) in which the preferential communications are statistically validated. Here we perform a comparative investigation of the cliques of the original DCN and its SVDCN constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that the statistical properties of the cliques of the two calling networks are qualitatively similar and the clique members in the DCN and the SVDCN exhibit idiosyncratic behaviors quantitatively. Members in large cliques are found to be spatially close to each other. Based on the clique degree profile of each mobile phone user, the most active users in the two calling networks can be classified in to several groups. The users in different groups are found to have different calling behaviors. Our study unveils interesting communication behaviors among mobile phone users that are densely connected to each other.

  5. Portable control device for networked mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Feddema, John T.; Byrne, Raymond H.; Bryan, Jon R.; Harrington, John J.; Gladwell, T. Scott

    2002-01-01

    A handheld control device provides a way for controlling one or multiple mobile robotic vehicles by incorporating a handheld computer with a radio board. The device and software use a personal data organizer as the handheld computer with an additional microprocessor and communication device on a radio board for use in controlling one robot or multiple networked robots.

  6. Mobile Sensor Network Localization in Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenji, Harsha; Stoleru, Radu

    The node localization problem in mobile sensor networks has recently received significant attention. Particle filters, adapted from robotics, have produced good localization accuracies in conventional settings, but suffer significantly when used in challenging indoor and mobile environments characterized by a high degree of radio irregularity. We propose FuzLoc, a fuzzy logic-based approach for mobile node localization in challenging environments and formulate the localization problem as a fuzzy multilateration problem, with a fuzzy grid-prediction scheme for sparse networks. We demonstrate the performance and feasibility of our localization scheme through extensive simulations and a proof-of-concept implementation on hardware, respectively. Simulation results augmented by data gathered from our 42 node indoor testbed demonstrate improvements in the localization accuracy from 20%-40% when the radio irregularity is high.

  7. Fiber Access Networks: Reliability Analysis and Swedish Broadband Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosinska, Lena; Chen, Jiajia; Larsen, Claus Popp

    Fiber access network architectures such as active optical networks (AONs) and passive optical networks (PONs) have been developed to support the growing bandwidth demand. Whereas particularly Swedish operators prefer AON, this may not be the case for operators in other countries. The choice depends on a combination of technical requirements, practical constraints, business models, and cost. Due to the increasing importance of reliable access to the network services, connection availability is becoming one of the most crucial issues for access networks, which should be reflected in the network owner's architecture decision. In many cases protection against failures is realized by adding backup resources. However, there is a trade off between the cost of protection and the level of service reliability since improving reliability performance by duplication of network resources (and capital expenditures CAPEX) may be too expensive. In this paper we present the evolution of fiber access networks and compare reliability performance in relation to investment and management cost for some representative cases. We consider both standard and novel architectures for deployment in both sparsely and densely populated areas. While some recent works focused on PON protection schemes with reduced CAPEX the current and future effort should be put on minimizing the operational expenditures (OPEX) during the access network lifetime.

  8. Implementation of levels of services on broadband networks with cable modem access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Luis A.; Yu, Che-Fn

    1997-10-01

    Residential broadband access networks using technologies such as ADSL and cable modems have enabled the provisioning of emerging Internet applications such as Internet telephony, video conferencing and interactive games. These applications have specific end-to-end performance requirements from the network in order to have an acceptable performance. Currently the Internet is a best effort network which doesn't provide levels of service. There are many elements of an end-to-end network which are currently suitable to provide quality-of- service guaranties such as ATM links. Nevertheless, only with recent deployments of broadband access technologies and the introduction of Internet protocols such as RSVP, providing levels of service becomes feasible without the use expensive links to the customer site. This paper examines several network implementation options for introducing levels of service using cable modem access. Limitations imposed by the applications on the network as well as the contribution of the different network elements to level of service parameters such as end-to-end delay, throughput and jitter are examined. Concentration network architectures as well as proposed backbone configuration options for end-to-end level of service provisioning are presented. At the access network, provisioning of level of service using bandwidth control through packet throttling and through access network design providing excess bandwidth to customers are presented. HFC protocol dependent means to provide level of services including reservation and ATM based protocols are examined as well.

  9. Supersampling and Network Reconstruction of Urban Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Sagarra, Oleguer; Szell, Michael; Santi, Paolo; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Ratti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding human mobility is of vital importance for urban planning, epidemiology, and many other fields that draw policies from the activities of humans in space. Despite the recent availability of large-scale data sets of GPS traces or mobile phone records capturing human mobility, typically only a subsample of the population of interest is represented, giving a possibly incomplete picture of the entire system under study. Methods to reliably extract mobility information from such reduced data and to assess their sampling biases are lacking. To that end, we analyzed a data set of millions of taxi movements in New York City. We first show that, once they are appropriately transformed, mobility patterns are highly stable over long time scales. Based on this observation, we develop a supersampling methodology to reliably extrapolate mobility records from a reduced sample based on an entropy maximization procedure, and we propose a number of network-based metrics to assess the accuracy of the predicted vehicle flows. Our approach provides a well founded way to exploit temporal patterns to save effort in recording mobility data, and opens the possibility to scale up data from limited records when information on the full system is required. PMID:26275237

  10. Supersampling and Network Reconstruction of Urban Mobility.

    PubMed

    Sagarra, Oleguer; Szell, Michael; Santi, Paolo; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Ratti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding human mobility is of vital importance for urban planning, epidemiology, and many other fields that draw policies from the activities of humans in space. Despite the recent availability of large-scale data sets of GPS traces or mobile phone records capturing human mobility, typically only a subsample of the population of interest is represented, giving a possibly incomplete picture of the entire system under study. Methods to reliably extract mobility information from such reduced data and to assess their sampling biases are lacking. To that end, we analyzed a data set of millions of taxi movements in New York City. We first show that, once they are appropriately transformed, mobility patterns are highly stable over long time scales. Based on this observation, we develop a supersampling methodology to reliably extrapolate mobility records from a reduced sample based on an entropy maximization procedure, and we propose a number of network-based metrics to assess the accuracy of the predicted vehicle flows. Our approach provides a well founded way to exploit temporal patterns to save effort in recording mobility data, and opens the possibility to scale up data from limited records when information on the full system is required. PMID:26275237

  11. Networks based on collisions among mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Marta C.; Lind, Pedro G.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2006-12-01

    We investigate in detail a recent model of colliding mobile agents [M.C. González, P.G. Lind, H.J. Herrmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 088702. cond-mat/0602091], used as an alternative approach for constructing evolving networks of interactions formed by collisions governed by suitable dynamical rules. The system of mobile agents evolves towards a quasi-stationary state which is, apart from small fluctuations, well characterized by the density of the system and the residence time of the agents. The residence time defines a collision rate, and by varying this collision rate, the system percolates at a critical value, with the emergence of a giant cluster whose critical exponents are the ones of two-dimensional percolation. Further, the degree and clustering coefficient distributions, and the average path length, show that the network associated with such a system presents non-trivial features which, depending on the collision rules, enables one not only to recover the main properties of standard networks, such as exponential, random and scale-free networks, but also to obtain other topological structures. To illustrate, we show a specific example where the obtained structure has topological features which characterize the structure and evolution of social networks accurately in different contexts, ranging from networks of acquaintances to networks of sexual contacts.

  12. Broadband local service offerings using free-space optical links: a network business perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britz, David M.; Dodley, J. P.; Barnickel, D. J.

    2001-02-01

    12 This paper describes a promising optical wireless broadband technology that will provide low cost broadband services to the local access `last mile' market. This paper examines the application, advantages and limitations of utilizing Free Space Optical Communications (FSOC) systems for broadband access markets. The service markets that would fully utilize FSOC technologies include metropolitan areas, BLECs (multi- tenant dwellings/business apartments), campuses, industrial parks and `pole-to-hole' neighborhood deployments. This paper will identify weather dependent link availability as being the primary consideration in defining and selecting suitable locations for FSOC-based systems. Link availability in turn determines link range, type of service, and the need for transmission diversity. This paper will describe the implications of telecom `five nines' last-mile access availability and its effect on the transparent integration of FSOC technologies into the existing fiber optic networks. This paper will also describe propagation losses and link budget requirements for broadband FSOC-based local service. During adverse weather conditions, stand-alone, FSOC-based optical wireless links typically offer path lengths of less than 200 meters while still meeting the `five nines' availability criteria. This paper will also consider `availability limited' services. These services may prove to be attractive to customers who are willing to accept broadband service on an `as available basis'. The use of availability-enhancing transmission diversity and the use of intelligent `roof-top' routing and optical wireless cross connects between buildings will also be discussed.

  13. Interworking evolution of mobile satellite and terrestrial networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matyas, R.; Kelleher, P.; Moller, P.; Jones, T.

    1993-01-01

    There is considerable interest among mobile satellite service providers in interworking with terrestrial networks to provide a universal global network. With such interworking, subscribers may be provided a common set of services such as those planned for the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and future Intelligent Networks (IN's). This paper first reviews issues in satellite interworking. Next the status and interworking plans of terrestrial mobile communications service providers are examined with early examples of mobile satellite interworking including a discussion of the anticipated evolution towards full interworking between mobile satellite and both fixed and mobile terrestrial networks.

  14. Mobility Management in Wireless Mesh Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirchandani, Vinod; Prodan, Ante

    A viable support of an on-going or a new session for a subscriber on the move requires an effective scheme for Mobility Management. To this end, an array of protocols such as MIPv4, MIPv6, HMIPv6, FMIPv6 have been proposed for the wired Internet. Unfortunately, the wireless connectivity in the wireless mesh networks (WMNs) gives rise to several issues that limits the direct applicability of these mobility management protocols for the wired network. We have contributed to this chapter by identifying and explaining these issues and then giving a critical review of some of the key research proposals made in this area. The literature review also shows that the proposals offer a limited support for mobility management in multiradio wireless mesh networks (MR-WMN). Thus, we have further contributed, by proposing a scheme to carry out a seamless mobility management in WMN as well as MR-WMN. We have taken into account the lessons learnt from the proposals made in the literature. This chapter has been written in a simple way such that students as well as professionals including those who are new to this area should be able to significantly benefit from reading it.

  15. Spontaneous Ad Hoc Mobile Cloud Computing Network

    PubMed Central

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes. PMID:25202715

  16. Hybrid Mobile Communication Networks for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Lee, Charles; Walker, Edward; Osenfort, John; Stone, Thom

    2007-01-01

    A paper discusses the continuing work of the Mobile Exploration System Project, which has been performing studies toward the design of hybrid communication networks for future exploratory missions to remote planets. A typical network could include stationary radio transceivers on a remote planet, mobile radio transceivers carried by humans and robots on the planet, terrestrial units connected via the Internet to an interplanetary communication system, and radio relay transceivers aboard spacecraft in orbit about the planet. Prior studies have included tests on prototypes of these networks deployed in Arctic and desert regions chosen to approximate environmental conditions on Mars. Starting from the findings of the prior studies, the paper discusses methods of analysis, design, and testing of the hybrid communication networks. It identifies key radio-frequency (RF) and network engineering issues. Notable among these issues is the study of wireless LAN throughput loss due to repeater use, RF signal strength, and network latency variations. Another major issue is that of using RF-link analysis to ensure adequate link margin in the face of statistical variations in signal strengths.

  17. Broadband packet switches based on dilated interconnection networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tony T.; Liew, Soung C.

    1994-02-01

    A theoretical foundation for evaluation and comparison of a very broad spectrum of fast packet-switching techniques is developed in this paper. Based on this framework, we investigate the complexity of various packet switch designs, and demonstrate the advantage of dilation as a switch-design technique. Packet switches are classified either as loss systems or waiting systems, according to whether packets losing contention are dropped or queued. In a loss system, the packet loss probability can be made arbitrary small by providing enough paths between inputs and outputs. We focus on the question: How does the switch complexity grow as a function of switch size for a given loss probability requirement? A uniform approach to this problem is developed here. We show that for an N x N switch, the required number of switch elements for both the parallel-banyan network and the tandem-banyan network is of order N(log N)(sup 2), whereas the complexity of a dilated-banyan network is of order N log N(log log N). Within the class of waiting systems, we show that the parallel banyan networks in a Batcher-parallel-banyan network can be replaced by a dilated-banyan network without sacrificing the nonblocking property. Thus, as with parallelization, dilation can also be used to increase the throughput of a waiting system. In addition, we also explore the application of dilation in a large modular switch design which is realized by an interconnection structure consisting of Batcher-dilated-banyan networks and statistical multiplexers.

  18. Architectures and economics for pervasive broadband satellite networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Harvey, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The size of a satellite network necessary to provide pervasive high-data-rate business communications is estimated, and one possible configuration is described which could interconnect most organizations in the United States. Within an order of magnitude, such a network might reasonably have a capacity equivalent to 10,000 simultaneous 3-Mbps channels, and rely primarily upon a cluster of approximately 3-5 satellites in a single orbital slot. Nominal prices for 3-6 Mbps video conference services might then be approximately $2000 monthly lease charge plus perhaps 70 cents per minute one way.

  19. Advanced mobile networking, sensing, and controls.

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, John Todd; Kilman, Dominique Marie; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Young, Joseph G.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Robinett, Rush D. III; Harrington, John J.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes an integrated approach for designing communication, sensing, and control systems for mobile distributed systems. Graph theoretic methods are used to analyze the input/output reachability and structural controllability and observability of a decentralized system. Embedded in each network node, this analysis will automatically reconfigure an ad hoc communication network for the sensing and control task at hand. The graph analysis can also be used to create the optimal communication flow control based upon the spatial distribution of the network nodes. Edge coloring algorithms tell us that the minimum number of time slots in a planar network is equal to either the maximum number of adjacent nodes (or degree) of the undirected graph plus some small number. Therefore, the more spread out that the nodes are, the fewer number of time slots are needed for communication, and the smaller the latency between nodes. In a coupled system, this results in a more responsive sensor network and control system. Network protocols are developed to propagate this information, and distributed algorithms are developed to automatically adjust the number of time slots available for communication. These protocols and algorithms must be extremely efficient and only updated as network nodes move. In addition, queuing theory is used to analyze the delay characteristics of Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) networks. This report documents the analysis, simulation, and implementation of these algorithms performed under this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort.

  20. Cross-layer ultrasound video streaming over mobile WiMAX and HSUPA networks.

    PubMed

    Alinejad, Ali; Philip, Nada Y; Istepanian, Robert S H

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the evolution of 4G-based mobile multimedia network systems will contribute significantly to future mobile healthcare (m-health) applications that require high bandwidth and fast data rates. Central to the success of such emerging applications is the compatibility of broadband networks, such as mobile Worldwide Interoperability For Microwave Access (WiMAX) and High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), and especially their rate adaption issues combined with the acceptable real-time medical quality of service requirements. In this paper, we address the relevant challenges of cross-layer design requirements for real-time rate adaptation of ultrasound video streaming in mobile WiMAX and HSUPA networks. A comparative performance analysis of such approach is validated in two experimental m-health test bed systems for both mobile WiMAX and HSUPA networks. The experimental results have shown an improved performance of mobile WiMAX compared to the HSUPA using the same cross-layer optimization approach. PMID:21571613

  1. BROADBAND ANTENNA MATCHING NETWORK DESIGN AND APPLICATION FOR RF PLASMA ION SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Ki; Kang, Yoon W; Piller, Chip; Fathy, Aly

    2011-01-01

    The RF ion source at Spallation Neutron Source has been upgraded to meet higher beam power requirement. One important subsystem for efficient operation of the ion source is the 2MHz RF impedance matching network. The real part of the antenna impedance is very small and is affected by plasma density for 2MHz operating frequency. Previous impedance matching network for the antenna has limited tuning capability to cover this potential variation of the antenna impedance since it employed a single tuning element and an impedance transformer. A new matching network with two tunable capacitors has been built and tested. This network can allow precision matching and increase the tunable range without using a transformer. A 5-element broadband matching network also has been designed, built and tested. The 5-element network allows wide band matching up to 50 kHz bandwidth from the resonance center of 2 MHz. The design procedure, simulation and test results are presented.

  2. A cost model for broadband access networks: FTTx versus WiMAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, João Paulo Ribeiro

    2007-09-01

    Local communities and governments are taking various steps to fight the so-called "digital divide" between well served urban communities and undeserved areas. In order to make broadband access available to these under served areas, several technical solutions are available with the capacity to provide high speed Internet access, video, telephony services, etc. This paper presents a cost-model and a tool for the evaluation of broadband access technologies (xDSL, HFC, FTTx, WiMAX, PLC and satellite), and compares two technologies: FTTx and WiMAX. Our tool compares these different access technologies in different scenarios, and examining the capital expense and deployment of building access networks with the same requisite performance using each technology. The cost model is limited to the access part of the network. The results obtained by our evaluation tool give the possibility to compare several BB access technologies, and support the decision about which is the better technological solution for a given scenario

  3. Software structure for broadband wireless sensor network system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeokjun; Oh, Sechang; Yoon, Hargsoon; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2010-04-01

    Zigbee Sensor Network system has been investigating for monitoring and analyzing the data measured from a lot of sensors because the Zigbee Sensor Network has several advantages of low power consumption, compact size, and multi-node connection. However, it has a disadvantage not to be able to monitor the data measured from sensors at the remote area such as other room that is located at other city. This paper describes the software structure to compensate the defect with combining the Zigbee Sensor Network and wireless LAN technology for remote monitoring of measured sensor data. The software structure has both benefits of Zigbee Sensor Network and the advantage of wireless LAN. The software structure has three main software structures. The first software structure consists of the function in order to acquire the data from sensors and the second software structure is to gather the sensor data through wireless Zigbee and to send the data to Monitoring system by using wireless LAN. The second part consists of Linux packages software based on 2440 CPU (Samsung corp.), which has ARM9 core. The Linux packages include bootloader, device drivers, kernel, and applications, and the applications are TCP/IP server program, the program interfacing with Zigbee RF module, and wireless LAN program. The last part of software structure is to receive the sensor data through TCP/IP client program from Wireless Gate Unit and to display graphically measured data by using MATLAB program; the sensor data is measured on 100Hz sampling rate and the measured data has 10bit data resolution. The wireless data transmission rate per each channel is 1.6kbps.

  4. Navigation Architecture for a Space Mobile Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, Jennifer E.; Ashman, Benjamin; Gramling, Cheryl; Heckler, Gregory W.; Carpenter, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS) is a proposed beacon service to provide a global, space based GPS augmentation service based on the NASA Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System. The TASS signal will be tied to the GPS time system and usable as an additional ranging and Doppler radiometric source. Additionally, it will provide data vital to autonomous navigation in the near Earth regime, including space weather information, TDRS ephemerides, Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP), and forward commanding capability. TASS benefits include enhancing situational awareness, enabling increased autonomy, and providing near real-time command access for user platforms. As NASA Headquarters' Space Communication and Navigation Office (SCaN) begins to move away from a centralized network architecture and towards a Space Mobile Network (SMN) that allows for user initiated services, autonomous navigation will be a key part of such a system. This paper explores how a TASS beacon service enables the Space Mobile Networking paradigm, what a typical user platform would require, and provides an in-depth analysis of several navigation scenarios and operations concepts. This paper provides an overview of the TASS beacon and its role within the SMN and user community. Supporting navigation analysis is presented for two user mission scenarios: an Earth observing spacecraft in low earth orbit (LEO), and a highly elliptical spacecraft in a lunar resonance orbit. These diverse flight scenarios indicate the breadth of applicability of the TASS beacon for upcoming users within the current network architecture and in the SMN.

  5. The European Virtual Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) and ORFEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, Torild; Sleeman, Reinoud; van den, Gert-Jan Hazel; Networks, Contributing

    2010-05-01

    Since 2002 ORFEUS has been coordinating the VEBSN concept, in which (near) real-time data is exchanged between Seismological observatory networks and the Orfeus Data Center (ODC). Seismological observatories in and around Europe have usually as primary objective the monitoring and analysis of current local and regional seismicity and seismic hazard. The data gathered by the observatories is, however, also valuable for fundamental research within global and European scale seismology; and therefore a primary data source for Academic seismological research. Within the VEBSN concept, the ODC provides and improves Quality control procedures for the observatories and the observatories provide real-time data for long-term secure waveform data archives at the ODC accessible for seismological research. In this concept the data remains ownership of the contributing network, while the ODC provides a secure back-up archive of waveform data. By facilitating a few data exchange mechanism with emphasis on SeedLink, the VEBSN strategy also enables observatories to exchange data between each other, thus enhancing the capabilities of the local or regional network and improving its performance for their monitoring and hazard objectives More recently, the ODC has been enlarged into the European Distributed waveform Data Archive (EIDA) in which currently GFZ/GEOFON, INGV and RESIF participate in an effort to extend the accessible waveform archive beyond only the VEBSN data. Currently the VEBSN consists of more then 450 3-component stations, each channel well defined with a full up-to-date SEED volume, providing all relevant metadata for a full reconstruction of the true ground motion. This encompases only about 45% of the operational BB stations in the European-Mediterranean area and our goal is to enlarge this.

  6. Evaluation Study of a Broadband Multicasting Service over a Gigabit Ethernet Delivery Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiou, E.; Meletiou, G.; Vasiliadis, D. C.; Rizos, G. E.; Margariti, S. V.

    2008-11-01

    Multicasting networks are usually implemented for delivering audio and video. Consequently, the performance evaluation of a reliable multicasting architecture is useful in active delivery systems. In this paper we analyze and present a broadband multicasting system under an Internet environment using a typical IP multicasting mechanism. The test-bed multicasting scheme was based on both IGMP and MCOP protocols, where a Gigabit Ethernet was used as delivery network at client's segment. The evaluation study provides measurements for the two most significant performance metrics, the required Bandwidth and the Round Trip Time (RTT) of a packet versus the number of multicasting clients over 2.4 Mbps multicasting service rate.

  7. RACE project 1036: WTDM broadband customer premises network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliphant, A.; Mathers, C. D.

    1993-02-01

    Discussions in 1985 with BBC Television showed that signal routing in broadcasting centers presented two problems which would become more severe in the future: first, the increasing requirement for all sources to be available at all destinations, and second, the impending proliferation of signal standards (e.g. digital component signals, HDTV). The solution proposed by Research Department was the use of both wavelength and time division multiplexing (WTDM) over an optical fiber network; this inherently distributes all signals to all destinations, and with suitable terminal equipment can carry any signal format. To develop the required optical and electronic technology, a consortium of European firms was set up; at just this time, the EC launched its RACE initiative; after some negotiation, the work was accepted as Project R2001, and carried out with EC support.

  8. Consensus in networks of mobile communicating agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Populations of mobile and communicating agents describe a vast array of technological and natural systems, ranging from sensor networks to animal groups. Here, we investigate how a group-level agreement may emerge in the continuously evolving network defined by the local interactions of the moving individuals. We adopt a general scheme of motion in two dimensions and we let the individuals interact through the minimal naming game, a prototypical scheme to investigate social consensus. We distinguish different regimes of convergence determined by the emission range of the agents and by their mobility, and we identify the corresponding scaling behaviors of the consensus time. In the same way, we rationalize also the behavior of the maximum memory used during the convergence process, which determines the minimum cognitive/storage capacity needed by the individuals. Overall, we believe that the simple and general model presented in this paper can represent a helpful reference for a better understanding of the behavior of populations of mobile agents.

  9. Consensus in evolving networks of mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

    2012-02-01

    Populations of mobile and communicating agents describe a vast array of technological and natural systems, ranging from sensor networks to animal groups. Here, we investigate how a group-level agreement may emerge in the continuously evolving networks defined by the local interactions of the moving individuals. We adopt a general scheme of motion in two dimensions and we let the individuals interact through the minimal naming game, a prototypical scheme to investigate social consensus. We distinguish different regimes of convergence determined by the emission range of the agents and by their mobility, and we identify the corresponding scaling behaviors of the consensus time. In the same way, we rationalize also the behavior of the maximum memory used during the convergence process, which determines the minimum cognitive/storage capacity needed by the individuals. Overall, we believe that the simple and general model presented in this talk can represent a helpful reference for a better understanding of the behavior of populations of mobile agents.

  10. Navigation Architecture For A Space Mobile Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, Jennifer E.; Ashman, Benjamin; Gramling, Cheryl; Heckler, Gregory W.; Carpenter, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS) is a proposed beacon service to provide a global, space-based GPS augmentation service based on the NASA Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System. The TASS signal will be tied to the GPS time system and usable as an additional ranging and Doppler radiometric source. Additionally, it will provide data vital to autonomous navigation in the near Earth regime, including space weather information, TDRS ephemerides, Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP), and forward commanding capability. TASS benefits include enhancing situational awareness, enabling increased autonomy, and providing near real-time command access for user platforms. As NASA Headquarters Space Communication and Navigation Office (SCaN) begins to move away from a centralized network architecture and towards a Space Mobile Network (SMN) that allows for user initiated services, autonomous navigation will be a key part of such a system. This paper explores how a TASS beacon service enables the Space Mobile Networking paradigm, what a typical user platform would require, and provides an in-depth analysis of several navigation scenarios and operations concepts.

  11. imCast: Studio-Quality Digital Media Platform Exploiting Broadband IP Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jinyong; Kim, Jongwon

    The recent growth in available network bandwidth envisions the wide-spread use of broadband applications such as uncompressed HD-SDI (High-definition serial digital interface) over IP. These cutting-edge applications are also driving the development of a media-oriented infrastructure for networked collaboration. This paper introduces imCast, a high-quality digital media platform dealing with uncompressed HD-SDI over IP, and discusses its internal architecture in depth. imCast mainly provides cost-effective hardware-based approaches for high-quality media acquisition and presentation; flexible software-based approaches for presentation; and allows for economical network transmission. Experimental results (taken over best-effort IP networks) will demonstrate the functional feasibility and performance of imCast.

  12. Dynamic Trust Management for Mobile Networks and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Fenye

    2013-01-01

    Trust management in mobile networks is challenging due to dynamically changing network environments and the lack of a centralized trusted authority. In this dissertation research, we "design" and "validate" a class of dynamic trust management protocols for mobile networks, and demonstrate the utility of dynamic trust management…

  13. Mobile middleware for wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Waluyo, Agustinus Borgy; Pek, Isaac; Yeoh, Wee-Soon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible, efficient and lightweight Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) Middleware. The Middleware is developed to bridge the communication between mobile device as a gateway and the sensor nodes, and therefore it shields the underlying sensor and OS/protocol stack away from the WBAN application layer. The middleware is coded in the form of lightweight dynamic link library, which allows the application developer to simply incorporate the middleware resource dynamic link library into their application and call the required functions (i.e. data acquisition, resource management and configurations). A showcase of the middleware deployment is exhibited at the end of the paper. PMID:21096294

  14. Spaceborne Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcada, Ignasi; Strauss, Adi

    2010-08-01

    Reliable global networking is essential for a rapidly growing mobile and interactive communication. Satellite communication plays already a significant role in this subject. However, the classical space-based data transmission requires an appropriate infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. This paper discusses the potential of a self-organising distributed satellite system in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) to achieve a seamless integration in already existing infrastructures. The communication approach is based on dynamic Inter Satellite Links (ISL) not controlled nor coordinated on an individual basis from the ground-based stations.

  15. Using OpenSSH to secure mobile LAN network traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Brian B.; Gopaul, Richard D.

    2002-08-01

    Mobile Internet Protocol (IP) Local Area Network (LAN) is a technique, developed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, which allows a LAN to be IP mobile when attaching to a foreign IP-based network and using this network as a means to retain connectivity to its home network. In this paper, we describe a technique that uses Open Secure Shell (OpenSSH) software to ensure secure, encrypted transmission of a mobile LAN's network traffic. Whenever a mobile LAN, implemented with Mobile IP LAN, moves to a foreign network, its gateway (router) obtains an IP address from the new network. IP tunnels, using IP encapsulation, are then established from the gateway through the foreign network to a home agent on its home network. These tunnels provide a virtual two-way connection to the home network for the mobile LAN as if the LAN were connected directly to its home network. Hence, when IP mobile, a mobile LAN's tunneled network traffic must traverse one or more foreign networks that may not be trusted. This traffic could be subject to eavesdropping, interception, modification, or redirection by malicious nodes in these foreign networks. To protect network traffic passing through the tunnels, OpenSSH is used as a means of encryption because it prevents surveillance, modification, and redirection of mobile LAN traffic passing across foreign networks. Since the software is found in the public domain, is available for most current operating systems, and is commonly used to provide secure network communications, OpenSSH is the software of choice.

  16. LinkMind: link optimization in swarming mobile sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2011-01-01

    A swarming mobile sensor network is comprised of a swarm of wirelessly connected mobile robots equipped with various sensors. Such a network can be applied in an uncertain environment for services such as cooperative navigation and exploration, object identification and information gathering. One of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated in simulation. PMID:22164070

  17. LinkMind: Link Optimization in Swarming Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2011-01-01

    A swarming mobile sensor network is comprised of a swarm of wirelessly connected mobile robots equipped with various sensors. Such a network can be applied in an uncertain environment for services such as cooperative navigation and exploration, object identification and information gathering. One of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated in simulation. PMID:22164070

  18. Network protocols for mobile robot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1998-01-01

    Communications and communications protocols will play an important role in mobile robot systems able to address real world applications. A poorly integrated 'stack' of communications protocols, or protocols which are poorly matched to the functional and performance characteristics of the underlying physical communications links, can greatly reduce the effectiveness of an otherwise well implemented robotic or networked sensors system. The proliferation of Internet-like networks in military as well as civilian domains has motivated research to address some of the performance limitations TCP suffers when using RF and other media with long bandwidth-delay, dynamic connectivity, and error-prone links. Beyond these performance issues, however, TCP is poorly matched to the requirements of mobile robot and other quasi-autonomous systems: it is oriented to providing a continuous data stream, rather than discrete messages, and the canonical 'socket' interface conceals short losses of communications connectivity, but simply gives up and forces the application layer software to deal with longer losses. For the multipurpose security and surveillance mission platform project, a software applique is being developed that will run on top of user datagram protocol to provide a reliable message-based transport service. In addition, a session layer protocol is planned to support the effective transfer of control of multiple platforms among multiple stations.

  19. Improvements on the MedNet Broadband Network from the viewpoint of tomographic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, M. Dolores; Lana, Xavier; Badal, José; Canas, José A.

    Our work aims to provide a methodology to assess path coverage of a domain from a tomographic viewpoint, and for the design of an improved or new seismic network. This methodology permits different simulations through a rigorous procedure based on both mathematical and seismological aspects. In this sense, some concepts of mathematical information theory and Monte Carlo methods have been combined with the aim of improving the epicentre-station path coverage offered by the MedNet broadband seismic network in the Mediterranean area for a surface wave tomography problem. The best path coverage is obtained without the constraint of including locations of existing stations. Nevertheless, even in the case of a network already installed over a region, as is the case of MedNet, our technique allows new station sites to be assessed since, it predicts improvements in the path coverage.

  20. Performance analysis of bi-directional broadband passive optical network using erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almalaq, Yasser; Matin, Mohammad A.

    2014-09-01

    The broadband passive optical network (BPON) has the ability to support high-speed data, voice, and video services to home and small businesses customers. In this work, the performance of bi-directional BPON is analyzed for both down and up streams traffic cases by the help of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The importance of BPON is reduced cost. Because PBON uses a splitter the cost of the maintenance between the providers and the customers side is suitable. In the proposed research, BPON has been tested by the use of bit error rate (BER) analyzer. BER analyzer realizes maximum Q factor, minimum bit error rate, and eye height.

  1. 3D MPEG-2 video transmission over broadband network and broadcast channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Gilles; Subramaniam, Suganthan; Vincent, Andre

    2001-06-01

    This paper explores the transmission of MPEG-2 compressed stereoscopic (3-D) video over broadband networks and digital television (DTV) broadcast channels. A system has been developed to perform 3-D (stereoscopic) MPEG-2 video encoding, transmission and decoding over broadband networks in real- time. Such a system can benefit applications where a depiction of the relative positions of objects in 3-dimensional space is critical, by providing visual cues along the sight axis. Applications such as tele-medicine, remote surveillance, tele- education, entertainment and others could benefit from such a system since it conveys an added viewing experience. For simplicity and cost efficiency the system is kept as simple as possible while offering a certain degree of control over the encoding and decoding platforms. Data exchange is done with TCP/IP for control between the server and client and with UDP/IP for the MPEG-2 transport streams delivered to the client. Parameters such as encoding rate can be set independently for the left and right viewing channels to satisfy network bandwidth restrictions, while maintaining satisfactory quality. Using this system, transmission of stereoscopic MPEG-2 transport streams (video and audio) has been performed over a 155 Mbps ATM network shared with other video transactions between server and clients. Preliminary results have shown that the system is reasonably robust to network impairments making it useable in relatively loaded networks. An innovative technique for broadcasting Standard Definition Television 3-D video using an ATSC compatible encoding and broadcasting system is also presented. This technique requires a simple video multiplexer before the ATSC encoding process, and a slight modification at the receiver after the ATSC decoding.

  2. Field testing of a remote controlled robotic tele-echo system in an ambulance using broadband mobile communication technology.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Ryohei; Harada, Hiroshi; Masuda, Kohji; Ota, Gen-ichiro; Yokoi, Masaki; Teramura, Nobuyasu; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2008-06-01

    We report the testing of a mobile Robotic Tele-echo system that was placed in an ambulance and successfully transmitted clear real time echo imaging of a patient's abdomen to the destination hospital from where this device was being remotely operated. Two-way communication between the paramedics in this vehicle and a doctor standing by at the hospital was undertaken. The robot was equipped with an ultrasound probe which was remotely controlled by the clinician at the hospital and ultrasound images of the patient were transmitted wirelessly. The quality of the ultrasound images that were transmitted over the public mobile telephone networks and those transmitted over the Multimedia Wireless Access Network (a private networks) were compared. The transmission rate over the public networks and the private networks was approximately 256 Kbps, 3 Mbps respectively. Our results indicate that ultrasound images of far higher definition could be obtained through the private networks. PMID:18444361

  3. Near real-time detection and characterization of landslides using broadband seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, Andrea; Coviello, Velio; De Santis, Francesca; Picozzi, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    Broadband seismic networks at regional, national, and global scale are usually deployed for a specific purpose, i.e. earthquake monitoring. However, it has been recently demonstrated that these networks are also capable to efficiently detect failure and transport processes related to landslide phenomena. Indeed, stations located several tens of kilometers away from the source areas can record the ground vibrations produced by large mass movements. In this work, we propose an integrated approach for the near real-time detection, location, and characterization of landslides, by considering data acquired from the Italian broadband seismic networks and available in the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA). We use an automatic picking of first arrivals to identify significant seismic events recorded by the monitoring network. Secondly, waveforms relevant to landslide phenomena are selected by analyzing the spectral characteristics of seismic signals, which significantly differ from those related to earthquake events. Afterwards, in order to locate the landslide, we use a modified version of the real-time evolutionary location algorithm proposed for earthquakes, which relies on geometrical characteristics of the seismic network and on the relationships between triggered stations and not-triggered stations. Indeed, a first landslide location is roughly estimated as soon as the first station is triggered. The progressive increase over time in the number of triggered stations allows improving the accuracy on the most likely landslide location. Finally, we analyze the seismic energy released to infer an approximate value of the landslide volume in near real time. Here we present few examples relevant to recent well-known landslides where our method was successfully applied. Our results show how it is possible to extract precious information for landslide hazard assessment from seismic monitoring data, which in the field of earthquake warning would be discarded. Moreover

  4. Measures of node centrality in mobile social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhenxiang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shanzhi

    2015-02-01

    Mobile social networks exploit human mobility and consequent device-to-device contact to opportunistically create data paths over time. While links in mobile social networks are time-varied and strongly impacted by human mobility, discovering influential nodes is one of the important issues for efficient information propagation in mobile social networks. Although traditional centrality definitions give metrics to identify the nodes with central positions in static binary networks, they cannot effectively identify the influential nodes for information propagation in mobile social networks. In this paper, we address the problems of discovering the influential nodes in mobile social networks. We first use the temporal evolution graph model which can more accurately capture the topology dynamics of the mobile social network over time. Based on the model, we explore human social relations and mobility patterns to redefine three common centrality metrics: degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality. We then employ empirical traces to evaluate the benefits of the proposed centrality metrics, and discuss the predictability of nodes' global centrality ranking by nodes' local centrality ranking. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed centrality metrics.

  5. Evidence That Calls-Based and Mobility Networks Are Isomorphic.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Michele; Hausmann, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Social relations involve both face-to-face interaction as well as telecommunications. We can observe the geography of phone calls and of the mobility of cell phones in space. These two phenomena can be described as networks of connections between different points in space. We use a dataset that includes billions of phone calls made in Colombia during a six-month period. We draw the two networks and find that the call-based network resembles a higher order aggregation of the mobility network and that both are isomorphic except for a higher spatial decay coefficient of the mobility network relative to the call-based network: when we discount distance effects on the call connections with the same decay observed for mobility connections, the two networks are virtually indistinguishable. PMID:26713730

  6. Evidence That Calls-Based and Mobility Networks Are Isomorphic

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, Michele; Hausmann, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Social relations involve both face-to-face interaction as well as telecommunications. We can observe the geography of phone calls and of the mobility of cell phones in space. These two phenomena can be described as networks of connections between different points in space. We use a dataset that includes billions of phone calls made in Colombia during a six-month period. We draw the two networks and find that the call-based network resembles a higher order aggregation of the mobility network and that both are isomorphic except for a higher spatial decay coefficient of the mobility network relative to the call-based network: when we discount distance effects on the call connections with the same decay observed for mobility connections, the two networks are virtually indistinguishable. PMID:26713730

  7. An approach to efficient mobility management in intelligent networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, K. M. S.

    1995-01-01

    Providing personal communication systems supporting full mobility require intelligent networks for tracking mobile users and facilitating outgoing and incoming calls over different physical and network environments. In realizing the intelligent network functionalities, databases play a major role. Currently proposed network architectures envision using the SS7-based signaling network for linking these DB's and also for interconnecting DB's with switches. If the network has to support ubiquitous, seamless mobile services, then it has to support additionally mobile application parts, viz., mobile origination calls, mobile destination calls, mobile location updates and inter-switch handovers. These functions will generate significant amount of data and require them to be transferred between databases (HLR, VLR) and switches (MSC's) very efficiently. In the future, the users (fixed or mobile) may use and communicate with sophisticated CPE's (e.g. multimedia, multipoint and multisession calls) which may require complex signaling functions. This will generate volumness service handling data and require efficient transfer of these message between databases and switches. Consequently, the network providers would be able to add new services and capabilities to their networks incrementally, quickly and cost-effectively.

  8. Distributed network management in the flat structured mobile communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandina, Elena

    2005-10-01

    Delivering proper management into the flat structured mobile communities is crucial for improving users experience and increase applications diversity in mobile networks. The available P2P applications do application-centric management, but it cannot replace network-wide management, especially when a number of different applications are used simultaneously in the network. The network-wide management is the key element required for a smooth transition from standalone P2P applications to the self-organizing mobile communities that maintain various services with quality and security guaranties. The classical centralized network management solutions are not applicable in the flat structured mobile communities due to the decentralized nature and high mobility of the underlying networks. Also the basic network management tasks have to be revised taking into account specialties of the flat structured mobile communities. The network performance management becomes more dependent on the current nodes' context, which also requires extension of the configuration management functionality. The fault management has to take into account high mobility of the network nodes. The performance and accounting managements are mainly targeted in maintain an efficient and fair access to the resources within the community, however they also allow unbalanced resource use of the nodes that explicitly permit it, e.g. as a voluntary donation to the community or due to the profession (commercial) reasons. The security management must implement the new trust models, which are based on the community feedback, professional authorization, and a mix of both. For fulfilling these and another specialties of the flat structured mobile communities, a new network management solution is demanded. The paper presents a distributed network management solution for flat structured mobile communities. Also the paper points out possible network management roles for the different parties (e.g. operators, service

  9. Monitoring Network and Interfacial Healing Processes by Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Natural Rubber.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M; Grande, A M; van der Zwaag, S; García, S J

    2016-04-27

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) is introduced as a new and powerful technique to monitor network and macroscale damage healing in an elastomer. For the proof of concept, a partially cured sulfur-cured natural rubber (NR) containing reversible disulfides as the healing moiety was employed. The forms of damage healed and monitored were an invisible damage in the rubber network due to multiple straining and an imposed macroscopic crack. The relaxation times of pristine, damaged, and healed samples were determined and fitted to the Havriliak-Negami equation to obtain the characteristic polymer parameters. It is shown that seemingly full mechanical healing occurred regardless the type of damage, while BDS demonstrates that the polymer architecture in the healed material differs from that in the original one. These results represent a step forward in the understanding of damage and healing processes in intrinsic self-healing polymer systems with prospective applications such as coatings, tires, seals, and gaskets. PMID:27057588

  10. Traffic sharing algorithms for hybrid mobile networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcand, S.; Murthy, K. M. S.; Hafez, R.

    1995-01-01

    In a hybrid (terrestrial + satellite) mobile personal communications networks environment, a large size satellite footprint (supercell) overlays on a large number of smaller size, contiguous terrestrial cells. We assume that the users have either a terrestrial only single mode terminal (SMT) or a terrestrial/satellite dual mode terminal (DMT) and the ratio of DMT to the total terminals is defined gamma. It is assumed that the call assignments to and handovers between terrestrial cells and satellite supercells take place in a dynamic fashion when necessary. The objectives of this paper are twofold, (1) to propose and define a class of traffic sharing algorithms to manage terrestrial and satellite network resources efficiently by handling call handovers dynamically, and (2) to analyze and evaluate the algorithms by maximizing the traffic load handling capability (defined in erl/cell) over a wide range of terminal ratios (gamma) given an acceptable range of blocking probabilities. Two of the algorithms (G & S) in the proposed class perform extremely well for a wide range of gamma.

  11. Quality assurance of broadband erythemal radiometers at the Extremadura UV Monitoring Network (Southwestern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.; Vilaplana, J. M.

    2011-04-01

    This paper shows the necessity of adopting a proper quality assurance (QA) methodology in order to guarantee optimal measurements of broadband ultraviolet (UV) erythemal irradiance and describes the methods used to successfully operate the Extremadura UV Monitoring Network (Southwestern Spain). The quality assurance of the broadband radiometers follows two phases. Initially, the angular and spectral responses of these instruments are characterized at the INTA/ESAt Calibration Laboratory at El Arenosillo (Spain). The results obtained in the laboratory characterization show that the instruments present an excellent angular response very close to the ideal one, with cosine errors lower than 5%, depending on the sky radiance distribution and the solar zenith angle. It was also found that the spectral responses for this family of radiometers differ notably for longer UV wavelengths, emphasizing the need for the individual characterization of each instrument. Finally, the absolute calibration of the instruments is performed through an outdoor intercomparison with respect to a well-calibrated Brewer spectroradiometer which serves as the reference instrument. The stability of the calibration is addressed by comparing the results obtained at the calibration campaigns held in 2007 and 2009. The comparison shows notable differences between distinct instruments with values ranging from 2% up to 11%.

  12. Design of Hybrid Mobile Communication Networks for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard L.; Ossenfort, John; Lee, Charles; Walker, Edward; Stone, Thom

    2004-01-01

    The Mobile Exploration System Project (MEX) at NASA Ames Research Center has been conducting studies into hybrid communication networks for future planetary missions. These networks consist of space-based communication assets connected to ground-based Internets and planetary surface-based mobile wireless networks. These hybrid mobile networks have been deployed in rugged field locations in the American desert and the Canadian arctic for support of science and simulation activities on at least six occasions. This work has been conducted over the past five years resulting in evolving architectural complexity, improved component characteristics and better analysis and test methods. A rich set of data and techniques have resulted from the development and field testing of the communication network during field expeditions such as the Haughton Mars Project and NASA Mobile Agents Project.

  13. Message Efficient Checkpointing and Rollback Recovery in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggi, Parmeet Kaur; Singh, Awadhesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous networks provide an appealing way of expanding the computing capability of mobile networks by combining infrastructure-less mobile ad-hoc networks with the infrastructure-based cellular mobile networks. The nodes in such a network range from low-power nodes to macro base stations and thus, vary greatly in their capabilities such as computation power and battery power. The nodes are susceptible to different types of transient and permanent failures and therefore, the algorithms designed for such networks need to be fault-tolerant. The article presents a checkpointing algorithm for the rollback recovery of mobile hosts in a heterogeneous mobile network. Checkpointing is a well established approach to provide fault tolerance in static and cellular mobile distributed systems. However, the use of checkpointing for fault tolerance in a heterogeneous environment remains to be explored. The proposed protocol is based on the results of zigzag paths and zigzag cycles by Netzer-Xu. Considering the heterogeneity prevalent in the network, an uncoordinated checkpointing technique is employed. Yet, useless checkpoints are avoided without causing a high message overhead.

  14. The Impact of the Rate and Variety of Uses of Fixed and Mobile Broadband on the Progress of CPE: A Chartered Accountant's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawashdeh, Awni; Al-namlah, Lamia

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of the usage of fixed and mobile broadband on the progress of continuing professional education (CPE) from the perspective of chartered accountants in Saudi Arabia, an e-mail survey was conducted. A random sampling of chartered accountants in Saudi Arabia was investigated. This research was aimed to identify any correlation…

  15. QoS management for the next mobile communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Lu, Jun; Yu, Jianwei; He, Feng

    2004-04-01

    With convergence of network technologies, future network infrastructure will be based on IP and traditional wireless/mobile networks will also evolve inevitably to a unified all-IP mobile internet which can support voice, data and video simultaneously. But, the pattern served by IP is best effort. So IP mobility and QoS management have been the main challenges of all-IP mobile networks. Based on Mobile IP, IP QoS protocol, etc, ... The paper brings forward an end-to-end QoS management solution for the next mobile communication network, introduces a terminology of QoS Agent Server (QAS), which acts as resource manage server and participate in dynamic Service Level Specification (SLS) negotiation with mobile hosts (MH) or other QAS. Taking advantage of the mechanisms, discussed the process of QoS manage to support mobile hosts' fast handoff between cells. Additionally, adopted and self-adaptive control algorithm for non-real time service on interior nodes. Finally, conclusions are given and possible future works are described.

  16. Real-time detection, location, and characterization of rockslides using broadband regional seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, Andrea; Picozzi, Matteo; Coviello, Velio; De Santis, Francesca; Elia, Luca

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new real-time approach to detect, locate, and estimate the volume of rockslides by analyzing waveforms acquired from broadband regional seismic networks. The identification of signals generated by rockslides from other sources, such as natural and/or induced earthquakes, is accomplished by exploiting the ratio between local magnitudes (ML) and duration magnitudes (MD). We found that signals associated with rockslides have ML/MD < 0.8, while for earthquakes ML/MD ≅ 1. In addition, we derived an empirical relationship between MD and rockslide volumes, obtaining a preliminary characterization of rockslide volume within seconds after their occurrence. The key points of this study are presented by testing the hypothesis on a recent rockslide event that occurred in northern Italy. We discuss also the potential evolution of the methodology for early warning and/or rapid response purposes.

  17. A portable dental image viewer using a mobile network to provide a tele-dental service.

    PubMed

    Park, Wonse; Kim, Dong-Keun; Kim, Jung-Chae; Kim, Kee-Deog; Yoo, Sun K

    2009-01-01

    We tested three imaging devices for suitability in emergency dental situations for telemedicine. The three devices were a special-purpose oral camera, a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera, and the built-in camera of a mobile phone. A total of 20 subjects volunteered to take part in the study. We simulated five different conditions which could affect the quality of the image and measured image transmission times across two widely available mobile networks (a CDMA-based 3G network and a Wireless Broadband Network, WiBRO). The DSLR produced the best quality images, although it was a relatively large device and not easy to use. The oral camera failed to give satisfactory images under certain conditions (i.e. without extra lighting, out of focus and head motion). In contrast, the mobile phone based camera was very easy to use and to handle, and it gave good information for initial diagnosis, even at high compression ratios. If the image acquisition conditions are carefully set up, this device might be the best for emergency dental trauma situations. PMID:19364900

  18. The Evolution of South Korea's Broadband Convergence Network, 2004-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Siddhartha Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Broadband holds a critical position in the progress of economic and social indicators by connecting consumers, businesses and governments. South Korea has consistently been the global leader in broadband deployment since 1999. In the last ten years the Korean government has pursued several strategies for its broadband policy. The purpose of this…

  19. Multiuser Collaboration with Networked Mobile Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Tai, Ann T.; Deng, Yong M.; Becks, Paul G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe a multiuser collaboration infrastructure that enables multiple mission scientists to remotely and collaboratively interact with visualization and planning software, using wireless networked personal digital assistants(PDAs) and other mobile devices. During ground operations of planetary rover and lander missions, scientists need to meet daily to review downlinked data and plan science activities. For example, scientists use the Science Activity Planner (SAP) in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission to visualize downlinked data and plan rover activities during the science meetings [1]. Computer displays are projected onto large screens in the meeting room to enable the scientists to view and discuss downlinked images and data displayed by SAP and other software applications. However, only one person can interact with the software applications because input to the computer is limited to a single mouse and keyboard. As a result, the scientists have to verbally express their intentions, such as selecting a target at a particular location on the Mars terrain image, to that person in order to interact with the applications. This constrains communication and limits the returns of science planning. Furthermore, ground operations for Mars missions are fundamentally constrained by the short turnaround time for science and engineering teams to process and analyze data, plan the next uplink, generate command sequences, and transmit the uplink to the vehicle [2]. Therefore, improving ground operations is crucial to the success of Mars missions. The multiuser collaboration infrastructure enables users to control software applications remotely and collaboratively using mobile devices. The infrastructure includes (1) human-computer interaction techniques to provide natural, fast, and accurate inputs, (2) a communications protocol to ensure reliable and efficient coordination of the input devices and host computers, (3) an application

  20. Enabling Broadband as Commodity within Access Networks: A QoS Recipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areizaga, Enrique; Foglar, Andreas; Elizondo, Antonio J.; Geilhardt, Frank

    This paper describes the QoS features that will transform the access networks landscape in order to bring “Broadband” as a commodity while setting up the pillars of the “Future Media Internet”. Quality of Experience is obviously key for emerging and future services. Broadcasting services will first need to equal the QoE of their counterparts in the Open-air market (for IP-TV examples would be artifact-free, no picture freezing, fast zapping times) and offer new features often using interactivity (Time-shifted TV, access to more content, 3DTV with feeling of presence). The huge variety of communications alternatives will lead to different requirements per customer, whose needs will also be dependent on parameters like where the connection is made, the time of the day/day of the week/period of the year or even his/her mood. Today’s networks, designed for providing just Broadband connectivity, will not be enough to satisfy customer’s needs and will necessarily support the introduction of new and innovative services. The Networks of the future should learn from the way the users are communicating, what services they are using, where, when, and how, and adapt accordingly.

  1. A Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) network definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles C.; Yan, Tsun-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The network architecture development of the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) project for the past few years is described. The results and findings of the network research activities carried out under the MSAT-X project are summarized. A framework is presented upon which the Mobile Satellite Systems (MSSs) operator can design a commercial network. A sample network configuration and its capability are also included under the projected scenario. The Communication Interconnection aspect of the MSAT-X network is discussed. In the MSAT-X network structure two basic protocols are presented: the channel access protocol, and the link connection protocol. The error-control techniques used in the MSAT-X project and the packet structure are also discussed. A description of two testbeds developed for experimentally simulating the channel access protocol and link control protocol, respectively, is presented. A sample network configuration and some future network activities of the MSAT-X project are also presented.

  2. Globalization and International Student Mobility: A Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes changes to the network of international student mobility in higher education over a 10-year period (1999-2008). International student flows have increased rapidly, exceeding 3 million in 2009, and extensive data on mobility provide unique insight into global educational processes. The analysis is informed by three theoretical…

  3. Modeling the propagation of mobile malware on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wanping; Liu, Chao; Yang, Zheng; Liu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Yihao; Wei, Zuxue

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the spreading behavior of malware across mobile devices is addressed. By introducing complex networks to model mobile networks, which follows the power-law degree distribution, a novel epidemic model for mobile malware propagation is proposed. The spreading threshold that guarantees the dynamics of the model is calculated. Theoretically, the asymptotic stability of the malware-free equilibrium is confirmed when the threshold is below the unity, and the global stability is further proved under some sufficient conditions. The influences of different model parameters as well as the network topology on malware propagation are also analyzed. Our theoretical studies and numerical simulations show that networks with higher heterogeneity conduce to the diffusion of malware, and complex networks with lower power-law exponents benefit malware spreading.

  4. Specific absorption rate analysis of broadband mobile antenna with negative index metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Touhidul; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a negative index metamaterial-inspired printed mobile wireless antenna that can support most mobile applications such as GSM, UMTS, Bluetooth and WLAN frequency bands. The antenna consists of a semi-circular patch, a 50Ω microstrip feed line and metamaterial ground plane. The antenna occupies a very small space of 37 × 47 × 0.508 mm3, making it suitable for mobile wireless application. The perceptible novelty shown in this proposed antenna is that reduction of specific absorption rate using the negative index metamaterial ground plane. The proposed antenna reduced 72.11 and 75.53 % of specific absorption rate at 1.8 and 2.4 GHz, respectively.

  5. Mobile sensor networks for inspection tasks in harsh industrial environments.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Jacob; Wang, Xinyu; Ferwerda, Franke; Cao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled the fast development of mobile sensor networks operating in various unknown and sometimes hazardous environments. In this paper, we introduce one integrative approach to design, analyze and test distributed control algorithms to coordinate a network of autonomous mobile sensors by utilizing both simulation tools and a robotic testbed. The research has been carried out in the context of the mobile sensing project, PicoSmart, in the northern provinces of the Netherlands for the inspection of natural gas pipelines. PMID:22294889

  6. Mobile Sensor Networks for Inspection Tasks in Harsh Industrial Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Jacob; Wang, Xinyu; Ferwerda, Franke; Cao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled the fast development of mobile sensor networks operating in various unknown and sometimes hazardous environments. In this paper, we introduce one integrative approach to design, analyze and test distributed control algorithms to coordinate a network of autonomous mobile sensors by utilizing both simulation tools and a robotic testbed. The research has been carried out in the context of the mobile sensing project, PicoSmart, in the northern provinces of the Netherlands for the inspection of natural gas pipelines. PMID:22294889

  7. Green survivability in Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) broadband access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yejun; Guo, Lei; Gong, Bo; Ma, Rui; Gong, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Lincong; Yang, Jiangzi

    2012-03-01

    Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) broadband access network is a promising "last mile" access technology, because it integrates wireless and optical access technologies in terms of their respective merits, such as high capacity and stable transmission from optical access technology, and easy deployment and flexibility from wireless access technology. Since FiWi is expected to carry a large amount of traffic, numerous traffic flows may be interrupted by the failure of network components. Thus, survivability in FiWi is a key issue aiming at reliable and robust service. However, the redundant deployment of backup resource required for survivability usually causes huge energy consumption, which aggravates the global warming and accelerates the incoming of energy crisis. Thus, the energy-saving issue should be considered when it comes to survivability design. In this paper, we focus on the green survivability in FiWi, which is an innovative concept and remains untouched in the previous works to our best knowledge. We first review and discuss some challenging issues about survivability and energy-saving in FiWi, and then we propose some instructive solutions for its green survivability design. Therefore, our work in this paper will provide the technical references and research motivations for the energy-efficient and survivable FiWi development in the future.

  8. An Effective Mobile Sensor Control Method for Sparse Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Treeprapin, Kriengsak; Kanzaki, Akimitsu; Hara, Takahiro; Nishio, Shojiro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an effective mobile sensor control method, named DATFM (Data Acquisition and Transmission with Fixed and Mobile node) for sparse sensor networks. DATFM uses two types of sensor nodes, fixed node and mobile node. The data acquired by nodes are accumulated on a fixed node before being transferred to the sink node. In addition, DATFM transfers the accumulated data efficiently by constructing a communication route of multiple mobile nodes between fixed nodes. We also conduct simulation experiments to evaluate the performance of DATFM. PMID:22389602

  9. Increasing cellular coverage within integrated terrestrial/satellite mobile networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Jonathan P.

    1995-01-01

    When applying the hierarchical cellular concept, the satellite acts as giant umbrella cell covering a region with some terrestrial cells. If a mobile terminal traversing the region arrives to the border-line or limits of a regular cellular ground service, network transition occurs and the satellite system continues the mobile coverage. To adequately assess the boundaries of service of a mobile satellite system an a cellular network within an integrated environment, this paper provides an optimized scheme to predict when a network transition may be necessary. Under the assumption of a classified propagation phenomenon and Lognormal shadowing, the study applies an analytical approach to estimate the location of a mobile terminal based on a reception of the signal strength emitted by a base station.

  10. The Future of Mobile TV: When Mobile TV Meets the Internet and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montpetit, Marie-José; Klym, Natalie; Blain, Emmanuel

    First-generation mobile TV has involved delivering content to cell phones. But as mobile TV evolves, it will find greater significance as part of a multifaceted video offering that combines multiple screens, devices, networks, and content types. Content, or a particular viewing session, moves with the user, across devices and across networks. Furthermore, in addition to providing an alternate screen, a mobile device may provide complementary functions like programming TiVo remotely, streaming video from the cell phone to the TV set, or creating video content for distribution on the Web and uploading it directly over wireless networks. In the new TV ecosystem, all end-user devices collaborate across the whole video value chain, from content creation to distribution to consumption. Finally, as mobile devices become integral components of the new video ecosystem, their personal nature will drive the development of social TV, defined as a new way of delivering TV based on users sharing all aspects of the experience within the context of social networks. This chapter presents our view of mobile social TV: a shared TV experience that uses the power of the Internet and social networks to "move" from screen to screen and network to network to unite family and friends.

  11. Managing healthcare information using short message service (SMS) in wireless broadband networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Documet, Jorge; Tsao, Sinchai; Documet, Luis; Liu, Brent J.; Zhou, Zheng; Joseph, Anika O.

    2007-03-01

    Due to the ubiquity of cell phones, SMS (Short Message Service) has become an ideal means to wirelessly manage a Healthcare environment and in particular PACS (Picture Archival and Communications System) data. SMS is a flexible and mobile method for real-time access and control of Healthcare information systems such as HIS (Hospital Information System) or PACS. Unlike conventional wireless access methods, SMS' mobility is not limited by the presence of a WiFi network or any other localized signal. It provides a simple, reliable yet flexible method to communicate with an information system. In addition, SMS services are widely available for low costs from cellular phone service providers and allows for more mobility than other services such as wireless internet. This paper aims to describe a use case of SMS as a means of remotely communicating with a PACS server. Remote access to a PACS server and its Query-Retrieve services allows for a more convenient, flexible and streamlined radiology workflow. Wireless access methods such as SMS will increase dedicated PACS workstation availability for more specialized DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) workflow management. This implementation will address potential security, performance and cost issues of applying SMS as part of a healthcare information management system. This is in an effort to design a wireless communication system with optimal mobility and flexibility at minimum material and time costs.

  12. Space Mobile Network: A Near Earth Communication and Navigation Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, Dave J.; Heckler, Greg; Menrad, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a Space Mobile Network architecture, the result of a recently completed NASA study exploring architectural concepts to produce a vision for the future Near Earth communications and navigation systems. The Space Mobile Network (SMN) incorporates technologies, such as Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) and optical communications, and new operations concepts, such as User Initiated Services, to provide user services analogous to a terrestrial smartphone user. The paper will describe the SMN Architecture, envisioned future operations concepts, opportunities for industry and international collaboration and interoperability, and technology development areas and goals.

  13. Epidemic transmission on random mobile network with diverse infection periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kezan; Yu, Hong; Zeng, Zhaorong; Ding, Yong; Ma, Zhongjun

    2015-05-01

    The heterogeneity of individual susceptibility and infectivity and time-varying topological structure are two realistic factors when we study epidemics on complex networks. Current research results have shown that the heterogeneity of individual susceptibility and infectivity can increase the epidemic threshold in a random mobile dynamical network with the same infection period. In this paper, we will focus on random mobile dynamical networks with diverse infection periods due to people's different constitutions and external circumstances. Theoretical results indicate that the epidemic threshold of the random mobile network with diverse infection periods is larger than the counterpart with the same infection period. Moreover, the heterogeneity of individual susceptibility and infectivity can play a significant impact on disease transmission. In particular, the homogeneity of individuals will avail to the spreading of epidemics. Numerical examples verify further our theoretical results very well.

  14. Security Protection on Trust Delegated Data in Public Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasinghe, Dasun; Rajarajan, Muttukrishnan; Rakocevic, Veselin

    This paper provides detailed solutions for trust delegation and security protection for medical records in public mobile communication networks. The solutions presented in this paper enable the development of software for mobile devices that can be used by emergency medical units in urgent need of sensitive personal information about unconscious patients. In today's world, technical improvements in mobile communication systems mean that users can expect to have access to data at any time regardless of their location. This paper presents a token-based procedure for the data security at a mobile device and delegation of trust between a requesting mobile unit and secure medical data storage. The data security at the mobile device is enabled using identity based key generation methodology.

  15. Realistic Mobility Modeling for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akay, Hilal; Tugcu, Tuna

    2009-08-01

    Simulations used for evaluating the performance of routing protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) are mostly based on random mobility and fail to consider individual behaviors of the vehicles. Unrealistic assumptions about mobility produce misleading results about the behavior of routing protocols in real deployments. In this paper, a realistic mobility modeling tool, Mobility for Vehicles (MOVE), which considers the basic mobility behaviors of vehicles, is proposed for a more accurate evaluation. The proposed model is tested against the Random Waypoint (RWP) model using AODV and OLSR protocols. The results show that the mobility model significantly affects the number of nodes within the transmission range of a node, the volume of control traffic, and the number of collisions. It is shown that number of intersections, grid size, and node density are important parameters when dealing with VANET performance.

  16. Improved community model for social networks based on social mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Wu, Zhen; Luo, Hao; Wang, Hao-Xian

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes an improved community model for social networks based on social mobility. The relationship between the group distribution and the community size is investigated in terms of communication rate and turnover rate. The degree distributions, clustering coefficients, average distances and diameters of networks are analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model possesses the small-world property and can reproduce social networks effectively and efficiently.

  17. Modeling the Propagation of Mobile Phone Virus under Complex Network

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Wei, Xi-liang; Guo, Hao; An, Gang; Guo, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phone virus is a rogue program written to propagate from one phone to another, which can take control of a mobile device by exploiting its vulnerabilities. In this paper the propagation model of mobile phone virus is tackled to understand how particular factors can affect its propagation and design effective containment strategies to suppress mobile phone virus. Two different propagation models of mobile phone viruses under the complex network are proposed in this paper. One is intended to describe the propagation of user-tricking virus, and the other is to describe the propagation of the vulnerability-exploiting virus. Based on the traditional epidemic models, the characteristics of mobile phone viruses and the network topology structure are incorporated into our models. A detailed analysis is conducted to analyze the propagation models. Through analysis, the stable infection-free equilibrium point and the stability condition are derived. Finally, considering the network topology, the numerical and simulation experiments are carried out. Results indicate that both models are correct and suitable for describing the spread of two different mobile phone viruses, respectively. PMID:25133209

  18. SVM-based spectrum mobility prediction scheme in mobile cognitive radio networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Zhang, Zhongzhao; Ma, Lin; Chen, Jiamei

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum mobility as an essential issue has not been fully investigated in mobile cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, a novel support vector machine based spectrum mobility prediction (SVM-SMP) scheme is presented considering time-varying and space-varying characteristics simultaneously in mobile CRNs. The mobility of cognitive users (CUs) and the working activities of primary users (PUs) are analyzed in theory. And a joint feature vector extraction (JFVE) method is proposed based on the theoretical analysis. Then spectrum mobility prediction is executed through the classification of SVM with a fast convergence speed. Numerical results validate that SVM-SMP gains better short-time prediction accuracy rate and miss prediction rate performance than the two algorithms just depending on the location and speed information. Additionally, a rational parameter design can remedy the prediction performance degradation caused by high speed SUs with strong randomness movements. PMID:25143975

  19. Gran Canaria temporary broadband seismic network: an study of the seismicity and Earth structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almendros, Javier; de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Martinez-Arevalo, Carmen; Carmona, Enrique; Sanchez, Nieves; Heit, Benjamin; Garcia, Alicia; Martin-Leon, Rosa; Buontempo, Luisa; Yuan, Xiahoui

    2010-05-01

    The present project is a joint effort between different institutions to deploy a dense seismic network at Gran Canaria island (Canary Islands, Spain). The interstation distance is around 20 km. The broadband seismic network is composed of one permanent (Guralp CMG-3T 120 s) and five temporary stations (Guralp CMG-3ESP 60 s). The permanent station is a 120 s Guralp CMG-3T and belongs to the Canary Island Seismic Network, run by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) of Spain. The temporary stations are 60 s Guralp CMG-3ESP, provided by the GFZ seismic pool. The deployment was carried out in December 2009. The stations will be recording during two years. The improvement of the seismic network allow us to tackle the following issues: the detection and analysis of any local seismicity of tectonic and/or volcanic origin at Gran Canaria island; to contribute to the understanding of the regional seismicity with special interest in the oceanic channel between Tenerife and Gran Canaria Island in collaboration with a project running a dense temporary seismic network in Tenerife; to study the crustal and upper mantle structure, under Gran Canaria to constrain the crustal structure, the source of the volcanism, and better sample the mantle discontinuities and anisotropy. To study the Earth structure, we use receiver function analysis, ambient seismic noise and SKS anisotropy techniques, This project is part of a long-term research of the crustal and the mantle structure of the Canary Islands, which has started with Gran Canaria and Tenerife Islands and will eventually continue with the rest of the archipelago. The origin of the Canary Islands is generally attributed to a broad mantle upwelling under a slow moving plate, resulting in spatially and temporally distributed volcanic activity and a large number of seamounts and islands. A controversial discussion has been going on about the factors that control the evolution of the volcanic edifices, the type of the melting

  20. Effective Mobile Sampling In Broad Cast Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, K.; Ravichandran, T.

    2012-08-01

    Mobile objects can be used to gather samples from a sensor field. Civilian vehicles or even human beings equipped with proper wireless communication devices can be used as mobile sinks that retrieve sensor-data from sampling points within a large sensor field. A key challenge is how to gather the sensor data in a manner that is energy efficient with respect to the sensor nodes that serve as sources of the sensor data. In this paper, an algorithmic technique called Band-based Directional Broadcast is introduced to control the direction of broadcasts that originate from sensor nodes. The goal is to direct each broadcast of sensor data toward the mobile sink, thus reducing costly forwarding of sensor data packets. The technique is studied by simulations that consider energy consumption and data deliverability.

  1. Energy harvesting performance of a broadband electromagnetic vibration energy harvester for powering industrial wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Long; Chen, Renwen; Xia, Huakang; Zhang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-04-01

    To supply power to wireless sensor networks, a type of broadband electromagnetic vibration energy harvester (VEH) using bistable vibration scavenging structure is proposed. It consists of a planar spring, an electromagnetic transducer with an annular magnetic circuit, and a coil assembly with a ferrite bobbin inside. A nonlinear magnetic force respecting to the relative displacement is generated by the ferrite bobbin, and to broaden the working frequency bandwidth of the VEH. Moreover, the ferrite bobbin increases the magnetic flux linkage gradient of the coil assembly in its moving region, and further to improve its output voltage. The dynamic behaviors of the VEH are analyzed and predicted by finite element analysis and ODE calculation. Validation experiments are carried out and show that the VEH can harvest high energy in a relatively wide excitation frequency band. The further test shows that the load power of the VEH with a load resistor of 90Ω can reach 10mW level in a wide frequency bandwidth when the acceleration level of the harmonic excitation is 1g. It can ensure the intermittent work of many sensors as well as wireless communication modules at least.

  2. Strategy for designing broadband vibration isolation systems through exactly solvable models of graded elastic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Ka Ki; Chan, Wai Soen; Yu, Kin Wah

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by the need of seismic base isolation, we have proposed a strategy to design vibration isolation systems to achieve near-zero amplitude vibration under external excitations over a broad frequency band. The strategy combines two ideas from previous works: (i) zeros assignment for broadband epsilon-near-zero metamaterials [Sun, and Yu (2012)]; and (ii) the localization of vibrational modes in graded elastic networks [Xiao, Yakubo, and Yu (2006)]. Firstly, we aim to assign zeros (anti-resonance frequencies) over an operating frequency band. Starting from an exactly solvable model of zigzag diatomic chains, we demonstrate a one-to-one correspondence between the zeros and one type of the masses after solving the models. Hence, the zeros can be assigned at will by tuning the masses. Secondly, in order to achieve further vibrational suppression by gradon localization, a band overlapping picture is applied to tune the rest of the masses to an optimal value. The results can be generalized to 2D and 3D structures for more realistic applications.

  3. Hydrogen Bond Network Isomers of the Water Nonamer and Decamer Observed by Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Cristobal; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Seifert, Nathan A.; Pate, Brooks H.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Temelso, Berhane; Shields, George C.

    2013-06-01

    After our previous study of the rotational spectrum of water clusters in the 6-18 GHz region, in order to study clusters of larger size (>8 water molecules), a chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer in the 2-8 GHz frequency range has been used to obtain the broadband rotational spectra of five water nonamer isomers and four water decamer isomers in a pulsed molecular beam. The oxygen atom framework geometries for three nonamers and two decamers have also been unambiguously identified from isotopic labeling measurements using an H_{2}^{18}O enriched sample. Three of the four observed water decamer show tunneling effect associated with the internal dynamics of hydrogen-bond network in a similar fashion as the prism water hexamer. These tunneling paths are quenched upon a single incorporation of a H_{2}^{18}O molecule in the cluster. Due the large amount of closely-spaced rotational transitions in the H_{2}^{18}O spectrum, automated fitting tools were employed to extract the corresponding rotational spectra, which will be also briefly described. C. Perez, M. T. Muckle, D. P. Zaleski, N. A. Seifert, B. Temelso, G. C. Shields, Z. Kisiel, and B. H. Pate, Science 336, 897 (2012).

  4. An Architecture for Dynamic Trust Monitoring in Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onolaja, Olufunmilola; Bahsoon, Rami; Theodoropoulos, Georgios

    Collusion attacks remain a major problem of reputation and trust models, in mobile ad hoc networks. By covering up malicious behaviour of one another from the remaining part of the network, two or more malicious nodes may collaborate to cause damage to or disrupt the network. A number of models exist, which have been proposed to address this issue. Despite these however, the assurance of trusted communication still remains a challenge in these networks. We present a dynamic trust model that detects malicious behaviour at runtime and prevents collusion attacks. Our proposed model employs a novel approach that has the advantage of predicting the future trustworthiness of nodes, based on historical and online behaviour of nodes. This is achieved by an architecture that applies the paradigm of Dynamic Data Driven Application Systems, in solving the problem of collusion attacks in mobile networks.

  5. Exploiting node mobility for energy optimization in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Moukaddem, Fatme Mohammad

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become increasingly available for data-intensive applications such as micro-climate monitoring, precision agriculture, and audio/video surveillance. A key challenge faced by data-intensive WSNs is to transmit the sheer amount of data generated within an application's lifetime to the base station despite the fact that sensor nodes have limited power supplies such as batteries or small solar panels. The availability of numerous low-cost robotic units (e.g. Robomote and Khepera) has made it possible to construct sensor networks consisting of mobile sensor nodes. It has been shown that the controlled mobility offered by mobile sensors can be exploited to improve the energy efficiency of a network. In this thesis, we propose schemes that use mobile sensor nodes to reduce the energy consumption of data-intensive WSNs. Our approaches differ from previous work in two main aspects. First, our approaches do not require complex motion planning of mobile nodes, and hence can be implemented on a number of low-cost mobile sensor platforms. Second, we integrate the energy consumption due to both mobility and wireless communications into a holistic optimization framework. We consider three problems arising from the limited energy in the sensor nodes. In the first problem, the network consists of mostly static nodes and contains only a few mobile nodes. In the second and third problems, we assume essentially that all nodes in the WSN are mobile. We first study a new problem called max-data mobile relay configuration (MMRC ) that finds the positions of a set of mobile sensors, referred to as relays, that maximize the total amount of data gathered by the network during its lifetime. We show that the MMRC problem is surprisingly complex even for a trivial network topology due to the joint consideration of the energy consumption of both wireless communication and mechanical locomotion. We present optimal MMRC algorithms and practical distributed

  6. Intelligent Data Rate Control in Cognitive Mobile Heterogeneous Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mar, Jeich; Nien, Hsiao-Chen; Cheng, Jen-Chia

    An adaptive rate controller (ARC) based on an adaptive neural fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is designed to autonomously adjust the data rate of a mobile heterogeneous network to adapt to the changing traffic load and the user speed for multimedia call services. The effect of user speed on the handoff rate is considered. Through simulations, it has been demonstrated that the ANFIS-ARC is able to maintain new call blocking probability and handoff failure probability of the mobile heterogeneous network below a prescribed low level over different user speeds and new call origination rates while optimizing the average throughput. It has also been shown that the mobile cognitive wireless network with the proposed CS-ANFIS-ARC protocol can support more traffic load than neural fuzzy call-admission and rate controller (NFCRC) protocol.

  7. Site selection for the future stations of the french permanent broadband network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergne, Jérôme; Charade, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    RESIF (REseau SIsmologique et géodésique Français) is a new French research infrastructure dedicated to the observation of earth deformation based on seismic and geodetic instruments mainly located in France. One of its major component, called RESIF-CLB (Construction Large Bande), is devoted to the evolution of the permanent seismic broadband network in metropolitan France with the objective to complement the 45 existing stations with ~155 new stations within the next eight years. This network will be used for various scientific objectives including deep structures imaging and national seismicity monitoring. The chosen network topology consists in a backbone of homogeneously distributed stations (long wavelength array) completed by additional stations in seismically active regions. Management of the RESIF-CLB project is carried out by the technical division of INSU (Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers) who will rely on eight regional observatories and the CEA-LDG for the construction and operation of the stations. To optimize the performance of the network, we put a strong emphasis on the standardization of the stations in term of vault types, scientific and technical instrumentation and operation procedures. We also set up a procedure for site selection requiring that every potential site has to be tested for at least 3 weeks with a minimalist installation. Analysis of the continuous ambient noise records is then included in a standardized report submitted to all committed partners for acceptance. During the last two years, about 60 potential new sites have been tested, spanning various places and environments. We present a review of the seismic noise measurements at these sites and discuss the influence of different types of noise sources depending on the frequency band of interest. For example, we show that regional population distribution can be used as a proxy to infer the noise level at frequencies higher than 1 Hz. Based on similar noise analyses

  8. Broadband energy transfer to sensitizing dyes by mobile quantum dot mediators in solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Adhyaksa, Gede Widia Pratama; Lee, Ga In; Baek, Se-Woong; Lee, Jung-Yong; Kang, Jeung Ku

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of solar cells depends on absorption intensity of the photon collectors. Herein, mobile quantum dots (QDs) functionalized with thiol ligands in electrolyte are utilized into dye–sensitized solar cells. The QDs serve as mediators to receive and re–transmit energy to sensitized dyes, thus amplifying photon collection of sensitizing dyes in the visible range and enabling up–conversion of low-energy photons to higher-energy photons for dye absorption. The cell efficiency is boosted by dispersing QDs in electrolyte, thereby obviating the need for light scattering1 or plasmonic2 structures. Furthermore, optical spectroscopy and external quantum efficiency data reveal that resonance energy transfer due to the overlap between QD emission and dye absorption spectra becomes dominant when the QD bandgap is higher than the first excitonic peak of the dye, while co–sensitization resulting in a fast reduction of oxidized dyes is pronounced in the case of lower QD band gaps. PMID:24048384

  9. Game-theoretic pricing for video streaming in mobile networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, W Sabrina; Liu, K J Ray

    2012-05-01

    Mobile phones are among the most popular consumer devices, and the recent developments of 3G networks and smart phones enable users to watch video programs by subscribing data plans from service providers. Due to the ubiquity of mobile phones and phone-to-phone communication technologies, data-plan subscribers can redistribute the video content to nonsubscribers. Such a redistribution mechanism is a potential competitor for the mobile service provider and is very difficult to trace given users' high mobility. The service provider has to set a reasonable price for the data plan to prevent such unauthorized redistribution behavior to protect or maximize his/her own profit. In this paper, we analyze the optimal price setting for the service provider by investigating the equilibrium between the subscribers and the secondary buyers in the content-redistribution network. We model the behavior between the subscribers and the secondary buyers as a noncooperative game and find the optimal price and quantity for both groups of users. Based on the behavior of users in the redistribution network, we investigate the evolutionarily stable ratio of mobile users who decide to subscribe to the data plan. Such an analysis can help the service provider preserve his/her profit under the threat of the redistribution networks and can improve the quality of service for end users. PMID:22434799

  10. Mobile human network management and recommendation by probabilistic social mining.

    PubMed

    Min, Jun-Ki; Cho, Sung-Bae

    2011-06-01

    Recently, inferring or sharing of mobile contexts has been actively investigated as cell phones have become more than a communication device. However, most of them focused on utilizing the contexts on social network services, while the means in mining or managing the human network itself were barely considered. In this paper, the SmartPhonebook, which mines users' social connections to manage their relationships by reasoning social and personal contexts, is presented. It works like an artificial assistant which recommends the candidate callees whom the users probably would like to contact in a certain situation. Moreover, it visualizes their social contexts like closeness and relationship with others in order to let the users know their social situations. The proposed method infers the social contexts based on the contact patterns, while it extracts the personal contexts such as the users' emotional states and behaviors from the mobile logs. Here, Bayesian networks are exploited to handle the uncertainties in the mobile environment. The proposed system has been implemented with the MS Windows Mobile 2003 SE Platform on Samsung SPH-M4650 smartphone and has been tested on real-world data. The experimental results showed that the system provides an efficient and informative way for mobile social networking. PMID:21172755

  11. The North East Italy (NI) broadband seismic network run by OGS: experience in improving the long period performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.

    2009-04-01

    The NI broadband seismic network is designed to monitor regional seismic activity of North East Italy and surroundings as well as to provide high quality data for various research projects in regional and global broadband seismology, like moment tensor determination. The network, grown during the last 30 years within local Civil Defence agencies and neighbouring scientific institutions cooperation, currently consists of 11 digital broadband stations equipped with Streckeisen STS-2 and STS-1, Nanometrics Trillium 40 and Guralp CMG-3T seismometers with 120 and 40 seconds long period corners; most of the seismic stations are also equipped with accelerometers. Waveforms and parametric data of the NI seismic network are transmitted in real time to the Friuli-Venezia Giulia,Veneto and Provincia di Trento Civil Defence Agencies, to the Italian National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) and to the Earth Science Department (DST) of the Trieste University in Italy, to the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in Vienna, Austria and to the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia (ARSO) in Ljubljana, Slovenia to support emergency management and seismological studies in the whole Alps-Dinarides junction zone. The commercial Antelope software suite from BRTT has been chosen as the common basis for real time data exchange, rapid location of earthquakes and alerting. In order to guarantee high quality installations, we sustain a continuous effort that involves searches for appropriate sites, away from sources of long period noise, improvements in installation procedures and insulation techniques, maintenance of transfer function files and routine monitoring of noise conditions at individual existing station. The quality of the seismic data is checked through the noise Power Spectral Density (PSD) analysis. The insulation equipment that we designed for our network is a local adaptation of the pressure-thermal insulation

  12. Dynamic TWDM-PON for mobile radio access networks.

    PubMed

    Iida, Daisuke; Kuwano, Shigeru; Kani, Jun-ichi; Terada, Jun

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, the diffusion of mobile terminals has brought about an explosive increase in communication traffic of mobile RANs. The number of radio base stations and optical fiber lines between them is becoming larger. For this reason, we studied effective optical network technologies for mobile RANs and propose the use of TWDM-PON as a means of enabling RANs to be operated flexibly and have wideband communication capability. We confirmed the feasibility of TWDM-PON for this application by numerical simulation. The results show that TWDM-PON can accommodate the bandwidth more than TDM-PON and completely eliminate unused bandwidth in TDM-PON. PMID:24216845

  13. Mobile robot navigation with vision-based neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inigo, Rafael M.; Torres, Raul E.

    1995-01-01

    Mobile robot technology is spreading its use in the development of advance manufacturing systems. Methods of multi-sensory fusion data with vision, sonar and limit switches have been developed as the most flexible, but expensive approaches. Other approaches are more common such as buried wire AGV's. They decrease the cost of the mobile robot, but degrade the flexibility of the navigation system as well. This paper uses neural networks (NNs) with only one camera to obtain similar flexibility as the high cost approaches, but in a cost-efficient way. The NNs use translation and perspective information of features in images to determine the proper alignment and position of the mobile robot.

  14. Integrated Environment for Ubiquitous Healthcare and Mobile IPv6 Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagalaban, Giovanni; Kim, Seoksoo

    The development of Internet technologies based on the IPv6 protocol will allow real-time monitoring of people with health deficiencies and improve the independence of elderly people. This paper proposed a ubiquitous healthcare system for the personalized healthcare services with the support of mobile IPv6 networks. Specifically, this paper discusses the integration of ubiquitous healthcare and wireless networks and its functional requirements. This allow an integrated environment where heterogeneous devices such a mobile devices and body sensors can continuously monitor patient status and communicate remotely with healthcare servers, physicians, and family members to effectively deliver healthcare services.

  15. Auto-Configuration Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity. PMID:22163814

  16. Auto-configuration protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity. PMID:22163814

  17. Options for future mobile backhaul and fronthaul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kani, Jun-ichi; Kuwano, Shigeru; Terada, Jun

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the options for constructing mobile backhaul (MBH) and mobile fronthaul (MFH) networks that can support mobile broadband services beyond LTE Advanced. It first reviews the current architecture of Radio Access Network (RAN) which comprises MBH and MFH as well as the wireless section to reach the user equipment (UE). Then, it describes technologies for future MBH/MFH networks that are capable to the drastic increase of wireless bandwidth as well as the massive deployment of small cells.

  18. Robust and Cost-Efficient Communication Based on SNMP in Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Sang-Hoon; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    A main challenge in the design of this mobile network is the development of dynamic routing protocols that can efficiently find routes between two communicating nodes. Multimedia streaming services are receiving considerable interest in the mobile network business. An entire mobile network may change its point of attachment to the Internet. The mobile network is operated by a basic specification to support network mobility called Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support. However, NEMO basic Support mechanism has some problem in continuous communication. In this paper, we propose robust and cost-efficient algorithm. And we simulate proposed method and conclude some remarks.

  19. Shuttle-run synchronization in mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Sheng-Fei; Bi, Hong-Jie; Zou, Yong; Liu, Zong-Hua; Guan, Shu-Guang

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we study the collective dynamics of phase oscillators in a mobile ad hoc network whose topology changes dynamically. As the network size or the communication radius of individual oscillators increases, the topology of the ad hoc network first undergoes percolation, forming a giant cluster, and then gradually achieves global connectivity. It is shown that oscillator mobility generally enhances the coherence in such networks. Interestingly, we find a new type of phase synchronization/clustering, in which the phases of the oscillators are distributed in a certain narrow range, while the instantaneous frequencies change signs frequently, leading to shuttle-run-like motion of the oscillators in phase space. We conduct a theoretical analysis to explain the mechanism of this synchronization and obtain the critical transition point.

  20. NX-2G : autonomous BBOBS-NX for a highly mobile broadband seismic observation at the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Shinohara, Masanao

    2016-04-01

    We had developed the broadband ocean bottom seismometer (BBOBS) and its new generation system (BBOBS-NX), and, with them, several practical observations have been performed to create and establish a new category of the ocean floor broadband seismology, since 1999. Now, our BBOBS and BBOBS-NX data is proved to be at acceptable level for broadband seismic analyses. Especially, the BBOBS-NX is able to obtain the low noise horizontal data comparable to the land station in periods longer than 10 s, which is adequate for modern analyses of the mantle structure. Moreover, the BBOBS(T)-NX is under practical evaluation for the mobile tilt observation at the seafloor, which will enable dense geodetic monitoring. The BBOBS-NX system must be a powerful tool, although, the current system has intrinsic limitation in opportunity of observations due to the necessary use of the submersible vehicle for the deployment and recovery. If we can use this system with almost any kind of vessels, like as the BBOBS (self pop-up system), it should lead us a true breakthrough of seafloor observations in geodynamics. Hereafter, we call the new autonomous BBOBS-NX as NX-2G in short. There are two main problems to be cleared to realize the NX-2G system. The first one is a tilt of the sensor unit on landing, which is larger than the acceptable limit of the sensor (±8°) in 47 % after our 15 free-fall deployments of the BBOBS-NX. As we had no evidence at which moment the tilt occurred, so it was observed during the BBOBS-NX deployment in the last year by attaching a video camera and an acceleration logger those were originally developed for this purpose. The only one result shows that the tilt on landing seemed determined by the final posture of the BBOBS-NX system just before the penetration into the sediment. The second problem is a required force to extract the sensor unit from the sticky clay sediment, which was about 80 kgf in maximum with the current BBOBS-NX system from in-situ measurements

  1. Bounding switching delay in mobile TV broadcast networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsin; Hefeeda, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Since mobile devices are battery powered, several mobile TV standards dictate using energy saving schemes to increase the viewing time on mobile devices. The most common scheme for saving energy is to make the base station broadcast the video data of a TV channel in bursts with a bit rate much higher than the encoding rate of the video stream, which enables mobile devices to turn off their radio frequency circuits when not receiving bursts. While broadcasting bursts saves energy, it increases the channel switching delay. The switching delay is an important performance metric, because long and variable switching delays are annoying to users and may turn them away from the mobile TV service. In this paper, we first analyze the burst broadcasting scheme currently used in many deployed mobile TV networks, and we show that it is not efficient in terms of controlling the channel switching delay. We then propose new schemes to guarantee that a given maximum switching delay is not exceeded and that the energy consumption of mobile devices is minimized. We prove the correctness of the proposed schemes and derive closed-form equations for the achieved energy saving. We also implement the proposed schemes in a mobile TV testbed to show their practicability and to validate our theoretical analysis.

  2. Data Quality Control of the French Permanent Broadband Network in the RESIF Framework.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunberg, M.; Lambotte, S.; Engels, F.

    2014-12-01

    In the framework of the RESIF (Réseau Sismologique et géodésique Français) project, a new information system is setting up, allowing the improvement of the management and the distribution of high quality data from the different elements of RESIF. Within this information system, EOST (in Strasbourg) is in charge of collecting real-time permanent broadband seismic waveform, and performing Quality Control on these data. The real-time and validated data set are pushed to the French National Distribution Center (Isterre/Grenoble) to make them publicly available. Furthermore EOST hosts the BCSF-ReNaSS, in charge of the French metropolitan seismic bulletin. This allows to benefit from some high-end quality control based on the national and world-wide seismicity. Here we present the real-time seismic data flow from the stations of the French National Broad Band Network to EOST, and then, the data Quality Control procedures that were recently installed, including some new developments.The data Quality Control consists in applying a variety of processes to check the consistency of the whole system from the stations to the data center. This allows us to verify that instruments and data transmission are operating correctly. Moreover, time quality is critical for most of the scientific data applications. To face this challenge and check the consistency of polarities and amplitudes, we deployed several high-end processes including a noise correlation procedure to check for timing accuracy (intrumental time errors result in a time-shift of the whole cross-correlation, clearly distinct from those due to change in medium physical properties), and a systematic comparison of synthetic and real data for teleseismic earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6.5 to detect timing errors as well as polarity and amplitude problems.

  3. Placement of Base Stations in Broadband Power Line Communications Access Networks by Means of Multi-criteria Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidine, Abdelfatteh; Lehnert, Ralf

    Broadband Power Line Communications (B-PLC) technology is an alternative for broadband access networks, allowing bit rates up to currently 200Mbps. This technique uses the wiring of the low-voltage grid in order to offer to the users the telecommunications services, such as Internet, VoIP, VoD, etc. The B-PLC design process is sub-divided into two parts: the Generalized Base Station Placement (GBSP) problem and the PLC Channel Allocation Problem (P-CAP). This paper focuses on GBSP that is modeled as multi-criteria combinatorial optimization problem. Based on our published mathematical modeling, this paper supplies more numerical experiments for the evaluation of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) in solving GBSP. Their performance is compared with the single-objective optimization.

  4. Impact of mobility structure on optimization of small-world networks of mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun; Holme, Petter

    2016-06-01

    In ad hoc wireless networking, units are connected to each other rather than to a central, fixed, infrastructure. Constructing and maintaining such networks create several trade-off problems between robustness, communication speed, power consumption, etc., that bridges engineering, computer science and the physics of complex systems. In this work, we address the role of mobility patterns of the agents on the optimal tuning of a small-world type network construction method. By this method, the network is updated periodically and held static between the updates. We investigate the optimal updating times for different scenarios of the movement of agents (modeling, for example, the fat-tailed trip distances, and periodicities, of human travel). We find that these mobility patterns affect the power consumption in non-trivial ways and discuss how these effects can best be handled.

  5. A prototype mobile sensor network for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dapeng; Qi, Quanquan; Wang, Yang; Lee, Kok-Meng; Foong, Shaohui

    2009-03-01

    Wireless sensing has been widely explored in recent years for structural monitoring and dynamic testing. The limitations of current wireless sensor networks have been identified with regard to limited power supply, communication bandwidth, communication range, computing power, etc. The cost of most wireless structural sensors is still prohibitive for dense instrumentation on large civil structures. To address the above challenges, this research proposes a new methodology for structural health monitoring based upon mobile sensor networks. In this research, prototype mobile sensing nodes have been developed using magnet-wheeled cars as the sensor carriers. These mobile sensing nodes can maneuver upon structures built with ferromagnetic materials. Performance of the prototype mobile sensing system has been validated on a laboratory steel frame. Modal analysis for the frame structure is conducted using the data collected by the mobile sensing nodes. This exploratory work illustrates the flexible spatial resolutions offered by mobile sensors, which represent a transformative change from the fixed spatial resolution provided by traditional static sensors.

  6. Design of a Broadband Electrical Impedance Matching Network for Piezoelectric Ultrasound Transducers Based on a Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    An, Jianfei; Song, Kezhu; Zhang, Shuangxi; Yang, Junfeng; Cao, Ping

    2014-01-01

    An improved method based on a genetic algorithm (GA) is developed to design a broadband electrical impedance matching network for piezoelectric ultrasound transducer. A key feature of the new method is that it can optimize both the topology of the matching network and perform optimization on the components. The main idea of this method is to find the optimal matching network in a set of candidate topologies. Some successful experiences of classical algorithms are absorbed to limit the size of the set of candidate topologies and greatly simplify the calculation process. Both binary-coded GA and real-coded GA are used for topology optimization and components optimization, respectively. Some calculation strategies, such as elitist strategy and clearing niche method, are adopted to make sure that the algorithm can converge to the global optimal result. Simulation and experimental results prove that matching networks with better performance might be achieved by this improved method. PMID:24743156

  7. Reconceptualising Diasporic Intellectual Networks: Mobile Scholars in Transnational Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qiongqiong; Koyama, Jill P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Chinese scholars in the USA recount their transnational collaborations and linkages. Guided by post-colonial theories and cultural studies of transnational academic mobility, we utilise in-depth interviews to resituate the scholars' experiences within a discourse of diasporic intellectual networks. We argue that…

  8. Adaptive control of mobile robots using a neural network.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Júnior, C; Hermerly, E M

    2001-06-01

    A Neural Network - based control approach for mobile robot is proposed. The weight adaptation is made on-line, without previous learning. Several possible situations in robot navigation are considered, including uncertainties in the model and presence of disturbance. Weight adaptation laws are presented as well as simulation results. PMID:11574958

  9. A novel PON based UMTS broadband wireless access network architecture with an algorithm to guarantee end to end QoS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Ajaz; Hussain, Shahab; Ali, Mohammed A.; Ahmed, Samir

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we proposes a novel Passive Optical Network (PON) based broadband wireless access network architecture to provide multimedia services (video telephony, video streaming, mobile TV, mobile emails etc) to mobile users. In the conventional wireless access networks, the base stations (Node B) and Radio Network Controllers (RNC) are connected by point to point T1/E1 lines (Iub interface). The T1/E1 lines are expensive and add up to operating costs. Also the resources (transceivers and T1/E1) are designed for peak hours traffic, so most of the time the dedicated resources are idle and wasted. Further more the T1/E1 lines are not capable of supporting bandwidth (BW) required by next generation wireless multimedia services proposed by High Speed Packet Access (HSPA, Rel.5) for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and Evolution Data only (EV-DO) for Code Division Multiple Access 2000 (CDMA2000). The proposed PON based back haul can provide Giga bit data rates and Iub interface can be dynamically shared by Node Bs. The BW is dynamically allocated and the unused BW from lightly loaded Node Bs is assigned to heavily loaded Node Bs. We also propose a novel algorithm to provide end to end Quality of Service (QoS) (between RNC and user equipment).The algorithm provides QoS bounds in the wired domain as well as in wireless domain with compensation for wireless link errors. Because of the air interface there can be certain times when the user equipment (UE) is unable to communicate with Node B (usually referred to as link error). Since the link errors are bursty and location dependent. For a proposed approach, the scheduler at the Node B maps priorities and weights for QoS into wireless MAC. The compensations for errored links is provided by the swapping of services between the active users and the user data is divided into flows, with flows allowed to lag or lead. The algorithm guarantees (1)delay and throughput for error-free flows,(2)short term fairness

  10. Transient suppression of broadband gamma power in the default-mode network is correlated with task complexity and subject performance.

    PubMed

    Ossandón, Tomas; Jerbi, Karim; Vidal, Juan R; Bayle, Dimitri J; Henaff, Marie-Anne; Jung, Julien; Minotti, Lorella; Bertrand, Olivier; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2011-10-12

    Task performance is associated with increased brain metabolism but also with prominent deactivation in specific brain structures known as the default-mode network (DMN). The role of DMN deactivation remains enigmatic in part because its electrophysiological correlates, temporal dynamics, and link to behavior are poorly understood. Using extensive depth electrode recordings in humans, we provide first electrophysiological evidence for a direct correlation between the dynamics of power decreases in the DMN and individual subject behavior. We found that all DMN areas displayed transient suppressions of broadband gamma (60-140 Hz) power during performance of a visual search task and, critically, we show for the first time that the millisecond range duration and extent of the transient gamma suppressions are correlated with task complexity and subject performance. In addition, trial-by-trial correlations revealed that spatially distributed gamma power increases and decreases formed distinct anticorrelated large-scale networks. Beyond unraveling the electrophysiological basis of DMN dynamics, our results suggest that, rather than indicating a mere switch to a global exteroceptive mode, DMN deactivation encodes the extent and efficiency of our engagement with the external world. Furthermore, our findings reveal a pivotal role for broadband gamma modulations in the interplay between task-positive and task-negative networks mediating efficient goal-directed behavior and facilitate our understanding of the relationship between electrophysiology and neuroimaging studies of intrinsic brain networks. PMID:21994368

  11. Model of mobile agents for sexual interactions networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M. C.; Lind, P. G.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2006-02-01

    We present a novel model to simulate real social networks of complex interactions, based in a system of colliding particles (agents). The network is build by keeping track of the collisions and evolves in time with correlations which emerge due to the mobility of the agents. Therefore, statistical features are a consequence only of local collisions among its individual agents. Agent dynamics is realized by an event-driven algorithm of collisions where energy is gained as opposed to physical systems which have dissipation. The model reproduces empirical data from networks of sexual interactions, not previously obtained with other approaches.

  12. Autonomous Navigation Apparatus With Neural Network for a Mobile Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quraishi, Naveed (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An autonomous navigation system for a mobile vehicle arranged to move within an environment includes a plurality of sensors arranged on the vehicle and at least one neural network including an input layer coupled to the sensors, a hidden layer coupled to the input layer, and an output layer coupled to the hidden layer. The neural network produces output signals representing respective positions of the vehicle, such as the X coordinate, the Y coordinate, and the angular orientation of the vehicle. A plurality of patch locations within the environment are used to train the neural networks to produce the correct outputs in response to the distances sensed.

  13. Power-Aware Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şen, Sevil; Clark, John A.; Tapiador, Juan E.

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a highly promising new form of networking. However they are more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. In addition, conventional intrusion detection systems (IDS) are ineffective and inefficient for highly dynamic and resource-constrained environments. Achieving an effective operational MANET requires tradeoffs to be made between functional and non-functional criteria. In this paper we show how Genetic Programming (GP) together with a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) can be used to synthesise intrusion detection programs that make optimal tradeoffs between security criteria and the power they consume.

  14. RoCoMAR: Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing and Relay Architecture for Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Van Le, Duc; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-01-01

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay. PMID:23881134

  15. Adaptive Data Gathering in Mobile Sensor Networks Using Speedy Mobile Elements.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yongxuan; Xie, Jinshan; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Tian; Liao, Minghong

    2015-01-01

    Data gathering is a key operator for applications in wireless sensor networks; yet it is also a challenging problem in mobile sensor networks when considering that all nodes are mobile and the communications among them are opportunistic. This paper proposes an efficient data gathering scheme called ADG that adopts speedy mobile elements as the mobile data collector and takes advantage of the movement patterns of the network. ADG first extracts the network meta-data at initial epochs, and calculates a set of proxy nodes based on the meta-data. Data gathering is then mapped into the Proxy node Time Slot Allocation (PTSA) problem that schedules the time slots and orders, according to which the data collector could gather the maximal amount of data within a limited period. Finally, the collector follows the schedule and picks up the sensed data from the proxy nodes through one hop of message transmissions. ADG learns the period when nodes are relatively stationary, so that the collector is able to pick up the data from them during the limited data gathering period. Moreover, proxy nodes and data gathering points could also be timely updated so that the collector could adapt to the change of node movements. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed scheme outperforms other data gathering schemes on the cost of message transmissions and the data gathering rate, especially under the constraint of limited data gathering period. PMID:26389903

  16. Adaptive Data Gathering in Mobile Sensor Networks Using Speedy Mobile Elements

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yongxuan; Xie, Jinshan; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Tian; Liao, Minghong

    2015-01-01

    Data gathering is a key operator for applications in wireless sensor networks; yet it is also a challenging problem in mobile sensor networks when considering that all nodes are mobile and the communications among them are opportunistic. This paper proposes an efficient data gathering scheme called ADG that adopts speedy mobile elements as the mobile data collector and takes advantage of the movement patterns of the network. ADG first extracts the network meta-data at initial epochs, and calculates a set of proxy nodes based on the meta-data. Data gathering is then mapped into the Proxy node Time Slot Allocation (PTSA) problem that schedules the time slots and orders, according to which the data collector could gather the maximal amount of data within a limited period. Finally, the collector follows the schedule and picks up the sensed data from the proxy nodes through one hop of message transmissions. ADG learns the period when nodes are relatively stationary, so that the collector is able to pick up the data from them during the limited data gathering period. Moreover, proxy nodes and data gathering points could also be timely updated so that the collector could adapt to the change of node movements. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed scheme outperforms other data gathering schemes on the cost of message transmissions and the data gathering rate, especially under the constraint of limited data gathering period. PMID:26389903

  17. Mobile satellite business networks: A part of the European mobile system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deMateo, M. L.; Jongejans, A.; Loisy, C.; VanHimbeeck, C.; Marchal, J. P.; Borella, A.; Sartori, M.

    1995-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is presently procuring an L-band payload EMS, to be embarked on the ITALSAT-2 satellite due for launch in early 1996, in order to promote a regional European mobile system. One of the Land Mobile Communication systems supported by EMS is the MSBN (Mobile Satellite Business Network) voice and data system which will offer the services of a business network on a seamless European coverage. This paper will first recall the characteristics of the MSBN system, which is based on quasi-synchronized CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) techniques in both directions, and then describe the CDMA receivers implementation. Main validation test results will also be reported confirming predicted performances.

  18. Epidemic spreading on hierarchical geographical networks with mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao-Pu; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Hadzibeganovic, Tarik; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-05-01

    Hierarchical geographical traffic networks are critical for our understanding of scaling laws in human trajectories. Here, we investigate the susceptible-infected epidemic process evolving on hierarchical networks in which agents randomly walk along the edges and establish contacts in network nodes. We employ a metapopulation modeling framework that allows us to explore the contagion spread patterns in relation to multi-scale mobility behaviors. A series of computer simulations revealed that a shifted power-law-like negative relationship between the peak timing of epidemics τ0 and population density, and a logarithmic positive relationship between τ0 and the network size, can both be explained by the gradual enlargement of fluctuations in the spreading process. We employ a semi-analytical method to better understand the nature of these relationships and the role of pertinent demographic factors. Additionally, we provide a quantitative discussion of the efficiency of a border screening procedure in delaying epidemic outbreaks on hierarchical networks, yielding a rather limited feasibility of this mitigation strategy but also its non-trivial dependence on population density, infector detectability, and the diversity of the susceptible region. Our results suggest that the interplay between the human spatial dynamics, network topology, and demographic factors can have important consequences for the global spreading and control of infectious diseases. These findings provide novel insights into the combined effects of human mobility and the organization of geographical networks on spreading processes, with important implications for both epidemiological research and health policy.

  19. Enhanced Weight based DSR for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Samant; Jain, Sweta

    2011-12-01

    Routing in ad hoc network is a great problematic, since a good routing protocol must ensure fast and efficient packet forwarding, which isn't evident in ad hoc networks. In literature there exists lot of routing protocols however they don't include all the aspects of ad hoc networks as mobility, device and medium constraints which make these protocols not efficient for some configuration and categories of ad hoc networks. Thus in this paper we propose an improvement of Weight Based DSR in order to include some of the aspects of ad hoc networks as stability, remaining battery power, load and trust factor and proposing a new approach Enhanced Weight Based DSR.

  20. The Broadband Buzz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    "Broadband," the term for a variety of high-speed Internet options, opens up many opportunities for online classroom learning. Challenges for school districts include keeping the network running, training teachers, and paying for it. A sidebar lists broadband resources. (MLF)

  1. Wireless sensor network for mobile surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Gert J. A.; Maris, Marinus G.

    2004-11-01

    Guarding safety and security within industrial, commercial and military areas is an important issue nowadays. A specific challenge lies in the design of portable surveillance systems that can be rapidly deployed, installed and easily operated. Conventional surveillance systems typically employ stand alone sensors that transmit their data to a central control station for data-processing. One of the disadvantages of these kinds of systems is that they generate a lot of data that may induce processing or storage problems. Moreover, data from the sensors must be constantly observed and assessed by human operators. In this paper, a surveillance concept based on distributed intelligence in wireless sensor networks is proposed. In this concept, surveillance is automatically performed by means of many small sensing devices including cameras. The requirements for such surveillance systems are investigated. Experiments with a demonstration system were conducted to verify some of the claims made throughout this paper.

  2. 76 FR 31252 - Fixed and Mobile Services in the Mobile Satellite Service Bands at 1525-1559 MHz and 1626.5-1660...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ...In this document, the Commission amends its rules to make additional spectrum available for new investment in mobile broadband networks while also ensuring that the United States maintains robust mobile satellite service capabilities. First, this document adds co- primary Fixed and Mobile allocations to the Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) 2 GHz band, consistent with the International Table of......

  3. Translational networks in healthcare? Evidence on the design and initiation of organizational networks for knowledge mobilization.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Louise; Harvey, Gill

    2015-08-01

    International attention has focussed on the variations between research evidence and practice in healthcare. This prompted the creation of formalized translational networks consisting of academic-service partnerships. The English Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) are one example of a translational network. Using longitudinal, archival case study data from one CLAHRC over a 3-year period (2008-11), this article explores the relationship between organizational form and the function(s) of a translational network. The article focuses on the research gaps on the effective structures and appropriate governance to support a translational network. Data analysis suggested that the policy of setting up translational networks is insufficient of itself to produce positive translational activity. The data indicate that to leverage the benefits of the whole network, attention must be paid to devising a structure which integrates research production and use and facilitates lateral cross-disciplinary and cross-organizational communication. Equally, appropriate governance arrangements are necessary, particularly in large, multi-stakeholder networks, where shared governance may be questionable. Inappropriate network structure and governance inhibits the potential of the translational network. Finally, the case provides insights into the movement of knowledge within and between network organizations. The data demonstrate that knowledge mobilization extends beyond knowledge translation; knowledge mobilization includes the negotiated utilization of knowledge - a balanced power form of collaboration. Whilst much translational effort is externally focused on the health system, our findings highlight the essential need for the internal negotiation and mobilization of knowledge within academia. PMID:26117554

  4. Modified weighted fair queuing for packet scheduling in mobile WiMAX networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satrya, Gandeva B.; Brotoharsono, Tri

    2013-03-01

    The increase of user mobility and the need for data access anytime also increases the interest in broadband wireless access (BWA). The best available quality of experience for mobile data service users are assured for IEEE 802.16e based users. The main problem of assuring a high QOS value is how to allocate available resources among users in order to meet the QOS requirement for criteria such as delay, throughput, packet loss and fairness. There is no specific standard scheduling mechanism stated by IEEE standards, which leaves it for implementer differentiation. There are five QOS service classes defined by IEEE 802.16: Unsolicited Grant Scheme (UGS), Extended Real Time Polling Service (ertPS), Real Time Polling Service (rtPS), Non Real Time Polling Service (nrtPS) and Best Effort Service (BE). Each class has different QOS parameter requirements for throughput and delay/jitter constraints. This paper proposes Modified Weighted Fair Queuing (MWFQ) scheduling scenario which was based on Weighted Round Robin (WRR) and Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ). The performance of MWFQ was assessed by using above five QoS criteria. The simulation shows that using the concept of total packet size calculation improves the network's performance.

  5. Localization with a mobile beacon in underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Kiseon

    2012-01-01

    Localization is one of the most important issues associated with underwater acoustic sensor networks, especially when sensor nodes are randomly deployed. Given that it is difficult to deploy beacon nodes at predetermined locations, localization schemes with a mobile beacon on the sea surface or along the planned path are inherently convenient, accurate, and energy-efficient. In this paper, we propose a new range-free Localization with a Mobile Beacon (LoMoB). The mobile beacon periodically broadcasts a beacon message containing its location. Sensor nodes are individually localized by passively receiving the beacon messages without inter-node communications. For location estimation, a set of potential locations are obtained as candidates for a node's location and then the node's location is determined through the weighted mean of all the potential locations with the weights computed based on residuals. PMID:22778597

  6. Structure and tie strengths in mobile communication networks.

    PubMed

    Onnela, J-P; Saramäki, J; Hyvönen, J; Szabó, G; Lazer, D; Kaski, K; Kertész, J; Barabási, A-L

    2007-05-01

    Electronic databases, from phone to e-mails logs, currently provide detailed records of human communication patterns, offering novel avenues to map and explore the structure of social and communication networks. Here we examine the communication patterns of millions of mobile phone users, allowing us to simultaneously study the local and the global structure of a society-wide communication network. We observe a coupling between interaction strengths and the network's local structure, with the counterintuitive consequence that social networks are robust to the removal of the strong ties but fall apart after a phase transition if the weak ties are removed. We show that this coupling significantly slows the diffusion process, resulting in dynamic trapping of information in communities and find that, when it comes to information diffusion, weak and strong ties are both simultaneously ineffective. PMID:17456605

  7. Using Mobile Agents and Overlay Networks to Secure Electrical Netoworks

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, Neal A.; Prosser, Bryan J.; Fulp, Errin W.; McKinnon, Archibald D.

    2013-04-01

    ABSTRACT The use of wandering, mobile agents can provide a robust approach for managing, monitoring, and securing electrical distribution networks. However, the topological structure of electrical networks can affect system performance. For example, if the multi-agent system relies on a regular inspection rate (on average, points of interest are inspected with equal frequency), then locations that are not well connected will on average be inspected less frequently. This paper discusses creation and use of overlay networks that create a virtual grid graph can provide faster coverage and a more uniform average agent sampling rate. Using overlays agents wander a virtual neighborhood consisting of only points of interest that are interconnected in a regular fashion (each point has the same number of neighbors). Experimental results will show that an overlay can often provide better network coverage and a more uniform inspection rate, which can improve cyber security by providing a faster detection of threats

  8. Economic Path Scheduling for Mobile Agent System on Computer Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olajubu, E. A.

    Mobile agent technology has a lot of gains to offer network-centric applications. The technology promises to be very suitable for narrow-bandwidth networks by reducing network latency and allowing transparent per-to-per computing. Multi-agent technology had been proposed for many network-centric applications with little or no path scheduling algorithms. This paper describes the need for path scheduling algorithms for agents in multi-agent systems. Traveling salesman problem (TSP) scheme is used to model ordered agents and the unordered agents schedule their path based on random distribution. The two types of agents were modeled and simulated based on bandwidth usage and response time as performance metrics. Our simulation results shows that ordered agents have superior performance against unordered agents. The ordered agents exhibit lower bandwidth usage and higher response time.

  9. Anomalous contagion and renormalization in networks with nodal mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, Pedro D.; Qi, Hong; Zheng, Minzhang; Xu, Chen; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2016-07-01

    A common occurrence in everyday human activity is where people join, leave and possibly rejoin clusters of other individuals —whether this be online (e.g. social media communities) or in real space (e.g. popular meeting places such as cafes). In the steady state, the resulting interaction network would appear static over time if the identities of the nodes are ignored. Here we show that even in this static steady-state limit, a non-zero nodal mobility leads to a diverse set of outbreak profiles that is dramatically different from known forms, and yet matches well with recent real-world social outbreaks. We show how this complication of nodal mobility can be renormalized away for a particular class of networks.

  10. Wireless Sensor/Actuator Network Design for Mobile Control Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Feng; Tian, Yu-Chu; Li, Yanjun; Sun, Youxian

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor/actuator networks (WSANs) are emerging as a new generation of sensor networks. Serving as the backbone of control applications, WSANs will enable an unprecedented degree of distributed and mobile control. However, the unreliability of wireless communications and the real-time requirements of control applications raise great challenges for WSAN design. With emphasis on the reliability issue, this paper presents an application-level design methodology for WSANs in mobile control applications. The solution is generic in that it is independent of the underlying platforms, environment, control system models, and controller design. To capture the link quality characteristics in terms of packet loss rate, experiments are conducted on a real WSAN system. From the experimental observations, a simple yet efficient method is proposed to deal with unpredictable packet loss on actuator nodes. Trace-based simulations give promising results, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Multichannel MAC Layer In Mobile Ad—Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logesh, K.; Rao, Samba Siva

    2010-11-01

    This paper we presented the design objectives and technical challenges in Multichannel MAC protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. In IEEE 802.11 a/b/g standards allow use of multiple channels, only a single channel is popularly used, due to the lack of efficient protocols that enable use of Multiple Channels. Even though complex environments in ad hoc networks require a combined control of physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers resources in order to optimize performance. And also we discuss the characteristics of cross-layer frame and give a multichannel MAC approach.

  12. Random Time Identity Based Firewall In Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suman, Patel, R. B.; Singh, Parvinder

    2010-11-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-organizing network of mobile routers and associated hosts connected by wireless links. MANETs are highly flexible and adaptable but at the same time are highly prone to security risks due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, and lack of centralized control. Firewall is an effective means of protecting a local network from network-based security threats and forms a key component in MANET security architecture. This paper presents a review of firewall implementation techniques in MANETs and their relative merits and demerits. A new approach is proposed to select MANET nodes at random for firewall implementation. This approach randomly select a new node as firewall after fixed time and based on critical value of certain parameters like power backup. This approach effectively balances power and resource utilization of entire MANET because responsibility of implementing firewall is equally shared among all the nodes. At the same time it ensures improved security for MANETs from outside attacks as intruder will not be able to find out the entry point in MANET due to the random selection of nodes for firewall implementation.

  13. Mobile Calibration Based on Laser Metrology and Approximation Networks

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Rodriguez, J. Apolinar

    2010-01-01

    A mobile calibration technique for three-dimensional vision is presented. In this method, vision parameters are computed automatically by approximation networks built based on the position of a camera and image processing of a laser line. The networks also perform three-dimensional visualization. In the proposed system, the setup geometry can be modified online, whereby an online re-calibration is performed based on data provided by the network and the required modifications of extrinsic and intrinsic parameters are thus determined, overcoming any calibration limitations caused by the modification procedure. The mobile calibration also avoids procedures involving references, which are used in traditional online re-calibration methods. The proposed mobile calibration thus improves the accuracy and performance of the three-dimensional vision because online data of calibrated references are not passed on to the vision system. This work represents a contribution to the field of online re-calibration, as verified by a comparison with the results based on lighting methods, which are calibrated and re-calibrated via perspective projection. Processing time is also studied. PMID:22163622

  14. Managing heterogeneous networks of mobile and stationary sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürkle, Axel; Solbrig, Peter; Segor, Florian; Bulatov, Dimitri; Wernerus, Peter; Müller, Sven

    2011-11-01

    Protecting critical infrastructure against intrusion, sabotage or vandalism is a task that requires a comprehensive situation picture. Modern security systems should provide a total solution including sensors, software, hardware, and a "control unit" to ensure complete security. Incorporating unmanned mobile sensors can significantly help to close information gaps and gain an ad hoc picture of areas where no pre-installed supervision infrastructure is available or damaged after an incident. Fraunhofer IOSB has developed the generic ground control station AMFIS which is capable of managing sensor data acquisition with all kinds of unattended stationary sensors, mobile ad hoc sensor networks, and mobile sensor platforms. The system is highly mobile and able to control various mobile platforms such as small UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) and UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles). In order to establish a real-time situation picture, also an image exploitation process is used. In this process, video frames from different sources (mainly from small UAVs) are georeferenced by means of a system of image registration methods. Relevant information can be obtained by a motion detection module. Thus, the image exploitation process can accelerate the situation assessment significantly.

  15. TCP flow control using link layer information in mobile networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Kenji; Oie, Yuji

    2002-07-01

    Mobile Networks have been expanding and IMT-2000 further increases their available bandwidth over wireless links. However, TCP, which is a reliable end-to-end transport protocol, is tuned to perform well in wired networks where bit error rates are very low and packet loss occurs mostly because of congestion. Although a TCP sender can execute flow control to utilize as much available bandwidth as possible in wired networks, it cannot work well in wireless networks characterized by high bit error rates. In the next generation mobile systems, sophisticated error recovery technologies of FEC and ARQ are indeed employed over wireless links, i.e., over Layer 2, to avoid performance degradation of upper layers. However, multiple retransmissions by Layer 2 ARQ can adversely increase transmission delay of TCP segments, which will further make TCP unnecessarily increase RTO (Retransmission TimeOut). Furthermore, a link bandwidth assigned to TCP flows can change in response to changing air conditions to use wireless links efficiently. TCP thus has to adapt its transmission rate according to the changing available bandwidth. The major goal of this study is to develop a receiver-based effective TCP flow control without any modification on TCP senders, which are probably connected with wired networks. For this end, we propose a TCP flow control employing some Layer 2 information on a wireless link at the mobile station. Our performance evaluation of the proposed TCP shows that the receiver-based TCP flow control can moderate the performance degradation very well even if FER on Layer 2 is high.

  16. Drive to miniaturization: integrated optical networks on mobile platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salour, Michael M.; Batayneh, Marwan; Figueroa, Luis

    2011-11-01

    With rapid growth of the Internet, bandwidth demand for data traffic is continuing to explode. In addition, emerging and future applications are becoming more and more network centric. With the proliferation of data communication platforms and data-intensive applications (e.g. cloud computing), high-bandwidth materials such as video clips dominating the Internet, and social networking tools, a networking technology is very desirable which can scale the Internet's capability (particularly its bandwidth) by two to three orders of magnitude. As the limits of Moore's law are approached, optical mesh networks based on wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) have the ability to satisfy the large- and scalable-bandwidth requirements of our future backbone telecommunication networks. In addition, this trend is also affecting other special-purpose systems in applications such as mobile platforms, automobiles, aircraft, ships, tanks, and micro unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) which are becoming independent systems roaming the sky while sensing data, processing, making decisions, and even communicating and networking with other heterogeneous systems. Recently, WDM optical technologies have seen advances in its transmission speeds, switching technologies, routing protocols, and control systems. Such advances have made WDM optical technology an appealing choice for the design of future Internet architectures. Along these lines, scientists across the entire spectrum of the network architectures from physical layer to applications have been working on developing devices and communication protocols which can take full advantage of the rapid advances in WDM technology. Nevertheless, the focus has always been on large-scale telecommunication networks that span hundreds and even thousands of miles. Given these advances, we investigate the vision and applicability of integrating the traditionally large-scale WDM optical networks into miniaturized mobile platforms such as UAVs. We explain

  17. Duplicate Address Detection Table in IPv6 Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alisherov, Farkhod; Kim, Taihoon

    In IP networks, each computer or communication equipment needs an IP address. To supply enough IP addresses, the new Internet protocol IPv6 is used in next generatoion mobile communication. Although IPv6 improves the existing IPv4 Internet protocol, Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) mechanism may consume resources and suffer from long delay. DAD is used to ensure whether the IP address is unique or not. When a mobile node performs an inter-domain handoff, it will first generate a new IP and perform a DAD procedure. The DAD procedure not only wastes time but also increases the signaling load on Internet. In this paper, the author proposes a new DAD mechanism to speed up the DAD procedure. A DAD table is created in access or mobility routers in IP networks and record all IP addresses of the area. When a new IP address needs to perform DAD, it can just search in the DAD table to confirm the uniqueness of the address.

  18. Human mobility monitoring in very low resolution visual sensor network.

    PubMed

    Bo, Nyan Bo; Deboeverie, Francis; Eldib, Mohamed; Guan, Junzhi; Xie, Xingzhe; Niño, Jorge; Van Haerenborgh, Dirk; Slembrouck, Maarten; Van de Velde, Samuel; Steendam, Heidi; Veelaert, Peter; Kleihorst, Richard; Aghajan, Hamid; Philips, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an automated system for monitoring mobility patterns using a network of very low resolution visual sensors (30 × 30 pixels). The use of very low resolution sensors reduces privacy concern, cost, computation requirement and power consumption. The core of our proposed system is a robust people tracker that uses low resolution videos provided by the visual sensor network. The distributed processing architecture of our tracking system allows all image processing tasks to be done on the digital signal controller in each visual sensor. In this paper, we experimentally show that reliable tracking of people is possible using very low resolution imagery. We also compare the performance of our tracker against a state-of-the-art tracking method and show that our method outperforms. Moreover, the mobility statistics of tracks such as total distance traveled and average speed derived from trajectories are compared with those derived from ground truth given by Ultra-Wide Band sensors. The results of this comparison show that the trajectories from our system are accurate enough to obtain useful mobility statistics. PMID:25375754

  19. Human Mobility Monitoring in Very Low Resolution Visual Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Bo Bo, Nyan; Deboeverie, Francis; Eldib, Mohamed; Guan, Junzhi; Xie, Xingzhe; Niño, Jorge; Van Haerenborgh, Dirk; Slembrouck, Maarten; Van de Velde, Samuel; Steendam, Heidi; Veelaert, Peter; Kleihorst, Richard; Aghajan, Hamid; Philips, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an automated system for monitoring mobility patterns using a network of very low resolution visual sensors (30 × 30 pixels). The use of very low resolution sensors reduces privacy concern, cost, computation requirement and power consumption. The core of our proposed system is a robust people tracker that uses low resolution videos provided by the visual sensor network. The distributed processing architecture of our tracking system allows all image processing tasks to be done on the digital signal controller in each visual sensor. In this paper, we experimentally show that reliable tracking of people is possible using very low resolution imagery. We also compare the performance of our tracker against a state-of-the-art tracking method and show that our method outperforms. Moreover, the mobility statistics of tracks such as total distance traveled and average speed derived from trajectories are compared with those derived from ground truth given by Ultra-Wide Band sensors. The results of this comparison show that the trajectories from our system are accurate enough to obtain useful mobility statistics. PMID:25375754

  20. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of glucose aqueous solution: Analysis of the hydration state and the hydrogen bond network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraga, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Tetsuhito; Kondo, Naoshi; Tajima, Takuro; Nakamura, Masahito; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Hirata, Akihiko; Ajito, Katsuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies of saccharides' peculiar anti-freezing and anti-dehydration properties point to a close association with their strong hydration capability and destructuring effect on the hydrogen bond (HB) network of bulk water. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not well understood. In this respect, examination of the complex dielectric constants of saccharide aqueous solutions, especially over a broadband frequency region, should provide interesting insights into these properties, since the dielectric responses reflect corresponding dynamics over the time scales measured. In order to do this, the complex dielectric constants of glucose solutions between 0.5 GHz and 12 THz (from the microwave to the far-infrared region) were measured. We then performed analysis procedures on this broadband spectrum by decomposing it into four Debye and two Lorentz functions, with particular attention being paid to the β relaxation (glucose tumbling), δ relaxation (rotational polarization of the hydrated water), slow relaxation (reorientation of the HB network water), fast relaxation (rotation of the non-HB water), and intermolecular stretching vibration (hindered translation of water). On the basis of this analysis, we revealed that the hydrated water surrounding the glucose molecules exhibits a mono-modal relaxational dispersion with 2-3 times slower relaxation times than unperturbed bulk water and with a hydration number of around 20. Furthermore, other species of water with distorted tetrahedral HB water structures, as well as increases in the relative proportion of non-HB water molecules which have a faster relaxation time and are not a part of the surrounding bulk water HB network, was found in the vicinity of the glucose molecules. These clearly point to the HB destructuring effect of saccharide solutes in aqueous solution. The results, as a whole, provide a detailed picture of glucose-water and water-water interactions in the vicinity of the glucose molecules at

  1. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of glucose aqueous solution: Analysis of the hydration state and the hydrogen bond network.

    PubMed

    Shiraga, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Tetsuhito; Kondo, Naoshi; Tajima, Takuro; Nakamura, Masahito; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Hirata, Akihiko; Ajito, Katsuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2015-06-21

    Recent studies of saccharides' peculiar anti-freezing and anti-dehydration properties point to a close association with their strong hydration capability and destructuring effect on the hydrogen bond (HB) network of bulk water. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not well understood. In this respect, examination of the complex dielectric constants of saccharide aqueous solutions, especially over a broadband frequency region, should provide interesting insights into these properties, since the dielectric responses reflect corresponding dynamics over the time scales measured. In order to do this, the complex dielectric constants of glucose solutions between 0.5 GHz and 12 THz (from the microwave to the far-infrared region) were measured. We then performed analysis procedures on this broadband spectrum by decomposing it into four Debye and two Lorentz functions, with particular attention being paid to the β relaxation (glucose tumbling), δ relaxation (rotational polarization of the hydrated water), slow relaxation (reorientation of the HB network water), fast relaxation (rotation of the non-HB water), and intermolecular stretching vibration (hindered translation of water). On the basis of this analysis, we revealed that the hydrated water surrounding the glucose molecules exhibits a mono-modal relaxational dispersion with 2-3 times slower relaxation times than unperturbed bulk water and with a hydration number of around 20. Furthermore, other species of water with distorted tetrahedral HB water structures, as well as increases in the relative proportion of non-HB water molecules which have a faster relaxation time and are not a part of the surrounding bulk water HB network, was found in the vicinity of the glucose molecules. These clearly point to the HB destructuring effect of saccharide solutes in aqueous solution. The results, as a whole, provide a detailed picture of glucose-water and water-water interactions in the vicinity of the glucose molecules at

  2. Potential improvements in horizontal very broadband seismic data in the IRIS/USGS component of the Global Seismic Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Steim, J.M.; Zandt, T; Hutt, Charles R.; Wilson, David; Storm, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    The Streckeisen STS‐1 has been the primary vault‐type seismometer used in the over‐150‐station Global Seismographic Network (GSN). This sensor has long been known for its outstanding vertical, very long‐period (e.g., >100  s period), and low‐noise performance, although the horizontal long‐period noise performance is less well known. The STS‐1 is a limited, important resource, because it is no longer made or supported by the original manufacturer. We investigate the incoherent noise of horizontal‐component sensors, where coherent signals among sensors have been removed, giving an upper bound on the self‐noise of both the STS‐1 and STS‐2 horizontal components. Our findings suggest that a well‐installed STS‐2 could potentially produce data with similar or better incoherent noise levels to that of a horizontal‐component STS‐1. Along with our experimental investigation, we compare background noise levels for a calendar year at Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology/U.S. Geological Survey network stations, which comprise approximately two‐thirds of the GSN, with collocated STS‐1 and STS‐2 seismometers. The use of an STS‐2‐class of sensor (flat to velocity to 120 s period) to acquire low‐frequency data in surface‐vault installations would allow network operators to focus more attention on improving vertical data. In order to deal with the difference in instrument response shapes between the two instruments, we detail two different time‐domain filters that would allow users to convert broadband STS‐2 data into very broadband data with a response similar to that of an STS‐1 (flat to velocity to 360 s period). We conclude that the complexity of the current primary horizontal vault sensors in the GSN may not be necessary until we are better able to isolate surface horizontal sensors from various noise sources.

  3. Mobile Network Data for Public Health: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Nuria; Matic, Aleksandar; Frias-Martinez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of mobile phones worldwide is generating an unprecedented amount of human behavioral data both at an individual and aggregated levels. The study of this data as a rich source of information about human behavior emerged almost a decade ago. Since then, it has grown into a fertile area of research named computational social sciences with a wide variety of applications in different fields such as social networks, urban and transport planning, economic development, emergency relief, and, recently, public health. In this paper, we briefly describe the state of the art on using mobile phone data for public health, and present the opportunities and challenges that this kind of data presents for public health. PMID:26301211

  4. Signalling design and architecture for a proposed mobile satellite network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, T.-Y.; Cheng, U.; Wang, C.

    1990-01-01

    In a frequency-division/demand-assigned multiple-access (FD/DAMA) architecture, each mobile subscriber must make a connection request to the Network Management Center before transmission for either open-end or closed-end services. Open-end services are for voice calls and long file transfer and are processed on a blocked-call-cleared basis. Closed-end services are for transmitting burst data and are processed on a first-come first-served basis. This paper presents the signalling design and architecture for non-voice services of an FD/DAMA mobile satellite network. The connection requests are made through the recently proposed multiple channel collision resolution scheme which provides a significantly higher throughput than the traditional slotted ALOHA scheme. For non-voice services, it is well known that retransmissions are necessary to ensure the delivery of a message in its entirety from the source to destination. Retransmission protocols for open-end and closed-end data transfer are investigated. The signal structure for the proposed network is derived from X-25 standards with appropriate modifications. The packet types and their usages are described in this paper.

  5. Dynamic optical resource allocation for mobile core networks with software defined elastic optical networking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongli; Chen, Zhendong; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xinbo

    2016-07-25

    Driven by the forthcoming of 5G mobile communications, the all-IP architecture of mobile core networks, i.e. evolved packet core (EPC) proposed by 3GPP, has been greatly challenged by the users' demands for higher data rate and more reliable end-to-end connection, as well as operators' demands for low operational cost. These challenges can be potentially met by software defined optical networking (SDON), which enables dynamic resource allocation according to the users' requirement. In this article, a novel network architecture for mobile core network is proposed based on SDON. A software defined network (SDN) controller is designed to realize the coordinated control over different entities in EPC networks. We analyze the requirement of EPC-lightpath (EPCL) in data plane and propose an optical switch load balancing (OSLB) algorithm for resource allocation in optical layer. The procedure of establishment and adjustment of EPCLs is demonstrated on a SDON-based EPC testbed with extended OpenFlow protocol. We also evaluate the OSLB algorithm through simulation in terms of bandwidth blocking ratio, traffic load distribution, and resource utilization ratio compared with link-based load balancing (LLB) and MinHops algorithms. PMID:27464120

  6. Capacity of Heterogeneous Mobile Wireless Networks with D-Delay Transmission Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng; Zhu, Jiang; Xi, Zhipeng; Gao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity problem of heterogeneous wireless networks in mobility scenarios. A heterogeneous network model which consists of n normal nodes and m helping nodes is proposed. Moreover, we propose a D-delay transmission strategy to ensure that every packet can be delivered to its destination nodes with limited delay. Different from most existing network schemes, our network model has a novel two-tier architecture. The existence of helping nodes greatly improves the network capacity. Four types of mobile networks are studied in this paper: i.i.d. fast mobility model and slow mobility model in two-dimensional space, i.i.d. fast mobility model and slow mobility model in three-dimensional space. Using the virtual channel model, we present an intuitive analysis of the capacity of two-dimensional mobile networks and three-dimensional mobile networks, respectively. Given a delay constraint D, we derive the asymptotic expressions for the capacity of the four types of mobile networks. Furthermore, the impact of D and m to the capacity of the whole network is analyzed. Our findings provide great guidance for the future design of the next generation of networks. PMID:27023548

  7. Capacity of Heterogeneous Mobile Wireless Networks with D-Delay Transmission Strategy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Zhu, Jiang; Xi, Zhipeng; Gao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity problem of heterogeneous wireless networks in mobility scenarios. A heterogeneous network model which consists of n normal nodes and m helping nodes is proposed. Moreover, we propose a D-delay transmission strategy to ensure that every packet can be delivered to its destination nodes with limited delay. Different from most existing network schemes, our network model has a novel two-tier architecture. The existence of helping nodes greatly improves the network capacity. Four types of mobile networks are studied in this paper: i.i.d. fast mobility model and slow mobility model in two-dimensional space, i.i.d. fast mobility model and slow mobility model in three-dimensional space. Using the virtual channel model, we present an intuitive analysis of the capacity of two-dimensional mobile networks and three-dimensional mobile networks, respectively. Given a delay constraint D, we derive the asymptotic expressions for the capacity of the four types of mobile networks. Furthermore, the impact of D and m to the capacity of the whole network is analyzed. Our findings provide great guidance for the future design of the next generation of networks. PMID:27023548

  8. Twenty-GHz broadband microstrip array with electromagnetically coupled high-{Tc} superconducting feed network

    SciTech Connect

    Herd, J.S.; Poles, L.D.; Kenney, J.P.

    1996-07-01

    The use of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) feed lines and phase shifters can substantially improve the performance of microwave and millimeter-wave printed phased array antennas. A novel antenna architecture is described that provides a broadband radiating aperture to be used as a scanning array with compatible low-loss HTS phase shifters. The approach follows an earlier design demonstrated at 12 GHz, and this work extends the approach to 20 GHz. The antenna design, radiation patterns, bandwidth measurements, and thermal analysis are reported. A prototype thermal isolator design is described that reduces the heat load of coaxial interconnections between cryocooled and room temperature systems.

  9. Energy Efficient Probabilistic Broadcasting for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumit; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2016-08-01

    In mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs) flooding method is used for broadcasting route request (RREQ) packet from one node to another node for route discovery. This is the simplest method of broadcasting of RREQ packets but it often results in broadcast storm problem, originating collisions and congestion of packets in the network. A probabilistic broadcasting is one of the widely used broadcasting scheme for route discovery in MANETs and provides solution for broadcasting storm problem. But it does not consider limited energy of the battery of the nodes. In this paper, a new energy efficient probabilistic broadcasting (EEPB) is proposed in which probability of broadcasting RREQs is calculated with respect to remaining energy of nodes. The analysis of simulation results clearly indicate that an EEPB route discovery scheme in ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) can increase the network lifetime with a decrease in the average power consumption and RREQ packet overhead. It also decreases the number of dropped packets in the network, in comparison to other EEPB schemes like energy constraint gossip (ECG), energy aware gossip (EAG), energy based gossip (EBG) and network lifetime through energy efficient broadcast gossip (NEBG).

  10. Finding the Sweet Spot: Network Structures and Processes for Increased Knowledge Mobilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Patricia; Pollock, Katina; Campbell, Carol; Carr-Harris, Shasta

    2015-01-01

    The use of networks in public education is one of many knowledge mobilization (KMb) strategies utilized to promote evidence-based research into practice. However, challenges exist in the ability to mobilize knowledge through networks. The purpose of this paper is to explore how networks work. Data were collected from virtual discussions for an…

  11. Low noise omnidirectional optical receiver for the mobile FSO networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witas, Karel; Hejduk, Stanislav; Vasinek, Vladimir; Vitasek, Jan; Latal, Jan

    2013-05-01

    A high sensitive optical receiver design for the mobile free space optical (FSO) networks is presented. There is an array of photo-detectors and preamplifiers working into same load. It is the second stage sum amplifier getting all signals together. This topology creates a parallel amplifier with an excellent signal to noise ratio (SNR). An automatic gain control (AGC) feature is included also. As a result, the effective noise suppression at the receiver side increases optical signal coverage even with the transmitter power being constant. The design has been verified on the model car which was able to respond beyond the line of sight (LOS).

  12. Opinion Spreading with Mobility on Scale-Free Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Xing-Wen; Yao, Yu-Hua

    2008-02-01

    A continuum opinion dynamic model is presented based on two rules. The first one considers the mobilities of the individuals, the second one supposes that the individuals update their opinions independently. The results of the model indicate that the bounded confidence ∈c, separating consensus and incoherent states, of a scale-free network is much smaller than the one of a lattice. If the system can reach the consensus state, the sum of all individuals' opinion change Oc(t) quickly decreases in an exponential form, while if it reaches the incoherent state finally Oc(t) decreases slowly and has the punctuated equilibrium characteristic.

  13. Application-Aware Dynamic Retransmission Control in Mobile Cellular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halima, Nadhir Ben; Kliazovich, Dzmitry; Granelli, Fabrizio

    This paper proposes an application-aware cross-layer approach between application/transport layers on the mobile terminal and link layer at the wireless base station to enable dynamic control on the strength of per-packet error protection for multimedia and data transfers. Specifically, in the context of cellular networks, the proposed scheme allows to control the desired level of Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) protection by using an in-band control feedback channel. Such protection is dynamically adapted on a per-packet basis and depends on the perceptual importance of different packets as well as on the reception history of the flow.

  14. A Dynamic Mobile Grid System for 4G Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkader, Manel; Boudriga, Mohamed Hamdi Noureddine

    Future networks specially International Mobile Telecommunications-advanced, better known as 4G, will come up with a panoply of services so as to provide a comprehensive and secure IP-based solution where facilities such as voice, data and stremed multimedia will be provided to users anywhere at anytime. This solution will also provide much higher data rates compared to previous generations. More importantly, the 4G architecture will strongly promote ubiquitous computing, which involves many computational devices and systems simultaneously. Such devices and systems can even be unaware that they are contributing to computational process.

  15. Joint Transmit Antenna Selection and Power Allocation for ISDF Relaying Mobile-to-Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingwei; Zhang, Hao; Gulliver, T. Aaron

    2016-01-01

    The outage probability (OP) performance of multiple-relay incremental-selective decode-and-forward (ISDF) relaying mobile-to-mobile (M2M) sensor networks with transmit antenna selection (TAS) over N-Nakagami fading channels is investigated. Exact closed-form OP expressions for both optimal and suboptimal TAS schemes are derived. The power allocation problem is formulated to determine the optimal division of transmit power between the broadcast and relay phases. The OP performance under different conditions is evaluated via numerical simulation to verify the analysis. These results show that the optimal TAS scheme has better OP performance than the suboptimal scheme. Further, the power allocation parameter has a significant influence on the OP performance. PMID:26907282

  16. Joint Transmit Antenna Selection and Power Allocation for ISDF Relaying Mobile-to-Mobile Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingwei; Zhang, Hao; Gulliver, T Aaron

    2016-01-01

    The outage probability (OP) performance of multiple-relay incremental-selective decode-and-forward (ISDF) relaying mobile-to-mobile (M2M) sensor networks with transmit antenna selection (TAS) over N-Nakagami fading channels is investigated. Exact closed-form OP expressions for both optimal and suboptimal TAS schemes are derived. The power allocation problem is formulated to determine the optimal division of transmit power between the broadcast and relay phases. The OP performance under different conditions is evaluated via numerical simulation to verify the analysis. These results show that the optimal TAS scheme has better OP performance than the suboptimal scheme. Further, the power allocation parameter has a significant influence on the OP performance. PMID:26907282

  17. Fiber optic and broadband coaxial cable data network alternatives for a flying mission base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Robert M.

    1987-05-01

    Air Force flying mission bases (strategic, tactical, and military airlift) require an upgraded and survivable data network to interconnect data processing equipment. The results of a comparative analysis of performance, survivability, and cost of fiber optic and coaxial cable data networks for this application are reported herein. The principal conclusion to be drawn from this work is that a fiber optic network offers survivability, reliability, and growth advantages at a cost comparable to an equivalent coaxial cable network.

  18. Maximizing the Effective Lifetime of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. Julius; Dewan, M. Ali Akber; Chae, Oksam

    This paper presents a new routing approach to extend the effective lifetime of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) considering both residual battery energy of the participating nodes and routing cost. As the nodes in ad hoc networks are limited in power, a power failure occurs if a node has insufficient remaining energy to send, receive or forward a message. So, it is important to minimize the energy expenditure as well as to balance the remaining battery power among the nodes. Cost effective routing algorithms attempt to minimize the total power needed to transmit a packet which causes a large number of nodes to loose energy quickly and die. On the other hand, lifetime prediction based routing algorithms try to balance the remaining energies among the nodes in the networks and ignore the transmission cost. These approaches extend the lifetime of first few individual nodes. But as nodes spend more energy for packet transfer, power failures occurs, within short interval resulting more number of total dead node earlier. This reduces the effective lifetime of the network, as at this stage successful communication is not possible due to the lack of forwarding node. The proposed method keeps the transmission power in modest range and at the same time tries to reduce the variance of the residual energy of the nodes more effectively to obtain the highest useful lifetime of the networks in the long run. Nonetheless, movement of nodes frequently creates network topology changes via link breaks and link creation and thus effects on the stability of the network. So, the pattern of the node movement is also incorporated in our route selection procedure.

  19. Exploring mobile health in a private online social network.

    PubMed

    Memon, Qurban A; Mustafa, Asma Fayes

    2015-01-01

    Health information is very vulnerable. Certain individuals or corporate organisations will continue to steal it similar to bank account data once data is on wireless channels. Once health information is part of a social network, corresponding privacy issues also surface. Insufficiently trained employees at hospitals that pay less attention to creating a privacy-aware culture will suffer loss when mobile devices containing health information are lost, stolen or sniffed. In this work, a social network system is explored as a m-health system from a privacy perspective. A model is developed within a framework of data-driven privacy and implemented on Android operating system. In order to check feasibility of the proposed model, a prototype application is developed on Facebook for different services, including: i) sharing user location; ii) showing nearby friends; iii) calculating and sharing distance moved, and calories burned; iv) calculating, tracking and sharing user heart rate; etc. PMID:26559073

  20. Development traumatic brain injury computer user interface for disaster area in Indonesia supported by emergency broadband access network.

    PubMed

    Sutiono, Agung Budi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Ohta, Toshizumi; Arifin, Muh Zafrullah; Kitamura, Yohei; Yoshida, Kazunari; Merdika, Daduk; Qiantori, Andri; Iskandar

    2012-12-01

    Disasters bring consequences of negative impacts on the environment and human life. One of the common cause of critical condition is traumatic brain injury (TBI), namely, epidural (EDH) and subdural hematoma (SDH), due to downfall hard things during earthquake. We proposed and analyzed the user response, namely neurosurgeon, general doctor/surgeon and nurse when they interacted with TBI computer interface. The communication systems was supported by TBI web based applications using emergency broadband access network with tethered balloon and simulated in the field trial to evaluate the coverage area. The interface consisted of demography data and multi tabs for anamnesis, treatment, follow up and teleconference interfaces. The interface allows neurosurgeon, surgeon/general doctors and nurses to entry the EDH and SDH patient's data during referring them on the emergency simulation and evaluated based on time needs and their understanding. The average time needed was obtained after simulated by Lenovo T500 notebook using mouse; 8-10 min for neurosurgeons, 12-15 min for surgeons/general doctors and 15-19 min for nurses. By using Think Pad X201 Tablet, the time needed for entry data was 5-7 min for neurosurgeon, 7-10 min for surgeons/general doctors and 12-16 min for nurses. We observed that the time difference was depending on the computer type and user literacy qualification as well as their understanding on traumatic brain injury, particularly for the nurses. In conclusion, there are five data classification for simply TBI GUI, namely, 1) demography, 2) specific anamnesis for EDH and SDH, 3) treatment action and medicine of TBI, 4) follow up data display and 5) teleneurosurgery for streaming video consultation. The type of computer, particularly tablet PC was more convenient and faster for entry data, compare to that computer mouse touched pad. Emergency broadband access network using tethered balloon is possible to be employed to cover the communications systems in

  1. Space Mobile Network: A Near Earth Communications and Navigation Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.; Heckler, Gregory W.; Menrad, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper shares key findings of NASA's Earth Regime Network Evolution Study (ERNESt) team resulting from its 18-month effort to define a wholly new architecture-level paradigm for the exploitation of space by civil space and commercial sector organizations. Since the launch of Sputnik in October 1957 spaceflight missions have remained highly scripted activities from launch through disposal. The utilization of computer technology has enabled dramatic increases in mission complexity; but, the underlying premise that the diverse actions necessary to meet mission goals requires minute-by-minute scripting, defined weeks in advance of execution, for the life of the mission has remained. This archetype was appropriate for a "new frontier" but now risks overtly constraining the potential market-based opportunities for the innovation considered necessary to efficiently address the complexities associated with meeting communications and navigation requirements projected to be characteristics of the next era of space exploration: a growing number of missions in simultaneous execution, increased variance of mission types and growth in location/orbital regime diversity. The resulting ERNESt architectural cornerstone - the Space Mobile Network (SMN) - was envisioned as critical to creating an environment essential to meeting these future challenges in political, programmatic, technological and budgetary terms. The SMN incorporates technologies such as: Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) and optical communications, as well as new operations concepts such as User Initiated Services (UIS) to provide user services analogous to today's terrestrial mobile network user. Results developed in collaboration with NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Division and field centers are reported on. Findings have been validated via briefings to external focus groups and initial ground-based demonstrations. The SMN opens new niches for exploitation by the marketplace of mission

  2. The Networked Naturalist - Mobile devices for Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrin, D.; Graham, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Citizen science projects engage individual volunteers or groups to observe, measure, and contribute data to scientific studies. CENS is developing mobile phone and web-based tools for formal and informal observation of ecosystems. We are collaborating with national environmental education campaigns, such as Project BudBurst, and with the National Park Service to increase participation in citizen scientist campaigns and to support park service personnel in day to day data gathering. The overarching goals of the Networked Naturalist set of projects are to enhance participatory learning experiences through citizen science campaigns and to facilitate scientific and environmental data collection. Our experience with volunteers at UCLA and at the National Park Service has demonstrated that mobile phones are an efficient, effective and engaging method for collecting environmental and location data and hold great potential for both raising public awareness of environmental issues and collecting data that is valuable for both ecosystem management and research. CENS is an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center and this project represents collaboration among ecologists, computer scientist, and statisticians. Our mobile applications are free for download on Android and iPhone App stores and the source code is made available through open source licenses.

  3. Design of the next generation cognitive mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjad, Ali; Wang, Huiqiang; Chen, Xiaoming

    Cognition capability has been seen by researchers as the way forward for the design of next generation of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). The reason why a cognitive paradigm would be more suited to a MANET is because MANETs are highly dynamic networks. The topology may change very frequently during the operation of a MANET. Traffic patterns in MANETs can vary from time to time depending on the need of the users. The size of a MANET and node density is also very dynamic and may change without any predictable pattern. In a MANET environment, most of these parameters may change very rapidly and keeping track of them manually would be very difficult. Previous studies have shown that the performance of a certain routing approach in MANETs is dependent on the size of the network and node density. The choice of whether to use a reactive or proactive routing approach comes down to the network size parameter. Static or offline approaches to fine tune a MANET to achieve certain performance goals is hence not very productive as a lot of these parameters keep changing during the course of operation of MANETs. Similarly, the performance of MANETs would improve greatly if the MAC layer entity could operate in a more flexible manner. In this paper we propose a cognitive MANET design that will ensure that all these dynamic parameters are automatically monitored and decisions are based on the current status of these parameters.

  4. Evaluation of QoS supported in Network Mobility NEMO environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussien, L. F.; Abdalla, A. H.; Habaebi, M. H.; Khalifa, O. O.; Hassan, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    Network mobility basic support (NEMO BS) protocol is an entire network, roaming as a unit which changes its point of attachment to the Internet and consequently its reachability in the network topology. NEMO BS doesn't provide QoS guarantees to its users same as traditional Internet IP and Mobile IPv6 as well. Typically, all the users will have same level of services without considering about their application requirements. This poses a problem to real-time applications that required QoS guarantees. To gain more effective control of the network, incorporated QoS is needed. Within QoS-enabled network the traffic flow can be distributed to various priorities. Also, the network bandwidth and resources can be allocated to different applications and users. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) working group has proposed several QoS solutions for static network such as IntServ, DiffServ and MPLS. These QoS solutions are designed in the context of a static environment (i.e. fixed hosts and networks). However, they are not fully adapted to mobile environments. They essentially demands to be extended and adjusted to meet up various challenges involved in mobile environments. With existing QoS mechanisms many proposals have been developed to provide QoS for individual mobile nodes (i.e. host mobility). In contrary, research based on the movement of the whole mobile network in IPv6 is still undertaking by the IETF working groups (i.e. network mobility). Few researches have been done in the area of providing QoS for roaming networks. Therefore, this paper aims to review and investigate (previous /and current) related works that have been developed to provide QoS in mobile network. Consequently, a new proposed scheme will be introduced to enhance QoS within NEMO environment, achieving by which seamless mobility to users of mobile network node (MNN).

  5. Seismic source and structure estimation in the western Mediterranean using a sparse broadband network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thio, Hong Kie; Song, Xi; Saikia, Chandan K.; Helmberger, Donald V.; Woods, Bradley B.

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of regional earthquakes in the western Mediterranean geared toward the development of methodologies and path calibrations for source characterization using regional broadband stations. The results of this study are useful for the monitoring and discrimination of seismic events under a comprehensive test ban treaty, as well as the routine analysis of seismicity and seismic hazard using a sparse array of stations. The area consists of several contrasting geological provinces with distinct seismic properties, which complicates the modeling of seismic wave propagation. We started by analyzing surface wave group velocities throughout the region and developed a preliminary model for each of the major geological provinces. We found variations of crustal thickness ranging from 45 km under the Atlas and Betic mountains and 37 km under the Saharan shield, to 20 km for the oceanic crust of the western Mediterranean Sea, which is consistent with earlier works. Throughout most of the region, the upper mantle velocities are low which is typical for tectonically active regions. The most complex areas in terms of wave propagation are the Betic Cordillera in southern Spain and its north African counterparts, the Rif and Tell Atlas mountains, as well as the Alboran Sea, between Spain and Morocco. The complexity of the wave propagation in these regions is probably due to the sharp velocity contrasts between the oceanic and continental regions as well as the the existence of deep sedimentary basins that have a very strong influence on the surface wave dispersion. We used this preliminary regionalized velocity model to correct the surface wave source spectra for propagation effects which we then inverted for source mechanism. We found that this method, which is in use in many parts of the world, works very well, provided that data from several stations are available. In order to study the events in the region using very few broadband stations or even a single station

  6. Dissemination of optical-comb-based ultra-broadband frequency reference through a fiber network.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Shigeo; Kumagai, Motohiro; Li, Ying; Ido, Tetsuya; Ishii, Shoken; Mizutani, Kohei; Aoki, Makoto; Otsuka, Ryohei; Hanado, Yuko

    2016-08-22

    We disseminated an ultra-broadband optical frequency reference based on a femtosecond (fs)-laser optical comb through a kilometer-scale fiber link. Its spectrum ranged from 1160 nm to 2180 nm without additional fs-laser combs at the end of the link. By employing a fiber-induced phase noise cancellation technique, the linewidth and fractional frequency instability attained for all disseminated comb modes were of order 1 Hz and 10-18 in a 5000 s averaging time. The ultra-broad optical frequency reference, for which absolute frequency is traceable to Japan Standard Time, was applied in the frequency stabilization of an injection-seeded Q-switched 2051 nm pulse laser for a coherent light detection and ranging LIDAR system. PMID:27557196

  7. Broadband dispersion-compensating fiber for high-bit-rate transmission network use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, V. A.; Belov, A. V.; Dianov, E. M.; Abramov, A. A.; Bubnov, M. M.; Semjonov, S. L.; Shchebunjaev, A. G.; Khopin, V. F.; Guryanov, A. N.; Vechkanov, N. N.

    1995-08-01

    The optimum refractive-index profile and drawing temperature were investigated so as to maximize the figure of merit for multicladding broadband dispersion-compensating fibers. Based on the results of the investigation, the authors have fabricated a highly bend-resistant fiber with a 92.6-ps/(nm dB) figure of merit using the modified chemical-vapor deposition method for dispersion compensation in the 1.5-1.6- mu m wavelength region. The manufactured dispersion compensator does not suffer bend loss at 1.55 mu m for curvatures of radia of 6.3 and 3.3 cm, and it has a 1.1-dB/km bend loss at a curvature of radius of 1.6 cm. Codoping the germanium silicate core with fluorine diminishes the optical loss down to 0.70 dB/km at a 1.55- mu m wavelength.

  8. Broadband dispersion-compensating fiber for high-bit-rate transmission network use.

    PubMed

    Semenov, V A; Belov, A V; Dianov, E M; Abramov, A A; Bubnov, M M; Semjonov, S L; Shchebunjaev, A G; Khopin, V F; Guryanov, A N; Vechkanov, N N

    1995-08-20

    The optimum refractive-index profile and drawing temperature were investigated so as to maximize the figure of merit for multicladding broadband dispersion-compensating fibers. Based on the results of the investigation, the authors have fabricated a highly bend-resistant fiber with a 92.6-ps/(nm dB) figure of merit using the modified chemical-vapor deposition method for dispersion compensation in the 1.5-1.6-µm wavelength region. The manufactured dispersion compensator does not suffer bend loss at 1.55 µm for curvatures of radia of 6.3 and 3.3 cm, and it has a 1.1-dB/km bend loss at a curvature of radius of 1.6 cm. Codoping the germanium silicate core with fluorine diminishes the optical loss down to 0.70 dB/km at a 1.55-µm wavelength. PMID:21060352

  9. Weather-related Ground Motions Recorded by Taiwan Broadband Seismic Network Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. F.; Chi, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Broadband seismometers record ground motions, which can be induced by weather-related processes. Analyzing such signals might help to better understand those natural processes. Previously, abnormal seismic signals have been detected during rainfall and snowmelt events. The amplitudes of those seismic signals correlated with the variations of the discharge in a nearby river and scientists have proposed that such signals were generated by bed load transport. Here, we used the continuous seismic data from the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS) to analyze the weather-related ground motions during rainfall events. The sampling rate for seismic data is 100 samples per second. We compared the seismic data with the precipitation data from the rain gauge stations in Taiwan in three select rainfall periods, Typhoon Kalmaegi in 2008, Typhoon Morakot in 2009 and the East Asian rainy season in 2012. During raining, the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of high frequency (> 1 Hz) seismic noises is apparently high, and the amplitude of the seismic noise also correlates with the local precipitation, especially at the stations in the drainage basins, and the PSD decreased gradually after peaks of precipitation. At some seismic stations, we observed vertical ground motions at several bands of frequencies: 0-1 Hz, 1-5 Hz, and 5-45 Hz. However, on horizontal components we found the 5-45 Hz energy splits into two bands: 5-25 Hz and 30-45 Hz. For stations near the ridge tops or on the coastal plain, the 30-45 Hz band energy is weaker or missing. Preliminary results show that the amplitudes of the seismic waves correlate with the stream flow discharge. Next, we plan to study the sources of the different bands of energy to examine if we can monitor and quantify natural processes, like precipitation and river discharge, using seismic signals.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Based Communications for Future Mobile Tele-Emergency System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswacheda, D. V.; Barukang, L.; Hamid, M. Y.; Arifianto, M. S.

    Sparked by awareness of the limitations to provide medical services in remote areas, researchers have perceived that developing telemedicine systems is inevitable. In most cases very remote areas and disaster struck areas lack telecommunication infrastructure. Telemedicine system operating in such areas must have advanced wireless technology supporting it in devastating situation, hence it is called as tele-emergency system. Our approach is on MANET combined with Mobile IP and MIPV6, is the basis of infrastructure for the mobile tele-emergency system. The tele-emergency system requires data, voice and video transmission in its network. In this investigation, evaluation is based on simulation of the various ITU-T standard CODECs of VoIP and video transmission over MANET using discrete event simulator NS-2. The results of simulation showed that ITU-T G723.1 worked well in the MANET environment than the other CODECs for VoIP in fixed and mobility tele-emergency environments. From the simulation of video CODEC performance evaluation, it was observed that H.263 performed to a great extent in random small scale environment and also in multiple video flow of 57.6kbps speed video transmission.

  11. Architectural and Mobility Management Designs in Internet-Based Infrastructure Wireless Mesh Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Weiyi

    2011-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have recently emerged to be a cost-effective solution to support large-scale wireless Internet access. They have numerous applications, such as broadband Internet access, building automation, and intelligent transportation systems. One research challenge for Internet-based WMNs is to design efficient mobility…

  12. Directedness of Information Flow in Mobile Phone Communication Networks

    PubMed Central

    Peruani, Fernando; Tabourier, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Without having direct access to the information that is being exchanged, traces of information flow can be obtained by looking at temporal sequences of user interactions. These sequences can be represented as causality trees whose statistics result from a complex interplay between the topology of the underlying (social) network and the time correlations among the communications. Here, we study causality trees in mobile-phone data, which can be represented as a dynamical directed network. This representation of the data reveals the existence of super-spreaders and super-receivers. We show that the tree statistics, respectively the information spreading process, are extremely sensitive to the in-out degree correlation exhibited by the users. We also learn that a given information, e.g., a rumor, would require users to retransmit it for more than 30 hours in order to cover a macroscopic fraction of the system. Our analysis indicates that topological node-node correlations of the underlying social network, while allowing the existence of information loops, they also promote information spreading. Temporal correlations, and therefore causality effects, are only visible as local phenomena and during short time scales. Consequently, the very idea that there is (intentional) information spreading beyond a small vecinity is called into question. These results are obtained through a combination of theory and data analysis techniques. PMID:22216128

  13. Mic Flocks in the Cloud: Harnessing Mobile Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M. A.; Christe, A.

    2015-12-01

    Smartphones provide a commercial, off-the-shelf solution to capture, store, analyze, and distribute infrasound using on-board or external microphones (mics) as well as on-board barometers. Free iOS infrasound apps can be readily downloaded from the Apple App Store, and Android versions are in progress. Infrasound propagates for great distances, has low sample rates, and provides a tractable pilot study scenario for open distributed sensor networks at regional and global scales using one of the most ubiquitous sensors on Earth - microphones. Data collection is no longer limited to selected vendors at exclusive prices: anybody on Earth can record and stream infrasound, and the diversity of recording systems and environments is rapidly expanding. Global deployment may be fast and easy (www.redvox.io), but comes with the cost of increasing data volume, velocity, variety, and complexity. Flocking - the collective motion of mobile agents - is a natural human response to threats or events of interest. Anticipating, modeling and harnessing flocking sensor topologies will be necessary for adaptive array and network processing. The increasing data quantity and complexity will exceed the processing capacity of human analysts and most research servers. We anticipate practical real-time applications will require the on-demand adaptive scalability and resources of the Cloud. Cloud architectures for such heterogeneous sensor networks will consider eventual integration into the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).

  14. Delay-tolerant mobile network protocol for rice field monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitton, Alexandre; Andres, Frédéric; Cardoso, Jarbas Lopes; Kawtrakul, Asanee; Barbin, Silvio E.

    2015-10-01

    The monitoring of rice fields can improve productivity by helping farmers throughout the rice cultivation cycle, on various issues: when to harvest, when to treat the crops against disease, when to increase the water level, how to share observations and decisions made in a collaborative way, etc. In this paper, we propose an architecture to monitor a rice field by a wireless sensor network. Our architecture is based on static sensor nodes forming a disconnected network, and mobile nodes communicating with the sensor nodes in a delay-tolerant manner. The data collected by the static sensor nodes are transmitted to mobile nodes, which in turn transmit them to a gateway, connected to a database, for further analysis. We focus on the related architecture, as well as on the energy-efficient protocols intended to perform the data collection.

  15. A Security Assessment Mechanism for Software-Defined Networking-Based Mobile Networks

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shibo; Dong, Mianxiong; Ota, Kaoru; Wu, Jun; Li, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Software-Defined Networking-based Mobile Networks (SDN-MNs) are considered the future of 5G mobile network architecture. With the evolving cyber-attack threat, security assessments need to be performed in the network management. Due to the distinctive features of SDN-MNs, such as their dynamic nature and complexity, traditional network security assessment methodologies cannot be applied directly to SDN-MNs, and a novel security assessment methodology is needed. In this paper, an effective security assessment mechanism based on attack graphs and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is proposed for SDN-MNs. Firstly, this paper discusses the security assessment problem of SDN-MNs and proposes a methodology using attack graphs and AHP. Secondly, to address the diversity and complexity of SDN-MNs, a novel attack graph definition and attack graph generation algorithm are proposed. In order to quantify security levels, the Node Minimal Effort (NME) is defined to quantify attack cost and derive system security levels based on NME. Thirdly, to calculate the NME of an attack graph that takes the dynamic factors of SDN-MN into consideration, we use AHP integrated with the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) as the methodology. Finally, we offer a case study to validate the proposed methodology. The case study and evaluation show the advantages of the proposed security assessment mechanism. PMID:26694409

  16. A Security Assessment Mechanism for Software-Defined Networking-Based Mobile Networks.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shibo; Dong, Mianxiong; Ota, Kaoru; Wu, Jun; Li, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Software-Defined Networking-based Mobile Networks (SDN-MNs) are considered the future of 5G mobile network architecture. With the evolving cyber-attack threat, security assessments need to be performed in the network management. Due to the distinctive features of SDN-MNs, such as their dynamic nature and complexity, traditional network security assessment methodologies cannot be applied directly to SDN-MNs, and a novel security assessment methodology is needed. In this paper, an effective security assessment mechanism based on attack graphs and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is proposed for SDN-MNs. Firstly, this paper discusses the security assessment problem of SDN-MNs and proposes a methodology using attack graphs and AHP. Secondly, to address the diversity and complexity of SDN-MNs, a novel attack graph definition and attack graph generation algorithm are proposed. In order to quantify security levels, the Node Minimal Effort (NME) is defined to quantify attack cost and derive system security levels based on NME. Thirdly, to calculate the NME of an attack graph that takes the dynamic factors of SDN-MN into consideration, we use AHP integrated with the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) as the methodology. Finally, we offer a case study to validate the proposed methodology. The case study and evaluation show the advantages of the proposed security assessment mechanism. PMID:26694409

  17. Mobile sensor network noise reduction and re-calibration using Bayesian network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zhu, W.

    2015-08-01

    People are becoming increasingly interested in mobile air quality sensor network applications. By eliminating the inaccuracies caused by spatial and temporal heterogeneity of pollutant distributions, this method shows great potentials in atmosphere researches. However, such system usually suffers from the problem of sensor noises and drift. For the sensing systems to operate stably and reliably in the real-world applications, those problems must be addressed. In this work, we exploit the correlation of different types of sensors caused by cross sensitivity to help identify and correct the outlier readings. By employing a Bayesian network based system, we are able to recover the erroneous readings and re-calibrate the drifted sensors simultaneously. Specifically, we have (1) designed a Bayesian belief network based system to detect and recover the abnormal readings; (2) developed methods to update the sensor calibration functions in-field without requirement of ground truth; and (3) deployed a real-world mobile sensor network using the custom-built M-Pods to verify our assumptions and technique. Compared with the existing Bayesian belief network technique, the experiment results on the real-world data demonstrate that our system can reduce error by 34.1 % and recover 4 times more data on average.

  18. Transfer Error and Correction Approach in Mobile Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-kai, Wu; Yong-jin, Shi; Da-jin, Chen; Bing-he, Ma; Qi-li, Zhou

    With the development of information technology and social progress, human demand for information has become increasingly diverse, wherever and whenever people want to be able to easily, quickly and flexibly via voice, data, images and video and other means to communicate. Visual information to the people direct and vivid image, image / video transmission also been widespread attention. Although the third generation mobile communication systems and the emergence and rapid development of IP networks, making video communications is becoming the main business of the wireless communications, however, the actual wireless and IP channel will lead to error generation, such as: wireless channel multi- fading channels generated error and blocking IP packet loss and so on. Due to channel bandwidth limitations, the video communication compression coding of data is often beyond the data, and compress data after the error is very sensitive to error conditions caused a serious decline in image quality.

  19. MSAT: A booster for land based mobile radiocommunication networks?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulay, Guy

    1990-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the foreseen phenomenal growth of mobilesat services will impact positively existing terrestrial mobile radio services. Mobilesat systems will not displace the existing terrestrial market in the near future, partly due to the high cost of their terminal units and associated airtime, but also due to some technical limitations, such as lack of spectrum efficiency and high susceptibility to shadowing. However, the ubiquity of mobilesat services will open new market to terrestrial radio technologies. The latter is expected to be the most economical way of extending locally mobilesat services to many users. Conversely, mobilesat systems will be used to extend the capabilities of terrestrial radio systems in areas where the former cannot be implemented cost effectively. It is believed that terrestrial mobile network operators using these service extension capabilities will have a competitive advantage over those who do not. Overall, it is expected that emerging mobilesat services, far from being a threat to terrestrial radio systems, will rather provide these with numerous opportunities of incrementing their base market.

  20. MSAT: A booster for land based mobile radiocommunication networks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulay, Guy

    It is demonstrated that the foreseen phenomenal growth of mobilesat services will impact positively existing terrestrial mobile radio services. Mobilesat systems will not displace the existing terrestrial market in the near future, partly due to the high cost of their terminal units and associated airtime, but also due to some technical limitations, such as lack of spectrum efficiency and high susceptibility to shadowing. However, the ubiquity of mobilesat services will open new market to terrestrial radio technologies. The latter is expected to be the most economical way of extending locally mobilesat services to many users. Conversely, mobilesat systems will be used to extend the capabilities of terrestrial radio systems in areas where the former cannot be implemented cost effectively. It is believed that terrestrial mobile network operators using these service extension capabilities will have a competitive advantage over those who do not. Overall, it is expected that emerging mobilesat services, far from being a threat to terrestrial radio systems, will rather provide these with numerous opportunities of incrementing their base market.

  1. Design and Analysis of a Dynamic Mobility Management Scheme for Wireless Mesh Network

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sudipta

    2013-01-01

    Seamless mobility management of the mesh clients (MCs) in wireless mesh network (WMN) has drawn a lot of attention from the research community. A number of mobility management schemes such as mesh network with mobility management (MEMO), mesh mobility management (M3), and wireless mesh mobility management (WMM) have been proposed. The common problem with these schemes is that they impose uniform criteria on all the MCs for sending route update message irrespective of their distinct characteristics. This paper proposes a session-to-mobility ratio (SMR) based dynamic mobility management scheme for handling both internet and intranet traffic. To reduce the total communication cost, this scheme considers each MC's session and mobility characteristics by dynamically determining optimal threshold SMR value for each MC. A numerical analysis of the proposed scheme has been carried out. Comparison with other schemes shows that the proposed scheme outperforms MEMO, M3, and WMM with respect to total cost. PMID:24311982

  2. Neural networks for broad-band evaluation of complex permittivity using a coaxial discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acikgoz, H.; Le Bihan, Y.; Meyer, O.; Pichon, L.

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the complex permittivity of dielectric materials using a coaxial discontinuity and the combination of neural networks (NN) with the finite element method. Two types of measurement cells are used. One is for solid samples and the other one for liquids. Data sets used to train neural networks are created using the finite element method. The number of hidden neurons of the NN is determined by the split-sample method. The designed NN are used for the estimation of the permittivity of several materials and their results compared with the ones obtained with a gradient inversion method.

  3. Exploring the influence of human mobility on information spreading in mobile networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhigang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shanzhi

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the dynamic spread of information has captured researchers’ attention. Therefore, identifying influential spreaders of information has become a fundamental element of information spreading research. Many studies have measured the influence of spreaders by considering the centrality indexes of network topology characteristics, such as degree, betweenness and closeness centrality. Additionally, some works have identified influential spreaders by analyzing human mobility characteristics such as contact frequency, contact time and inter-contact time. In this paper, we mainly explore the influence of the step size and radius of gyration on information spreading. Using a real and large-scale dataset of human mobility, we apply the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model to investigate the spread of information. The simulation result shows that the influence of information spreading does not increase with the increase in the step size or radius of gyration of spreaders. Instead, both the step size and radius of gyration have a great influence on the spread of information when they are near the median value. Regardless of whether they have a large or small value, their influence on the spread of information is small. Therefore, the step size and radius of gyration of spreaders can be used to control or guide the spread of information.

  4. Imaging the ruptures of the 2009 Samoan and Sumatran earthquakes using broadband network back-projections: Results and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutko, A. R.; Lay, T.; Koper, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    Applications of teleseismic P-wave back-projection to image gross characteristics of large earthquake finite-source ruptures have been enabled by ready availability of large digital data sets. Imaging with short-period data from dense arrays or broadband data from global networks can place constraints on rupture attributes that otherwise have to be treated parametrically in conventional modeling and inversion procedures. Back-projection imaging may constrain choice of fault plane and rupture direction, velocity, duration and length for large (M>~8.0) earthquakes, and can robustly locate early aftershocks embedded in mainshock surface waves. Back-projection methods seek locations of coherent energy release from the source region, ideally associated with down-going P wave energy. For shallow events, depth phase arrivals can produce artifacts in back-projection images that appear as secondary or even prominent features with incorrect apparent source locations and times, and such effects need to be recognized. We apply broadband P-wave back-projection imaging to the 29 September 2009 Samoa (Mw8.2) and 30 September 2009 Sumatra (Mw7.6) earthquakes using data from globally distributed broadband stations and compare results to back-projections of synthetic seismograms from finite-source models for these events to evaluate the artifacts from depth phases. Back-projection images for the great normal-faulting Samoa event feature two prominent bright spots, which could be interpreted to correspond to two distinct slip patches, one near the epicenter in the outer trench slope and the other approximately 80 km to the west near the plate boundary megathrust where many aftershocks occurred. This interpretation is at odds with finite-fault modeling results, which indicate a predominantly bilateral rupture in the NW-SE direction on a steeply dipping trench slope fault, with rupture extending about 60 km in each direction. Back-projections of data and synthetic seismograms from the

  5. 77 FR 39435 - Connect America Fund, A National Broadband Plan for Our Future, Universal Service Reform-Mobility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... state commission agrees upon a new definition. 8. In the Mobility Fund NPRM, 75 FR 67060, November 1... Commission's Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS) Web page at http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/ecfs/ . I... purpose. II. Background 3. In the recent USF/ICC Transformation Order, 76 FR 73830, November 29, 2011...

  6. 75 FR 26180 - Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage To or Failure of Network Equipment or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Equipment or Severe Overload AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... failures in network equipment or severe overload conditions, such as would occur in natural disasters.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Healy, Communications Systems Analysis Division, Public...

  7. Application of Mobile-ip to Space and Aeronautical Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Kent; Shell, Dan; Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is interested in applying mobile Internet protocol (mobile-ip) technologies to its space and aeronautics programs. In particular, mobile-ip will play a major role in the Advanced Aeronautic Transportation Technology (AAT-F), the Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM), and the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) aeronautics programs. This paper describes mobile-ip and mobile routers--in particular, the features, capabilities, and initial performance of the mobile router are presented. The application of mobile-router technology to NASA's space and aeronautics programs is also discussed.

  8. Mobile Phone Assessment in Egocentric Networks: A Pilot Study on Gay Men and Their Peers

    PubMed Central

    Comulada, W. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone-based data collection encompasses the richness of social network research. Both individual-level and network-level measures can be recorded. For example, health-related behaviors can be reported via mobile assessment. Social interactions can be assessed by phone-log data. Yet the potential of mobile phone data collection has largely been untapped. This is especially true of egocentric studies in public health settings where mobile phones can enhance both data collection and intervention delivery, e.g. mobile users can video chat with counselors. This is due in part to privacy issues and other barriers that are more difficult to address outside of academic settings where most mobile research to date has taken place. In this article, we aim to inform a broader discussion on mobile research. In particular, benefits and challenges to mobile phone-based data collection are highlighted through our mobile phone-based pilot study that was conducted on egocentric networks of 12 gay men (n = 44 total participants). HIV-transmission and general health behaviors were reported through a mobile phone-based daily assessment that was administered through study participants’ own mobile phones. Phone log information was collected from gay men with Android phones. Benefits and challenges to mobile implementation are discussed, along with the application of multi-level models to the type of longitudinal egocentric data that we collected. PMID:25844003

  9. Real-time video streaming in mobile cloud over heterogeneous wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah-Saleh, Saleh; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the concept of Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) has been proposed to offload the resource requirements in computational capabilities, storage and security from mobile devices into the cloud. Internet video applications such as real-time streaming are expected to be ubiquitously deployed and supported over the cloud for mobile users, who typically encounter a range of wireless networks of diverse radio access technologies during their roaming. However, real-time video streaming for mobile cloud users across heterogeneous wireless networks presents multiple challenges. The network-layer quality of service (QoS) provision to support high-quality mobile video delivery in this demanding scenario remains an open research question, and this in turn affects the application-level visual quality and impedes mobile users' perceived quality of experience (QoE). In this paper, we devise a framework to support real-time video streaming in this new mobile video networking paradigm and evaluate the performance of the proposed framework empirically through a lab-based yet realistic testing platform. One particular issue we focus on is the effect of users' mobility on the QoS of video streaming over the cloud. We design and implement a hybrid platform comprising of a test-bed and an emulator, on which our concept of mobile cloud computing, video streaming and heterogeneous wireless networks are implemented and integrated to allow the testing of our framework. As representative heterogeneous wireless networks, the popular WLAN (Wi-Fi) and MAN (WiMAX) networks are incorporated in order to evaluate effects of handovers between these different radio access technologies. The H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) standard is employed for real-time video streaming from a server to mobile users (client nodes) in the networks. Mobility support is introduced to enable continuous streaming experience for a mobile user across the heterogeneous wireless network. Real-time video stream packets

  10. Progress Toward Standards for the Seamless Interoperability of Broadband Satellite Communication Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Glover, Daniel R.; vonDeak, Thomas C.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1998-01-01

    The realization of the full potential of the National Information Infrastructure (NH) and Global Information Infrastructure (GII) requires seamless interoperability of emerging satellite networks with terrestrial networks. This requires a cooperative effort between industry, academia and government agencies to develop and advocate new, satellite-friendly communication protocols and modifications to existing communication protocol standards. These groups have recently come together to actively participating in a number of standards making bodies including: the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Forum, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the Telecommunication Industry Association MA) to ensure that issues regarding efficient use of these protocols over satellite links are not overlooked. This paper will summarize the progress made toward standards development to achieve seamless integration and accelerate the deployment of multimedia applications.

  11. Mobile sensor network noise reduction and recalibration using a Bayesian network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zhu, W.

    2016-02-01

    People are becoming increasingly interested in mobile air quality sensor network applications. By eliminating the inaccuracies caused by spatial and temporal heterogeneity of pollutant distributions, this method shows great potential for atmospheric research. However, systems based on low-cost air quality sensors often suffer from sensor noise and drift. For the sensing systems to operate stably and reliably in real-world applications, those problems must be addressed. In this work, we exploit the correlation of different types of sensors caused by cross sensitivity to help identify and correct the outlier readings. By employing a Bayesian network based system, we are able to recover the erroneous readings and recalibrate the drifted sensors simultaneously. Our method improves upon the state-of-art Bayesian belief network techniques by incorporating the virtual evidence and adjusting the sensor calibration functions recursively.Specifically, we have (1) designed a system based on the Bayesian belief network to detect and recover the abnormal readings, (2) developed methods to update the sensor calibration functions infield without requirement of ground truth, and (3) extended the Bayesian network with virtual evidence for infield sensor recalibration. To validate our technique, we have tested our technique with metal oxide sensors measuring NO2, CO, and O3 in a real-world deployment. Compared with the existing Bayesian belief network techniques, results based on our experiment setup demonstrate that our system can reduce error by 34.1 % and recover 4 times more data on average.

  12. Broadband network on-line data acquisition system with web based interface for control and basic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Passive seismic experiment "13BB Star" is operated since mid 2013 in northern Poland and consists of 13 broadband seismic stations. One of the elements of this experiment is dedicated on-line data acquisition system comprised of both client (station) side and server side modules with web based interface that allows monitoring of network status and provides tools for preliminary data analysis. Station side is controlled by ARM Linux board that is programmed to maintain 3G/EDGE internet connection, receive data from digitizer, send data do central server among with additional auxiliary parameters like temperatures, voltages and electric current measurements. Station side is controlled by set of easy to install PHP scripts. Data is transmitted securely over SSH protocol to central server. Central server is a dedicated Linux based machine. Its duty is receiving and processing all data from all stations including auxiliary parameters. Server side software is written in PHP and Python. Additionally, it allows remote station configuration and provides web based interface for user friendly interaction. All collected data can be displayed for each day and station. It also allows manual creation of event oriented plots with different filtering abilities and provides numerous status and statistic information. Our solution is very flexible and easy to modify. In this presentation we would like to share our solution and experience. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  13. Integrating end-to-end encryption and authentication technology into broadband networks

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, L.G.

    1995-11-01

    BISDN services will involve the integration of high speed data, voice, and video functionality delivered via technology similar to Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching and SONET optical transmission systems. Customers of BISDN services may need a variety of data authenticity and privacy assurances, via Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) services Cryptographic methods can be used to assure authenticity and privacy, but are hard to scale for implementation at high speed. The incorporation of these methods into computer networks can severely impact functionality, reliability, and performance. While there are many design issues associated with the serving of public keys for authenticated signaling and for establishment of session cryptovariables, this paper is concerned with the impact of encryption itself on such communications once the signaling and setup have been completed. Network security protections should be carefully matched to the threats against which protection is desired. Even after eliminating unnecessary protections, the remaining customer-required network security protections can impose severe performance penalties. These penalties (further discussed below) usually involve increased communication processing for authentication or encryption, increased error rate, increased communication delay, and decreased reliability/availability. Protection measures involving encryption should be carefully engineered so as to impose the least performance, reliability, and functionality penalties, while achieving the required security protection. To study these trade-offs, a prototype encryptor/decryptor was developed. This effort demonstrated the viability of implementing certain encryption techniques in high speed networks. The research prototype processes ATM cells in a SONET OC-3 payload. This paper describes the functionality, reliability, security, and performance design trade-offs investigated with the prototype.

  14. What Broadband Means for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Explains what a computer network broadband connection is and how having one benefits educational facilities that have implemented telecommunications. The importance of using an application service provider is discussed along with suggestions to help schools get started in adopting broadband communications. (GR)

  15. Implementation and performance evaluation of mobile ad hoc network for Emergency Telemedicine System in disaster areas.

    PubMed

    Kim, J C; Kim, D Y; Jung, S M; Lee, M H; Kim, K S; Lee, C K; Nah, J Y; Lee, S H; Kim, J H; Choi, W J; Yoo, S K

    2009-01-01

    So far we have developed Emergency Telemedicine System (ETS) which is a robust system using heterogeneous networks. In disaster areas, however, ETS cannot be used if the primary network channel is disabled due to damages on the network infrastructures. Thus we designed network management software for disaster communication network by combination of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) and Wireless LAN (WLAN). This software maintains routes to a Backbone Gateway Node in dynamic network topologies. In this paper, we introduce the proposed disaster communication network with management software, and evaluate its performance using ETS between Medical Center and simulated disaster areas. We also present the results of network performance analysis which identifies the possibility of actual Telemedicine Service in disaster areas via MANET and mobile network (e.g. HSDPA, WiBro). PMID:19964544

  16. Active defense scheme against DDoS based on mobile agent and network control in network confrontation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Rong; Li, Junshan; Ye, Xia; Wang, Rui

    2013-03-01

    In order to effective defend DDoS attacks in network confrontation, an active defense scheme against DDoS is built based on Mobile Agent and network control. A distributed collaborative active defense model is constructed by using mobile agent technology and encapsulating a variety of DDoS defense techniques. Meanwhile the network control theory is applied to establish a network confrontation's control model for DDoS to control the active defense process. It provides a new idea to solve the DDoS problem.

  17. Functional recognition imaging using artificial neural networks: applications to rapid cellular identification via broadband electromechanical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, M. P.; Reukov, V. V.; Thompson, G. L.; Vertegel, A. A.; Guo, S.; Kalinin, S. V.; Jesse, S.

    2009-10-01

    Functional recognition imaging in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) using artificial neural network identification is demonstrated. This approach utilizes statistical analysis of complex SPM responses at a single spatial location to identify the target behavior, which is reminiscent of associative thinking in the human brain, obviating the need for analytical models. We demonstrate, as an example of recognition imaging, rapid identification of cellular organisms using the difference in electromechanical activity over a broad frequency range. Single-pixel identification of model Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria is achieved, demonstrating the viability of the method.

  18. Resource management with service guarantee and differentiation in broadband multimedia-enabled wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Li, Lizhong; Li, Bo; Cao, Xiren

    2002-08-01

    We have recently witnessed a phenomenal growth in the development and deployment of wireless services, evident from the proliferation of the cellular data services and the emerging wireless multimedia applications. This opens up a new avenue for research, and calls for the re-examination of some of the fundamental issues in wireless cellular networks. With the cell size being systematically reduced into micro-cell and pico-cell systems, in order to increase the overall network capacity, one of the key challenges is the design of effective call admission control (CAC) policies, which have to guarantee potentially different quality of service (QoS) requirements from diverse traffic types while at the same time maintaining high utilization of the scarce wireless bandwidth. The objectives of this article are to review the key issues involved in the design of call admission control policies based on some of the recent proposals, and to discuss the challenges associated to offer effective support for multi-services

  19. An effective access control approach to support mobility in IPv6 networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xue-hai; Lin, Chuang

    2005-11-01

    Access control is an important method to improve network security and prevent protected resources from being used by some nodes without authority. Moreover, mobility is an important trend of internet. In this paper, based on the architecture of hierarchical mobile IPv6, we proposed an effective access control approach to support mobility in IPv6 networks, which can ensure the operation of access control when a mobile node roams in these domains with different polices, with decreased delay of access negotiation and cost of delivering messages.

  20. Discursive Deployments: Mobilizing Support for Municipal and Community Wireless Networks in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Rosio; Rodriguez, Juana Maria

    2008-08-16

    This paper examines Municipal Wireless (MW) deployments in the United States. In particular, the interest is in understanding how discourse has worked to mobilize widespread support for MW networks. We explore how local governments discursively deploy the language of social movements to create a shared understanding of the networking needs of communities. Through the process of"framing" local governments assign meaning to the MW networks in ways intended to mobilize support anddemobilize opposition. The mobilizing potential of a frame varies and is dependent on its centrality and cultural resonance. We examine the framing efforts of MW networks by using a sample of Request for Proposals for community wireless networks, semi-structured interviews and local media sources. Prominent values that are central to a majority of the projects and others that are culturally specific are identified and analyzed for their mobilizing potency.

  1. Teledesic Global Wireless Broadband Network: Space Infrastructure Architecture, Design Features and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The Teledesic satellites are a new class of small satellites which demonstrate the important commercial benefits of using technologies developed for other purposes by U.S. National Laboratories. The Teledesic satellite architecture, subsystem design features, and new technologies are described. The new Teledesic satellite manufacturing, integration, and test approaches which use modern high volume production techniques and result in surprisingly low space segment costs are discussed. The constellation control and management features and attendant software architecture features are addressed. After briefly discussing the economic and technological impact on the USA commercial space industries of the space communications revolution and such large constellation projects, the paper concludes with observations on the trend toward future system architectures using networked groups of much smaller satellites.

  2. Cost-effective handoff scheme based on mobility-aware dual pointer forwarding in proxy mobile IPv6 networks.

    PubMed

    Son, Seungsik; Jeong, Jongpil

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a mobility-aware Dual Pointer Forwarding scheme (mDPF) is applied in Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) networks. The movement of a Mobile Node (MN) is classified as intra-domain and inter-domain handoff. When the MN moves, this scheme can reduce the high signaling overhead for intra-handoff/inter-handoff, because the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) and Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) are connected by pointer chains. In other words, a handoff is aware of low mobility between the previously attached MAG (pMAG) and newly attached MAG (nMAG), and another handoff between the previously attached LMA (pLMA) and newly attached LMA (nLMA) is aware of high mobility. Based on these mobility-aware binding updates, the overhead of the packet delivery can be reduced. Also, we analyse the binding update cost and packet delivery cost for route optimization, based on the mathematical analytic model. Analytical results show that our mDPF outperforms the PMIPv6 and the other pointer forwarding schemes, in terms of reducing the total cost of signaling. PMID:24555172

  3. LPTA: Location Predictive and Time Adaptive Data Gathering Scheme with Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper exploits sink mobility to prolong the lifetime of sensor networks while maintaining the data transmission delay relatively low. A location predictive and time adaptive data gathering scheme is proposed. In this paper, we introduce a sink location prediction principle based on loose time synchronization and deduce the time-location formulas of the mobile sink. According to local clocks and the time-location formulas of the mobile sink, nodes in the network are able to calculate the current location of the mobile sink accurately and route data packets timely toward the mobile sink by multihop relay. Considering that data packets generating from different areas may be different greatly, an adaptive dwelling time adjustment method is also proposed to balance energy consumption among nodes in the network. Simulation results show that our data gathering scheme enables data routing with less data transmission time delay and balance energy consumption among nodes. PMID:25302327

  4. A Multiple Mobility Support Approach (MMSA) Based on PEAS for NCW in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bong-Joo; Kim, Seog-Bong; Park, Jong-Yil; Park, Kang-Min

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can be implemented as one of sensor systems in Network Centric Warfare (NCW). Mobility support and energy efficiency are key concerns for this application, due to multiple mobile users and stimuli in real combat field. However, mobility support approaches that can be adopted in this circumstance are rare. This paper proposes Multiple Mobility Support Approach (MMSA) based on Probing Environment and Adaptive Sleeping (PEAS) to support the simultaneous mobility of both multiple users and stimuli by sharing the information of stimuli in WSNs. Simulations using Qualnet are conducted, showing that MMSA can support multiple mobile users and stimuli with good energy efficiency. It is expected that the proposed MMSA can be applied to real combat field. PMID:22346606

  5. Design mobile satellite system architecture as an integral part of the cellular access digital network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, E. S. K.; Marinho, J. A.; Russell, J. E., Sr.

    1988-01-01

    The Cellular Access Digital Network (CADN) is the access vehicle through which cellular technology is brought into the mainstream of the evolving integrated telecommunications network. Beyond the integrated end-to-end digital access and per call network services provisioning of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), the CADN engenders the added capability of mobility freedom via wireless access. One key element of the CADN network architecture is the standard user to network interface that is independent of RF transmission technology. Since the Mobile Satellite System (MSS) is envisioned to not only complement but also enhance the capabilities of the terrestrial cellular telecommunications network, compatibility and interoperability between terrestrial cellular and mobile satellite systems are vitally important to provide an integrated moving telecommunications network of the future. From a network standpoint, there exist very strong commonalities between the terrestrial cellular system and the mobile satellite system. Therefore, the MSS architecture should be designed as an integral part of the CADN. This paper describes the concept of the CADN, the functional architecture of the MSS, and the user-network interface signaling protocols.

  6. Inter-Domain Roaming Mechanism Transparent to Mobile Nodes among PMIPv6 Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soochang; Lee, Euisin; Jin, Min-Sook; Kim, Sang-Ha

    In Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6), when a Mobile Node (MN) enters a PMIPv6 domain and attaches to an access link, the router on the access link detects attachment of the MN by the link-layer access. All elements of PMIPv6 including the router then provide network-based mobility management service for the MN. If the MN moves to another router in this PMIPv6 domain, the new router emulates attachment to the previous router by providing same network prefix to the MN. In other words, PMIPv6 provides rapid mobility management based on layer-2 attachment and transparent mobility support to the MN by emulating layer-3 attachment with respect to intra-domain roaming. However, when the MN moves to other PMIPv6 domains, although the domains also provide the network-based mobility management service, the MN should exploit the host-based mobility management protocol, i.e. Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6), for the inter-domain roaming. Hence, this letter proposes the rapid and transparent inter-domain roaming mechanism controlled by the networks adopting PMIPv6.

  7. Mobile Applications and 4G Wireless Networks: A Framework for Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The use of mobile wireless data services continues to increase worldwide. New fourth-generation (4G) wireless networks can deliver data rates exceeding 2 Mbps. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework of 4G mobile applications that utilize such high data rates and run on small form-factor devices. Design/methodology/approach:…

  8. High Efficiency Automatic-Power-Controlled and Gain-Clamped EDFA for Broadband Passive Optical Networking Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jyi-Lai; Wei, Shui-Ken; Lin, Chin-Yuan; Iong Li, Ssu; Huang, Chih-Chuan

    2010-04-01

    The configuration of a simple improved high efficiency automatic-power-controlled and gain-clamped EDFA (APC-GC-EDFA) for broadband passive optical networking systems (BPON) is presented here. In order to compensate the phase and amplitude variation due to the different distance between the optical line terminal (OLT) and optical network units (ONU), the APC-GC-EDFA need to be employed. A single 980 nm laser module is employed as the primary pump. To extend the bandwidth, all C-band ASE is recycled as the secondary pump to enhance the gain efficiency. An electrical feedback circuit is used as a multi-wavelength channel transmitter monitor for the automatic power control to improve the gain-flattened flatness for stable amplification. The experimental results prove that the EDFA system can provide flatter clamped gain in both C-band and L-band configurations. The gain flatness wavelength ranging from 1530 to 1610 nm is within 32.83 ± 0.64 dB, i.e. below 1.95 %. The gains are clamped at 33.85 ± 0.65 dB for the input signal power of -40 dBm to -10 dBm. The range of noise figure is between 6.37 and 6.56, which is slightly lower compared to that of unclamped amplifiers. This will be very useful for measuring the gain flatness of APC-GC-EDFA. Finally, we have also demonstrated the records of the overall simultaneous dynamics measurements for the new system stabilization. The carrier to noise ratio (CNR) is 49.5 to 50.8 dBc which is above the National Television System Committee (NTSC) standard of 43 dBc, and both composite second order (CSO) 69.2 to 71.5 dBc and composite triple beat (CTB) of 69.8 to 72.2 dBc are above 53 dBc. The recorded corresponding rise-time of 1.087 ms indicates that the system does not exhibit any overshoot of gain or ASE variation due to the signal at the beginning of the pulse.

  9. Analysis of Blocking Rate and Bandwidth Usage of Mobile IPTV Services in Wireless Cellular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingfu

    2014-01-01

    Mobile IPTV services over wireless cellular networks become more and more popular, owing to the significant growth in access bandwidth of wireless cellular networks such as 3G/4G and WiMAX. However, the spectrum resources of wireless cellular networks is rare. How to enhance the spectral efficiency of mobile networks becomes an important issue. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are the most important transport schemes for offering mobile IPTV services over wireless cellular networks. Therefore, bandwidth usages and blocking rates of unicast, broadcast, and multicast IPTV services were analyzed and compared in this paper. Simulations were also conducted to validate the analytical results. Numerical results demonstrate that the presented analysis is correct, and multicast scheme achieves the best bandwidth usage and blocking rate performance, relative to the other two schemes. PMID:25379521

  10. PNNI routing support for ad hoc mobile networking: The multilevel case

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution extends the Outside Nodal Hierarchy List (ONHL) procedures described in ATM Forum Contributions 97-0766 and 97-0933. These extensions allow multiple mobile networks to form either an ad hoc network or an extension of a fixed PNNI infrastructure. A previous contribution (97-1073) covered the simplest case where the top-most Logical Group Nodes (LGNs), in those mobile networks, all resided at the same level in a PNNI hierarchy. This contribution covers the more general case wherein those top-most LGNs may reside at different PNNI hierarchy levels. Both of the SNL contributions consider flat ad hoc network architectures in the sense that each mobile network always participates in the PNNI hierarchy at the pre-configured level of its top-most LGN.

  11. PNNI routing support for ad hoc mobile networking: A flat architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1997-12-01

    This contribution extends the Outside Nodal Hierarchy List (ONHL) procedures described in ATM Form Contribution 97-0766. These extensions allow multiple mobile networks to form either an ad hoc network or an extension of a fixed PNNI infrastructure. This contribution covers the simplest case where the top-most Logical Group Nodes (LGNs), in those mobile networks, all reside at the same level in a PNNI hierarchy. Future contributions will cover the general case where those top-most LGNs reside at different hierarchy levels. This contribution considers a flat ad hoc network architecture--in the sense that each mobile network always participates in the PNNI hierarchy at the preconfigured level of its top-most LGN.

  12. Analysis of blocking rate and bandwidth usage of mobile IPTV services in wireless cellular networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingfu

    2014-01-01

    Mobile IPTV services over wireless cellular networks become more and more popular, owing to the significant growth in access bandwidth of wireless cellular networks such as 3G/4G and WiMAX. However, the spectrum resources of wireless cellular networks is rare. How to enhance the spectral efficiency of mobile networks becomes an important issue. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are the most important transport schemes for offering mobile IPTV services over wireless cellular networks. Therefore, bandwidth usages and blocking rates of unicast, broadcast, and multicast IPTV services were analyzed and compared in this paper. Simulations were also conducted to validate the analytical results. Numerical results demonstrate that the presented analysis is correct, and multicast scheme achieves the best bandwidth usage and blocking rate performance, relative to the other two schemes. PMID:25379521

  13. Performance optimisation through EPT-WBC in mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ratish; Gupta, Roopam; Motwani, Mahesh

    2016-03-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks are self-organised, infrastructure-less networks in which each mobile host works as a router to provide connectivity within the network. Nodes out of reach to each other can communicate with the help of intermediate routers (nodes). Routing protocols are the rules which determine the way in which these routing activities are to be performed. In cluster-based architecture, some selected nodes (clusterheads) are identified to bear the extra burden of network activities like routing. Selection of clusterheads is a critical issue which significantly affects the performance of the network. This paper proposes an enhanced performance and trusted weight-based clustering approach in which a number of performance factors such as trust, load balancing, energy consumption, mobility and battery power are considered for the selection of clusterheads. Moreover, the performance of the proposed scheme is compared with other existing approaches to demonstrate the effectiveness of the work.

  14. Impact of dynamic rate coding aspects of mobile phone networks on forensic voice comparison.

    PubMed

    Alzqhoul, Esam A S; Nair, Balamurali B T; Guillemin, Bernard J

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that landline and mobile phone networks are different in their ways of handling the speech signal, and therefore in their impact on it. But the same is also true of the different networks within the mobile phone arena. There are two major mobile phone technologies currently in use today, namely the global system for mobile communications (GSM) and code division multiple access (CDMA) and these are fundamentally different in their design. For example, the quality of the coded speech in the GSM network is a function of channel quality, whereas in the CDMA network it is determined by channel capacity (i.e., the number of users sharing a cell site). This paper examines the impact on the speech signal of a key feature of these networks, namely dynamic rate coding, and its subsequent impact on the task of likelihood-ratio-based forensic voice comparison (FVC). Surprisingly, both FVC accuracy and precision are found to be better for both GSM- and CDMA-coded speech than for uncoded. Intuitively one expects FVC accuracy to increase with increasing coded speech quality. This trend is shown to occur for the CDMA network, but, surprisingly, not for the GSM network. Further, in respect to comparisons between these two networks, FVC accuracy for CDMA-coded speech is shown to be slightly better than for GSM-coded speech, particularly when the coded-speech quality is high, but in terms of FVC precision the two networks are shown to be very similar. PMID:26385720

  15. A comparative analysis of the statistical properties of large mobile phone calling networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Miccichè, Salvatore; Tumminello, Michele; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phone calling is one of the most widely used communication methods in modern society. The records of calls among mobile phone users provide us a valuable proxy for the understanding of human communication patterns embedded in social networks. Mobile phone users call each other forming a directed calling network. If only reciprocal calls are considered, we obtain an undirected mutual calling network. The preferential communication behavior between two connected users can be statistically tested and it results in two Bonferroni networks with statistically validated edges. We perform a comparative analysis of the statistical properties of these four networks, which are constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that these networks share many common structural properties and also exhibit idiosyncratic features when compared with previously studied large mobile calling networks. The empirical findings provide us an intriguing picture of a representative large social network that might shed new lights on the modelling of large social networks. PMID:24875444

  16. Enhancements for distributed certificate authority approaches for mobile wireless ad hoc networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Michalski, John T.; Anderson, William Erik

    2003-12-01

    Mobile wireless ad hoc networks that are resistant to adversarial manipulation are necessary for distributed systems used in military and security applications. Critical to the successful operation of these networks, which operate in the presence of adversarial stressors, are robust and efficient information assurance methods. In this report we describe necessary enhancements for a distributed certificate authority (CA) used in secure wireless network architectures. Necessary cryptographic algorithms used in distributed CAs are described and implementation enhancements of these algorithms in mobile wireless ad hoc networks are developed. The enhancements support a network's ability to detect compromised nodes and facilitate distributed CA services. We provide insights to the impacts the enhancements will have on network performance with timing diagrams and preliminary network simulation studies.

  17. Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Lori (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications was held at NASA's JPL Laboratory on 30-31 May 1991. It provided a forum for reviewing the development of advanced network and technology concepts for turn-of-the-century telecommunications. The workshop was organized into three main categories: (1) Satellite-Based Networks (L-band, C-band, Ku-band, and Ka-band); (2) Terrestrial-Based Networks (cellular, CT2, PCN, GSM, and other networks); and (3) Hybrid Satellite/Terrestrial Networks. The proceedings contain presentation papers from each of the above categories.

  18. Sensor Sharing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Pramita

    2013-01-01

    Today's modern mobile devices (such as smartphones and tablets) present great potential for growth of many novel, powerful, but also highly demanding applications. However, most mobile devices/users operate in isolation from one another, i.e., they are not aware of the presence of other devices in their proximity. There are numerous situations…

  19. An Energy Efficient Distance-Aware Routing Algorithm with Multiple Mobile Sinks for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Li, Bin; Xia, Feng; Kim, Chang-Seob; Kim, Jeong-Uk

    2014-01-01

    Traffic patterns in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) usually follow a many-to-one model. Sensor nodes close to static sinks will deplete their limited energy more rapidly than other sensors, since they will have more data to forward during multihop transmission. This will cause network partition, isolated nodes and much shortened network lifetime. Thus, how to balance energy consumption for sensor nodes is an important research issue. In recent years, exploiting sink mobility technology in WSNs has attracted much research attention because it can not only improve energy efficiency, but prolong network lifetime. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient distance-aware routing algorithm with multiple mobile sink for WSNs, where sink nodes will move with a certain speed along the network boundary to collect monitored data. We study the influence of multiple mobile sink nodes on energy consumption and network lifetime, and we mainly focus on the selection of mobile sink node number and the selection of parking positions, as well as their impact on performance metrics above. We can see that both mobile sink node number and the selection of parking position have important influence on network performance. Simulation results show that our proposed routing algorithm has better performance than traditional routing ones in terms of energy consumption. PMID:25196015

  20. SCODE: A Secure Coordination-Based Data Dissemination to Mobile Sinks in Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Lexuan; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Heejo

    For many sensor network applications such as military, homeland security, it is necessary for users (sinks) to access sensor networks while they are moving. However, sink mobility brings new challenges to secure routing in large-scale sensor networks. Mobile sinks have to constantly propagate their current location to all nodes, and these nodes need to exchange messages with each other so that the sensor network can establish and maintain a secure multi-hop path between a source node and a mobile sink. This causes significant computation and communication overhead for sensor nodes. Previous studies on sink mobility have mainly focused on efficiency and effectiveness of data dissemination without security consideration. In this paper, we propose a secure and energy-efficient data dissemination protocol — Secure COodination-based Data dissEmination (SCODE) — for mobile sinks in sensor networks. We take advantages of coordination networks (grid structure) based on Geographical Adaptive Fidelity (GAF) protocol to construct a secure and efficient routing path between sources and sinks. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol can defend against common attacks in sensor network routing such as replay attacks, selective forwarding attacks, sinkhole and wormhole, Sybil attacks, HELLO flood attacks. Our performance evaluation both in mathematical analysis and simulation shows that the SCODE significantly reduces communication overhead and energy consumption while the latency is similar compared with the existing routing protocols, and it always delivers more than 90 percentage of packets successfully.

  1. An energy efficient distance-aware routing algorithm with multiple mobile sinks for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Li, Bin; Xia, Feng; Kim, Chang-Seob; Kim, Jeong-Uk

    2014-01-01

    Traffic patterns in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) usually follow a many-to-one model. Sensor nodes close to static sinks will deplete their limited energy more rapidly than other sensors, since they will have more data to forward during multihop transmission. This will cause network partition, isolated nodes and much shortened network lifetime. Thus, how to balance energy consumption for sensor nodes is an important research issue. In recent years, exploiting sink mobility technology in WSNs has attracted much research attention because it can not only improve energy efficiency, but prolong network lifetime. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient distance-aware routing algorithm with multiple mobile sink for WSNs, where sink nodes will move with a certain speed along the network boundary to collect monitored data. We study the influence of multiple mobile sink nodes on energy consumption and network lifetime, and we mainly focus on the selection of mobile sink node number and the selection of parking positions, as well as their impact on performance metrics above. We can see that both mobile sink node number and the selection of parking position have important influence on network performance. Simulation results show that our proposed routing algorithm has better performance than traditional routing ones in terms of energy consumption. PMID:25196015

  2. 76 FR 78383 - Connect America Fund; A National Broadband Plan for Our Future; Establishing Just and Reasonable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998. 0 Electronic... of Mobile Broadband Network Performance and Coverage, 75 FR 33303, June 11, 2010, and seeks to.... Connect America Fund for Rate-of-Return Carriers 19. In response to the USF/ICC Transformation NPRM, 75...

  3. LingoBee and Social Media: Mobile Language Learners as Social Networkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter-Legg, Emma; Cacchione, Annamaria; Petersen, Sobah Abbas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents language learners as social networkers and describes and discusses the types of users that can be identified by analysing the content created by them using a situated mobile language learning app, LingoBee, based on the idea of crowd sourcing. Borrowing ideas from other studies conducted on social network users, we can identify…

  4. Creating Entrepreneurial Networks: Academic Entrepreneurship, Mobility and Collaboration during PhD Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bienkowska, Dzamila; Klofsten, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Network-building activities of PhD students are an important area of study in furthering our understanding of academic entrepreneurship. This paper focuses on PhD students' participation in network-building activities defined as mobility and collaboration, as well as own interest in and perceived grade of support for commercialisation from various…

  5. Exploiting Location Information and Enabling Adaptive Mobile Ad Hoc Network Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boleng, Jeff

    2002-09-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) consist of a group of mobile nodes which form a communication network without prior infrastructure. Each node in the network is responsible to provide services to other nodes in order to realize the ad hoc communication capability. A key component and primary challenge in MANETs is routing data packets over multiple hops between nodes. MANET routing has received considerable research interest recently. However, no routing protocol proposed to date has proven to be effective in the wide range of mobility conditions present in a MANET. We combine location information and mobility feedback to create an innovative MANET routing protocol which we prove is effective over a wide range of mobility conditions typical in a MANET. We introduce link duration as our mobility feedback metric, and we demonstrate that mobility feedback using link duration effectively enables adaptive MANET protocols. Using our mobility feedback agent, we develop a hybrid MANET routing protocol which adapts in order to combine the strengths of both component protocols while avoiding their weaknesses. Our hybrid, adaptive protocol achieves data packet delivery ratios above 80% in highly demanding network mobility conditions (i.e. link durations less than 4 seconds and node speeds up to 40 m/s). No existing MANET routing protocol can achieve such high performance operating alone. In addition we show that location information increases the performance of MANET routing. Finally, we develop a comprehensive set of mathematical models for data packet delivery ratio, overhead, and delay. These models confirm the suitability of link duration as a mobility metric, validate our simulation results and conclusions, and provide valuable insight into reactive MANET routing protocol operation.

  6. Mobility Robustness Optimization in Femtocell Networks Based on Ant Colony Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haijun; Liu, Hui; Ma, Wenmin; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Xiangming; Jiang, Chunxiao

    Mobility Robustness Optimization (MRO) is one of the most important goals in LTE-Advanced Self-Organizing Networks (SON). Seamless handover in femtocell network is urgent and challenging, which has not been paid enough attention. Handover decision parameters, such as Time-To-Trigger (TTT), Hysteresis, Cell Individual Offset (CIO), have great effect on mobility performance, which may lead to Radio Link Failures (RLFs) and Unnecessary Handover. This letter proposes a handover parameters optimization approach based on Ant Colony Algorithm in the femtocell networks. The simulation result shows that the proposed scheme has a better performance than the fixed parameters method.

  7. Broadband radiometer

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, T.W.

    1994-07-26

    A broadband radiometer is disclosed including (a) an optical integrating sphere having generally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample. 8 figs.

  8. Broadband radiometer

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Theodore W.

    1994-01-01

    A broadband radiometer including (a) an optical integrating sphere having a enerally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample.

  9. Time geography for ad-hoc shared-ride trip planning in mobile geosensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raubal, Martin; Winter, Stephan; Teβmann, Sven; Gaisbauer, Christian

    Ad-hoc shared-ride trip planning in an urban environment is a complex task within a non-deterministic transportation network. Mobile geosensor networks provide the technical environment for realizing ad-hoc shared-ride trip planning: Network nodes are autonomous agents that interact locally by ad-hoc short-range communication and arrange for shared rides. In a mobile geosensor network, communication costs are critical because of constraints regarding bandwidth, available energy, and memory. This paper introduces spatio-temporal concepts from time geography, which can be employed during the planning process to significantly reduce communication costs. We will integrate network-based algorithms and different wayfinding strategies to assist both shared-ride clients and hosts in finding optimal travel assignments. Multi-agent geosimulation in a real street network is used to demonstrate the applicability of the approach and quantitatively confirm the theoretically foreseen reduction in communication costs.

  10. Network design consideration of a satellite-based mobile communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, T.-Y.

    1986-01-01

    Technical considerations for the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X), the ground segment testbed for the low-cost spectral efficient satellite-based mobile communications technologies being developed for the 1990's, are discussed. The Network Management Center contains a flexible resource sharing algorithm, the Demand Assigned Multiple Access scheme, which partitions the satellite transponder bandwidth among voice, data, and request channels. Satellite use of multiple UHF beams permits frequency reuse. The backhaul communications and the Telemetry, Tracking and Control traffic are provided through a single full-coverage SHF beam. Mobile Terminals communicate with the satellite using UHF. All communications including SHF-SHF between Base Stations and/or Gateways, are routed through the satellite. Because MSAT-X is an experimental network, higher level network protocols (which are service-specific) will be developed only to test the operation of the lowest three levels, the physical, data link, and network layers.

  11. Path optimisation of a mobile robot using an artificial neural network controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. K.; Parhi, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    This article proposed a novel approach for design of an intelligent controller for an autonomous mobile robot using a multilayer feed forward neural network, which enables the robot to navigate in a real world dynamic environment. The inputs to the proposed neural controller consist of left, right and front obstacle distance with respect to its position and target angle. The output of the neural network is steering angle. A four layer neural network has been designed to solve the path and time optimisation problem of mobile robots, which deals with the cognitive tasks such as learning, adaptation, generalisation and optimisation. A back propagation algorithm is used to train the network. This article also analyses the kinematic design of mobile robots for dynamic movements. The simulation results are compared with experimental results, which are satisfactory and show very good agreement. The training of the neural nets and the control performance analysis has been done in a real experimental setup.

  12. Faster, Faster! Broadband Access to the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Defines "plain old telephone service" (POTS) and broadband communication, comparing costs and performance of cable modems with POTS modems. Describes Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and digital subscriber line (DSL) services. Discusses broadband wireless and satellite networks. Three sidebars illustrate differences between…

  13. Mobility-Enhanced Reliable Geographical Forwarding in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Suleiman; Syed Yusoff, Sharifah Kamilah; Fisal, Norsheila

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet of Things and the proliferation of mobile wireless devices has brought the area of mobile cognitive radio sensor networks (MCRSN) to the research spot light. Notwithstanding the potentials of CRSNs in terms of opportunistic channel usage for bursty traffic, the effect of the mobility of resource-constrained nodes to route stability, mobility-induced spatio-temporal spectral opportunities and primary user (PU) protection still remain open issues that need to be jointly addressed. To this effect, this paper proposes a mobile reliable geographical forwarding routing (MROR) protocol. MROR provides a robust mobile framework for geographical forwarding that is based on a mobility-induced channel availability model. It presents a comprehensive routing strategy that considers PU activity (to take care of routes that have to be built through PU coverage), PU signal protection (by the introduction of a mobility-induced guard (mguard) distance) and the random mobility-induced spatio-temporal spectrum opportunities (for enhancement of throughput). It also addresses the issue of frequent route maintenance that arises when speeds of the mobile nodes are considered as a routing metric. As a result, simulation has shown the ability of MROR to reduce the route failure rate by about 65% as against other schemes. In addition, further results show that MROR can improve both the throughput and goodput at the sink in an energy-efficient manner that is required in CRSNs as against compared works. PMID:26840312

  14. Mobility-Enhanced Reliable Geographical Forwarding in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Suleiman; Syed Yusoff, Sharifah Kamilah; Fisal, Norsheila

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet of Things and the proliferation of mobile wireless devices has brought the area of mobile cognitive radio sensor networks (MCRSN) to the research spot light. Notwithstanding the potentials of CRSNs in terms of opportunistic channel usage for bursty traffic, the effect of the mobility of resource-constrained nodes to route stability, mobility-induced spatio-temporal spectral opportunities and primary user (PU) protection still remain open issues that need to be jointly addressed. To this effect, this paper proposes a mobile reliable geographical forwarding routing (MROR) protocol. MROR provides a robust mobile framework for geographical forwarding that is based on a mobility-induced channel availability model. It presents a comprehensive routing strategy that considers PU activity (to take care of routes that have to be built through PU coverage), PU signal protection (by the introduction of a mobility-induced guard (mguard) distance) and the random mobility-induced spatio-temporal spectrum opportunities (for enhancement of throughput). It also addresses the issue of frequent route maintenance that arises when speeds of the mobile nodes are considered as a routing metric. As a result, simulation has shown the ability of MROR to reduce the route failure rate by about 65% as against other schemes. In addition, further results show that MROR can improve both the throughput and goodput at the sink in an energy-efficient manner that is required in CRSNs as against compared works. PMID:26840312

  15. Cooperative Resource Pricing in Service Overlay Networks for Mobile Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Tadashi; Okaie, Yutaka

    The success of peer-to-peer overlay networks depends on cooperation among participating peers. In this paper, we investigate the degree of cooperation among individual peers required to induce globally favorable properties in an overlay network. Specifically, we consider a resource pricing problem in a market-oriented overlay network where participating peers sell own resources (e.g., CPU cycles) to earn energy which represents some money or rewards in the network. In the resource pricing model presented in this paper, each peer sets the price for own resource based on the degree of cooperation; non-cooperative peers attempt to maximize their own energy gains, while cooperative peers maximize the sum of own and neighbors' energy gains. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the network topology is an important factor influencing the minimum degree of cooperation required to increase the network-wide global energy gain.

  16. A Comprehensive Study of Data Collection Schemes Using Mobile Sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Waheed; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Bangash, Javed Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Recently sink mobility has been exploited in numerous schemes to prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Contrary to traditional WSNs where sensory data from sensor field is ultimately sent to a static sink, mobile sink-based approaches alleviate energy-holes issues thereby facilitating balanced energy consumption among nodes. In mobility scenarios, nodes need to keep track of the latest location of mobile sinks for data delivery. However, frequent propagation of sink topological updates undermines the energy conservation goal and therefore should be controlled. Furthermore, controlled propagation of sinks' topological updates affects the performance of routing strategies thereby increasing data delivery latency and reducing packet delivery ratios. This paper presents a taxonomy of various data collection/dissemination schemes that exploit sink mobility. Based on how sink mobility is exploited in the sensor field, we classify existing schemes into three classes, namely path constrained, path unconstrained, and controlled sink mobility-based schemes. We also organize existing schemes based on their primary goals and provide a comparative study to aid readers in selecting the appropriate scheme in accordance with their particular intended applications and network dynamics. Finally, we conclude our discussion with the identification of some unresolved issues in pursuit of data delivery to a mobile sink. PMID:24504107

  17. A comprehensive study of data collection schemes using mobile sinks in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Waheed; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Bangash, Javed Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Recently sink mobility has been exploited in numerous schemes to prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Contrary to traditional WSNs where sensory data from sensor field is ultimately sent to a static sink, mobile sink-based approaches alleviate energy-holes issues thereby facilitating balanced energy consumption among nodes. In mobility scenarios, nodes need to keep track of the latest location of mobile sinks for data delivery. However, frequent propagation of sink topological updates undermines the energy conservation goal and therefore should be controlled. Furthermore, controlled propagation of sinks' topological updates affects the performance of routing strategies thereby increasing data delivery latency and reducing packet delivery ratios. This paper presents a taxonomy of various data collection/dissemination schemes that exploit sink mobility. Based on how sink mobility is exploited in the sensor field, we classify existing schemes into three classes, namely path constrained, path unconstrained, and controlled sink mobility-based schemes. We also organize existing schemes based on their primary goals and provide a comparative study to aid readers in selecting the appropriate scheme in accordance with their particular intended applications and network dynamics. Finally, we conclude our discussion with the identification of some unresolved issues in pursuit of data delivery to a mobile sink. PMID:24504107

  18. Real-time neural network based camera localization and its extension to mobile robot control.

    PubMed

    Choi, D H; Oh, S Y

    1997-06-01

    The feasibility of using neural networks for camera localization and mobile robot control is investigated here. This approach has the advantages of eliminating the laborious and error-prone process of imaging system modeling and calibration procedures. Basically, two different approaches of using neural networks are introduced of which one is a hybrid approach combining neural networks and the pinhole-based analytic solution while the other is purely neural network based. These techniques have been tested and compared through both simulation and real-time experiments and are shown to yield more precise localization than analytic approaches. Furthermore, this neural localization method is also shown to be directly applicable to the navigation control of an experimental mobile robot along the hallway purely guided by a dark wall strip. It also facilitates multi-sensor fusion through the use of multiple sensors of different types for control due to the network's capability of learning without models. PMID:9427102

  19. Unveiling the BitTorrent Performance in Mobile WiMAX Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Kim, Seungbae; Kwon, Ted "Taekyoung"; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Choi, Yanghee

    As mobile Internet environments are becoming widespread, how to revamp peer-to-peer (P2P) operations for mobile hosts is gaining more attention. In this paper, we carry out empirical measurement of BitTorrent users in a commercial WiMAX network. We investigate how handovers in WiMAX networks impact the BitTorrent performance, how BitTorrent peers perform from the aspects of connectivity, stability and capability, and how the BitTorrent protocol behaves depending on user mobility. We observe that the drawbacks of BitTorrent for mobile users are characterized by poor connectivity among peers, short download session times, small download throughput, negligible upload contributions, and high signaling overhead.

  20. A DNA-Inspired Encryption Methodology for Secure, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Users are pushing for greater physical mobility with their network and Internet access. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) can provide an efficient mobile network architecture, but security is a key concern. A figure summarizes differences in the state of network security for MANET and fixed networks. MANETs require the ability to distinguish trusted peers, and tolerate the ingress/egress of nodes on an unscheduled basis. Because the networks by their very nature are mobile and self-organizing, use of a Public Key Infra structure (PKI), X.509 certificates, RSA, and nonce ex changes becomes problematic if the ideal of MANET is to be achieved. Molecular biology models such as DNA evolution can provide a basis for a proprietary security architecture that achieves high degrees of diffusion and confusion, and resistance to cryptanalysis. A proprietary encryption mechanism was developed that uses the principles of DNA replication and steganography (hidden word cryptography) for confidentiality and authentication. The foundation of the approach includes organization of coded words and messages using base pairs organized into genes, an expandable genome consisting of DNA-based chromosome keys, and a DNA-based message encoding, replication, and evolution and fitness. In evolutionary computing, a fitness algorithm determines whether candidate solutions, in this case encrypted messages, are sufficiently encrypted to be transmitted. The technology provides a mechanism for confidential electronic traffic over a MANET without a PKI for authenticating users.

  1. Social Networks and Educational Mobility: The Experiences of UK Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rachel; Waters, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    A recurrent theme in the literature on transnational mobility--and particularly that pertaining to the young and/or highly skilled--is the "individualised" nature of such movement, as people move to take advantage of opportunities in an increasingly interdependent world. Drawing on research with 85 young adults who had moved overseas for their…

  2. Multiscale mobility networks and the spatial spreading of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Balcan, Duygu; Colizza, Vittoria; Gonçalves, Bruno; Hu, Hao; Ramasco, José J.; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Among the realistic ingredients to be considered in the computational modeling of infectious diseases, human mobility represents a crucial challenge both on the theoretical side and in view of the limited availability of empirical data. To study the interplay between short-scale commuting flows and long-range airline traffic in shaping the spatiotemporal pattern of a global epidemic we (i) analyze mobility data from 29 countries around the world and find a gravity model able to provide a global description of commuting patterns up to 300 kms and (ii) integrate in a worldwide-structured metapopulation epidemic model a timescale-separation technique for evaluating the force of infection due to multiscale mobility processes in the disease dynamics. Commuting flows are found, on average, to be one order of magnitude larger than airline flows. However, their introduction into the worldwide model shows that the large-scale pattern of the simulated epidemic exhibits only small variations with respect to the baseline case where only airline traffic is considered. The presence of short-range mobility increases, however, the synchronization of subpopulations in close proximity and affects the epidemic behavior at the periphery of the airline transportation infrastructure. The present approach outlines the possibility for the definition of layered computational approaches where different modeling assumptions and granularities can be used consistently in a unifying multiscale framework. PMID:20018697

  3. Homeless Families' Education Networks: An Examination of Access and Mobilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought deeper understanding of how sheltered families accessed and mobilized educationally related relationships and resources during periods of homelessness. Such work is posited to be especially relevant considering that there is a growing crisis of family homelessness in the United States and school- and community-based…

  4. Multiscale mobility networks and the spatial spreading of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Balcan, Duygu; Colizza, Vittoria; Gonçalves, Bruno; Hu, Hao; Ramasco, José J; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2009-12-22

    Among the realistic ingredients to be considered in the computational modeling of infectious diseases, human mobility represents a crucial challenge both on the theoretical side and in view of the limited availability of empirical data. To study the interplay between short-scale commuting flows and long-range airline traffic in shaping the spatiotemporal pattern of a global epidemic we (i) analyze mobility data from 29 countries around the world and find a gravity model able to provide a global description of commuting patterns up to 300 kms and (ii) integrate in a worldwide-structured metapopulation epidemic model a timescale-separation technique for evaluating the force of infection due to multiscale mobility processes in the disease dynamics. Commuting flows are found, on average, to be one order of magnitude larger than airline flows. However, their introduction into the worldwide model shows that the large-scale pattern of the simulated epidemic exhibits only small variations with respect to the baseline case where only airline traffic is considered. The presence of short-range mobility increases, however, the synchronization of subpopulations in close proximity and affects the epidemic behavior at the periphery of the airline transportation infrastructure. The present approach outlines the possibility for the definition of layered computational approaches where different modeling assumptions and granularities can be used consistently in a unifying multiscale framework. PMID:20018697

  5. Creating a Powerful Learning Environment with Networked Mobile Learning Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Valerie M.

    2007-01-01

    Highly mobile devices can make important information available to teachers in real-time, anywhere in the classroom, and in the form of easy-to-read graphical displays that support classroom decision making. By supporting such important teaching activities, we can create a high-performance classroom that supports teachers and the art of teaching,…

  6. Low-power, 2 x 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks.

    PubMed

    Van Campenhout, Joris; Green, William M J; Assefa, Solomon; Vlasov, Yurii A

    2009-12-21

    We present an ultra-broadband Mach-Zehnder based optical switch in silicon, electrically driven through carrier injection. Crosstalk levels lower than -17 dB are obtained for both the 'on' and 'off' switching states over an optical bandwidth of 110 nm, owing to the implementation of broadband 50% couplers. Full 2 x 2 switching functionality is demonstrated, with low power consumption (approximately 3 mW) and a fast switching time (< 4 ns). The utilization of standard CMOS metallization results in a low drive voltage (approximately 1 V) and a record-low V(pi)L (approximately 0.06 V x mm). The wide optical bandwidth is maintained for temperature variations up to 30 K. PMID:20052114

  7. Problems With Deployment of Multi-Domained, Multi-Homed Mobile Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2008-01-01

    This document describes numerous problems associated with deployment of multi-homed mobile platforms consisting of multiple networks and traversing large geographical areas. The purpose of this document is to provide insight to real-world deployment issues and provide information to groups that are addressing many issues related to multi-homing, policy-base routing, route optimization and mobile security - particularly those groups within the Internet Engineering Task Force.

  8. Mobilizing Ideas in Knowledge Networks: A Social Network Analysis of the Human Resource Management Community 1990-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Swart, Juani; Naude, Peter; Jiang, Zhizhong; Mouzas, Stefanos

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show the role of social networks in mobilizing how actors both impact and are impacted on by their colleagues. It seeks to compare the human resource management (HRM) academic community with two other comparable communities, and to identify those groups that are seen to work closely together.…

  9. TDMA-based dual-mode communication for mobile wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ankur; Kerkez, Branko; Glaser, Steven D; Pister, Kristofer S J

    2012-01-01

    Small highly mobile robots, and in particular micro air vehicles (MAVs), are well suited to the task of exploring unknown indoor environments such as buildings and caves. Such a task imposes a number of requirements on the underlying communication infrastructure, with differing goals during various stages of the mission. This work addresses those requirements with a hybrid communications infrastructure consisting of a stationary mesh network along with the mobile nodes. The combined network operates in two independent modes, coupling a highly efficient, low duty cycle, low throughput mode for routing and persistent sensing with a burst mode for high data rate communication. By strategically distributing available frequency channels between the mobile agents and the stationary nodes, the overall network provides reliable long-term communication paths while maximizing data throughput when needed. PMID:23443374

  10. TDMA-Based Dual-Mode Communication for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ankur; Kerkez, Branko; Glaser, Steven D.; Pister, Kristofer S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Small highly mobile robots, and in particular micro air vehicles (MAVs), are well suited to the task of exploring unknown indoor environments such as buildings and caves. Such a task imposes a number of requirements on the underlying communication infrastructure, with differing goals during various stages of the mission. This work addresses those requirements with a hybrid communications infrastructure consisting of a stationary mesh network along with the mobile nodes. The combined network operates in two independent modes, coupling a highly efficient, low duty cycle, low throughput mode for routing and persistent sensing with a burst mode for high data rate communication. By strategically distributing available frequency channels between the mobile agents and the stationary nodes, the overall network provides reliable long-term communication paths while maximizing data throughput when needed. PMID:23443374

  11. A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural monitoring applications

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Stuart G; Farinholt, Kevin M; Figueiredo, Eloi; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R; Flynn, Eric B; Mascarenas, David L; Todd, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    A new wireless sensing network paradigm is presented for structural monitoring applications. In this approach, both power and data interrogation commands are conveyed via a mobile agent that is sent to sensor nodes to perform intended interrogations, which can alleviate several limitations of the traditional sensing networks. Furthermore, the mobile agent provides computational power to make near real-time assessments on the structural conditions. This paper will discuss such prototype systems, which are used to interrogate impedance-based sensors for structural health monitoring applications. Our wireless sensor node is specifically designed to accept various energy sources, including wireless energy transmission, and to be wirelessly triggered on an as-needed basis by the mobile agent or other sensor nodes. The capabilities of this proposed sensing network paradigm are demonstrated in the laboratory and the field.

  12. The effects of malicious nodes on performance of mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fanzhi; Shi, Xiyu; Jassim, Sabah; Adams, Christopher

    2006-05-01

    Wireless ad hoc networking offers convenient infrastructureless communication over the shared wireless channel. However, the nature of ad hoc networks makes them vulnerable to security attacks. Unlike their wired counterpart, infrastructureless ad hoc networks do not have a clear line of defense, their topology is dynamically changing, and every mobile node can receive messages from its neighbors and can be contacted by all other nodes in its neighborhood. This poses a great danger to network security if some nodes behave in a malicious manner. The immediate concern about the security in this type of networks is how to protect the network and the individual mobile nodes against malicious act of rogue nodes from within the network. This paper is concerned with security aspects of wireless ad hoc networks. We shall present results of simulation experiments on ad hoc network's performance in the presence of malicious nodes. We shall investigate two types of attacks and the consequences will be simulated and quantified in terms of loss of packets and other factors. The results show that network performance, in terms of successful packet delivery ratios, significantly deteriorates when malicious nodes act according to the defined misbehaving characteristics.

  13. Deadline-aware energy-efficient query scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks with mobile sink.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Mobile sinks are proposed to save sensor energy spent for multihop communication in transferring data to a base station (sink) in Wireless Sensor Networks. Due to relative low speed of mobile sinks, these approaches are mostly suitable for delay-tolerant applications. In this paper, we study the design of a query scheduling algorithm for query-based data gathering applications using mobile sinks. However, these kinds of applications are sensitive to delays due to specified query deadlines. Thus, the proposed scheduling algorithm aims to minimize the number of missed deadlines while keeping the level of energy consumption at the minimum. PMID:23818833

  14. Deny-by-Default Distributed Security Policy Enforcement in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alicherry, Mansoor; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Stavrou, Angelos

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are increasingly employed in tactical military and civil rapid-deployment networks, including emergency rescue operations and ad hoc disaster-relief networks. However, this flexibility of MANETs comes at a price, when compared to wired and base station-based wireless networks: MANETs are susceptible to both insider and outsider attacks. This is mainly because of the lack of a well-defined defense perimeter preventing the effective use of wired defenses including firewalls and intrusion detection systems.

  15. Place-Based Attributes Predict Community Membership in a Mobile Phone Communication Network

    PubMed Central

    Caughlin, T. Trevor; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Acevedo, Miguel A.; Lopiano, Kenneth K.; Prosper, Olivia; Eagle, Nathan; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Social networks can be organized into communities of closely connected nodes, a property known as modularity. Because diseases, information, and behaviors spread faster within communities than between communities, understanding modularity has broad implications for public policy, epidemiology and the social sciences. Explanations for community formation in social networks often incorporate the attributes of individual people, such as gender, ethnicity or shared activities. High modularity is also a property of large-scale social networks, where each node represents a population of individuals at a location, such as call flow between mobile phone towers. However, whether or not place-based attributes, including land cover and economic activity, can predict community membership for network nodes in large-scale networks remains unknown. We describe the pattern of modularity in a mobile phone communication network in the Dominican Republic, and use a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether geographic context can explain community membership. Our results demonstrate that place-based attributes, including sugar cane production, urbanization, distance to the nearest airport, and wealth, correctly predicted community membership for over 70% of mobile phone towers. We observed a strongly positive correlation (r = 0.97) between the modularity score and the predictive ability of the LDA, suggesting that place-based attributes can accurately represent the processes driving modularity. In the absence of social network data, the methods we present can be used to predict community membership over large scales using solely place-based attributes. PMID:23451034

  16. Place-based attributes predict community membership in a mobile phone communication network.

    PubMed

    Caughlin, T Trevor; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Acevedo, Miguel A; Lopiano, Kenneth K; Prosper, Olivia; Eagle, Nathan; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Social networks can be organized into communities of closely connected nodes, a property known as modularity. Because diseases, information, and behaviors spread faster within communities than between communities, understanding modularity has broad implications for public policy, epidemiology and the social sciences. Explanations for community formation in social networks often incorporate the attributes of individual people, such as gender, ethnicity or shared activities. High modularity is also a property of large-scale social networks, where each node represents a population of individuals at a location, such as call flow between mobile phone towers. However, whether or not place-based attributes, including land cover and economic activity, can predict community membership for network nodes in large-scale networks remains unknown. We describe the pattern of modularity in a mobile phone communication network in the Dominican Republic, and use a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether geographic context can explain community membership. Our results demonstrate that place-based attributes, including sugar cane production, urbanization, distance to the nearest airport, and wealth, correctly predicted community membership for over 70% of mobile phone towers. We observed a strongly positive correlation (r = 0.97) between the modularity score and the predictive ability of the LDA, suggesting that place-based attributes can accurately represent the processes driving modularity. In the absence of social network data, the methods we present can be used to predict community membership over large scales using solely place-based attributes. PMID:23451034

  17. Integrating Overlay Protocols for Providing Autonomic Services in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouvas, Panagiotis; Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Liakopoulos, Athanassios; Mentzas, Gregoris; Mitrou, Nikolas

    Next generation network characteristics increase the complexity in the design and provision of advanced services, making inappropriate the selection of traditional approaches. Future networks are becoming larger in scale, more dynamic and more heterogeneous. In order to cope with these requirements, services are expected to adapt to environmental conditions and require minimum human intervention. In this paper a new model for providing autonomous and decentralized services is proposed, especially focusing on mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Using a newly proposed four-layered approach, service development may be realized independently from the underlying physical network. In a reference implementation, it is demonstrated that it is possible to set up an overlay network that hides any network changes from the service layer. Multiple mechanisms have been adapted in order to efficiently — in terms of message exchanges and convergence time — operate over an ad hoc environment. Finally, it is demonstrated that a specific service could operate over a dynamic network with multiple failures.

  18. Mobility Based Key Management Technique for Multicast Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhanan, B.; Chitra, S.; Rajan, C.

    2015-01-01

    In MANET multicasting, forward and backward secrecy result in increased packet drop rate owing to mobility. Frequent rekeying causes large message overhead which increases energy consumption and end-to-end delay. Particularly, the prevailing group key management techniques cause frequent mobility and disconnections. So there is a need to design a multicast key management technique to overcome these problems. In this paper, we propose the mobility based key management technique for multicast security in MANET. Initially, the nodes are categorized according to their stability index which is estimated based on the link availability and mobility. A multicast tree is constructed such that for every weak node, there is a strong parent node. A session key-based encryption technique is utilized to transmit a multicast data. The rekeying process is performed periodically by the initiator node. The rekeying interval is fixed depending on the node category so that this technique greatly minimizes the rekeying overhead. By simulation results, we show that our proposed approach reduces the packet drop rate and improves the data confidentiality. PMID:25834838

  19. RACOON: a multiuser QoS design for mobile wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shihheng; Huang, Chingyao; Tu, Chun Chen

    2011-10-01

    In this study, Random Contention-based Resource Allocation (RACOON) medium access control (MAC) protocol is proposed to support the quality of service (QoS) for multi-user mobile wireless body area networks (WBANs). Different from existing QoS designs that focus on a single WBAN, a multiuser WBAN QoS should further consider both inter-WBAN interference and inter-WBAN priorities. Similar problems have been studied in both overlapped wireless local area networks (WLANs) and Bluetooth piconets that need QoS supports. However, these solutions are designed for non-medical transmissions that do not consider any priority scheme for medical applications. Most importantly, these studies focus on only static or low mobility networks. Network mobility of WBANs will introduce unnecessary inter-network collisions and energy waste, which are not considered by these solutions. The proposed multiuser-QoS protocol, RACOON, simultaneously satisfies the inter WBAN QoS requirements and overcomes the performance degradation caused by WBAN mobility. Simulation results verify that RACOON provides better latency and energy control, as compared with WBAN QoS protocols without considering the inter-WBAN requirements. PMID:21465185

  20. Layered Location-Based Security Mechanism for Mobile Sensor Networks: Moving Security Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ze; Zhang, Haijuan; Wu, Luqiang; Zhou, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Network security is one of the most important issues in mobile sensor networks (MSNs). Networks are particularly vulnerable in hostile environments because of many factors, such as uncertain mobility, limitations on computation, and the need for storage in mobile nodes. Though some location-based security mechanisms can resist some malicious attacks, they are only suitable for static networks and may sometimes require large amounts of storage. To solve these problems, using location information, which is one of the most important properties in outdoor wireless networks, a security mechanism called a moving security area (MSA) is proposed to resist malicious attacks by using mobile nodes’ dynamic location-based keys. The security mechanism is layered by performing different detection schemes inside or outside the MSA. The location-based private keys will be updated only at the appropriate moments, considering the balance of cost and security performance. By transferring parts of the detection tasks from ordinary nodes to the sink node, the memory requirements are distributed to different entities to save limited energy. PMID:26404278

  1. Layered Location-Based Security Mechanism for Mobile Sensor Networks: Moving Security Areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze; Zhang, Haijuan; Wu, Luqiang; Zhou, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Network security is one of the most important issues in mobile sensor networks (MSNs). Networks are particularly vulnerable in hostile environments because of many factors, such as uncertain mobility, limitations on computation, and the need for storage in mobile nodes. Though some location-based security mechanisms can resist some malicious attacks, they are only suitable for static networks and may sometimes require large amounts of storage. To solve these problems, using location information, which is one of the most important properties in outdoor wireless networks, a security mechanism called a moving security area (MSA) is proposed to resist malicious attacks by using mobile nodes' dynamic location-based keys. The security mechanism is layered by performing different detection schemes inside or outside the MSA. The location-based private keys will be updated only at the appropriate moments, considering the balance of cost and security performance. By transferring parts of the detection tasks from ordinary nodes to the sink node, the memory requirements are distributed to different entities to save limited energy. PMID:26404278

  2. An Efficient Energy based Detection of Malicious Node in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharmila, S.; Umamaheswari, G.

    2012-03-01

    Mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN) are composed of a large number of wireless sensors and they require a careful consumption of available energy to prolong the life of the network. From the security point of view, existing detection schemes consumes node energy and thus reduces the life time of the network. This paper focuses on energy based scheme for detecting the malicious node in the forward routing path. This detection scheme suits any standard routing protocol. The forward route selection path is identified by using dynamic source routing protocol. The proposed scheme is simulated in glomosim and evaluated using packet throughput, percentage of byte overheads, energy consumption, and the accuracy of detection. The network with moderate mobility is used and the proposed scheme consumes 20 % of node energy.

  3. On Trust Evaluation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dang Quan; Lamont, Louise; Mason, Peter C.

    Trust has been considered as a social relationship between two individuals in human society. But, as computer science and networking have succeeded in using computers to automate many tasks, the concept of trust can be generalized to cover the reliability and relationships of non-human interaction, such as, for example, information gathering and data routing. This paper investigates the evaluation of trust in the context of ad hoc networks. Nodes evaluate each other’s behaviour based on observables. A node then decides whether to trust another node to have certain innate abilities. We show how accurate such an evaluation could be. We also provide the minimum number of observations required to obtain an accurate evaluation, a result that indicates that observation-based trust in ad hoc networks will remain a challenging problem. The impact of making networking decisions using trust evaluation on the network connectivity is also examined. In this manner, quantitative decisions can be made concerning trust-based routing with the knowledge of the potential impact on connectivity.

  4. A distance-aware replica adaptive data gathering protocol for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong; Gong, Haigang; Fan, Mingyu; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    In Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs) that have the inherent features of intermitted connectivity and frequently changing network topology it is reasonable to utilize multi-replica schemes to improve the data gathering performance. However, most existing multi-replica approaches inject a large amount of message copies into the network to increase the probability of message delivery, which may drain each mobile node's limited battery supply faster and result in too much contention for the restricted resources of the DTMSN, so a proper data gathering scheme needs a trade off between the number of replica messages and network performance. In this paper, we propose a new data gathering protocol called DRADG (for Distance-aware Replica Adaptive Data Gathering protocol), which economizes network resource consumption through making use of a self-adapting algorithm to cut down the number of redundant replicas of messages, and achieves a good network performance by leveraging the delivery probabilities of the mobile sensors as main routing metrics. Simulation results have shown that the proposed DRADG protocol achieves comparable or higher message delivery ratios at the cost of the much lower transmission overhead than several current DTMSN data gathering schemes. PMID:22163839

  5. Energy-Efficient Crowdsensing of Human Mobility and Signal Levels in Cellular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Foremski, Paweł; Gorawski, Michał; Grochla, Krzysztof; Polys, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a practical application of the crowdsensing idea to measure human mobility and signal coverage in cellular networks. Currently, virtually everyone is carrying a mobile phone, which may be used as a sensor to gather research data by measuring, e.g., human mobility and radio signal levels. However, many users are unwilling to participate in crowdsensing experiments. This work begins with the analysis of the barriers for engaging people in crowdsensing. A survey showed that people who agree to participate in crowdsensing expect a minimum impact on their battery lifetime and phone usage habits. To address these requirements, this paper proposes an application for measuring the location and signal strength data based on energy-efficient GPS tracking, which allows one to perform the measurements of human mobility and radio signal levels with minimum energy utilization and without any engagement of the user. The method described combines measurements from the accelerometer with effective management of the GPS to monitor the user mobility with the decrease in battery lifetime by approximately 20%. To show the applicability of the proposed platform, the sample results of signal level distribution and coverage maps gathered for an LTE network and representing human mobility are shown. PMID:26340633

  6. Mobilizing Community Museum Networks in Mexico--and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, a network of community museums has spread throughout Oaxaca (Mexico), serving as an autonomous force for broad-based cultural development, supporting the maintenance and revitalization of local Indigenous cultures, countering Western cultural hegemony, and involving Indigenous communities in museum development and related…

  7. Strategy for incumbent wireline operator: customers' provision of broadband wireless access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Kan, Kaili; Tareen, Abdul Wahid

    2011-10-01

    The phenomenal growth in mobile market during last decade has left incumbent wireline operators with very low fixed line customer base. The incumbent wireline operators are losing their market dominant position and wireline resources are lying underutilized. This paper proposed a cost effective strategy for incumbent wireline operators for customers' provision of broadband wireless access. The strategy will make wireline networks more value added and customer base will increase. The revenue will enhance and wireline resources will be utilized more efficiently.

  8. Delivering Diagnostic Quality Video over Mobile Wireless Networks for Telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sira P; Jayant, Nikil S; Stachura, Max E; Astapova, Elena; Pearson-Shaver, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    In real-time remote diagnosis of emergency medical events, mobility can be enabled by wireless video communications. However, clinical use of this potential advance will depend on definitive and compelling demonstrations of the reliability of diagnostic quality video. Because the medical domain has its own fidelity criteria, it is important to incorporate diagnostic video quality criteria into any video compression system design. To this end, we used flexible algorithms for region-of-interest (ROI) video compression and obtained feedback from medical experts to develop criteria for diagnostically lossless (DL) quality. The design of the system occurred in three steps-measurement of bit rate at which DL quality is achieved through evaluation of videos by medical experts, incorporation of that information into a flexible video encoder through the notion of encoder states, and an encoder state update option based on a built-in quality criterion. Medical experts then evaluated our system for the diagnostic quality of the video, allowing us to verify that it is possible to realize DL quality in the ROI at practical communication data transfer rates, enabling mobile medical assessment over bit-rate limited wireless channels. This work lays the scientific foundation for additional validation through prototyped technology, field testing, and clinical trials. PMID:19421337

  9. Radial microstrip slotline feed network for circular mobile communications array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Kelly, Eron S.; Lee, Richard Q.; Taub, Susan R.

    1994-04-01

    In mobile and satellite communications there is a need for low cost and low profile antennas which have a toroidal pattern. Antennas that have been developed for mobile communications include a L-Band electronically steered stripline phased array, a Ka-Band mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna and a Ka-Band printed dipole. In addition, a L-Band mechanically steered microstrip array, a L-Band microstrip phased array tracking antenna for mounting on a car roof and an X-Band radial line slotted waveguide antenna have been demonstrated. In the above electronically scanned printed arrays, the individual element radiates normally to the plane of the array and hence require a phase shifter to scan the beam towards the horizon. Scanning in the azimuth is by mechanical or electronic steering. An alternate approach is to mount microstrip patch radiators on the surface of a cone to achieve the required elevation angle. The array then scans in the azimuth by beam switching.

  10. Delivering Diagnostic Quality Video over Mobile Wireless Networks for Telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sira P.; Jayant, Nikil S.; Stachura, Max E.; Astapova, Elena; Pearson-Shaver, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    In real-time remote diagnosis of emergency medical events, mobility can be enabled by wireless video communications. However, clinical use of this potential advance will depend on definitive and compelling demonstrations of the reliability of diagnostic quality video. Because the medical domain has its own fidelity criteria, it is important to incorporate diagnostic video quality criteria into any video compression system design. To this end, we used flexible algorithms for region-of-interest (ROI) video compression and obtained feedback from medical experts to develop criteria for diagnostically lossless (DL) quality. The design of the system occurred in three steps-measurement of bit rate at which DL quality is achieved through evaluation of videos by medical experts, incorporation of that information into a flexible video encoder through the notion of encoder states, and an encoder state update option based on a built-in quality criterion. Medical experts then evaluated our system for the diagnostic quality of the video, allowing us to verify that it is possible to realize DL quality in the ROI at practical communication data transfer rates, enabling mobile medical assessment over bit-rate limited wireless channels. This work lays the scientific foundation for additional validation through prototyped technology, field testing, and clinical trials. PMID:19421337

  11. Radial microstrip slotline feed network for circular mobile communications array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Kelly, Eron S.; Lee, Richard Q.; Taub, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    In mobile and satellite communications there is a need for low cost and low profile antennas which have a toroidal pattern. Antennas that have been developed for mobile communications include a L-Band electronically steered stripline phased array, a Ka-Band mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna and a Ka-Band printed dipole. In addition, a L-Band mechanically steered microstrip array, a L-Band microstrip phased array tracking antenna for mounting on a car roof and an X-Band radial line slotted waveguide antenna have been demonstrated. In the above electronically scanned printed arrays, the individual element radiates normally to the plane of the array and hence require a phase shifter to scan the beam towards the horizon. Scanning in the azimuth is by mechanical or electronic steering. An alternate approach is to mount microstrip patch radiators on the surface of a cone to achieve the required elevation angle. The array then scans in the azimuth by beam switching.

  12. Complementing Security Breach of Authentication by Using Shared Authentication Information in Mobile WiMAX Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngwook; Lim, Hyoung-Kyu; Bahk, Saewoong

    The signalling protocol vulnerability opens DDoS problem in Mobile WiMAX networks. This letter proposes an authentication method that uses the unrevealed upper 64bits of Cipher-based MAC as a solution. It runs for MSs in idle mode and reduces the calculation complexity by 59% under DDoS attack while incurring 1% overhead under normal condition.

  13. Autonomous telemetry system by using mobile networks for a long-term seismic observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirahara, S.; Uchida, N.; Nakajima, J.

    2012-04-01

    When a large earthquake occurs, it is important to know the detailed distribution of aftershocks immediately after the main shock for the estimation of the fault plane. The large amount of seismic data is also required to determine the three-dimensional seismic velocity structure around the focal area. We have developed an autonomous telemetry system using mobile networks, which is specialized for aftershock observations. Because the newly developed system enables a quick installation and real-time data transmission by using mobile networks, we can construct a dense online seismic network even in mountain areas where conventional wired networks are not available. This system is equipped with solar panels that charge lead-acid battery, and enables a long-term seismic observation without maintenance. Furthermore, this system enables a continuous observation at low costs with flat-rate or prepaid Internet access. We have tried to expand coverage areas of mobile communication and back up Internet access by configuring plural mobile carriers. A micro server embedded with Linux consists of automatic control programs of the Internet connection and data transmission. A status monitoring and remote maintenance are available via the Internet. In case of a communication failure, an internal storage can back up data for two years. The power consumption of communication device ranges from 2.5 to 4.0 W. With a 50 Ah lead-acid battery, this system continues to record data for four days if the battery charging by solar panels is temporarily unavailable.

  14. Structuring and Regulating Collaborative Learning in Higher Education with Wireless Networks and Mobile Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvela, Sanna; Naykki, Piia; Laru, Jari; Luokkanen, Tiina

    2007-01-01

    In our recent research we have explored possibilities to scaffold collaborative learning in higher education with wireless networks and mobile tools. The pedagogical ideas are grounded on concepts of collaborative learning, including the socially shared origin of cognition, as well as self-regulated learning theory. This paper presents our three…

  15. A model for the distribution of watermarked digital content on mobile networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattolillo, Franco; D'Onofrio, Salvatore

    2006-10-01

    Although digital watermarking can be considered one of the key technologies to implement the copyright protection of digital contents distributed on the Internet, most of the content distribution models based on watermarking protocols proposed in literature have been purposely designed for fixed networks and cannot be easily adapted to mobile networks. On the contrary, the use of mobile devices currently enables new types of services and business models, and this makes the development of new content distribution models for mobile environments strategic in the current scenario of the Internet. This paper presents and discusses a distribution model of watermarked digital contents for such environments able to achieve a trade-off between the needs of efficiency and security.

  16. Evaluating a Novel Cellular Automata-Based Distributed Power Management Approach for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adabi, Sepideh; Adabi, Sahar; Rezaee, Ali

    According to the traditional definition of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), static sensors have limited the feasibility of WSNs in some kind of approaches, so the mobility was introduced in WSN. Mobile nodes in a WSN come equipped with battery and from the point of deployment, this battery reserve becomes a valuable resource since it cannot be replenished. Hence, maximizing the network lifetime by minimizing the energy is an important challenge in Mobile WSN. Energy conservation can be accomplished by different approaches. In this paper, we presented an energy conservation solution based on Cellular Automata. The main objective of this solution is based on dynamically adjusting the transmission range and switching between operational states of the sensor nodes.

  17. Self-Organized Link State Aware Routing for Multiple Mobile Agents in Wireless Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Akihiro; Nishi, Hiroaki

    Recently, the importance of data sharing structures in autonomous distributed networks has been increasing. A wireless sensor network is used for managing distributed data. This type of distributed network requires effective information exchanging methods for data sharing. To reduce the traffic of broadcasted messages, reduction of the amount of redundant information is indispensable. In order to reduce packet loss in mobile ad-hoc networks, QoS-sensitive routing algorithm have been frequently discussed. The topology of a wireless network is likely to change frequently according to the movement of mobile nodes, radio disturbance, or fading due to the continuous changes in the environment. Therefore, a packet routing algorithm should guarantee QoS by using some quality indicators of the wireless network. In this paper, a novel information exchanging algorithm developed using a hash function and a Boolean operation is proposed. This algorithm achieves efficient information exchanges by reducing the overhead of broadcasting messages, and it can guarantee QoS in a wireless network environment. It can be applied to a routing algorithm in a mobile ad-hoc network. In the proposed routing algorithm, a routing table is constructed by using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), and the neighborhood information is periodically broadcasted depending on this table. The proposed hash-based routing entry management by using an extended MAC address can eliminate the overhead of message flooding. An analysis of the collision of hash values contributes to the determination of the length of the hash values, which is minimally required. Based on the verification of a mathematical theory, an optimum hash function for determining the length of hash values can be given. Simulations are carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and to validate the theory in a general wireless network routing algorithm.

  18. A mobility enabled inpatient monitoring system using a ZigBee medical sensor network.

    PubMed

    Tung, Hoi Ching; Tsang, Kim Fung; Lam, Ka Lun; Tung, Hoi Yan; Li, Benjamin Yee Shing; Yeung, Lam Fat; Ko, King Tim; Lau, Wing Hong; Rakocevic, Veselin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a ZigBee In-Patient Monitoring system embedded with a new ZigBee mobility management solution. The system enables ZigBee device mobility in a fixed ZigBee network. The usage, the architecture and the mobility framework are discussed in details in the paper. The evaluation shows that the new algorithm offers a good efficiency, resulting in a low management cost. In addition, the system can save lives by providing a panic button and can be used as a location tracking service. A case study focused on the Princes of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong is presented and findings are given. This investigation reveals that the developed mobile solutions offer promising value-added services for many potential ZigBee applications. PMID:24487623

  19. A Mobility Enabled Inpatient Monitoring System Using a ZigBee Medical Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Hoi Ching; Tsang, Kim Fung; Lam, Ka Lun; Tung, Hoi Yan; Li, Benjamin Yee Shing; Yeung, Lam Fat; Ko, King Tim; Lau, Wing Hong; Rakocevic, Veselin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a ZigBee In-Patient Monitoring system embedded with a new ZigBee mobility management solution. The system enables ZigBee device mobility in a fixed ZigBee network. The usage, the architecture and the mobility framework are discussed in details in the paper. The evaluation shows that the new algorithm offers a good efficiency, resulting in a low management cost. In addition, the system can save lives by providing a panic button and can be used as a location tracking service. A case study focused on the Princes of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong is presented and findings are given. This investigation reveals that the developed mobile solutions offer promising value-added services for many potential ZigBee applications. PMID:24487623

  20. Robust message routing for mobile (wireless) ad hoc networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Johnson, Michael M.; Kilman, Dominique Marie; Bierbaum, Neal Robert; Chen, Helen Y.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.; Tsang, Rose P.; Nicol, David M.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of research targeting improvements in the robustness of message transport in wireless ad hoc networks. The first section of the report provides an analysis of throughput and latency in the wireless medium access control (MAC) layer and relates the analysis to the commonly used 802.11 protocol. The second section describes enhancements made to several existing models of wireless MAC and ad hoc routing protocols; the models were used in support of the work described in the following section. The third section of the report presents a lightweight transport layer protocol that is superior to TCP for use in wireless networks. In addition, it introduces techniques that improve the performance of any ad hoc source routing protocol. The fourth section presents a novel, highly scalable ad hoc routing protocol that is based on geographic principles but requires no localization hardware.

  1. Influence of Mobility Models in Precision Spray Aided by Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, L. B. L.; Costa, F. G.; Neves, L. A.; Ueyama, J.; Zafalon, G. F. D.; Montez, C.; Pinto, A. S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Precision Spray is a technique to increase performance of Precision Agriculture. This spray technique may be aided by a Wireless Sensor Network, however, for such approach, the communication between the agricultural input applicator vehicle and network is critical due to its proper functioning. Thus, this work analyzes how the number of nodes in a wireless sensor network, its type of distribution and different areas of scenario affects the performance of communication. We performed simulations to observe system's behavior changing to find the most fitted non-controlled mobility model to the system.

  2. Intelligent Middle-Ware Architecture for Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayana, Rayene Ben; Bonnin, Jean-Marie

    Recent advances in electronic and automotive industries as well as in wireless telecommunication technologies have drawn a new picture where each vehicle became “fully networked”. Multiple stake-holders (network operators, drivers, car manufacturers, service providers, etc.) will participate in this emerging market, which could grow following various models. To free the market from technical constraints, it is important to return to the basics of the Internet, i.e., providing embarked devices with a fully operational Internet connectivity (IPv6).

  3. Idiotypic immune networks in mobile-robot control.

    PubMed

    Whitbrook, Amanda M; Aickelin, Uwe; Garibaldi, Jonathan M

    2007-12-01

    Jerne's idiotypic-network theory postulates that the immune response involves interantibody stimulation and suppression, as well as matching to antigens. The theory has proved the most popular artificial immune system (AIS) model for incorporation into behavior-based robotics, but guidelines for implementing idiotypic selection are scarce. Furthermore, the direct effects of employing the technique have not been demonstrated in the form of a comparison with nonidiotypic systems. This paper aims to address these issues. A method for integrating an idiotypic AIS network with a reinforcement-learning (RL)-based control system is described, and the mechanisms underlying antibody stimulation and suppression are explained in detail. Some hypotheses that account for the network advantage are put forward and tested using three systems with increasing idiotypic complexity. The basic RL, a simplified hybrid AIS-RL that implements idiotypic selection independently of derived concentration levels, and a full hybrid AIS-RL scheme are examined. The test bed takes the form of a simulated Pioneer robot that is required to navigate through maze worlds detecting and tracking door markers. PMID:18179075

  4. Biometric identity management for standard mobile medical networks.

    PubMed

    Egner, Alexandru; Soceanu, Alexandru; Moldoveanu, Florica

    2012-01-01

    The explosion of healthcare costs over the last decade has prompted the ICT industry to respond with solutions for reducing costs while improving healthcare quality. The ISO/IEEE 11073 family of standards recently released is the first step towards interoperability of mobile medical devices used in patient environments. The standards do not, however, tackle security problems, such as identity management, or the secure exchange of medical data. This paper proposes an enhancement of the ISO/IEEE 11073-20601 protocol with an identity management system based on biometry. The paper describes a novel biometric-based authentication process, together with the biometric key generation algorithm. The proposed extension of the ISO/IEEE 11073-20601 is also presented. PMID:23366356

  5. Dynamic Task Allocation in Multi-Hop Multimedia Wireless Sensor Networks with Low Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yichao; Vural, Serdar; Gluhak, Alexander; Moessner, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a task allocation-oriented framework to enable efficient in-network processing and cost-effective multi-hop resource sharing for dynamic multi-hop multimedia wireless sensor networks with low node mobility, e.g., pedestrian speeds. The proposed system incorporates a fast task reallocation algorithm to quickly recover from possible network service disruptions, such as node or link failures. An evolutional self-learning mechanism based on a genetic algorithm continuously adapts the system parameters in order to meet the desired application delay requirements, while also achieving a sufficiently long network lifetime. Since the algorithm runtime incurs considerable time delay while updating task assignments, we introduce an adaptive window size to limit the delay periods and ensure an up-to-date solution based on node mobility patterns and device processing capabilities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that yields multi-objective task allocation in a mobile multi-hop wireless environment under dynamic conditions. Simulations are performed in various settings, and the results show considerable performance improvement in extending network lifetime compared to heuristic mechanisms. Furthermore, the proposed framework provides noticeable reduction in the frequency of missing application deadlines. PMID:24135992

  6. An artificial immune system approach with secondary response for misbehavior detection in mobile ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Sarafijanović, Slavisa; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves

    2005-09-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, nodes act both as terminals and information relays, and they participate in a common routing protocol, such as dynamic source routing (DSR). The network is vulnerable to routing misbehavior, due to faulty or malicious nodes. Misbehavior detection systems aim at removing this vulnerability. In this paper, we investigate the use of an artificial immune system (AIS) to detect node misbehavior in a mobile ad hoc network using DSR. The system is inspired by the natural immune system (IS) of vertebrates. Our goal is to build a system that, like its natural counterpart, automatically learns, and detects new misbehavior. We describe our solution for the classification task of the AIS; it employs negative selection and clonal selection, the algorithms for learning and adaptation used by the natural IS. We define how we map the natural IS concepts such as self, antigen, and antibody to a mobile ad hoc network and give the resulting algorithm for classifying nodes as misbehaving. We implemented the system in the network simulator Glomosim; we present detection results and discuss how the system parameters affect the performance of primary and secondary response. Further steps will extend the design by using an analogy to the innate system, danger signal, and memory cells. PMID:16252818

  7. Efficient Data Gathering in 3D Linear Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Using Sink Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Mariam; Javaid, Nadeem; Khan, Ayesha Hussain; Imran, Muhammad; Shoaib, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Due to the unpleasant and unpredictable underwater environment, designing an energy-efficient routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) demands more accuracy and extra computations. In the proposed scheme, we introduce a mobile sink (MS), i.e., an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and also courier nodes (CNs), to minimize the energy consumption of nodes. MS and CNs stop at specific stops for data gathering; later on, CNs forward the received data to the MS for further transmission. By the mobility of CNs and MS, the overall energy consumption of nodes is minimized. We perform simulations to investigate the performance of the proposed scheme and compare it to preexisting techniques. Simulation results are compared in terms of network lifetime, throughput, path loss, transmission loss and packet drop ratio. The results show that the proposed technique performs better in terms of network lifetime, throughput, path loss and scalability. PMID:27007373

  8. Efficient Data Gathering in 3D Linear Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Using Sink Mobility.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Mariam; Javaid, Nadeem; Khan, Ayesha Hussain; Imran, Muhammad; Shoaib, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Due to the unpleasant and unpredictable underwater environment, designing an energy-efficient routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) demands more accuracy and extra computations. In the proposed scheme, we introduce a mobile sink (MS), i.e., an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and also courier nodes (CNs), to minimize the energy consumption of nodes. MS and CNs stop at specific stops for data gathering; later on, CNs forward the received data to the MS for further transmission. By the mobility of CNs and MS, the overall energy consumption of nodes is minimized. We perform simulations to investigate the performance of the proposed scheme and compare it to preexisting techniques. Simulation results are compared in terms of network lifetime, throughput, path loss, transmission loss and packet drop ratio. The results show that the proposed technique performs better in terms of network lifetime, throughput, path loss and scalability. PMID:27007373

  9. Neural network recognition of chemical class information in mobility spectra obtained at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, S.; Nazarov, E.; Wang, Y. F.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Eiceman, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    A minimal neural network was applied to a large library of high-temperature mobility spectra drawn from 16 chemical classes including 154 substances with 2000 spectra at various concentrations. A genetic algorithm was used to create a representative subset of points from the mobility spectrum as input to a cascade-type back-propagation network. This network demonstrated that significant information specific to chemical class was located in the spectral region near the reactant ions. This network failed to generalize the solution to unfamiliar compounds necessitating the use of complete spectra in network processing. An extended back-propagation network classified unfamiliar chemicals by functional group with a mean for average values of 0.83 without sulfides and 0.79 with sulfides. Further experiments confirmed that chemical class information was resident in the spectral region near the reactant ions. Deconvolution of spectra demonstrated the presence of ions, merged with the reactant ion peaks that originated from introduced samples. The ability of the neural network to generalize the solution to unfamiliar compounds suggests that these ions are distinct and class specific.

  10. Statistically validated mobile communication networks: the evolution of motifs in European and Chinese data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Xia; Palchykov, Vasyl; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János; Miccichè, Salvatore; Tumminello, Michele; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2014-08-01

    Big data open up unprecedented opportunities for investigating complex systems, including society. In particular, communication data serve as major sources for computational social sciences, but they have to be cleaned and filtered as they may contain spurious information due to recording errors as well as interactions, like commercial and marketing activities, not directly related to the social network. The network constructed from communication data can only be considered as a proxy for the network of social relationships. Here we apply a systematic method, based on multiple-hypothesis testing, to statistically validate the links and then construct the corresponding Bonferroni network, generalized to the directed case. We study two large datasets of mobile phone records, one from Europe and the other from China. For both datasets we compare the raw data networks with the corresponding Bonferroni networks and point out significant differences in the structures and in the basic network measures. We show evidence that the Bonferroni network provides a better proxy for the network of social interactions than the original one. Using the filtered networks, we investigated the statistics and temporal evolution of small directed 3-motifs and concluded that closed communication triads have a formation time scale, which is quite fast and typically intraday. We also find that open communication triads preferentially evolve into other open triads with a higher fraction of reciprocated calls. These stylized facts were observed for both datasets.

  11. A Decentralized VPN Service over Generalized Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Sho; Shima, Keiichi; Uo, Yojiro; Esaki, Hiroshi

    We present a decentralized VPN service that can be built over generalized mobile ad-hoc networks (Generalized MANETs), in which topologies can be represented as a time-varying directed multigraph. We address wireless ad-hoc networks and overlay ad-hoc networks as instances of Generalized MANETs. We first propose an architecture to operate on various kinds of networks through a single set of operations. Then, we design and implement a decentralized VPN service on the proposed architecture. Through the development and operation of a prototype system we implemented, we found that the proposed architecture makes the VPN service applicable to each instance of Generalized MANETs, and that the VPN service makes it possible for unmodified applications to operate on the networks.

  12. A Comprehensive Review on Adaptability of Network Forensics Frameworks for Mobile Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid; Han, Qi; Bin Abdul Rahman, Zulkanain

    2014-01-01

    Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs) have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC. PMID:25097880

  13. Quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds using ion mobility spectra and cascade correlation neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Peter DEB.; Zheng, Peng

    1995-01-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful technique for trace organic analysis in the gas phase. Quantitative measurements are difficult, because IMS has a limited linear range. Factors that may affect the instrument response are pressure, temperature, and humidity. Nonlinear calibration methods, such as neural networks, may be ideally suited for IMS. Neural networks have the capability of modeling complex systems. Many neural networks suffer from long training times and overfitting. Cascade correlation neural networks train at very fast rates. They also build their own topology, that is a number of layers and number of units in each layer. By controlling the decay parameter in training neural networks, reproducible and general models may be obtained.

  14. Mobility enhances cooperation in the presence of decision-making mistakes on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wenjian

    2011-02-01

    Human migration has profound effects on social change. The introduction of success-driven migration to selfish individuals has revealed significant effects on the promotion of cooperation in spatial evolutionary games. In this study, we generalize the interaction structure from a spatial lattice to complex networks, such as Erdős-Renyi random networks and Barabási-Albert scale-free networks. Keeping the topology of networks, we investigate the robustness of cooperation when individuals can make decision errors. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of success-driven migration on the enhancement of cooperation confronted with individual decision-making mistakes. In contrast, even a very low probability of decision errors can decrease the level of cooperation without mobility. Statistical analysis further exhibits the relation between network topology and migratory behavior.

  15. A mobile wireless sensor network platform for use with optical fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bochao; Yang, Shuo; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a novel design of a system for using smart mobile robots to deploy a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for different optical fibre sensors, allowing for potential applications where there is a remote and harsh monitoring environment and allowing for the advantages of the optical fibre technology for the sensor itself to be used. The platform which was designed is comprised of a smart mobile robot, an optical fibre sensor module and a WSN module integrated with a localization component based on Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), which has important advantages for mobile sensing and tracking, flexible deployment and mesh networking. The design principle and implementation-related issues for the platform have been discussed in this study. To investigate the performance of the mobile WSN platform, an experiment simulating measurement in a real environment has been performed. With the positive experimental data obtained, the functionalities of the platform are successfully demonstrated, which enables the real-time monitoring and transmission of sensor data and in addition estimated positional information. The exploitation of this kind of mobile WSN platform with fibre optic sensors is expected to make an impact on many applications, including those where advanced optical fibre sensing is particularly advantageous, yet where conventional WSNs cannot meet the requirements of the total sensing system.

  16. Mobility-Aware Caching and Computation Offloading in 5G Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Hao, Yixue; Qiu, Meikang; Song, Jeungeun; Wu, Di; Humar, Iztok

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends show that Internet traffic is increasingly dominated by content, which is accompanied by the exponential growth of traffic. To cope with this phenomena, network caching is introduced to utilize the storage capacity of diverse network devices. In this paper, we first summarize four basic caching placement strategies, i.e., local caching, Device-to-Device (D2D) caching, Small cell Base Station (SBS) caching and Macrocell Base Station (MBS) caching. However, studies show that so far, much of the research has ignored the impact of user mobility. Therefore, taking the effect of the user mobility into consideration, we proposes a joint mobility-aware caching and SBS density placement scheme (MS caching). In addition, differences and relationships between caching and computation offloading are discussed. We present a design of a hybrid computation offloading and support it with experimental results, which demonstrate improved performance in terms of energy cost. Finally, we discuss the design of an incentive mechanism by considering network dynamics, differentiated user's quality of experience (QoE) and the heterogeneity of mobile terminals in terms of caching and computing capabilities. PMID:27347975

  17. Detecting unknown attacks in wireless sensor networks that contain mobile nodes.

    PubMed

    Banković, Zorana; Fraga, David; Moya, José M; Vallejo, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    As wireless sensor networks are usually deployed in unattended areas, security policies cannot be updated in a timely fashion upon identification of new attacks. This gives enough time for attackers to cause significant damage. Thus, it is of great importance to provide protection from unknown attacks. However, existing solutions are mostly concentrated on known attacks. On the other hand, mobility can make the sensor network more resilient to failures, reactive to events, and able to support disparate missions with a common set of sensors, yet the problem of security becomes more complicated. In order to address the issue of security in networks with mobile nodes, we propose a machine learning solution for anomaly detection along with the feature extraction process that tries to detect temporal and spatial inconsistencies in the sequences of sensed values and the routing paths used to forward these values to the base station. We also propose a special way to treat mobile nodes, which is the main novelty of this work. The data produced in the presence of an attacker are treated as outliers, and detected using clustering techniques. These techniques are further coupled with a reputation system, in this way isolating compromised nodes in timely fashion. The proposal exhibits good performances at detecting and confining previously unseen attacks, including the cases when mobile nodes are compromised. PMID:23112632

  18. Mobility-Aware Caching and Computation Offloading in 5G Ultra-Dense Cellular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Hao, Yixue; Qiu, Meikang; Song, Jeungeun; Wu, Di; Humar, Iztok

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends show that Internet traffic is increasingly dominated by content, which is accompanied by the exponential growth of traffic. To cope with this phenomena, network caching is introduced to utilize the storage capacity of diverse network devices. In this paper, we first summarize four basic caching placement strategies, i.e., local caching, Device-to-Device (D2D) caching, Small cell Base Station (SBS) caching and Macrocell Base Station (MBS) caching. However, studies show that so far, much of the research has ignored the impact of user mobility. Therefore, taking the effect of the user mobility into consideration, we proposes a joint mobility-aware caching and SBS density placement scheme (MS caching). In addition, differences and relationships between caching and computation offloading are discussed. We present a design of a hybrid computation offloading and support it with experimental results, which demonstrate improved performance in terms of energy cost. Finally, we discuss the design of an incentive mechanism by considering network dynamics, differentiated user’s quality of experience (QoE) and the heterogeneity of mobile terminals in terms of caching and computing capabilities. PMID:27347975

  19. Detecting Unknown Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks That Contain Mobile Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Banković, Zorana; Fraga, David; Moya, José M.; Vallejo, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    As wireless sensor networks are usually deployed in unattended areas, security policies cannot be updated in a timely fashion upon identification of new attacks. This gives enough time for attackers to cause significant damage. Thus, it is of great importance to provide protection from unknown attacks. However, existing solutions are mostly concentrated on known attacks. On the other hand, mobility can make the sensor network more resilient to failures, reactive to events, and able to support disparate missions with a common set of sensors, yet the problem of security becomes more complicated. In order to address the issue of security in networks with mobile nodes, we propose a machine learning solution for anomaly detection along with the feature extraction process that tries to detect temporal and spatial inconsistencies in the sequences of sensed values and the routing paths used to forward these values to the base station. We also propose a special way to treat mobile nodes, which is the main novelty of this work. The data produced in the presence of an attacker are treated as outliers, and detected using clustering techniques. These techniques are further coupled with a reputation system, in this way isolating compromised nodes in timely fashion. The proposal exhibits good performances at detecting and confining previously unseen attacks, including the cases when mobile nodes are compromised. PMID:23112632

  20. Static vs. mobile sink: The influence of basic parameters on energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Majid I.; Gansterer, Wilfried N.; Haring, Guenter

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade a large number of routing protocols has been designed for achieving energy efficiency in data collecting wireless sensor networks. The drawbacks of using a static sink are well known. It has been argued in the literature that a mobile sink may improve the energy dissipation compared to a static one. Some authors focus on minimizing Emax, the maximum energy dissipation of any single node in the network, while others aim at minimizing Ebar, the average energy dissipation over all nodes. In our paper we take a more holistic view, considering both Emax and Ebar. The main contribution of this paper is to provide a simulation-based analysis of the energy efficiency of WSNs with static and mobile sinks. The focus is on two important configuration parameters: mobility path of the sink and duty cycling value of the nodes. On the one hand, it is well known that in the case of a mobile sink with fixed trajectory the choice of the mobility path influences energy efficiency. On the other hand, in some types of applications sensor nodes spend a rather large fraction of their total lifetime in idle mode, and therefore higher energy efficiency can be achieved by using the concept of reduced duty cycles. In particular, we quantitatively analyze the influence of duty cycling and the mobility radius of the sink as well as their interrelationship in terms of energy consumption for a well-defined model scenario. The analysis starts from general load considerations and is refined into a geometrical model. This model is validated by simulations which are more realistic in terms of duty cycling than previous work. It is illustrated that over all possible configuration scenarios in terms of duty cycle and mobility radius of the sink the energy dissipation in the WSN can vary up to a factor of nine in terms of Emax and up to a factor of 17 in terms of Ebar. It turns out that in general the choice of the duty cycle value is more important for achieving energy efficiency

  1. Static vs. mobile sink: The influence of basic parameters on energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Majid I; Gansterer, Wilfried N; Haring, Guenter

    2013-05-15

    Over the last decade a large number of routing protocols has been designed for achieving energy efficiency in data collecting wireless sensor networks. The drawbacks of using a static sink are well known. It has been argued in the literature that a mobile sink may improve the energy dissipation compared to a static one. Some authors focus on minimizing Emax, the maximum energy dissipation of any single node in the network, while others aim at minimizing Ebar, the average energy dissipation over all nodes. In our paper we take a more holistic view, considering both Emax and Ebar. The main contribution of this paper is to provide a simulation-based analysis of the energy efficiency of WSNs with static and mobile sinks. The focus is on two important configuration parameters: mobility path of the sink and duty cycling value of the nodes. On the one hand, it is well known that in the case of a mobile sink with fixed trajectory the choice of the mobility path influences energy efficiency. On the other hand, in some types of applications sensor nodes spend a rather large fraction of their total lifetime in idle mode, and therefore higher energy efficiency can be achieved by using the concept of reduced duty cycles. In particular, we quantitatively analyze the influence of duty cycling and the mobility radius of the sink as well as their interrelationship in terms of energy consumption for a well-defined model scenario. The analysis starts from general load considerations and is refined into a geometrical model. This model is validated by simulations which are more realistic in terms of duty cycling than previous work. It is illustrated that over all possible configuration scenarios in terms of duty cycle and mobility radius of the sink the energy dissipation in the WSN can vary up to a factor of nine in terms of Emax and up to a factor of 17 in terms of Ebar. It turns out that in general the choice of the duty cycle value is more important for achieving energy efficiency

  2. A Mobile Sensor Network to Map CO2 in Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Christen, A.; Nesic, Z.; Ketler, R.

    2014-12-01

    Globally, an estimated 80% of all fuel-based CO2 emissions into the atmosphere are attributable to cities, but there is still a lack of tools to map, visualize and monitor emissions to the scales at which emissions reduction strategies can be implemented - the local and urban scale. Mobile CO2 sensors, such as those attached to taxis and other existing mobile platforms, may be a promising way to observe and map CO2 mixing ratios across heterogenous urban environments with a limited number of sensors. Emerging modular open source technologies, and inexpensive compact sensor components not only enable rapid prototyping and replication, but also are allowing for the miniaturization and mobilization of traditionally fixed sensor networks. We aim to optimize the methods and technologies for monitoring CO2 in cities using a network of CO2 sensors deployable on vehicles and bikes. Our sensor technology is contained in a compact weather-proof case (35.8cm x 27.8cm x 11.8cm), powered independently by battery or by car, and includes the Li-Cor Li-820 infrared gas analyzer (Licor Inc, lincoln, NB, USA), Arduino Mega microcontroller (Arduino CC, Italy) and Adafruit GPS (Adafruit Technologies, NY, USA), and digital air temperature thermometer which measure CO2 mixing ratios (ppm), geolocation and speed, pressure and temperature, respectively at 1-second intervals. With the deployment of our sensor technology, we will determine if such a semi-autonomous mobile approach to monitoring CO2 in cities can determine excess urban CO2 mixing ratios (i.e. the 'urban CO2 dome') when compared to values measured at a fixed, remote background site. We present results from a pilot study in Vancouver, BC, where the a network of our new sensors was deployed both in fixed network and in a mobile campaign and examine the spatial biases of the two methods.

  3. Slotted Aloha multiple access and error control coding for land mobile satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Erich

    1992-10-01

    This paper considers a satellite network with data messages being transmitted by land mobile users according to slotted Aloha multiple access. The mobile communication links suffering from multipath fading and signal shadowing are modelled as Gilbert-Elliott channels. FEC block coding is used to correct transmission errors. The maximum achievable information throughput and the mean packet delay are derived from a combined analysis of the multiple access and FEC/ARQ protocol. The results show that the additional overhead necessary for FEC is outweighed by the benefit in throughput and delay. Finally, the capture effect and its consequences are discussed.

  4. Classification of ion mobility spectra by functional groups using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, S.; Nazarov, E.; Wang, Y. F.; Eiceman, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    Neural networks were trained using whole ion mobility spectra from a standardized database of 3137 spectra for 204 chemicals at various concentrations. Performance of the network was measured by the success of classification into ten chemical classes. Eleven stages for evaluation of spectra and of spectral pre-processing were employed and minimums established for response thresholds and spectral purity. After optimization of the database, network, and pre-processing routines, the fraction of successful classifications by functional group was 0.91 throughout a range of concentrations. Network classification relied on a combination of features, including drift times, number of peaks, relative intensities, and other factors apparently including peak shape. The network was opportunistic, exploiting different features within different chemical classes. Application of neural networks in a two-tier design where chemicals were first identified by class and then individually eliminated all but one false positive out of 161 test spectra. These findings establish that ion mobility spectra, even with low resolution instrumentation, contain sufficient detail to permit the development of automated identification systems.

  5. A Secure 3-Way Routing Protocols for Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Ganesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET). The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS) routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET. PMID:25136697

  6. A secure 3-way routing protocols for intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Sekaran, Ramesh; Parasuraman, Ganesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET). The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS) routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET. PMID:25136697

  7. Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Danger Theory-Based Artificial Immune Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs. PMID:25946001

  8. Securing mobile ad hoc networks using danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm.

    PubMed

    Abdelhaq, Maha; Alsaqour, Raed; Abdelhaq, Shawkat

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs. PMID:25946001

  9. Data Delivery Method Based on Neighbor Nodes' Information in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takuma; Taenaka, Yuzo; Okuda, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information to achieve reliable communication in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). In a MANET, it is difficult to deliver data reliably due to instabilities in network topology and wireless network condition which result from node movement. To overcome such unstable communication, opportunistic routing and network coding schemes have lately attracted considerable attention. Although an existing method that employs such schemes, MAC-independent opportunistic routing and encoding (MORE), Chachulski et al. (2007), improves the efficiency of data delivery in an unstable wireless mesh network, it does not address node movement. To efficiently deliver data in a MANET, the method proposed in this paper thus first employs the same opportunistic routing and network coding used in MORE and also uses the location information and transmission probabilities of neighbor nodes to adapt to changeable network topology and wireless network condition. The simulation experiments showed that the proposed method can achieve efficient data delivery with low network load when the movement speed is relatively slow. PMID:24672371

  10. Using analytic network process for evaluating mobile text entry methods.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, Lanndon A; Seva, Rosemary R

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights a preference evaluation methodology for text entry methods in a touch keyboard smartphone using analytic network process (ANP). Evaluation of text entry methods in literature mainly considers speed and accuracy. This study presents an alternative means for selecting text entry method that considers user preference. A case study was carried out with a group of experts who were asked to develop a selection decision model of five text entry methods. The decision problem is flexible enough to reflect interdependencies of decision elements that are necessary in describing real-life conditions. Results showed that QWERTY method is more preferred than other text entry methods while arrangement of keys is the most preferred criterion in characterizing a sound method. Sensitivity analysis using simulation of normally distributed random numbers under fairly large perturbation reported the foregoing results reliable enough to reflect robust judgment. The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of a multi-criteria decision approach in the preference evaluation of text entry methods. PMID:26360215

  11. An extra power saving scheme for prolonging lifetime of mobile handset in the 4G mobile networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jenhui; Tarn, Woei-Hwa; Lee, Jiann-Der

    2014-01-01

    In the fourth generation or next generation networks, services of non-real-time variable bit rate (NRT-VBR) and best effort (BE) will dominate over 85% of the total traffic in the networks. In this paper, we study the power saving mechanism of NRT-VBR and BE services for mobile handsets (MHs) to prolong their battery lifetime (i.e., the sustained operation duration) in the fourth generation networks. Because the priority of NRT-VBR and BE is lower than that of real-time VBR (RT-VBR) or guaranteed bit rate (GBR) services, we investigate an extended sleep mode for lower priority services (e.g., NRT-VBR and BE) in an MH to conserve the energy. The extended sleep mode is used when the MH wakes up from the sleep mode but it cannot obtain the bandwidth from base station (BS). The proposed mechanism, named extra power saving scheme (EPSS), uses the M/M/k/k Markovian queuing model to estimate the extended sleep duration to let MHs conserve their battery energy when the networks traffic is congested. To study the performance of EPSS, an accurate analysis model of energy is presented and validated by taking a series of simulations. Numerical experiments show that EPSS can achieve 43% extra energy conservation at most when downlink resource is saturated. We conclude that the energy of MHs can be conserved further by applying EPSS when the traffic load is saturated. The effect of energy saving becomes more obvious when the portion of NRT-VBR and BE services is greater than that of RT-VBR and GBR services. PMID:25089822

  12. An Extra Power Saving Scheme for Prolonging Lifetime of Mobile Handset in the 4G Mobile Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jenhui; Tarn, Woei-Hwa; Lee, Jiann-Der

    2014-01-01

    In the fourth generation or next generation networks, services of non-real-time variable bit rate (NRT-VBR) and best effort (BE) will dominate over 85% of the total traffic in the networks. In this paper, we study the power saving mechanism of NRT-VBR and BE services for mobile handsets (MHs) to prolong their battery lifetime (i.e., the sustained operation duration) in the fourth generation networks. Because the priority of NRT-VBR and BE is lower than that of real-time VBR (RT-VBR) or guaranteed bit rate (GBR) services, we investigate an extended sleep mode for lower priority services (e.g., NRT-VBR and BE) in an MH to conserve the energy. The extended sleep mode is used when the MH wakes up from the sleep mode but it cannot obtain the bandwidth from base station (BS). The proposed mechanism, named extra power saving scheme (EPSS), uses the Markovian queuing model to estimate the extended sleep duration to let MHs conserve their battery energy when the networks traffic is congested. To study the performance of EPSS, an accurate analysis model of energy is presented and validated by taking a series of simulations. Numerical experiments show that EPSS can achieve 43% extra energy conservation at most when downlink resource is saturated. We conclude that the energy of MHs can be conserved further by applying EPSS when the traffic load is saturated. The effect of energy saving becomes more obvious when the portion of NRT-VBR and BE services is greater than that of RT-VBR and GBR services. PMID:25089822

  13. Graph Theory Analysis of Functional Brain Networks and Mobility Disability in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, Jonathan H.; Morgan, Ashley R.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The brain’s structural integrity is associated with mobility function in older adults. Changes in function may be evident earlier than changes in structure and may be more directly related to mobility. Therefore, we assessed whether functional brain networks varied with mobility function in older adults. Methods. Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging were collected on 24 young (mean age = 26.4±5.1) and 48 older (mean age = 72.04±5.1) participants. Older participants were divided into three groups by SPPB score: Low SPPB (score = 7–9), Mid SPPB (score = 10), High SPPB (score = 11–12).Graph theory–based methods were used to characterize and compare brain network organization. Results. Connectivity in the somatomotor cortex distinguished between groups based on SPPB score. The community structure of the somatomotor cortex was significantly less consistent in the Low SPPB group (mean = 0.097±0.05) compared with Young (mean = 0.163±0.09, p = .03) SPPB group. Striking differences were evident in second-order connections between somatomotor cortex and superior temporal gyrus and insula that reached statistical significance. The Low SPPB group (mean = 140.87±109.30) had a significantly higher number of connections than Young (mean = 45.05±33.79, p = .0003) or High (mean = 49.61±35.31, p = .002) SPPB group. Conclusions. Older adults with poorer mobility function exhibited reduced consistency of somatomotor community structure and a greater number of secondary connections with vestibular and multisensory regions of the brain. Further study is needed to fully interpret these effects, but analysis of functional brain networks adds new insights to the contribution of the brain to mobility. PMID:24717331

  14. Distinguishing congestion from malicious behavior in mobile ad-hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jin; Medidi, Sirisha R.

    2004-08-01

    Packet dropping in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks could be a result of wireless link errors, congestion, or malicious packet drop attack. Current techniques for detecting malicious behavior either do not consider congestion in the network or are not able to detect in real time. Further more, they usually work at network layer. In this paper, we propose a TCP-Manet protocol, which reacts to congestion like TCP Reno protocol, and has additional capability to distinguish among congestion, wireless link error, and malicious packet drop attack. It is an end-to-end mechanism that does not require additional modifications to the nodes in the network. Since it is an extension of existing TCP protocol, it is compatible with existing protocols. It works in conjunction with the network layer and an unobtrusive monitor to assist the network in the detection and characterization of the nature of the behavior. Experimental results show that TCP-Manet has the same performance as that of TCP-Reno in wired network, and performs better in wireless ad-hoc networks in terms of throughput while having good detection effectiveness.

  15. A Leasing Model to Deal with Partial Failures in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Boix, Elisa; van Cutsem, Tom; Vallejos, Jorge; de Meuter, Wolfgang; D'Hondt, Theo

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) many partial failures are the result of temporary network partitions due to the intermittent connectivity of mobile devices. Some of these failures will be permanent and require application-level failure handling. However, it is impossible to distinguish a permanent from a transient failure. Leasing provides a solution to this problem based on the temporal restriction of resources. But to date no leasing model has been designed specifically for MANETs. In this paper, we identify three characteristics required for a leasing model to be usable in a MANET, discuss the issues with existing leasing models and then propose the leased object references model, which integrates leasing with remote object references. In addition, we describe an implementation of the model in the programming language AmbientTalk. Leased object references provide an extensible framework that allows programmers to express their own leasing patterns and enables both lease holders (clients) and lease grantors (services) to deal with permanent failures.

  16. Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Scheme Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Y. Harold; Rajaram, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO) that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN) to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique. PMID:26819966

  17. Cross-Layer Service Discovery Mechanism for OLSRv2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Vara, M Isabel; Campo, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2). In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1). In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV) to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM), according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC) 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead. PMID:26205272

  18. Maintaining communication link based on AODV routing protocol in mobile robot networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Jiang, Hong

    2007-12-01

    Wired computer networks are vital in modern life. However, these networks are extremely vulnerable to disaster or attack in emergency situations. Therefore, how to maintain communication link under emergency situations is very important. In this paper, we utilize a series of autonomous mobile slave robots which follow behind the lead robot and automatically stop where needed to maintain an ad hoc network for guaranteeing a link between the lead robot and its remote monitor/control station. To accomplish this target, an efficient communication protocol limitation mobile robots broadcast based on AODV (LMRB-AODV) is proposed for deployment in multi-robot system. After then the lead robot could carry service traffics to the monitor station under emergency situations through the communication link. At any instance, the lead robot has the ability to reclaim the relay robot(s) which are unneeded in the network to rejoin the convoy behind the lead robot and use it to extend the range of wireless communication when the radio frequency (RF) shortcuts are detected by the lead robot. All relay deployment and reclaiming strategy functions occur without the operator's involvement. Finally, we provide a comparative study of their performance in a number of different simulation environments. The results show that the proposed scheme is very efficient in maintaining communication link in wireless network.

  19. Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Scheme Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Y Harold; Rajaram, M

    2015-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO) that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN) to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique. PMID:26819966

  20. Cross-Layer Service Discovery Mechanism for OLSRv2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Vara, M. Isabel; Campo, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2). In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1). In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV) to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM), according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC) 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead. PMID:26205272

  1. RAC-Multi: Reader Anti-Collision Algorithm for Multichannel Mobile RFID Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kwangcheol; Song, Wonil

    2010-01-01

    At present, RFID is installed on mobile devices such as mobile phones or PDAs and provides a means to obtain information about objects equipped with an RFID tag over a multi-channeled telecommunication networks. To use mobile RFIDs, reader collision problems should be addressed given that readers are continuously moving. Moreover, in a multichannel environment for mobile RFIDs, interference between adjacent channels should be considered. This work first defines a new concept of a reader collision problem between adjacent channels and then suggests a novel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID readers that use multiple channels. To avoid interference with adjacent channels, the suggested algorithm separates data channels into odd and even numbered channels and allocates odd-numbered channels first to readers. It also sets an unused channel between the control channel and data channels to ensure that control messages and the signal of the adjacent channel experience no interference. Experimental results show that suggested algorithm shows throughput improvements ranging from 29% to 46% for tag identifications compared to the GENTLE reader anti-collision algorithm for multichannel RFID networks. PMID:22315528

  2. Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Mobile Sinks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Liu, Fagui; Cao, Jianneng; Wang, Liangming

    2016-01-01

    Mobile sinks can achieve load-balancing and energy-consumption balancing across the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the frequent change of the paths between source nodes and the sinks caused by sink mobility introduces significant overhead in terms of energy and packet delays. To enhance network performance of WSNs with mobile sinks (MWSNs), we present an efficient routing strategy, which is formulated as an optimization problem and employs the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to build the optimal routing paths. However, the conventional PSO is insufficient to solve discrete routing optimization problems. Therefore, a novel greedy discrete particle swarm optimization with memory (GMDPSO) is put forward to address this problem. In the GMDPSO, particle's position and velocity of traditional PSO are redefined under discrete MWSNs scenario. Particle updating rule is also reconsidered based on the subnetwork topology of MWSNs. Besides, by improving the greedy forwarding routing, a greedy search strategy is designed to drive particles to find a better position quickly. Furthermore, searching history is memorized to accelerate convergence. Simulation results demonstrate that our new protocol significantly improves the robustness and adapts to rapid topological changes with multiple mobile sinks, while efficiently reducing the communication overhead and the energy consumption. PMID:27428971

  3. Fuzzy Logic based Handoff Latency Reduction Mechanism in Layer 2 of Heterogeneous Mobile IPv6 Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Farhat; Masud, Mosharrof H.; Latif, Suhaimi A.

    2013-12-01

    Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) is one of the pioneer standards that support mobility in IPv6 environment. It has been designed to support different types of technologies for providing seamless communications in next generation network. However, MIPv6 and subsequent standards have some limitations due to its handoff latency. In this paper, a fuzzy logic based mechanism is proposed to reduce the handoff latency of MIPv6 for Layer 2 (L2) by scanning the Access Points (APs) while the Mobile Node (MN) is moving among different APs. Handoff latency occurs when the MN switches from one AP to another in L2. Heterogeneous network is considered in this research in order to reduce the delays in L2. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and velocity of the MN are considered as the input of fuzzy logic technique. This technique helps the MN to measure optimum signal quality from APs for the speedy mobile node based on fuzzy logic input rules and makes a list of interfaces. A suitable interface from the list of available interfaces can be selected like WiFi, WiMAX or GSM. Simulation results show 55% handoff latency reduction and 50% packet loss improvement in L2 compared to standard to MIPv6.

  4. Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Mobile Sinks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Liu, Fagui; Cao, Jianneng; Wang, Liangming

    2016-01-01

    Mobile sinks can achieve load-balancing and energy-consumption balancing across the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the frequent change of the paths between source nodes and the sinks caused by sink mobility introduces significant overhead in terms of energy and packet delays. To enhance network performance of WSNs with mobile sinks (MWSNs), we present an efficient routing strategy, which is formulated as an optimization problem and employs the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to build the optimal routing paths. However, the conventional PSO is insufficient to solve discrete routing optimization problems. Therefore, a novel greedy discrete particle swarm optimization with memory (GMDPSO) is put forward to address this problem. In the GMDPSO, particle’s position and velocity of traditional PSO are redefined under discrete MWSNs scenario. Particle updating rule is also reconsidered based on the subnetwork topology of MWSNs. Besides, by improving the greedy forwarding routing, a greedy search strategy is designed to drive particles to find a better position quickly. Furthermore, searching history is memorized to accelerate convergence. Simulation results demonstrate that our new protocol significantly improves the robustness and adapts to rapid topological changes with multiple mobile sinks, while efficiently reducing the communication overhead and the energy consumption. PMID:27428971

  5. ACTS broadband aeronautical experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Estabrook, Polly; Agan, Martin J.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, the demand for reliable data, voice, and video satellite communication links between aircraft and ground to improve air traffic control, airline management, and to meet the growing demand for passenger communications has increased significantly. It is expected that in the near future, the spectrum required for aeronautical communication services will grow significantly beyond that currently available at L-band. In anticipation of this, JPL is developing an experimental broadband aeronautical satellite communications system that will utilize NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as a satellite of opportunity and the technology developed under JPL's ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) Task to evaluate the feasibility of using K/Ka-band for these applications. The application of K/Ka-band for aeronautical satellite communications at cruise altitudes is particularly promising for several reasons: (1) the minimal amount of signal attenuation due to rain; (2) the reduced drag due to the smaller K/Ka-band antennas (as compared to the current L-band systems); and (3) the large amount of available bandwidth. The increased bandwidth available at these frequencies is expected to lead to significantly improved passenger communications - including full-duplex compressed video and multiple channel voice. A description of the proposed broadband experimental system will be presented including: (1) applications of K/Ka-band aeronautical satellite technology to U.S. industry; (2) the experiment objectives; (3) the experiment set-up; (4) experimental equipment description; and (5) industrial participation in the experiment and the benefits.

  6. Accurate extraction of mobility in carbon nanotube network transistors using C-V and I-V measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Dongil; Kim, Chaewon; Lee, Jieun; Choi, Bongsik; Kim, Dong Myong; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Mijung; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2014-11-01

    The mobility of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network thin-film transistors (TFTs) is an essential parameter. Previous extraction methods for mobility encountered problems in extracting accurate intrinsic mobility due to the uncertainty of the SWNT density in the network channel and the existence of contact resistance at the source/drain electrodes. As a result, efficient and accurate extraction of the mobility in SWNT TFTs is challenging using previous methods. We propose a direct method of extracting accurate intrinsic mobility in SWNT TFTs by employing capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements. Consequently, we simply obtain accurate intrinsic mobility within the ink-jet printed SWNT TFTs without any complicated calculations.

  7. A Novel Clustering Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Based on Determination of Virtual Links' Weight to Increase Network Stability

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Abbas; Afsharfarnia, Abbas; Zarafshan, Faraneh; Al-Haddad, S. A. R.

    2014-01-01

    The stability of clusters is a serious issue in mobile ad hoc networks. Low stability of clusters may lead to rapid failure of clusters, high energy consumption for reclustering, and decrease in the overall network stability in mobile ad hoc network. In order to improve the stability of clusters, weight-based clustering algorithms are utilized. However, these algorithms only use limited features of the nodes. Thus, they decrease the weight accuracy in determining node's competency and lead to incorrect selection of cluster heads. A new weight-based algorithm presented in this paper not only determines node's weight using its own features, but also considers the direct effect of feature of adjacent nodes. It determines the weight of virtual links between nodes and the effect of the weights on determining node's final weight. By using this strategy, the highest weight is assigned to the best choices for being the cluster heads and the accuracy of nodes selection increases. The performance of new algorithm is analyzed by using computer simulation. The results show that produced clusters have longer lifetime and higher stability. Mathematical simulation shows that this algorithm has high availability in case of failure. PMID:25114965

  8. Bandwidth, Broadband, and Planning for Public Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blowers, Helene

    2012-01-01

    Broadband and bandwidth allocation is an essential technology planning activity that libraries should address on a continual basis. There are five key factors that will impact your network's performance: 1. infrastructure, 2. network load, 3. workstation performance, 4. prioritization of services, and 5. network management. The author thinks it's…

  9. Online People Tagging: Social (Mobile) Network(ing) Services and Work-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, John; Pachler, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Social and mobile technologies offer users unprecedented opportunities for communicating, interacting, sharing, meaning-making, content and context generation. And, these affordances are in constant flux driven by a powerful interplay between technological innovation and emerging cultural practices. Significantly, also, they are starting to…

  10. The Role of Social Networks in Early Adoption of Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tscherning, Heidi; Mathiassen, Lars

    As mobile devices have become the personal information-processing interface of choice, many individuals seem to swiftly follow fashion. Yet, the literature is silent on how early adopters of mobile devices overcome uncertainties related to shifts in technology. Based on purposive sampling, this paper presents detailed insights into why and how five closely related individuals made the decision to adopt the iPhone before it was available through traditional supply chains. Focusing on the role played by social networks, we analyze how adoption threshold, opinion leaders, social contagion, and social learning shaped adoption behaviors and outcomes. The analyses confirm that network structures impact the early decision to accept the iPhone; they show that when facing uncertainty, adoption decisions emerged as a combined result of individual adoption reflections and major influences from the social network as well as behaviors observed within the network, and, they reveal interesting behaviors that differed from expectations. In conclusion, we discuss implications for both theory and practice.

  11. Towards an optimal energy consumption for unattended mobile sensor networks through autonomous sensor redeployment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Jia, Jie; Wen, Yingyou; Zhao, Dazhe

    2014-01-01

    Energy hole is an inherent problem caused by heavier traffic loads of sensor nodes nearer the sink because of more frequent data transmission, which is strongly dependent on the topology induced by the sensor deployment. In this paper, we propose an autonomous sensor redeployment algorithm to balance energy consumption and mitigate energy hole for unattended mobile sensor networks. First, with the target area divided into several equal width coronas, we present a mathematical problem modeling sensor node layout as well as transmission pattern to maximize network coverage and reduce communication cost. And then, by calculating the optimal node density for each corona to avoid energy hole, a fully distributed movement algorithm is proposed, which can achieve an optimal distribution quickly only by pushing or pulling its one-hop neighbors. The simulation results demonstrate that our algorithm achieves a much smaller average moving distance and a much longer network lifetime than existing algorithms and can eliminate the energy hole problem effectively. PMID:24949494

  12. Using smart mobile devices in social-network-based health education practice: a learning behavior analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Ting

    2014-06-01

    Virtual communities provide numerous resources, immediate feedback, and information sharing, enabling people to rapidly acquire information and knowledge and supporting diverse applications that facilitate interpersonal interactions, communication, and sharing. Moreover, incorporating highly mobile and convenient devices into practice-based courses can be advantageous in learning situations. Therefore, in this study, a tablet PC and Google+ were introduced to a health education practice course to elucidate satisfaction of learning module and conditions and analyze the sequence and frequency of learning behaviors during the social-network-based learning process. According to the analytical results, social networks can improve interaction among peers and between educators and students, particularly when these networks are used to search for data, post articles, engage in discussions, and communicate. In addition, most nursing students and nursing educators expressed a positive attitude and satisfaction toward these innovative teaching methods, and looked forward to continuing the use of this learning approach. PMID:24568697

  13. A design testbed for distributed V/UHF networks with mobile terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnegie, Andrew

    A flexible design tool for mobile radio networks was implemented. Both low level areas such as modulation, coding, and synchronization, and high level techniques involving protocol details can be analyzed simultaneously. The simulation software is based on a Rayleigh fading channel model with a network layer protocol implementation. Described here is how a Rayleigh distribution can be generated and how it is used to implement the channel simulation by a conversion to a probability of error based on the modulation technique required. The network model is discussed with reference to the OSI Open Systems Interconnection reference model, and the variable configuration is described. To access the success of the system, an investigation into the use of variable, optimum length packets is illustrated.

  14. Towards an Optimal Energy Consumption for Unattended Mobile Sensor Networks through Autonomous Sensor Redeployment

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jie; Wen, Yingyou; Zhao, Dazhe

    2014-01-01

    Energy hole is an inherent problem caused by heavier traffic loads of sensor nodes nearer the sink because of more frequent data transmission, which is strongly dependent on the topology induced by the sensor deployment. In this paper, we propose an autonomous sensor redeployment algorithm to balance energy consumption and mitigate energy hole for unattended mobile sensor networks. First, with the target area divided into several equal width coronas, we present a mathematical problem modeling sensor node layout as well as transmission pattern to maximize network coverage and reduce communication cost. And then, by calculating the optimal node density for each corona to avoid energy hole, a fully distributed movement algorithm is proposed, which can achieve an optimal distribution quickly only by pushing or pulling its one-hop neighbors. The simulation results demonstrate that our algorithm achieves a much smaller average moving distance and a much longer network lifetime than existing algorithms and can eliminate the energy hole problem effectively. PMID:24949494

  15. The design and networking of dynamic satellite constellations for global mobile communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullen, Cionaith J.; Benedicto, Xavier; Tafazolli, Rahim; Evans, Barry

    1993-01-01

    Various design factors for mobile satellite systems, whose aim is to provide worldwide voice and data communications to users with hand-held terminals, are examined. Two network segments are identified - the ground segment (GS) and the space segment (SS) - and are seen to be highly dependent on each other. The overall architecture must therefore be adapted to both of these segments, rather than each being optimized according to its own criteria. Terrestrial networks are grouped and called the terrestrial segment (TS). In the SS, of fundamental importance is the constellation altitude. The effect of the altitude on decisions such as constellation design choice and on network aspects like call handover statistics are fundamental. Orbit resonance is introduced and referred to throughout. It is specifically examined for its useful properties relating to GS/SS connectivities.

  16. Earth Regimes Network Evolution Study (ERNESt): Introducing the Space Mobile Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menrad, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Speaker and Presenter at the Lincoln Laboratory Communications Workshop on April 5, 2016 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, MA. A visual presentation titled Earth Regimes Network Evolution Study (ERNESt).

  17. EFFECT OF MOBILITY ON PERFORMANCE OF WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK PROTOCOLS.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, M. V.; Marathe, A.

    2001-01-01

    We empirically study the effect of mobility on the performance of protocols designed for wireless adhoc networks. An important ohjective is to study the interaction of the Routing and MAC layer protocols under different mobility parameters. We use three basic mobility models: grid mobility model, random waypoint model, and exponential correlated random model. The performance of protocols was measured in terms of (i) latency, (ii) throughput, (iii) number of packels received, (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Three different commonly studied routing protocols were used: AODV, DSR and LAR1. Similarly three well known MAC protocols were used: MACA, 802.1 1 and CSMA. The inair1 conclusion of our study include the following: 1. 'I'he performance of the: network varies widely with varying mobility models, packet injection rates and speeds; and can ba in fact characterized as fair to poor depending on the specific situation. Nevertheless, in general, it appears that the combination of AODV and 802.1 I is far better than other combination of routing and MAC protocols. 2. MAC layer protocols interact with routing layer protocols. This concept which is formalized using statistics implies that in general it is not meaningful to speak about a MAC or a routing protocol in isolation. Such an interaction leads to trade-offs between the amount of control packets generated by each layer. More interestingly, the results wise the possibility of improving the performance of a particular MAC layer protocol by using a cleverly designed routing protocol or vice-versa. 3. Routing prolocols with distributed knowledge about routes are more suitable for networks with mobility. This is seen by comparing the performance of AODV with DSR or LAR scheme 1. In DSli and IAR scheme 1, information about a computed path is being stored in the route query control packct. 4. MAC layer protocols have varying performance with varying mobility models. It is

  18. Secure mobile agent for telemedicine based on P2P networks.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Shin; Pan, Jiann-I

    2013-06-01

    Exploring intelligent mobile agent (MA) technology for assisting medical services or transmitting personal patient-health information in telemedicine applications has been widely investigated. Conversely, peer-to-peer (P2P) networking has become one of the most popular applications used in the Internet because of its benefits for easy-to-manage resources and because it balances workloads. Therefore, constructing an agent-based telemedicine platform based on P2P networking architecture is necessary. The main purpose of this paper is to construct a safe agent-based telemedicine that based on P2P networking architecture. Two themes are addressed in this paper: (a) the P2P network architecture for an agent-based telemedicine service, and (b) the security mechanisms for the proposed telemedicine networking architecture. When an MA contains patient information and migrates from one host to another through the Internet, it can be attacked by other software agents or agent platforms that can illegally access patient information. The proposed P2P network architecture is based on the JXTA protocol and provides two types of telemedicine service models: the predictable service model and unpredictable service model. This architecture employs a two-layer safety mechanism for MAs (i.e., time-limited black boxes and RSA undetachable signature technologies), to provide a secure solution for agent-based telemedicine services. PMID:23605144

  19. Secure and Cost-Effective Distributed Aggregation for Mobile Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kehua; Zhang, Ping; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Secure data aggregation (SDA) schemes are widely used in distributed applications, such as mobile sensor networks, to reduce communication cost, prolong the network life cycle and provide security. However, most SDA are only suited for a single type of statistics (i.e., summation-based or comparison-based statistics) and are not applicable to obtaining multiple statistic results. Most SDA are also inefficient for dynamic networks. This paper presents multi-functional secure data aggregation (MFSDA), in which the mapping step and coding step are introduced to provide value-preserving and order-preserving and, later, to enable arbitrary statistics support in the same query. MFSDA is suited for dynamic networks because these active nodes can be counted directly from aggregation data. The proposed scheme is tolerant to many types of attacks. The network load of the proposed scheme is balanced, and no significant bottleneck exists. The MFSDA includes two versions: MFSDA-I and MFSDA-II. The first one can obtain accurate results, while the second one is a more generalized version that can significantly reduce network traffic at the expense of less accuracy loss. PMID:27120599

  20. Mathematically gifted adolescents mobilize enhanced workspace configuration of theta cortical network during deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Gan, J Q; Wang, H

    2015-03-19

    Previous studies have established the importance of the fronto-parietal brain network in the information processing of reasoning. At the level of cortical source analysis, this eletroencepalogram (EEG) study investigates the functional reorganization of the theta-band (4-8Hz) neurocognitive network of mathematically gifted adolescents during deductive reasoning. Depending on the dense increase of long-range phase synchronizations in the reasoning process, math-gifted adolescents show more significant adaptive reorganization and enhanced "workspace" configuration in the theta network as compared with average-ability control subjects. The salient areas are mainly located in the anterior cortical vertices of the fronto-parietal network. Further correlation analyses have shown that the enhanced workspace configuration with respect to the global topological metrics of the theta network in math-gifted subjects is correlated with the intensive frontal midline theta (fm theta) response that is related to strong neural effort for cognitive events. These results suggest that by investing more cognitive resources math-gifted adolescents temporally mobilize an enhanced task-related global neuronal workspace, which is manifested as a highly integrated fronto-parietal information processing network during the reasoning process. PMID:25595993

  1. Secure and Cost-Effective Distributed Aggregation for Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kehua; Zhang, Ping; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Secure data aggregation (SDA) schemes are widely used in distributed applications, such as mobile sensor networks, to reduce communication cost, prolong the network life cycle and provide security. However, most SDA are only suited for a single type of statistics (i.e., summation-based or comparison-based statistics) and are not applicable to obtaining multiple statistic results. Most SDA are also inefficient for dynamic networks. This paper presents multi-functional secure data aggregation (MFSDA), in which the mapping step and coding step are introduced to provide value-preserving and order-preserving and, later, to enable arbitrary statistics support in the same query. MFSDA is suited for dynamic networks because these active nodes can be counted directly from aggregation data. The proposed scheme is tolerant to many types of attacks. The network load of the proposed scheme is balanced, and no significant bottleneck exists. The MFSDA includes two versions: MFSDA-I and MFSDA-II. The first one can obtain accurate results, while the second one is a more generalized version that can significantly reduce network traffic at the expense of less accuracy loss. PMID:27120599

  2. Ultrasound Devulcanzation of SBR Networks: Production and Mobility of Light Sol.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, S. T.; Massey, J.; Isayev, A.; von Meerwall, E.

    1996-04-01

    We have used ^1H NMR spin-spin (T_2) relaxation and pulsed-gradient spin-echo diffusion (D) measurements to study translational and segmental molecular mobilities in styrene-butadiene random copolymers in the melt, after sulfur crosslinking, and after subsequent devulcanization as function of the intensity and duration of ultrasound exposure. Because the mean molecular weight of the starting SBR is high (M ≈ 10^5Da), most of the molecules form an entanglement network (short T2 component) even in the absence of chemical crosslinks; in either case, the small unentangled unattached molecules constitute highly mobile sol. After devulcanization this fraction amounts to some 10% to 30% of the total extractable sol. The glass transition temperature increases at each processing stage, including final sulfur revulcanization, but D of light sol does not decrease, showing that its M-distribution keeps shifting downward. We characterize the amount and mobi! lity of this light material, and t he attendant increase in the segmental mobility of the host network, in order to determine optimal devulcanization parameters.

  3. Minimum expected delay-based routing protocol (MEDR) for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xiaomin; Gong, Haigang

    2010-01-01

    It is a challenging work to develop efficient routing protocols for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs), which have several unique characteristics such as sensor mobility, intermittent connectivity, energy limit, and delay tolerability. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol called Minimum Expected Delay-based Routing (MEDR) tailored for DTMSNs. MEDR achieves a good routing performance by finding and using the connected paths formed dynamically by mobile sensors. In MEDR, each sensor maintains two important parameters: Minimum Expected Delay (MED) and its expiration time. According to MED, messages will be delivered to the sensor that has at least a connected path with their hosting nodes, and has the shortest expected delay to communication directly with the sink node. Because of the changing network topology, the path is fragile and volatile, so we use the expiration time of MED to indicate the valid time of the path, and avoid wrong transmissions. Simulation results show that the proposed MEDR achieves a higher message delivery ratio with lower transmission overhead and data delivery delay than other DTMSN routing approaches. PMID:22163658

  4. Privacy-Preserving Data Aggregation in Two-Tiered Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yonglei; Liu, Jingfa; Xiong, Neal N.

    2014-01-01

    Privacy-preserving data aggregation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with mobile nodes is a challenging problem, as an accurate aggregation result should be derived in a privacy-preserving manner, under the condition that nodes are mobile and have no pre-specified keys for cryptographic operations. In this paper, we focus on the SUM aggregation function and propose two privacy-preserving data aggregation protocols for two-tiered sensor networks with mobile nodes: Privacy-preserving Data Aggregation against non-colluded Aggregator and Sink (PDAAS) and Privacy-preserving Data Aggregation against Colluded Aggregator and Sink (PDACAS). Both protocols guarantee that the sink can derive the SUM of all raw sensor data but each sensor's raw data is kept confidential. In PDAAS, two keyed values are used, one shared with the sink and the other shared with the aggregator. PDAAS can protect the privacy of sensed data against external eavesdroppers, compromised sensor nodes, the aggregator or the sink, but fails if the aggregator and the sink collude. In PDACAS, multiple keyed values are used in data perturbation, which are not shared with the aggregator or the sink. PDACAS can protect the privacy of sensor nodes even the aggregator and the sink collude, at the cost of a little more overhead than PDAAS. Thorough analysis and experiments are conducted, which confirm the efficacy and efficiency of both schemes. PMID:25390407

  5. Privacy-preserving data aggregation in two-tiered wireless sensor networks with mobile nodes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yonglei; Liu, Jingfa; Xiong, Neal N

    2014-01-01

    Privacy-preserving data aggregation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with mobile nodes is a challenging problem, as an accurate aggregation result should be derived in a privacy-preserving manner, under the condition that nodes are mobile and have no pre-specified keys for cryptographic operations. In this paper, we focus on the SUM aggregation function and propose two privacy-preserving data aggregation protocols for two-tiered sensor networks with mobile nodes: Privacy-preserving Data Aggregation against non-colluded Aggregator and Sink (PDAAS) and Privacy-preserving Data Aggregation against Colluded Aggregator and Sink (PDACAS). Both protocols guarantee that the sink can derive the SUM of all raw sensor data but each sensor's raw data is kept confidential. In PDAAS, two keyed values are used, one shared with the sink and the other shared with the aggregator. PDAAS can protect the privacy of sensed data against external eavesdroppers, compromised sensor nodes, the aggregator or the sink, but fails if the aggregator and the sink collude. In PDACAS, multiple keyed values are used in data perturbation, which are not shared with the aggregator or the sink. PDACAS can protect the privacy of sensor nodes even the aggregator and the sink collude, at the cost of a little more overhead than PDAAS. Thorough analysis and experiments are conducted, which confirm the efficacy and efficiency of both schemes. PMID:25390407

  6. Customer Churn Prediction for Broadband Internet Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B. Q.; Kechadi, M.-T.; Buckley, B.

    Although churn prediction has been an area of research in the voice branch of telecommunications services, more focused studies on the huge growth area of Broadband Internet services are limited. Therefore, this paper presents a new set of features for broadband Internet customer churn prediction, based on Henley segments, the broadband usage, dial types, the spend of dial-up, line-information, bill and payment information, account information. Then the four prediction techniques (Logistic Regressions, Decision Trees, Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines) are applied in customer churn, based on the new features. Finally, the evaluation of new features and a comparative analysis of the predictors are made for broadband customer churn prediction. The experimental results show that the new features with these four modelling techniques are efficient for customer churn prediction in the broadband service field.

  7. Integrating a mobile health setup in a chronic disease management network.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hang; Ireland, Derek; Jayasena, Rajiv; Curmi, Jamie; Karunanithi, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Supporting self management of chronic disease in collaboration with primary healthcare has been a national priority in order to mitigate the emerging disease burden on the already strained healthcare system. However, in practice, the uptake of self-management programs and compliance with clinical guidelines remain poor. Time constraints due to work commitments and lack of efficient monitoring tools have been the major barrier to the uptake and compliance. In this paper, we present a newly integrated mobile health system with a clinical chronic disease management network called cdmNet, which has already been validated to facilitate General Practitioners (GPs) to provide collaborative disease management services. The newly integrated solution takes advantage of the latest mobile web and wireless Bluetooth communication techniques to enable patients to record health data entries through ubiquitous mobile phones, and allows the data to be simultaneously shared by multidisciplinary care teams. This integration would enable patients to self-manage their chronic disease conditions in collaboration with GPs and hence, improve the uptake and compliance. Additionally, the proposed integration will provide a useful framework encouraging the translation of innovative mobile health technologies into highly regulated healthcare systems. PMID:23823283

  8. FRCA: a fuzzy relevance-based cluster head selection algorithm for wireless mobile ad-hoc sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chongdeuk; Jeong, Taegwon

    2011-01-01

    Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA) to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP), the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA), and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM). The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms. PMID:22163905

  9. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of "A Secure Password Authentication Mechanism for Seamless Handover in Proxy Mobile IPv6 Networks"

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Mojtaba; Zamani, Mazdak; Baharun, Sabariah; Abdul Manaf, Azizah; Sakurai, Kouichi; Anada, Hiroki; Keshavarz, Hassan; Ashraf Chaudhry, Shehzad; Khurram Khan, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPv6 is a network-based localized mobility management protocol that supports mobility without mobile nodes’ participation in mobility signaling. The details of user authentication procedure are not specified in this standard, hence, many authentication schemes have been proposed for this standard. In 2013, Chuang et al., proposed an authentication method for PMIPv6, called SPAM. However, Chuang et al.’s Scheme protects the network against some security attacks, but it is still vulnerable to impersonation and password guessing attacks. In addition, we discuss other security drawbacks such as lack of revocation procedure in case of loss or stolen device, and anonymity issues of the Chuang et al.’s scheme. We further propose an enhanced authentication method to mitigate the security issues of SPAM method and evaluate our scheme using BAN logic. PMID:26580963

  10. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of "A Secure Password Authentication Mechanism for Seamless Handover in Proxy Mobile IPv6 Networks".

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Mojtaba; Zamani, Mazdak; Baharun, Sabariah; Abdul Manaf, Azizah; Sakurai, Kouichi; Anada, Hiroaki; Anada, Hiroki; Keshavarz, Hassan; Ashraf Chaudhry, Shehzad; Khurram Khan, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPv6 is a network-based localized mobility management protocol that supports mobility without mobile nodes' participation in mobility signaling. The details of user authentication procedure are not specified in this standard, hence, many authentication schemes have been proposed for this standard. In 2013, Chuang et al., proposed an authentication method for PMIPv6, called SPAM. However, Chuang et al.'s Scheme protects the network against some security attacks, but it is still vulnerable to impersonation and password guessing attacks. In addition, we discuss other security drawbacks such as lack of revocation procedure in case of loss or stolen device, and anonymity issues of the Chuang et al.'s scheme. We further propose an enhanced authentication method to mitigate the security issues of SPAM method and evaluate our scheme using BAN logic. PMID:26580963

  11. The Importance of Networks in the Transnational Mobility of Higher Education Students: Attraction and Satisfaction of Foreign Mobility Students at a Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Eugénia; Franco, Mário

    2016-01-01

    Advancing the understanding of academic mobility becomes essential since this phenomenon is gaining prominence in the context of the internationalization of European higher education, with repercussions in economic terms for the host institution itself and its surrounding region. From a network theory perspective, this study intends to understand…

  12. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the...

  13. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the...

  14. UV index experimental values during the years 2000 and 2001 from the Spanish broadband UV-B radiometric network.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lozano, José A; Marín, María J; Tena, Fernando; Utrillas, María P; Sánchez-Muniosguren, Luis; González-Frías, Carlos; Cuevas, Emilio; Redondas, Alberto; Lorente, Jerónimo; de Cabo, Xavier; Cachorro, Victoria; Vergaz, Ricardo; de Frutos, Angel; Díaz, Juan P; Expósito, Francisco J; de la Morena, Benito; Vilaplana, José M

    2002-08-01

    An analysis is made of experimental ultraviolet erythemal solar radiation data measured during the years 2000 and 2001 by the Spanish UV-B radiation evaluation and prediction network. This network consists of 16 Robertson-Berger type pyranometers for evaluating solar erythemal radiation and five Brewer spectroradiometers for evaluating the stratospheric ozone. On the basis of these data the Ultraviolet Index (UVI) was evaluated for the measuring stations that are located either in coastal regions or in the more densely populated regions inland on the Iberian Peninsula. It has been checked that in most cases the maximum irradiance values corresponded to solar noon, although there were exceptions that could be explained by cloudiness. The maximum experimental values of the UVI were around 9 during the summer, though frequently passing this value at the inland measurement stations. The annual accumulated dose of irradiation on a horizontal plane has also been studied, as well as the evolution through the year in units of energy, standard erythemal doses and minimum erythemal doses, according to different phototypes. PMID:12194215

  15. Effective Route Maintenance and Restoration Schemes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung-Seok; Ko, In-Young

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a location-based hybrid routing protocol to improve data packet delivery and to reduce control message overhead in mobile ad hoc networks. In mobile environments, where nodes move continuously at a high speed, it is generally difficult to maintain and restore route paths. Therefore, this study suggests a new flooding mechanism to control route paths. The essence of the proposed scheme is its effective tracking of the destination’s location based on the beacon messages of the main route nodes. Through experiments based on an NS-2 simulator, the proposed scheme shows improvements in the data packet delivery ratio and reduces the amount of routing control message overhead compared with existing routing protocols such as AODV, LAR, ZRP and AODV-DFR. PMID:22315570

  16. Fuzzy Mobile-Robot Positioning in Intelligent Spaces Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, David; Martínez, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the development and experimental evaluation of a method based on fuzzy logic to locate mobile robots in an Intelligent Space using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The problem consists of locating a mobile node using only inter-node range measurements, which are estimated by radio frequency signal strength attenuation. The sensor model of these measurements is very noisy and unreliable. The proposed method makes use of fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information. Besides, the proposed approach is compared with a probabilistic technique showing that the fuzzy approach is able to handle highly uncertain situations that are difficult to manage by well-known localization methods. PMID:22346673

  17. Fuzzy mobile-robot positioning in intelligent spaces using wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Herrero, David; Martínez, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the development and experimental evaluation of a method based on fuzzy logic to locate mobile robots in an Intelligent Space using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The problem consists of locating a mobile node using only inter-node range measurements, which are estimated by radio frequency signal strength attenuation. The sensor model of these measurements is very noisy and unreliable. The proposed method makes use of fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information. Besides, the proposed approach is compared with a probabilistic technique showing that the fuzzy approach is able to handle highly uncertain situations that are difficult to manage by well-known localization methods. PMID:22346673

  18. Dynamic Agent Classification and Tracking Using an Ad Hoc Mobile Acoustic Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, David; Griffin, Christopher; Jacobson, Noah; Phoha, Shashi; Brooks, Richard R.

    2003-12-01

    Autonomous networks of sensor platforms can be designed to interact in dynamic and noisy environments to determine the occurrence of specified transient events that define the dynamic process of interest. For example, a sensor network may be used for battlefield surveillance with the purpose of detecting, identifying, and tracking enemy activity. When the number of nodes is large, human oversight and control of low-level operations is not feasible. Coordination and self-organization of multiple autonomous nodes is necessary to maintain connectivity and sensor coverage and to combine information for better understanding the dynamics of the environment. Resource conservation requires adaptive clustering in the vicinity of the event. This paper presents methods for dynamic distributed signal processing using an ad hoc mobile network of microsensors to detect, identify, and track targets in noisy environments. They seamlessly integrate data from fixed and mobile platforms and dynamically organize platforms into clusters to process local data along the trajectory of the targets. Local analysis of sensor data is used to determine a set of target attribute values and classify the target. Sensor data from a field test in the Marine base at Twentynine Palms, Calif, was analyzed using the techniques described in this paper. The results were compared to "ground truth" data obtained from GPS receivers on the vehicles.

  19. Demonstration of UAV deployment and control of mobile wireless sensing networks for modal analysis of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao; Hirose, Mitsuhito; Greenwood, William; Xiao, Yong; Lynch, Jerome; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Kamat, Vineet

    2016-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can serve as a powerful mobile sensing platform for assessing the health of civil infrastructure systems. To date, the majority of their uses have been dedicated to vision and laser-based spatial imaging using on-board cameras and LiDAR units, respectively. Comparatively less work has focused on integration of other sensing modalities relevant to structural monitoring applications. The overarching goal of this study is to explore the ability for UAVs to deploy a network of wireless sensors on structures for controlled vibration testing. The study develops a UAV platform with an integrated robotic gripper that can be used to install wireless sensors in structures, drop a heavy weight for the introduction of impact loads, and to uninstall wireless sensors for reinstallation elsewhere. A pose estimation algorithm is embedded in the UAV to estimate the location of the UAV during sensor placement and impact load introduction. The Martlet wireless sensor network architecture is integrated with the UAV to provide the UAV a mobile sensing capability. The UAV is programmed to command field deployed Martlets, aggregate and temporarily store data from the wireless sensor network, and to communicate data to a fixed base station on site. This study demonstrates the integrated UAV system using a simply supported beam in the lab with Martlet wireless sensors placed by the UAV and impact load testing performed. The study verifies the feasibility of the integrated UAV-wireless monitoring system architecture with accurate modal characteristics of the beam estimated by modal analysis.

  20. JPEG image transmission over mobile network with an efficient channel coding and interleaving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bendary, Mohsen A. M. Mohamed; Abou El-Azm, Atef E.; El-Fishawy, Nawal A.; Al-Hosarey, Farid Shawki M.; Eltokhy, Mostafa A. R.; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.; Kazemian, H. B.

    2012-11-01

    This article studies improving of coloured JPEG image transmission over mobile wireless personal area network through the Bluetooth networks. This article uses many types of enhanced data rate and asynchronous connectionless packets. It presents a proposed chaotic interleaving technique for improving a transmission of coloured images over burst error environment through merging it with error control scheme. The computational complexity of the used different error control schemes is considered. A comparison study between different scenarios of the image transmission is held in to choose an effective technique. The simulation experiments are carried over the correlated fading channel using the widely accepted Jakes' model. Our experiments reveal that the proposed chaotic interleaving technique enhances quality of the received coloured image. Our simulation results show that the convolutional codes with longer constraint length are effective if its complexity is ignored. It reveals also that the standard error control scheme of old Bluetooth versions is ineffective in the case of coloured image transmission over mobile Bluetooth network. Finally, the proposed scenarios of the standard error control scheme with the chaotic interleaver perform better than the convolutional codes with reducing the complexity.

  1. A FD/DAMA network architecture for the first generation land mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, T.-Y.; Wang, C.; Cheng, U.; Dessouky, K.; Rafferty, W.

    1989-01-01

    A frequency division/demand assigned multiple access (FD/DAMA) network architecture for the first-generation land mobile satellite services is presented. Rationales and technical approaches are described. In this architecture, each mobile subscriber must follow a channel access protocol to make a service request to the network management center before transmission for either open-end or closed-end services. Open-end service requests will be processed on a blocked call cleared basis, while closed-end requests will be processed on a first-come-first-served basis. Two channel access protocols are investigated, namely, a recently proposed multiple channel collision resolution scheme which provides a significantly higher useful throughput, and the traditional slotted Aloha scheme. The number of channels allocated for either open-end or closed-end services can be adaptively changed according to aggregated traffic requests. Both theoretical and simulation results are presented. Theoretical results have been verified by simulation on the JPL network testbed.

  2. Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering Protocol in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jayakumari, R Beulah; Senthilkumar, V Jawahar

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is widely used to monitor natural phenomena because natural disaster has globally increased which causes significant loss of life, economic setback, and social development. Saving energy in a wireless sensor network (WSN) is a critical factor to be considered. The sensor nodes are deployed to sense, compute, and communicate alerts in a WSN which are used to prevent natural hazards. Generally communication consumes more energy than sensing and computing; hence cluster based protocol is preferred. Even with clustering, multiclass traffic creates congested hotspots in the cluster, thereby causing packet loss and delay. In order to conserve energy and to avoid congestion during multiclass traffic a novel Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering (PCCDC) protocol is developed. PCCDC is designed with mobile nodes which are organized dynamically into clusters to provide complete coverage and connectivity. PCCDC computes congestion at intra- and intercluster level using linear and binary feedback method. Each mobile node within the cluster has an appropriate queue model for scheduling prioritized packet during congestion without drop or delay. Simulation results have proven that packet drop, control overhead, and end-to-end delay are much lower in PCCDC which in turn significantly increases packet delivery ratio, network lifetime, and residual energy when compared with PASCC protocol. PMID:26504898

  3. Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering Protocol in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Beulah Jayakumari, R.; Jawahar Senthilkumar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is widely used to monitor natural phenomena because natural disaster has globally increased which causes significant loss of life, economic setback, and social development. Saving energy in a wireless sensor network (WSN) is a critical factor to be considered. The sensor nodes are deployed to sense, compute, and communicate alerts in a WSN which are used to prevent natural hazards. Generally communication consumes more energy than sensing and computing; hence cluster based protocol is preferred. Even with clustering, multiclass traffic creates congested hotspots in the cluster, thereby causing packet loss and delay. In order to conserve energy and to avoid congestion during multiclass traffic a novel Priority Based Congestion Control Dynamic Clustering (PCCDC) protocol is developed. PCCDC is designed with mobile nodes which are organized dynamically into clusters to provide complete coverage and connectivity. PCCDC computes congestion at intra- and intercluster level using linear and binary feedback method. Each mobile node within the cluster has an appropriate queue model for scheduling prioritized packet during congestion without drop or delay. Simulation results have proven that packet drop, control overhead, and end-to-end delay are much lower in PCCDC which in turn significantly increases packet delivery ratio, network lifetime, and residual energy when compared with PASCC protocol. PMID:26504898

  4. Application of neural networks to channel assignment for cellular CDMA networks with multiple services and mobile base stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    1996-03-01

    The use of artificial neural networks to the channel assignment problem for cellular code- division multiple access (CDMA) telecommunications systems is considered. CDMA takes advantage of voice activity and spatial isolation because its capacity is only interference limited, unlike time-division multiple access (TDMA) and frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) where capacities are bandwidth limited. Any reduction in interference in CDMA translates linearly into increased capacity. FDMA and TDMA use a frequency reuse pattern as a method to increase capacity, while CDMA reuses the same frequency for all cells and gains a reuse efficiency by means of orthogonal codes. The latter method can improve system capacity by factors of four to six over digital TDMA or FDMA. Cellular carriers are planning to provide multiple communication services using CDMA in the next generation cellular system infrastructure. The approach of this study is the use of neural network methods for automatic and local network control, based on traffic behavior in specific cell cites and demand history. The goal is to address certain problems associated with the management of mobile and personal communication services in a cellular radio communications environment. In planning a cellular radio network, the operator assigns channels to the radio cells so that the probability of the processed carrier-to-interference ratio, CII, exceeding a predefined value is sufficiently low. The RF propagation, determined from the topography and infrastructure in the operating area, is used in conjunction with the densities of expected communications traffic to formulate interference constraints. These constraints state which radio cells may use the same code (channel) or adjacent channels at a time. The traffic loading and the number of service grades can also be used to calculate the number of required channels (codes) for each cell. The general assignment problem is the task of assigning the required number

  5. Online Variational Bayesian Filtering-Based Mobile Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bingpeng; Chen, Qingchun; Li, Tiffany Jing; Xiao, Pei

    2014-01-01

    The received signal strength (RSS)-based online tracking for a mobile node in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is investigated in this paper. Firstly, a multi-layer dynamic Bayesian network (MDBN) is introduced to characterize the target mobility with either directional or undirected movement. In particular, it is proposed to employ the Wishart distribution to approximate the time-varying RSS measurement precision's randomness due to the target movement. It is shown that the proposed MDBN offers a more general analysis model via incorporating the underlying statistical information of both the target movement and observations, which can be utilized to improve the online tracking capability by exploiting the Bayesian statistics. Secondly, based on the MDBN model, a mean-field variational Bayesian filtering (VBF) algorithm is developed to realize the online tracking of a mobile target in the presence of nonlinear observations and time-varying RSS precision, wherein the traditional Bayesian filtering scheme cannot be directly employed. Thirdly, a joint optimization between the real-time velocity and its prior expectation is proposed to enable online velocity tracking in the proposed online tacking scheme. Finally, the associated Bayesian Cramer–Rao Lower Bound (BCRLB) analysis and numerical simulations are conducted. Our analysis unveils that, by exploiting the potential state information via the general MDBN model, the proposed VBF algorithm provides a promising solution to the online tracking of a mobile node in WSNs. In addition, it is shown that the final tracking accuracy linearly scales with its expectation when the RSS measurement precision is time-varying. PMID:25393784

  6. Tracking mobile users in wireless networks via semi-supervised colocalization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jeffrey Junfeng; Pan, Sinno Jialin; Yin, Jie; Ni, Lionel M; Yang, Qiang

    2012-03-01

    Recent years have witnessed the growing popularity of sensor and sensor-network technologies, supporting important practical applications. One of the fundamental issues is how to accurately locate a user with few labeled data in a wireless sensor network, where a major difficulty arises from the need to label large quantities of user location data, which in turn requires knowledge about the locations of signal transmitters or access points. To solve this problem, we have developed a novel machine learning-based approach that combines collaborative filtering with graph-based semi-supervised learning to learn both mobile users' locations and the locations of access points. Our framework exploits both labeled and unlabeled data from mobile devices and access points. In our two-phase solution, we first build a manifold-based model from a batch of labeled and unlabeled data in an offline training phase and then use a weighted k-nearest-neighbor method to localize a mobile client in an online localization phase. We extend the two-phase colocalization to an online and incremental model that can deal with labeled and unlabeled data that come sequentially and adapt to environmental changes. Finally, we embed an action model to the framework such that additional kinds of sensor signals can be utilized to further boost the performance of mobile tracking. Compared to other state-of-the-art systems, our framework has been shown to be more accurate while requiring less calibration effort in our experiments performed on three different testbeds. PMID:21844623

  7. Online variational Bayesian filtering-based mobile target tracking in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bingpeng; Chen, Qingchun; Li, Tiffany Jing; Xiao, Pei

    2014-01-01

    The received signal strength (RSS)-based online tracking for a mobile node in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is investigated in this paper. Firstly, a multi-layer dynamic Bayesian network (MDBN) is introduced to characterize the target mobility with either directional or undirected movement. In particular, it is proposed to employ the Wishart distribution to approximate the time-varying RSS measurement precision's randomness due to the target movement. It is shown that the proposed MDBN offers a more general analysis model via incorporating the underlying statistical information of both the target movement and observations, which can be utilized to improve the online tracking capability by exploiting the Bayesian statistics. Secondly, based on the MDBN model, a mean-field variational Bayesian filtering (VBF) algorithm is developed to realize the online tracking of a mobile target in the presence of nonlinear observations and time-varying RSS precision, wherein the traditional Bayesian filtering scheme cannot be directly employed. Thirdly, a joint optimization between the real-time velocity and its prior expectation is proposed to enable online velocity tracking in the proposed online tacking scheme. Finally, the associated Bayesian Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (BCRLB) analysis and numerical simulations are conducted. Our analysis unveils that, by exploiting the potential state information via the general MDBN model, the proposed VBF algorithm provides a promising solution to the online tracking of a mobile node in WSNs. In addition, it is shown that the final tracking accuracy linearly scales with its expectation when the RSS measurement precision is time-varying. PMID:25393784

  8. Social Learning Networks: Build Mobile Learning Networks Based on Collaborative Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jeff J. S.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hsiao, Indy Y. T.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the rising of Web 2.0 has made online community gradually become popular, like Facebook, blog, etc. As a result, the online knowledge sharing network formed by interpersonal interaction is now a major character of Web 2.0, and therefore, by this trend, we try to build up a collaborative service mechanism and further set up an analysis…

  9. Analysis and Relative Evaluation of Connectivity of a Mobile Multi-Hop Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Keisuke; Miyakita, Kazuyuki; Sengoku, Masakazu; Shinoda, Shoji

    In mobile multi-hop networks, a source node S and a destination node D sometimes encounter a situation where there is no multi-hop path between them when a message M, destined for D, arrives at S. In this situation, we cannot send M from S to D immediately; however, we can deliver M to D after waiting some time with the help of two capabilities of mobility. One of the capabilities is to construct a connected multi-hop path by changing the topology of the network during the waiting time (Capability 1), and the other is to move M closer to D during the waiting time (Capability 2). In this paper, we consider three methods to deliver M from S to D by using these capabilities in different ways. Method 1 uses Capability 1 and sends M from S to D after waiting until a connected multi-hop path appears between S and D. Method 2 uses Capability 2 and delivers M to D by allowing a mobile node to carry M from S to D. Method 3 is a combination of Methods 1 and 2 and minimizes the waiting time. We evaluate and compare these three methods in terms of the mean waiting time, from the time when M arrives at S to the time when D starts receiving M, as a new approach to connectivity evaluation. We consider a one-dimensional mobile multi-hop network consisting of mobile nodes flowing in opposite directions along a street. First, we derive some approximate equations and propose an estimation method to compute the mean waiting time of Method 1. Second, we theoretically analyze the mean waiting time of Method 2, and compute a lower bound of that of Method 3. By comparing the three methods under the same assumptions using results of the analyses and some simulation results, we show relations between the mean waiting times of these methods and show how Capabilities 1 and 2 differently affect the mean waiting time.

  10. Cryogenic, low-noise high electron mobility transistor amplifiers for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, J. J.

    1993-11-01

    The rapid advances recently achieved by cryogenically cooled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) in the 1- to 10-GHz range are making them extremely competitive with maser amplifiers. In order to address future spacecraft navigation, telemetry, radar, and radio science needs, the Deep Space Network is investing both maser and HEMT amplifiers for its Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink capability. This article describes the current state cryogenic HEMT LNA development at Ka-band for the DSN. Noise performance results at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.5 GHz) for HEMT's and masers are included for completeness.

  11. Cryogenic, low-noise high electron mobility transistor amplifiers for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid advances recently achieved by cryogenically cooled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) in the 1- to 10-GHz range are making them extremely competitive with maser amplifiers. In order to address future spacecraft navigation, telemetry, radar, and radio science needs, the Deep Space Network is investing both maser and HEMT amplifiers for its Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink capability. This article describes the current state cryogenic HEMT LNA development at Ka-band for the DSN. Noise performance results at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.5 GHz) for HEMT's and masers are included for completeness.

  12. An Enhanced Multihoming Support Scheme with Proxy Mobile IPv6 for Convergent Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Kum, Dong-Won; Kang, Ju-Eun; Cho, You-Ze

    This paper analyzes the limitations of the multihoming support in the Proxy Mobile IPv6 protocol, then proposes an enhanced multihoming support scheme based on a per-interface address configuration method. The proposed scheme can provide a more flexible multihoming support and also maintain application session continuity during a handoff between two interfaces by using IPv6 extension headers. Plus, flow distribution with filters is also used to realize the advantages of multihoming. Simulation results with the OPNET validate the proposed multihoming support scheme for convergent networks.

  13. Broadband Microwave Amplifier Design with Lumped Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengül, Metin

    2016-03-01

    This study introduces a broadband microwave amplifier design that utilizes the measured scattering parameters of active devices without assuming an initial topology for the matching networks or an analytic form of the system transfer function. The algorithm can be extended to design multistage broadband microwave amplifiers. An example is given to illustrate the application of the proposed method. It was found that the proposed method provides very good initials for CAD tools to further improve amplifier performance by working on the element values.

  14. Location-based social networking media for restaurant promotion and food review using mobile application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhur, H. S.; Widjaja, N. D.

    2014-03-01

    This paper is focusing on the development of a mobile application for searching restaurants and promotions with location based and social networking features. The main function of the application is to search restaurant information. Other functions are also available in this application such as add restaurant, add promotion, add photo, add food review, and other features including social networking features. The restaurant and promotion searching application will be developed under Android platform. Upon completion of this paper, heuristic evaluation and usability testing have been conducted. The result of both testing shows that the application is highly usable. Even though there are some usability problems discovered, the problems can be eliminated immediately by implementing the recommendations from the expert evaluators and the users as the testers of the application. Further improvement made to the application will ensure that the application can really be beneficial for the users of the application.

  15. Cooperating Mobile GIS and Wireless Sensor Networks for Managing Transportation Infrastructures in Urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shad, R.; Abazari, N.; Alizadeh, A.; Choghooni, M.

    2013-10-01

    Time management is a major subject which, in order to optimize trip conditions, emphasizes on interpreting processes and classifying individual's information. In this paper, with the aim of providing an optimal system for urban commuting in proper time in Mashhad, each user using SMS and introducing some of his/her mental priorities to the system, will be able to select the best option depending on the timing of movement of the available public transport system. The present study adopts a newly developed method of time management which is evaluated for urban transportation considering dynamic conditions of a spatial database. For this purpose, regarding time management, processed data such as bus lines, taxi networks, and the subway system are combined in a spatial framework of a designed Mobile GIS based on a wireless network. So, multiple potential paths which end to a desirable destination.

  16. Rule-Based vs. Behavior-Based Self-Deployment for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Urdiales, Cristina; Aguilera, Francisco; González-Parada, Eva; Cano-García, Jose; Sandoval, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN), nodes are allowed to move autonomously for deployment. This process is meant: (i) to achieve good coverage; and (ii) to distribute the communication load as homogeneously as possible. Rather than optimizing deployment, reactive algorithms are based on a set of rules or behaviors, so nodes can determine when to move. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of both reactive deployment approaches: rule-based and behavior-based ones. Specifically, we compare a backbone dispersion algorithm with a social potential fields algorithm. Most tests are done under simulation for a large number of nodes in environments with and without obstacles. Results are validated using a small robot network in the real world. Our results show that behavior-based deployment tends to provide better coverage and communication balance, especially for a large number of nodes in areas with obstacles. PMID:27399709

  17. Rule-Based vs. Behavior-Based Self-Deployment for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Urdiales, Cristina; Aguilera, Francisco; González-Parada, Eva; Cano-García, Jose; Sandoval, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN), nodes are allowed to move autonomously for deployment. This process is meant: (i) to achieve good coverage; and (ii) to distribute the communication load as homogeneously as possible. Rather than optimizing deployment, reactive algorithms are based on a set of rules or behaviors, so nodes can determine when to move. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of both reactive deployment approaches: rule-based and behavior-based ones. Specifically, we compare a backbone dispersion algorithm with a social potential fields algorithm. Most tests are done under simulation for a large number of nodes in environments with and without obstacles. Results are validated using a small robot network in the real world. Our results show that behavior-based deployment tends to provide better coverage and communication balance, especially for a large number of nodes in areas with obstacles. PMID:27399709

  18. Guaranteed cost control of mobile sensor networks with Markov switching topologies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Guo, Ge; Ding, Lei

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the consensus seeking problem of mobile sensor networks (MSNs) with random switching topologies. The network communication topologies are composed of a set of directed graphs (or digraph) with a spanning tree. The switching of topologies is governed by a Markov chain. The consensus seeking problem is addressed by introducing a global topology-aware linear quadratic (LQ) cost as the performance measure. By state transformation, the consensus problem is transformed to the stabilization of a Markovian jump system with guaranteed cost. A sufficient condition for global mean-square consensus is derived in the context of stochastic stability analysis of Markovian jump systems. A computational algorithm is given to synchronously calculate both the sub-optimal consensus controller gains and the sub-minimum upper bound of the cost. The effectiveness of the proposed design method is illustrated by three numerical examples. PMID:26096955

  19. Scalable and reconfigurable generation of flat optical comb for WDM-based next-generation broadband optical access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Chongfu; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Wei; Qiu, Kun

    2014-06-01

    A tunable comb generator (TCG) by cascading a single phase modulator (PM) with two identical intensity modulators (IMs) is proposed for the scalable and reconfigurable generation of flat optical comb. Detailed theoretical analysis is performed to find out the optimized condition for flat optical comb generation using the proposed TCG and the scalability of the generated optical comb is also analyzed under the optimized condition. An experiment is conducted to verify the feasibility of the TCG and the experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. The reconfigurability and stability of the obtained optical comb are discussed as well in the experiment. After that, the obtained optical comb is utilized as the optical source for a wavelength-division multiplexed radio-over-fiber (WDM-RoF) system and a hybrid WDM orthogonal frequency-division multiple access passive optical network (WDM-OFDMA-PON). Two corresponding experimental demonstrations are presented to verify the feasibility of employing the obtained flat optical comb as the WDM optical source, respectively. In the WDM-RoF system, 17 WDM channels each carrying 16×5 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data have been up-converted to 10 GHz simultaneously. In the hybrid WDM-OFDMA-PON, 17-channel OFDM-WDM double-sideband (DSB) signal achieving 10.85 Gb/s traffic per channel is successfully transmitted for both wired baseband OFDM access and wireless 10 GHz OFDM access.

  20. Dual electrically and thermally responsive broadband reflectors based on polymer network stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals: the role of crosslink density.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Timmermans, Gilles H; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2016-08-01

    A broadband reflector based on a polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystal has been fabricated. The reflection bandwidth can be manually controlled by an electric field and autonomously by temperature. PMID:27357239

  1. Truck-based mobile wireless sensor networks for the experimental observation of vehicle-bridge interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junhee; Lynch, Jerome P.; Lee, Jong-Jae; Lee, Chang-Geun

    2011-06-01

    Heavy vehicles driving over a bridge create a complex dynamic phenomenon known as vehicle-bridge interaction. In recent years, interest in vehicle-bridge interaction has grown because a deeper understanding of the phenomena can lead to improvements in bridge design methods while enhancing the accuracy of structural health monitoring techniques. The mobility of wireless sensors can be leveraged to directly monitor the dynamic coupling between the moving vehicle and the bridge. In this study, a mobile wireless sensor network is proposed for installation on a heavy truck to capture the vertical acceleration, horizontal acceleration and gyroscopic pitching of the truck as it crosses a bridge. The vehicle-based wireless monitoring system is designed to interact with a static, permanent wireless monitoring system installed on the bridge. Specifically, the mobile wireless sensors time-synchronize with the bridge's wireless sensors before transferring the vehicle response data. Vertical acceleration and gyroscopic pitching measurements of the vehicle are combined with bridge accelerations to create a time-synchronized vehicle-bridge response dataset. In addition to observing the vehicle vibrations, Kalman filtering is adopted to accurately track the vehicle position using the measured horizontal acceleration of the vehicle and positioning information derived from piezoelectric strip sensors installed on the bridge deck as part of the bridge monitoring system. Using the Geumdang Bridge (Korea), extensive field testing of the proposed vehicle-bridge wireless monitoring system is conducted. Experimental results verify the reliability of the wireless system and the accuracy of the vehicle positioning algorithm.

  2. Mobilizing Drug Consumption Rooms: inter-place networks and harm reduction drug policy.

    PubMed

    McCann, Eugene; Temenos, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the learning and politics involved in spreading Drug Consumption Rooms (DCRs) globally. DCRs are health facilities, operating under a harm reduction philosophy, where people consume illicit drugs in a supervised setting. Approximately 90 are located in almost 60 cities in 11 countries. They are intensely local attempts to improve the lives of specific populations and urban neighborhoods. DCRs are also global models that travel. This article examines the relationship between DCRs as facilities that are fixed in place and DCRs as globally-mobilized models of drug policy and public health practice. Drawing on research from seven countries, we apply concepts from the policy mobilities literature to analyze the travels of the DCR model and the political strategies involved in the siting of these public health service facilities. We detail the networked mobilization of the DCR model from Europe to Canada and Australia, the learning among facilities, the strategies used to mold the DCR model to local contexts, and the role of DCR staff in promoting continued proliferation of DCRs. We conclude by identifying some immobilities of DCRs to identify questions about practices, principles and future directions of harm reduction. PMID:25576837

  3. Embedded transmissibility function analysis for damage detection in a mobile sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaohua; Zhu, Dapeng; Wang, Yang; Guo, Jiajie; Lee, Kok-Meng

    2010-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection have attracted great interest in recent decades, in meeting the challenges of assessing the safety condition of large-scale civil structures. By wiring remote sensors directly to a centralized data acquisition system, traditional structural health monitoring systems are usually costly and the installation is time-consuming. Recent advances in wireless sensing technology have made it feasible for structural health monitoring; furthermore, the computational core in a wireless sensing unit offers onboard data interrogation. In addition to wireless sensing, the authors have recently developed a mobile sensing system for providing high spatial resolution and flexible sensor deployment in structural health monitoring. In this study, transmissibility function analysis is embedded in the mobile sensing node to perform onboard and in-network structural damage detection. The system implementation is validated using a laboratory 2D steel portal frame. Simulated damage is applied to the frame structure, and the damage is successfully identified by two mobile sensing nodes that autonomously navigate through the structure.

  4. An energy efficient simultaneous-node repositioning algorithm for mobile sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Amir; Hasbullah, Halabi; Nazir, Babar; Khan, Imran Ali

    2014-01-01

    Recently, wireless sensor network (WSN) applications have seen an increase in interest. In search and rescue, battlefield reconnaissance, and some other such applications, so that a survey of the area of interest can be made collectively, a set of mobile nodes is deployed. Keeping the network nodes connected is vital for WSNs to be effective. The provision of connectivity can be made at the time of startup and can be maintained by carefully coordinating the nodes when they move. However, if a node suddenly fails, the network could be partitioned to cause communication problems. Recently, several methods that use the relocation of nodes for connectivity restoration have been proposed. However, these methods have the tendency to not consider the potential coverage loss in some locations. This paper addresses the concerns of both connectivity and coverage in an integrated way so that this gap can be filled. A novel algorithm for simultaneous-node repositioning is introduced. In this approach, each neighbour of the failed node, one by one, moves in for a certain amount of time to take the place of the failed node, after which it returns to its original location in the network. The effectiveness of this algorithm has been verified by the simulation results. PMID:25152924

  5. An Energy Efficient Simultaneous-Node Repositioning Algorithm for Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hasbullah, Halabi; Nazir, Babar; Khan, Imran Ali

    2014-01-01

    Recently, wireless sensor network (WSN) applications have seen an increase in interest. In search and rescue, battlefield reconnaissance, and some other such applications, so that a survey of the area of interest can be made collectively, a set of mobile nodes is deployed. Keeping the network nodes connected is vital for WSNs to be effective. The provision of connectivity can be made at the time of startup and can be maintained by carefully coordinating the nodes when they move. However, if a node suddenly fails, the network could be partitioned to cause communication problems. Recently, several methods that use the relocation of nodes for connectivity restoration have been proposed. However, these methods have the tendency to not consider the potential coverage loss in some locations. This paper addresses the concerns of both connectivity and coverage in an integrated way so that this gap can be filled. A novel algorithm for simultaneous-node repositioning is introduced. In this approach, each neighbour of the failed node, one by one, moves in for a certain amount of time to take the place of the failed node, after which it returns to its original location in the network. The effectiveness of this algorithm has been verified by the simulation results. PMID:25152924

  6. Wireless Relay Selection in Pocket Switched Networks Based on Spatial Regularity of Human Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianhui; Cheng, Xiuzhen; Bi, Jingping; Chen, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Pocket switched networks (PSNs) take advantage of human mobility to deliver data. Investigations on real-world trace data indicate that human mobility shows an obvious spatial regularity: a human being usually visits a few places at high frequencies. These most frequently visited places form the home of a node, which is exploited in this paper to design two HomE based Relay selectiOn (HERO) algorithms. Both algorithms input single data copy into the network at any time. In the basic HERO, only the first node encountered by the source and whose home overlaps a destination’s home is selected as a relay while the enhanced HERO keeps finding more optimal relay that visits the destination’s home with higher probability. The two proposed algorithms only require the relays to exchange the information of their home and/or the visiting frequencies to their home when two nodes meet. As a result, the information update is reduced and there is no global status information that needs to be maintained. This causes light loads on relays because of the low communication cost and storage requirements. Additionally, only simple operations are needed in the two proposed algorithms, resulting in little computation overhead at relays. At last, a theoretical analysis is performed on some key metrics and then the real-world based simulations indicate that the two HERO algorithms are efficient and effective through employing only one or a few relays. PMID:26797609

  7. Secure cooperation of autonomous mobile sensors using an underwater acoustic network.

    PubMed

    Caiti, Andrea; Calabrò, Vincenzo; Dini, Gianluca; Lo Duca, Angelica; Munafò, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Methodologies and algorithms are presented for the secure cooperation of a team of autonomous mobile underwater sensors, connected through an acoustic communication network, within surveillance and patrolling applications. In particular, the work proposes a cooperative algorithm in which the mobile underwater sensors (installed on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles-AUVs) respond to simple local rules based on the available information to perform the mission and maintain the communication link with the network (behavioral approach). The algorithm is intrinsically robust: with loss of communication among the vehicles the coverage performance (i.e., the mission goal) is degraded but not lost. The ensuing form of graceful degradation provides also a reactive measure against Denial of Service. The cooperative algorithm relies on the fact that the available information from the other sensors, though not necessarily complete, is trustworthy. To ensure trustworthiness, a security suite has been designed, specifically oriented to the underwater scenario, and in particular with the goal of reducing the communication overhead introduced by security in terms of number and size of messages. The paper gives implementation details on the integration between the security suite and the cooperative algorithm and provides statistics on the performance of the system as collected during the UAN project sea trial held in Trondheim, Norway, in May 2011. PMID:22438748

  8. Key Management Scheme Based on Route Planning of Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Liang, Jixing; Zheng, Bingxin; Jiang, Shengming; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In many wireless sensor network application scenarios the key management scheme with a Mobile Sink (MS) should be fully investigated. This paper proposes a key management scheme based on dynamic clustering and optimal-routing choice of MS. The concept of Traveling Salesman Problem with Neighbor areas (TSPN) in dynamic clustering for data exchange is proposed, and the selection probability is used in MS route planning. The proposed scheme extends static key management to dynamic key management by considering the dynamic clustering and mobility of MSs, which can effectively balance the total energy consumption during the activities. Considering the different resources available to the member nodes and sink node, the session key between cluster head and MS is established by modified an ECC encryption with Diffie-Hellman key exchange (ECDH) algorithm and the session key between member node and cluster head is built with a binary symmetric polynomial. By analyzing the security of data storage, data transfer and the mechanism of dynamic key management, the proposed scheme has more advantages to help improve the resilience of the key management system of the network on the premise of satisfying higher connectivity and storage efficiency. PMID:26840311

  9. CP-ABE Based Privacy-Preserving User Profile Matching in Mobile Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weirong; Du, Chenglie; Chen, Jinchao

    2016-01-01

    Privacy-preserving profile matching, a challenging task in mobile social networks, is getting more attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme that is based on ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption to tackle this problem. In our scheme, a user can submit a preference-profile and search for users with matching-profile in decentralized mobile social networks. In this process, no participant's profile and the submitted preference-profile is exposed. Meanwhile, a secure communication channel can be established between the pair of successfully matched users. In contrast to existing related schemes which are mainly based on the secure multi-party computation, our scheme can provide verifiability (both the initiator and any unmatched user cannot cheat each other to pretend to be matched), and requires few interactions among users. We provide thorough security analysis and performance evaluation on our scheme, and show its advantages in terms of security, efficiency and usability over state-of-the-art schemes. PMID:27337001

  10. SOMM: A new service oriented middleware for generic wireless multimedia sensor networks based on code mobility.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Mohammad Mehdi; Moghaddam, Mohsen Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Although much research in the area of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) has been done in recent years, the programming of sensor nodes is still time-consuming and tedious. It requires expertise in low-level programming, mainly because of the use of resource constrained hardware and also the low level API provided by current operating systems. The code of the resulting systems has typically no clear separation between application and system logic. This minimizes the possibility of reusing code and often leads to the necessity of major changes when the underlying platform is changed. In this paper, we present a service oriented middleware named SOMM to support application development for WMSNs. The main goal of SOMM is to enable the development of modifiable and scalable WMSN applications. A network which uses the SOMM is capable of providing multiple services to multiple clients at the same time with the specified Quality of Service (QoS). SOMM uses a virtual machine with the ability to support mobile agents. Services in SOMM are provided by mobile agents and SOMM also provides a t space on each node which agents can use to communicate with each other. PMID:22346646

  11. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  12. CP-ABE Based Privacy-Preserving User Profile Matching in Mobile Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Weirong; Du, Chenglie; Chen, Jinchao

    2016-01-01

    Privacy-preserving profile matching, a challenging task in mobile social networks, is getting more attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme that is based on ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption to tackle this problem. In our scheme, a user can submit a preference-profile and search for users with matching-profile in decentralized mobile social networks. In this process, no participant’s profile and the submitted preference-profile is exposed. Meanwhile, a secure communication channel can be established between the pair of successfully matched users. In contrast to existing related schemes which are mainly based on the secure multi-party computation, our scheme can provide verifiability (both the initiator and any unmatched user cannot cheat each other to pretend to be matched), and requires few interactions among users. We provide thorough security analysis and performance evaluation on our scheme, and show its advantages in terms of security, efficiency and usability over state-of-the-art schemes. PMID:27337001

  13. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  14. Key Management Scheme Based on Route Planning of Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Liang, Jixing; Zheng, Bingxin; Jiang, Shengming; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In many wireless sensor network application scenarios the key management scheme with a Mobile Sink (MS) should be fully investigated. This paper proposes a key management scheme based on dynamic clustering and optimal-routing choice of MS. The concept of Traveling Salesman Problem with Neighbor areas (TSPN) in dynamic clustering for data exchange is proposed, and the selection probability is used in MS route planning. The proposed scheme extends static key management to dynamic key management by considering the dynamic clustering and mobility of MSs, which can effectively balance the total energy consumption during the activities. Considering the different resources available to the member nodes and sink node, the session key between cluster head and MS is established by modified an ECC encryption with Diffie-Hellman key exchange (ECDH) algorithm and the session key between member node and cluster head is built with a binary symmetric polynomial. By analyzing the security of data storage, data transfer and the mechanism of dynamic key management, the proposed scheme has more advantages to help improve the resilience of the key management system of the network on the premise of satisfying higher connectivity and storage efficiency. PMID:26840311

  15. Obstacle detection for mobile vehicle using neural network and fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Huaijiang; Yang, Jingyu

    2001-09-01

    In our mobile vehicle project, sensors for environment modeling are a CCD color camera and two line-scan laser range finders. The CCD color camera is used to detect road edges. The two line-scan laser range finders are used to detect obstacles. Only two line-scan laser range finders increase processing speed, but there are blind zones for low obstacles, especially near the vehicle. In this paper, neural network and fuzzy logic are used to cluster and fuse obstacle points provided by two line-scan laser range finders. There is an assumption that obstacles missed by laser radar in some instant must be detected previously. A circle Adaptive Resonance neural network algorithm is used to incrementally cluster obstacle points provided by laser range finders into candidate obstacles. Every candidate obstacle is expressed by a circle, and is assigned a belief by a fuzzy logic system. Inputs of the fuzzy logic system are radius and number of points. Fuzzy rules are provided by human and can be fine-tuned with training data. The final true obstacle is the nearest one chosen from candidate obstacles whose beliefs exceed a threshold. Experiment results indicate that our mobile vehicle can safely follow road and avoid obstacles.

  16. SOMM: A New Service Oriented Middleware for Generic Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks Based on Code Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Mohammad Mehdi; Moghaddam, Mohsen Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Although much research in the area of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) has been done in recent years, the programming of sensor nodes is still time-consuming and tedious. It requires expertise in low-level programming, mainly because of the use of resource constrained hardware and also the low level API provided by current operating systems. The code of the resulting systems has typically no clear separation between application and system logic. This minimizes the possibility of reusing code and often leads to the necessity of major changes when the underlying platform is changed. In this paper, we present a service oriented middleware named SOMM to support application development for WMSNs. The main goal of SOMM is to enable the development of modifiable and scalable WMSN applications. A network which uses the SOMM is capable of providing multiple services to multiple clients at the same time with the specified Quality of Service (QoS). SOMM uses a virtual machine with the ability to support mobile agents. Services in SOMM are provided by mobile agents and SOMM also provides a t space on each node which agents can use to communicate with each other. PMID:22346646

  17. Secure Cooperation of Autonomous Mobile Sensors Using an Underwater Acoustic Network

    PubMed Central

    Caiti, Andrea; Calabrò, Vincenzo; Dini, Gianluca; Duca, Angelica Lo; Munafò, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Methodologies and algorithms are presented for the secure cooperation of a team of autonomous mobile underwater sensors, connected through an acoustic communication network, within surveillance and patrolling applications. In particular, the work proposes a cooperative algorithm in which the mobile underwater sensors (installed on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles—AUVs) respond to simple local rules based on the available information to perform the mission and maintain the communication link with the network (behavioral approach). The algorithm is intrinsically robust: with loss of communication among the vehicles the coverage performance (i.e., the mission goal) is degraded but not lost. The ensuing form of graceful degradation provides also a reactive measure against Denial of Service. The cooperative algorithm relies on the fact that the available information from the other sensors, though not necessarily complete, is trustworthy. To ensure trustworthiness, a security suite has been designed, specifically oriented to the underwater scenario, and in particular with the goal of reducing the communication overhead introduced by security in terms of number and size of messages. The paper gives implementation details on the integration between the security suite and the cooperative algorithm and provides statistics on the performance of the system as collected during the UAN project sea trial held in Trondheim, Norway, in May 2011. PMID:22438748

  18. Wireless Relay Selection in Pocket Switched Networks Based on Spatial Regularity of Human Mobility.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianhui; Cheng, Xiuzhen; Bi, Jingping; Chen, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Pocket switched networks (PSNs) take advantage of human mobility to deliver data. Investigations on real-world trace data indicate that human mobility shows an obvious spatial regularity: a human being usually visits a few places at high frequencies. These most frequently visited places form the home of a node, which is exploited in this paper to design two HomE based Relay selectiOn (HERO) algorithms. Both algorithms input single data copy into the network at any time. In the basic HERO, only the first node encountered by the source and whose home overlaps a destination's home is selected as a relay while the enhanced HERO keeps finding more optimal relay that visits the destination's home with higher probability. The two proposed algorithms only require the relays to exchange the information of their home and/or the visiting frequencies to their home when two nodes meet. As a result, the information update is reduced and there is no global status information that needs to be maintained. This causes light loads on relays because of the low communication cost and storage requirements. Additionally, only simple operations are needed in the two proposed algorithms, resulting in little computation overhead at relays. At last, a theoretical analysis is performed on some key metrics and then the real-world based simulations indicate that the two HERO algorithms are efficient and effective through employing only one or a few relays. PMID:26797609

  19. An Adaptive Handover Prediction Scheme for Seamless Mobility Based Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP) scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches. PMID:25574490

  20. The role of Alcoholics Anonymous in mobilizing adaptive social network changes: A prospective lagged mediational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Magill, Molly; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective Many individuals entering treatment are involved in social networks and activities that heighten relapse risk. Consequently, treatment programs facilitate engagement in social recovery resources, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), to provide a low risk network. While it is assumed that AA works partially through this social mechanism, research has been limited in rigor and scope. This study used lagged mediational methods to examine changes in pro-abstinent and pro-drinking network ties and activities. Method Adults (N = 1,726) participating in a randomized controlled trial of alcohol use disorder treatment were assessed at intake, and 3, 9, and 15 months. Generalized linear modeling (GLM) tested whether changes in pro-abstinent and pro-drinking network ties and drinking and abstinent activities helped explain AA's effects. Results Greater AA attendance facilitated substantial decreases in pro-drinking social ties and significant, but less substantial increases in pro-abstinent ties. Also, AA attendance reduced engagement in drinking-related activities and increased engagement in abstinent activities. Lagged mediational analyses revealed that it was through reductions in pro-drinking network ties and, to a lesser degree, increases in pro-abstinent ties that AA exerted its salutary effect on abstinence, and to a lesser extent, on drinking intensity. Conclusions AA appears to facilitate recovery by mobilizing adaptive changes in the social networks of individuals exhibiting a broad range of impairment. Specifically by reducing involvement with pro-drinking ties and increasing involvement with pro-abstinent ties. These changes may aid recovery by decreasing exposure to alcohol-related cues thereby reducing craving, while simultaneously increasing rewarding social relationships. PMID:21035276

  1. Rainfall retrieval in urban areas using commercial microwave links from mobile networks: A modelling feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohidov, Bahtiyor; Andrieu, Hervé; Servières, Myriam; Normand, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall is usually measured by networks of rain gauges and weather radars. Many cities worldwide are not supplied with these devices; however, they are generally equipped with mobile telecommunication networks. Mobile networks use atmospheric Hyper-Frequency (HF) links whose transmitted signal power is attenuated by rainfall. Measuring that signal attenuation along each link could allow the measurement of path-averaged rainfall [Leijnse et al 2007, Overeem et al 2013, Messer et al 2006, Guili et al 1991, Zinevich et al 2008, Cuccoli et al 2011]. As HF links are concentrated in cities, these networks could constitute a self-sufficient approach to monitoring rainfall in urban areas. We adopt a simulation approach in order to study the feasibility of mapping rainfall fields at the city scale by means of existing HF links. Our domain of study is the central part of the city of Nantes, France, where the density of cellular networks is greatest. As a basis, we use a data set consisting of hundreds of weather radar images recorded by the Météo-France C band weather radar at high spatial (250m x 250m) and temporal (5 minute) resolutions located about 10 km north of the center of Nantes. We convert these images into rainfall maps using the Z-R relation and consider them as reference rainfall fields. The simulation is performed as follows. First, we simulate the measurement of total attenuation along each HF link using a rain-attenuation model based on Mie theory and a known drop size distribution in a continental temperate climate. This procedure is applied for 256 real radio links operating at different frequencies (18, 23, 38 GHz) with lengths ranging from 0.4 to 16 km. This helps us to substitute the attenuation data for the signal power received from microwave links. Error sources affecting measurement accuracy are introduced as a zero-mean Gaussian distributed random variable with variance of 10% of total attenuation. The retrieval of the rainfield is performed by a

  2. Advanced radio over fiber network technologies.

    PubMed

    Novak, Dalma; Waterhouse, Rod

    2013-09-23

    The evolution of wireless communication networks supporting emerging broadband services and applications offers new opportunities for realizing integrated optical and wireless network infrastructures. We report on some of our recent activities investigating advanced technologies for next generation converged optical wireless networks. Developments in Active Antenna Systems, mobile fronthaul architectures, and 60 GHz fiber distributed wireless networks are described. We also discuss the potential for analog radio over fiber distribution links as a viable solution for meeting the capacity requirements of new network architectures. PMID:24104183

  3. Security Aspects of Smart Cards vs. Embedded Security in Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Advanced Mobile Network Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerstein, Mike; Cha, Inhyok; Shah, Yogendra

    The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardisation group currently discusses advanced applications of mobile networks such as Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication. Several security issues arise in these contexts which warrant a fresh look at mobile networks’ security foundations, resting on smart cards. This paper contributes a security/efficiency analysis to this discussion and highlights the role of trusted platform technology to approach these issues.

  4. Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks for Advanced Soil Sensing and Ecosystem Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, Hannes; Schima, Robert; Remmler, Paul; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2015-04-01

    For an adequate characterization of ecosystems it is necessary to detect individual processes with suitable monitoring strategies and methods. Due to the natural complexity of all environmental compartments, single point or temporally and spatially fixed measurements are mostly insufficient for an adequate representation. The application of mobile wireless sensor networks for soil and atmosphere sensing offers significant benefits, due to the simple adjustment of the sensor distribution, the sensor types and the sample rate (e.g. by using optimization approaches or event triggering modes) to the local test conditions. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous and dynamic environmental systems and processes. One significant advantage in the application of mobile ad-hoc wireless sensor networks is their self-organizing behavior. Thus, the network autonomously initializes and optimizes itself. Due to the localization via satellite a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time is generated. In addition, single point measurements with a sensor are significantly improved by measuring at several optimized points continuously. Since performing analog and digital signal processing and computation in the sensor nodes close to the sensors a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of nodes. Furthermore, the miniaturization of the nodes and energy harvesting are current topics under investigation. First results of field measurements are given to present the potentials and limitations of this application in environmental science. In particular, collected in-situ data with numerous specific soil and atmosphere parameters per sensor node (more than 25) recorded over several days illustrates the high performance of this system for advanced soil sensing and soil-atmosphere interaction monitoring. Moreover, investigations of biotic and abiotic process interactions and optimization

  5. High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Wiel H.; Schins, Juleon M.; Aerts, Michiel; Kulkarni, Aditya; Capiod, Pierre; Berthe, Maxime; Grandidier, Bruno; Delerue, Christophe; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; van Overbeek, Carlo; Peters, Joep L.; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; Siebbeles, Laurens D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional networks of quantum dots connected by atomic bonds have an electronic structure that is distinct from that of arrays of quantum dots coupled by ligand molecules. We prepared atomically coherent two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected via atomic bonds. Here, we show that photoexcitation leads to generation of free charges that eventually decay via trapping. The charge mobility probed with an AC electric field increases with frequency from 150±15 cm2 V−1 s−1 at 0.2 terahertz to 260±15 cm2 V−1 s−1 at 0.6 terahertz. Gated four-probe measurements yield a DC electron mobility of 13±2 cm2 V−1 s−1. The terahertz mobilities are much higher than for arrays of quantum dots coupled via surface ligands and are similar to the highest DC mobilities reported for PbSe nanowires. The terahertz mobility increases only slightly with temperature in the range of 15–290 K. The extent of straight segments in the two-dimensional percolative networks limits the mobility, rather than charge scattering by phonons. PMID:26400049

  6. Robust tracking control of a unicycle-type wheeled mobile manipulator using a hybrid sliding mode fuzzy neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Meng-Bi; Su, Wu-Chung; Tsai, Ching-Chih

    2012-03-01

    This article presents a robust tracking controller for an uncertain mobile manipulator system. A rigid robotic arm is mounted on a wheeled mobile platform whose motion is subject to nonholonomic constraints. The sliding mode control (SMC) method is associated with the fuzzy neural network (FNN) to constitute a robust control scheme to cope with three types of system uncertainties; namely, external disturbances, modelling errors, and strong couplings in between the mobile platform and the onboard arm subsystems. All parameter adjustment rules for the proposed controller are derived from the Lyapunov theory such that the tracking error dynamics and the FNN weighting updates are ensured to be stable with uniform ultimate boundedness (UUB).

  7. The role of interpersonal communication in the process of knowledge mobilization within a community-based organization: a network analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diffusion of innovations theory has been widely used to explain knowledge mobilization of research findings. This theory posits that individuals who are more interpersonally connected within an organization may be more likely to adopt an innovation (e.g., research evidence) than individuals who are less interconnected. Research examining this tenet of diffusion of innovations theory in the knowledge mobilization literature is limited. The purpose of the present study was to use network analysis to examine the role of interpersonal communication in the adoption and mobilization of the physical activity guidelines for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) among staff in a community-based organization (CBO). Methods The study used a cross-sectional, whole-network design. In total, 56 staff completed the network survey. Adoption of the guidelines was assessed using Rogers’ innovation-decision process and interpersonal communication was assessed using an online network instrument. Results The patterns of densities observed within the network were indicative of a core-periphery structure revealing that interpersonal communication was greater within the core than between the core and periphery and within the periphery. Membership in the core, as opposed to membership in the periphery, was associated with greater knowledge of the evidence-based physical activity resources available and engagement in physical activity promotion behaviours (ps < 0.05). Greater in-degree centrality was associated with adoption of evidence-based behaviours (p < 0.05). Conclusions Findings suggest that interpersonal communication is associated with knowledge mobilization and highlight how the network structure could be improved for further dissemination efforts. Keywords: diffusion of innovations; network analysis; community-based organization; knowledge mobilization; knowledge translation, interpersonal communication. PMID:24886429

  8. Ultrahigh sensitive sub-terahertz detection by InP-based asymmetric dual-grating-gate high-electron-mobility transistors and their broadband characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, Y.; Satou, A. Kobayashi, K.; Boubanga Tombet, S.; Suemitsu, T.; Otsuji, T.; Ducournau, G.; Coquillat, D.; Knap, W.; Meziani, Y. M.; Popov, V. V.

    2014-06-23

    We report on room-temperature plasmonic detection of sub-terahertz radiation by InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistors with an asymmetric dual-grating-gate structure. Maximum responsivities of 22.7 kV/W at 200 GHz and 21.5 kV/W at 292 GHz were achieved under unbiased drain-to-source condition. The minimum noise equivalent power was estimated to be 0.48 pW/Hz{sup 0.5} at 200 GHz at room temperature, which is the record-breaking value ever reported for plasmonic THz detectors. Frequency dependence of the responsivity in the frequency range of 0.2–2 THz is in good agreement with the theory.

  9. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    PubMed

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. PMID:25454637

  10. Leveraging socially networked mobile ICT platforms for the last-mile delivery problem.

    PubMed

    Suh, Kyo; Smith, Timothy; Linhoff, Michelle

    2012-09-01

    Increasing numbers of people are managing their social networks on mobile information and communication technology (ICT) platforms. This study materializes these social relationships by leveraging spatial and networked information for sharing excess capacity to reduce the environmental impacts associated with "last-mile" package delivery systems from online purchases, particularly in low population density settings. Alternative package pickup location systems (PLS), such as a kiosk on a public transit platform or in a grocery store, have been suggested as effective strategies for reducing package travel miles and greenhouse gas emissions, compared to current door-to-door delivery models (CDS). However, our results suggest that a pickup location delivery system operating in a suburban setting may actually increase travel miles and emissions. Only once a social network is employed to assist in package pickup (SPLS) are significant reductions in the last-mile delivery distance and carbon emissions observed across both urban and suburban settings. Implications for logistics management's decades-long focus on improving efficiencies of dedicated distribution systems through specialization, as well as for public policy targeting carbon emissions of the transport sector are discussed. PMID:22877137

  11. The influence of molecular mobility on the properties of networks of gold nanoparticles and organic ligands.

    PubMed

    Devid, Edwin J; Martinho, Paulo N; Kamalakar, M Venkata; Prendergast, Una; Kübel, Christian; Lemma, Tibebe; Dayen, Jean-François; Keyes, Tia E; Doudin, Bernard; Ruben, Mario; van der Molen, Sense Jan

    2014-01-01

    We prepare and investigate two-dimensional (2D) single-layer arrays and multilayered networks of gold nanoparticles derivatized with conjugated hetero-aromatic molecules, i.e., S-(4-{[2,6-bipyrazol-1-yl)pyrid-4-yl]ethynyl}phenyl)thiolate (herein S-BPP), as capping ligands. These structures are fabricated by a combination of self-assembly and microcontact printing techniques, and are characterized by electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Selective binding of the S-BPP molecules to the gold nanoparticles through Au-S bonds is found, with no evidence for the formation of N-Au bonds between the pyridine or pyrazole groups of BPP and the gold surface. Subtle, but significant shifts with temperature of specific Raman S-BPP modes are also observed. We attribute these to dynamic changes in the orientation and/or increased mobility of the molecules on the gold nanoparticle facets. As for their conductance, the temperature-dependence for S-BPP networks differs significantly from standard alkanethiol-capped networks, especially above 220 K. Relating the latter two observations, we propose that dynamic changes in the molecular layers effectively lower the molecular tunnel barrier for BPP-based arrays at higher temperatures. PMID:25383278

  12. The influence of molecular mobility on the properties of networks of gold nanoparticles and organic ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kamalakar, M Venkata; Prendergast, Úna; Kübel, Christian; Lemma, Tibebe; Dayen, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Summary We prepare and investigate two-dimensional (2D) single-layer arrays and multilayered networks of gold nanoparticles derivatized with conjugated hetero-aromatic molecules, i.e., S-(4-{[2,6-bipyrazol-1-yl)pyrid-4-yl]ethynyl}phenyl)thiolate (herein S-BPP), as capping ligands. These structures are fabricated by a combination of self-assembly and microcontact printing techniques, and are characterized by electron microscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Selective binding of the S-BPP molecules to the gold nanoparticles through Au–S bonds is found, with no evidence for the formation of N–Au bonds between the pyridine or pyrazole groups of BPP and the gold surface. Subtle, but significant shifts with temperature of specific Raman S-BPP modes are also observed. We attribute these to dynamic changes in the orientation and/or increased mobility of the molecules on the gold nanoparticle facets. As for their conductance, the temperature-dependence for S-BPP networks differs significantly from standard alkanethiol-capped networks, especially above 220 K. Relating the latter two observations, we propose that dynamic changes in the molecular layers effectively lower the molecular tunnel barrier for BPP-based arrays at higher temperatures. PMID:25383278

  13. Migration to Broadband and Ubiquitous Environments by Using Fiber-Optic Technologies in Access/Home Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Kimio

    2016-03-01

    The recent dramatic advances in information and communication technologies have yielded new environments. However, adoption still differs area by area. To realize the future broadband environment that everyone can enjoy everywhere, several technical issues have to be resolved before network penetration becomes ubiquitous. One such key is the use of fiber optics for the home and mobile services. This article overviews initial observations drawn from numerical survey data gathered over the last decade in several countries/regions, and gives some example scenarios for network/service evolution. One result implies that implementing new/future services must consider the gross domestic product impact.

  14. Simply Coded Evolutionary Artificial Neural Networks on a Mobile Robot Control Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katada, Yoshiaki; Hidaka, Takuya

    One of the advantages of evolutionary robotics over other approaches in embodied cognitive science would be its parallel population search. Due to the population search, it takes a long time to evaluate all robot in a real environment. Thus, such techniques as to shorten the time are required for real robots to evolve in a real environment. This paper proposes to use simply coded evolutionary artificial neural networks for mobile robot control to make genetic search space as small as possible and investigates the performance of them using simulated and real robots. Two types of genetic algorithm (GA) are employed, one is the standard GA and the other is an extended GA, to achieve higher final fitnesses. The results suggest the benefits of the proposed method.

  15. Packet switching for mobile earth stations via low-orbit satellite network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brayer, K.

    1984-11-01

    An autonomous adaptive protocol for spaceborne computer communication in a self-configuring network is presented. The key concept is survivability, which could be achieved with a satellite ring located at orbits of 1000-4000 mi altitude. Each spacecraft would carry an on-board computer with algorithms which would guide automated reconfiguring of nodes should one satellite fail or be destroyed. Transmissions would then be uninterrupted for link between land and mobile stations. It is recommended that the orbits be at 50-60 deg inclinations. The spacecraft, boosted from the Orbiter, would be three-axis stabilized and would carry antennas pointing forward and backward along the ring and downward to earth. Message routing schemes based on ARPANET confirm that acceptable routes are attainable. The associated algorithm has been validated by experiments with routing data between six computers.

  16. Fuzzy Multiple Metrics Link Assessment for Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Ai Luang; Tan, Chong Eng; Tay, Kai Meng

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we investigate on the use of Sugeno fuzzy inference system (FIS) in route selection for mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs). Sugeno FIS is introduced into Ad-Hoc On Demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol, which is derived from its predecessor, Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV). Instead of using the conventional way that considering only a single metric to choose the best route, our proposed fuzzy decision making model considers up to three metrics. In the model, the crisp inputs of the three parameters are fed into an FIS and being processed in stages, i.e., fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification. Finally, after experiencing all the stages, a single value score is generated from the combination metrics, which will be used to measure all the discovered routes credibility. Results obtained from simulations show a promising improvement as compared to AOMDV and AODV.

  17. Learning from adaptive neural network output feedback control of a unicycle-type mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei; Wang, Qinghui; Liu, Fenglin; Wang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    This paper studies learning from adaptive neural network (NN) output feedback control of nonholonomic unicycle-type mobile robots. The major difficulties are caused by the unknown robot system dynamics and the unmeasurable states. To overcome these difficulties, a new adaptive control scheme is proposed including designing a new adaptive NN output feedback controller and two high-gain observers. It is shown that the stability of the closed-loop robot system and the convergence of tracking errors are guaranteed. The unknown robot system dynamics can be approximated by radial basis function NNs. When repeating same or similar control tasks, the learned knowledge can be recalled and reused to achieve guaranteed stability and better control performance, thereby avoiding the tremendous repeated training process of NNs. PMID:26830003

  18. Portable digital seismological AC station over mobile telephone network and internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Rincón-Botero, Sergio

    2003-07-01

    We have developed a portable station with a low-frequency signal conditioning and acquisition system for seismic event recording. This station records events in different modes and transmits them in the cellular mobile telephone network via active pages. Setup of the station is done directly at the station or remotely via a TCP-IP connection to the site. The designed station has a 101 dB dynamic range and nine channels. Three are for the tri-axial array geophones. The other six are used for the acquisition of signals with less than 100 samples per second requirements (temperature, radiometry, inclinometers, battery monitoring, etc.). The station software allows detection of seismic events using a short-term/long-term coverage standard algorithm, as well as threshold detection, periodic capture and continuous channel capture. The conditioning and acquisition system was designed as an embedded command-driven system with its own real-time clock and storage memory.

  19. Pervasive community care platform: Ambient Intelligence leveraging sensor networks and mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuan-Jun; Chiang, Chang-Yu

    2014-04-01

    Several powerful trends are contributing to an aging of much of the world's population, especially in economically developed countries. To mitigate the negative effects of rapidly ageing populations, societies must act early to plan for the welfare, medical care and residential arrangements of their senior citizens, and for the manpower and associated training needed to execute these plans. This paper describes the development of an Ambient Intelligent Community Care Platform (AICCP), which creates an environment of Ambient Intelligence through the use of sensor network and mobile agent (MA) technologies. The AICCP allows caregivers to quickly and accurately locate their charges; access, update and share critical treatment and wellness data; and automatically archive all records. The AICCP presented in this paper is expected to enable caregivers and communities to offer pervasive, accurate and context-aware care services.

  20. Dynamic sensing optimization strategy for mobile nodes deployment in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Wang, Xue; Ma, Junjie

    2006-11-01

    Sensor nodes deployment problem is one of the fundamental issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) which should consider a tradeoff among several metrics, such as coverage area, reliability, accuracy, lifetime etc. The mobile sensor nodes which can relocate themselves can be used to optimize the nodes deployment under various kinds of situations. Because coverage area is hard to be calculated by analytical method, an areas division method is introduced to evaluate the coverage area metric for simplifying calculation. Then we introduce a practically feasible combined metric which refers to coverage area, reliability, accuracy and lifetime, which uses areas division, detecting reliability, Mahalanobis distance and energy entropy as metric functions. Here, nodes deployment is considered as an optimization problem. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which has a series of advantages, such as, high-speed regional convergence, efficient global searching ability, and so on, is suitable for solving multi-dimension function optimization in continuous space. So we adopt PSO for nodes deployment optimization where the combined metric is considered as fitness function. Because the combined metric is multiform and changeable in PSO, we can adopt different combined metrics for different applications, while other strategies just consider the coverage area in nodes deployment. The experimental results verify that the PSO based mobile nodes deployment strategy has good performance in quickness, which can improve the capabilities of WSNs and dynamically adjust the deployment according to the changes of situation, especially when some areas need multiple-node-measurement.