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Sample records for mobilis cloning sequencing

  1. Cloning and sequencing of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Conway, Tyrrell

    1992-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been cloned and sequenced. This gene can be expressed at high levels in other organisms to produce acetaldehyde or to convert acetaldehyde to ethanol.

  2. Phosphoglycerate kinase gene from Zymomonas mobilis: cloning sequencing, and localization within the gap operon

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, T.; Ingram, L.O.

    1988-04-01

    The Zymomonas mobilis gene encoding phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.3.2), pgk, has been cloned into Escherichia coli and sequenced. It consists of 336 amino acids, including the N-terminal methionine, with a molecular weight of 47,384. This promoterless gene is located 225 base pairs downstream from the gap gene and is part of the gap operon. Previous studies have shown that the specific activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphoglycerate kinase do not change coordinately in Z. mobilis, although the two enzymes appear to be under the control of a common promoter. The translated amino acid sequence for the Z. mobilis phosphoglycerte kinase is less conserved than those of eucaryotic genes. A comparison of known sequences for phosphoglycerate kinase revealed a high degree of conservation of structure with 102 amino acid positions being retained by all. In general, the amino acid positions at the boundaries of ..beta..-sheet and ..cap alpha..-helical regions and those connecting these regions were more highly conserved than the amino acid positions within regions of secondary structure.

  3. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from Zymomonas mobilis: cloning, sequencing, and identification of promoter region

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, T.; Sewell, G.W.; Ingram, L.O.

    1987-12-01

    The gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was isolated from a library of Zymomonas mobilis DNA fragments by complementing a deficient strain of Escherichia coli. It contained tandem promoters which were recognized by E. coli but appeared to function less efficiently than the enteric lac promoter in E. coli. The open reading frame for this gene encoded 337 amino acids with an aggregate molecular weight of 36,099 (including the N-terminal methionine). The primary amino acid sequence for this gene had considerable functional homology and amino acid identity with other eukaryotic and bacterial genes. Based on this comparison, the gap gene from Z. mobilis appeared to be most closely related to that of the thermophilic bacteria and to the chloroplast isozymes. Comparison of this gene with other glycolytic enzymes from Z. mobilis revealed a conserved pattern of codon bias and several common features of gene structure. A tentative transcriptional consensus sequence is proposed for Z. mobilis based on comparison of the five known promoters for three glycolytic enzymes.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Zymomonas mobilis ZM481 (ATCC 31823)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ning; Pan, Yongxu

    2016-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis ZM481 (ATCC 31823) is an ethanol-tolerant strain that can produce the highest level of ethanol in Z. mobilis from glucose in the shortest time. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of ZM481, which can help us understand the genes related to the ethanol tolerance of this strain. PMID:27056218

  5. Genome Sequence of the Ethanol-Producing Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis Lectotype Strain ATCC 10988 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Katherine M.; Kouvelis, Vassili N.; Saunders, Elizabeth; Brettin, Thomas S.; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Balakireva, Mariya; Han, Cliff S.; Savvakis, Giannis; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Typas, Milton A.

    2011-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 10988 is the type strain of the Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis taxon, members of which are some of the most rigorous ethanol-producing bacteria. Isolated from Agave cactus fermentations in Mexico, ATCC 10988 is one of the first Z. mobilis strains to be described and studied. Its robustness in sucrose-substrate fermentations, physiological characteristics, large number of plasmids, and overall genomic plasticity render this strain important to the study of the species. Here we report the finishing and annotation of the ATCC 10988 chromosomal and plasmid genome. PMID:21725006

  6. High-throughput sequencing reveals adaptation-induced mutations in pentose-fermenting strains of Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kori L; Rao, Christopher V

    2015-11-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is capable of producing ethanol at high rates and titers from glucose. This bacterium has previously been engineered to consume the pentose sugars xylose and arabinose, but the rate of consumption of these sugars is low. Recent research has utilized adaptive evolution to isolate strains of Z. mobilis capable of rapidly fermenting xylose. In this study, we also used adaptive evolution to isolate strains of Z. mobilis capable of rapidly fermenting xylose and arabinose. To determine the bottlenecks in pentose metabolism, we then used high-throughput sequencing to pinpoint the genetic changes responsible for the phenotypes of the adapted strains. We found that the transport of both xylose and arabinose through the native sugar transporter, Glf, limits pentose fermentations in Z. mobilis. We also found that mutations in the AddB protein increase plasmid stability and can reduce cellular aggregation in these strains. Consistent with previous research, we found that reduced xylitol production improves xylose fermentations in Z. mobilis. We also found that increased transketolase activity and reduced glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity improve arabinose fermentations in Z. mobilis. Biotechnol. PMID:25943255

  7. Permanent draft genome sequence of Desulfurococcus mobilis type strain DSM 2161, a thermoacidophilic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeon isolated from acidic hot springs of Hveravellir, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Susanti, Dwi; Johnson, Eric F; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Reddy, T B K; Pilay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia N; Markowitz, Victor M; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the permanent draft genome sequence of Desulfurococcus mobilis type strain DSM 2161, an obligate anaerobic hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon that was isolated from acidic hot springs in Hveravellir, Iceland. D. mobilis utilizes peptides as carbon and energy sources and reduces elemental sulfur to H2S. A metabolic construction derived from the draft genome identified putative pathways for peptide degradation and sulfur respiration in this archaeon. Existence of several hydrogenase genes in the genome supported previous findings that H2 is produced during the growth of D. mobilis in the absence of sulfur. Interestingly, genes encoding glucose transport and utilization systems also exist in the D. mobilis genome though this archaeon does not utilize carbohydrate for growth. The draft genome of D. mobilis provides an additional mean for comparative genomic analysis of desulfurococci. In addition, our analysis on the Average Nucleotide Identity between D. mobilis and Desulfurococcus mucosus suggested that these two desulfurococci are two different strains of the same species. PMID:26767090

  8. Permanent draft genome sequence of Desulfurococcus mobilis type strain DSM 2161, a thermoacidophilic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeon isolated from acidic hot springs of Hveravellir, Iceland

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Susanti, Dwi; Johnson, Eric F.; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Reddy, T. B. K.; Pilay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Markowitz, Victor M.; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; et al

    2016-01-13

    Our report presents the permanent draft genome sequence of Desulfurococcus mobilis type strain DSM 2161, an obligate anaerobic hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon that was isolated from acidic hot springs in Hveravellir, Iceland. D. mobilis utilizes peptides as carbon and energy sources and reduces elemental sulfur to H2S. A metabolic construction derived from the draft genome identified putative pathways for peptide degradation and sulfur respiration in this archaeon. Existence of several hydrogenase genes in the genome supported previous findings that H2 is produced during the growth of D. mobilis in the absence of sulfur. Interestingly, genes encoding glucose transport and utilization systems alsomore » exist in the D. mobilis genome though this archaeon does not utilize carbohydrate for growth. The draft genome of D. mobilis provides an additional mean for comparative genomic analysis of desulfurococci. In addition, our analysis on the Average Nucleotide Identity between D. mobilis and Desulfurococcus mucosus suggested that these two desulfurococci are two different strains of the same species.« less

  9. A comprehensive list of cloned human DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Cooper, David N.

    1988-01-01

    A list of DNA sequences cloned from the human genome is presented. Intended as a guide to clone availability, this list includes published reports of cDNA, genomic and synthetic clones comprising gene and pseudogene sequences, uncharacterised DNA segments and repetitive DNA elements. PMID:3368330

  10. A comprehensive list of cloned human DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Cooper, David N.

    1989-01-01

    A list of DNA sequences cloned from the human genome is presented. Intended as a guide to clone availability, this list includes published reports of cDNA, genomic and synthetic clones comprising gene and pseudogene sequences, uncharacterised DNA segments and repetitive DNA elements. PMID:2654889

  11. A comprehensive list of cloned human DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Cooper, David N.

    1990-01-01

    A list of DNA sequences cloned from the human genome is presented. Intended as a guide to clone availability, this list includes published reports of cDNA, genomic and synthetic clones comprising gene and pseudogene sequences, uncharacterised DNA segments and repetitive DNA elements. PMID:2333227

  12. Hybrid Sequencing Approach Applied to Human Fecal Metagenomic Clone Libraries Revealed Clones with Potential Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Džunková, Mária; D’Auria, Giuseppe; Pérez-Villarroya, David; Moya, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be “domesticated” for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7–15 kb) cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs) with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts. PMID:23082187

  13. Physiology and genetics of metabolic flux control in Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, T.

    1992-01-01

    This work seeks to understand the role of gene expression in regulating glycolytic enzyme synthesis in a balance that allows proper glycoltic flux control. The seven genes targeted for study in this laboratory have been cloned and sequenced, and molecular details of regulation have been investigated. Clear that glycolytic enzyme synthesis is coordinated to prevent the build up of toxic metabolic intermediates. The genetic mechanisms responsible for regulating balanced expression of the EntnerDoudoroff and glycolytic genes in Z. mobilis are beginning to be understood. Several layers of genetic control, perhaps in a hierarchal arrangement act in concert to determine the relative abundance of the glycolytic enzymes. These genetic controls involve differential translational efficiency, highly conserved promoter sequences, transcription factors, differential mRNA stabilities, and nucleolytic mRNA processing. The serendipitous cloning of the glucose facilitator, glf, as a result of linkage to several other genes of interest will have a significant impact on the study of Z. mobilis metabolism. The glucose facilitator is being characterized in a genetically reconstituted system in E. coli. Molecular genetic studies indicate that the ratio of glf expression to that of glk, zmf, and edd is carefully regulated, and suggests a critical role in metabolic control. Regulation of glycolytic gene expression is now sufficiently well understood to allow use of the glycolytic genes as tools to manipulate specified enzyme levels for the purpose of analyzing metabolic flux control. The critical genes have been subcloned for stable expression in Z. mobilis and placed under control of a regulated promoter system involving the tac promoter, the lacI repressor, and gene induction in by IPTG. HPLC methods have been developed that allow quantitation of virtually all of the metabolic intermediates in the cell pool.

  14. Nonoverlapping clone pooling for high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kuroshu, Reginaldo M

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneously sequencing multiple clones using second-generation sequencers can speed up many essential clone-based sequencing methods. However, in applications such as fosmid clone sequencing and full-length cDNA sequencing, it is important to create pools of clones that do not overlap on the genome for the identification of structural variations and alternatively spliced transcripts, respectively. We define the nonoverlapping clone pooling problem and provide practical solutions based on optimal graph coloring and bin-packing algorithms with constant absolute worst-case ratios, and further extend them to cope with repetitive mappings. Using theoretical analysis and experiments, we also show that the proposed methods are applicable. PMID:24384700

  15. (Physiology and genetics of metabolic flux control in Zymomonas mobilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, T.

    1992-01-01

    The funded research deals with the physiology and genetics of glycolytic flux control in Zymomonas mobilis. Two fundamental biological questions are begin addressed: First, how do the enzymes of glycolytic pathways act in concert to regulate metabolic flux Second, what is the role of gene expression in regulating high level synthesis of the glycolytic enzymes in a balance that allows proper glycolytic flux control The specific objectives of the grant are as follows: 1. To clone the structural and regulatory regions of the Z. mobilis genes encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucose isomerase, enolase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase, 2- keto-3-deoxy- 6-phosphogluconate aldolase, glucokinase and fructokinase. 2. To characterize the structure of these genes with respect to nucleotide sequence, transcriptional initiation sites promoter location, evolutionary relatedness to similar genes from other organisms, and organization of these genes on the genome. 3. To investigate the effects of genetically engineered alterations in the levels of the cloned enzymes on metabolic flux and cell growth. 4. To study transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding the enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. The first two specific objectives have now been fully completed. Significant progress has been made on the fourth objective and work on the third objective is well underway.

  16. Characteristics of cloned repeated DNA sequences in the barley genome

    SciTech Connect

    Anan'ev, E.V.; Bochkanov, S.S.; Ryzhik, M.V.; Sonina, N.V.; Chernyshev, A.I.; Shchipkova, N.I.; Yakovleva, E.Yu.

    1986-12-01

    A partial clone library of barley DNA fragments based on plasmid pBR325 was created. The cloned EcoRI-fragments of chromosomal DNA are from 2 to 14 kbp in length. More than 95% of the barley DNA inserts comprise repeated sequences of different complexity and copy number. Certain of these DNA sequences are from families comprising at least 1% of the barley genome. A significant proportion of the clones hybridize with numerous sets of restriction fragments of genome DNA and they are dispersed throughout the barley chromosomes.

  17. CloneQC: lightweight sequence verification for synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pablo A.; Dymond, Jessica S.; Scheifele, Lisa Z.; Richardson, Sarah M.; Foelber, Katrina J.; Boeke, Jef D.; Bader, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology projects aim to produce physical DNA that matches a designed target sequence. Chemically synthesized oligomers are generally used as the starting point for building larger and larger sequences. Due to the error rate of chemical synthesis, these oligomers can have many differences from the target sequence. As oligomers are joined together to make larger and larger synthetic intermediates, it becomes essential to perform quality control to eliminate intermediates with errors and retain only those DNA molecules that are error free with respect to the target. This step is often performed by transforming bacteria with synthetic DNA and sequencing colonies until a clone with a perfect sequence is identified. Here we present CloneQC, a lightweight software pipeline available as a free web server and as source code that performs quality control on sequenced clones. Input to the server is a list of desired sequences and forward and reverse reads for each clone. The server generates summary statistics (error rates and success rates target-by-target) and a detailed report of perfect clones. This software will be useful to laboratories conducting in-house DNA synthesis and is available at http://cloneqc.thruhere.net/ and as Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) licensed source. PMID:20211841

  18. Recombinant L-Asparaginase from Zymomonas mobilis: A Potential New Antileukemic Agent Produced in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Juliana Christina Castanheira Vicente; Costa-Amaral, Isabele Campos; da Costa, Elaine Sobral; Ribeiro, Maria Cecília Menks; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Alves, Tito Lívio Moitinho; Larentis, Ariane Leites; Almeida, Rodrigo Volcan

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase is an enzyme used as a chemotherapeutic agent, mainly for treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In this study, the gene of L-asparaginase from Zymomonas mobilis was cloned in pET vectors, fused to a histidine tag, and had its codons optimized. The L-asparaginase was expressed extracellularly and intracellularly (cytoplasmically) in Escherichia coli in far larger quantities than obtained from the microorganism of origin, and sufficient for initial cytotoxicity tests on leukemic cells. The in silico analysis of the protein from Z. mobilis indicated the presence of a signal peptide in the sequence, as well as high identity to other sequences of L-asparaginases with antileukemic activity. The protein was expressed in a bioreactor with a complex culture medium, yielding 0.13 IU/mL extracellular L-asparaginase and 3.6 IU/mL intracellular L-asparaginase after 4 h of induction with IPTG. The cytotoxicity results suggest that recombinant L-asparaginase from Z. mobilis expressed extracellularly in E.coli has a cytotoxic and cytostatic effect on leukemic cells. PMID:27253887

  19. Recombinant L-Asparaginase from Zymomonas mobilis: A Potential New Antileukemic Agent Produced in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Einsfeldt, Karen; Baptista, Isis Cavalcante; Pereira, Juliana Christina Castanheira Vicente; Costa-Amaral, Isabele Campos; Costa, Elaine Sobral da; Ribeiro, Maria Cecília Menks; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Alves, Tito Lívio Moitinho; Larentis, Ariane Leites; Almeida, Rodrigo Volcan

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase is an enzyme used as a chemotherapeutic agent, mainly for treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In this study, the gene of L-asparaginase from Zymomonas mobilis was cloned in pET vectors, fused to a histidine tag, and had its codons optimized. The L-asparaginase was expressed extracellularly and intracellularly (cytoplasmically) in Escherichia coli in far larger quantities than obtained from the microorganism of origin, and sufficient for initial cytotoxicity tests on leukemic cells. The in silico analysis of the protein from Z. mobilis indicated the presence of a signal peptide in the sequence, as well as high identity to other sequences of L-asparaginases with antileukemic activity. The protein was expressed in a bioreactor with a complex culture medium, yielding 0.13 IU/mL extracellular L-asparaginase and 3.6 IU/mL intracellular L-asparaginase after 4 h of induction with IPTG. The cytotoxicity results suggest that recombinant L-asparaginase from Z. mobilis expressed extracellularly in E.coli has a cytotoxic and cytostatic effect on leukemic cells. PMID:27253887

  20. Sequencing genomes from single cells by polymerase cloning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Martiny, Adam C; Reppas, Nikos B; Barry, Kerrie W; Malek, Joel; Chisholm, Sallie W; Church, George M

    2006-06-01

    Genome sequencing currently requires DNA from pools of numerous nearly identical cells (clones), leaving the genome sequences of many difficult-to-culture microorganisms unattainable. We report a sequencing strategy that eliminates culturing of microorganisms by using real-time isothermal amplification to form polymerase clones (plones) from the DNA of single cells. Two Escherichia coli plones, analyzed by Affymetrix chip hybridization, demonstrate that plonal amplification is specific and the bias is randomly distributed. Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of Prochlorococcus MIT9312 plones showed 62% coverage of the genome from one plone at a sequencing depth of 3.5x, and 66% coverage from a second plone at a depth of 4.7x. Genomic regions not revealed in the initial round of sequencing are recovered by sequencing PCR amplicons derived from plonal DNA. The mutation rate in single-cell amplification is <2 x 10(5), better than that of current genome sequencing standards. Polymerase cloning should provide a critical tool for systematic characterization of genome diversity in the biosphere. PMID:16732271

  1. Sequence structure of Lowary/Widom clones forming strong nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Trifonov, Edward N

    2016-04-01

    Lowary and Widom selected from random sequences those which form exceptionally stable nucleosomes, including clone 601, the current champion of strong nucleosome (SN) sequences. This unique sequence database (LW sequences) carries sequence elements which confer stability on the nucleosomes formed on the sequences, and, thus, may serve as source of information on the structure of "ideal" or close to ideal nucleosome DNA sequence. An important clue is also provided by crystallographic study of Vasudevan and coauthors on clone 601 nucleosomes. It demonstrated that YR·YR dinucleotide stacks (primarily TA·TA) follow one another at distances 10 or 11 bases or multiples thereof, such that they all are located on the interface between DNA and histone octamer. Combining this important information with alignment of the YR-containing 10-mers and 11-mers from LW sequences, the bendability matrices of the stable nucleosome DNA are derived. The matrices suggest that the periodically repeated TA (YR), RR, and YY dinucleotides are the main sequence features of the SNs. This consensus coincides with the one for recently discovered SNs with visibly periodic DNA sequences. Thus, the experimentally observed stable LW nucleosomes and SNs derived computationally appear to represent the same entity - exceptionally stable SNs. PMID:26208855

  2. Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of human 5-lipoxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T.; Funk, C.D.; Radmark, O.; Hoeoeg, J.O.; Joernvall, H.; Samuelsson, B.

    1988-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.34), a Ca/sup 2 +/- and ATP-requiring enzyme, catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of the peptidoleukotrienes and the chemotactic factor leukotriene B/sub 4/. A cDNA clone corresponding to 5-lipoxygenase was isolated from a human lung lambda gt11 expression library by immunoscreening with a polyclonal antibody. Additional clones from a human placenta lambda gt11 cDNA library were obtained by plaque hybridization with the /sup 32/P-labeled lung cDNA clone. Sequence data obtained from several overlapping clones indicate that the composite DNAs contain the complete coding region for the enzyme. From the deduced primary structure, 5-lipoxygenase encodes a 673 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 77,839. Direct analysis of the native protein and its proteolytic fragments confirmed the deduced composition, the amino-terminal amino acid sequence, and the structure of many internal segments. 5-Lipoxygenase has no apparent sequence homology with leukotriene A/sub 4/ hydrolase or Ca/sup 2 +/-binding proteins. RNA blot analysis indicated substantial amounts of an mRNA species of approx. = 2700 nucleotides in leukocytes, lung, and placenta.

  3. Method enabling fast partial sequencing of cDNA clones.

    PubMed

    Nordström, T; Gharizadeh, B; Pourmand, N; Nyren, P; Ronaghi, M

    2001-05-15

    Pyrosequencing is a nonelectrophoretic single-tube DNA sequencing method that takes advantage of cooperativity between four enzymes to monitor DNA synthesis. To investigate the feasibility of the recently developed technique for tag sequencing, 64 colonies of a selected cDNA library from human were sequenced by both pyrosequencing and Sanger DNA sequencing. To determine the needed length for finding a unique DNA sequence, 100 sequence tags from human were retrieved from the database and different lengths from each sequence were randomly analyzed. An homology search based on 20 and 30 nucleotides produced 97 and 98% unique hits, respectively. An homology search based on 100 nucleotides could identify all searched genes. Pyrosequencing was employed to produce sequence data for 30 nucleotides. A similar search using BLAST revealed 16 different genes. Forty-six percent of the sequences shared homology with one gene at different positions. Two of the 64 clones had unique sequences. The search results from pyrosequencing were in 100% agreement with conventional DNA sequencing methods. The possibility of using a fully automated pyrosequencer machine for future high-throughput tag sequencing is discussed. PMID:11355860

  4. Evaluation of a Pooled Strategy for High-Throughput Sequencing of Cosmid Clones from Metagenomic Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kathy N.; Hall, Michael W.; Engel, Katja; Vey, Gregory; Cheng, Jiujun; Neufeld, Josh D.; Charles, Trevor C.

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing methods have been instrumental in the growing field of metagenomics, with technological improvements enabling greater throughput at decreased costs. Nonetheless, the economy of high-throughput sequencing cannot be fully leveraged in the subdiscipline of functional metagenomics. In this area of research, environmental DNA is typically cloned to generate large-insert libraries from which individual clones are isolated, based on specific activities of interest. Sequence data are required for complete characterization of such clones, but the sequencing of a large set of clones requires individual barcode-based sample preparation; this can become costly, as the cost of clone barcoding scales linearly with the number of clones processed, and thus sequencing a large number of metagenomic clones often remains cost-prohibitive. We investigated a hybrid Sanger/Illumina pooled sequencing strategy that omits barcoding altogether, and we evaluated this strategy by comparing the pooled sequencing results to reference sequence data obtained from traditional barcode-based sequencing of the same set of clones. Using identity and coverage metrics in our evaluation, we show that pooled sequencing can generate high-quality sequence data, without producing problematic chimeras. Though caveats of a pooled strategy exist and further optimization of the method is required to improve recovery of complete clone sequences and to avoid circumstances that generate unrecoverable clone sequences, our results demonstrate that pooled sequencing represents an effective and low-cost alternative for sequencing large sets of metagenomic clones. PMID:24911009

  5. Evaluation of a pooled strategy for high-throughput sequencing of cosmid clones from metagenomic libraries.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kathy N; Hall, Michael W; Engel, Katja; Vey, Gregory; Cheng, Jiujun; Neufeld, Josh D; Charles, Trevor C

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing methods have been instrumental in the growing field of metagenomics, with technological improvements enabling greater throughput at decreased costs. Nonetheless, the economy of high-throughput sequencing cannot be fully leveraged in the subdiscipline of functional metagenomics. In this area of research, environmental DNA is typically cloned to generate large-insert libraries from which individual clones are isolated, based on specific activities of interest. Sequence data are required for complete characterization of such clones, but the sequencing of a large set of clones requires individual barcode-based sample preparation; this can become costly, as the cost of clone barcoding scales linearly with the number of clones processed, and thus sequencing a large number of metagenomic clones often remains cost-prohibitive. We investigated a hybrid Sanger/Illumina pooled sequencing strategy that omits barcoding altogether, and we evaluated this strategy by comparing the pooled sequencing results to reference sequence data obtained from traditional barcode-based sequencing of the same set of clones. Using identity and coverage metrics in our evaluation, we show that pooled sequencing can generate high-quality sequence data, without producing problematic chimeras. Though caveats of a pooled strategy exist and further optimization of the method is required to improve recovery of complete clone sequences and to avoid circumstances that generate unrecoverable clone sequences, our results demonstrate that pooled sequencing represents an effective and low-cost alternative for sequencing large sets of metagenomic clones. PMID:24911009

  6. Physiology and genetics of metabolic flux control in Zymomonas mobilis. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, T.

    1992-08-01

    This work seeks to understand the role of gene expression in regulating glycolytic enzyme synthesis in a balance that allows proper glycoltic flux control. The seven genes targeted for study in this laboratory have been cloned and sequenced, and molecular details of regulation have been investigated. Clear that glycolytic enzyme synthesis is coordinated to prevent the build up of toxic metabolic intermediates. The genetic mechanisms responsible for regulating balanced expression of the EntnerDoudoroff and glycolytic genes in Z. mobilis are beginning to be understood. Several layers of genetic control, perhaps in a hierarchal arrangement act in concert to determine the relative abundance of the glycolytic enzymes. These genetic controls involve differential translational efficiency, highly conserved promoter sequences, transcription factors, differential mRNA stabilities, and nucleolytic mRNA processing. The serendipitous cloning of the glucose facilitator, glf, as a result of linkage to several other genes of interest will have a significant impact on the study of Z. mobilis metabolism. The glucose facilitator is being characterized in a genetically reconstituted system in E. coli. Molecular genetic studies indicate that the ratio of glf expression to that of glk, zmf, and edd is carefully regulated, and suggests a critical role in metabolic control. Regulation of glycolytic gene expression is now sufficiently well understood to allow use of the glycolytic genes as tools to manipulate specified enzyme levels for the purpose of analyzing metabolic flux control. The critical genes have been subcloned for stable expression in Z. mobilis and placed under control of a regulated promoter system involving the tac promoter, the lacI repressor, and gene induction in by IPTG. HPLC methods have been developed that allow quantitation of virtually all of the metabolic intermediates in the cell pool.

  7. Cloning, expression and sequencing of Helicobacter felis urease genes.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, R L; Labigne, A

    1993-07-01

    Urease genes from Helicobacter felis were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. A genomic bank of Sau3A-digested H. felis chromosomal DNA was created using a cosmid vector. Cosmid clones were screened for urease activity following subculture on a nitrogen-limiting medium. Subcloning of DNA from an urease-positive cosmid clone led to the construction of pILL205 (9.5 kb) which conferred a urease activity of 1.2 +/- 0.5 mumole urea min-1 mg-1 bacterial protein to E. coli HB101 bacteria grown on a nitrogen-limiting medium. Random mutagenesis using a MiniTn3-Km transposable element permitted the identification of three DNA regions on pILL205 which were necessary for the expression of an urease-positive phenotype in E. coli clones. To localize the putative structural genes of H. felis on pILL205, extracts of clones harbouring the mutated copies of the plasmid were analysed by Western blotting with anti-H. felis rabbit serum. One mutant clone did not synthesize the putative UreB subunit of H. felis urease and it was postulated that the transposable element had disrupted the corresponding structural gene. By sequencing the DNA region adjacent to the transposon insertion site two open reading frames, designated ureA and ureB, were identified. The polypeptides encoded by these genes had calculated molecular masses of 26,074 and 61,663 Da, respectively, and shared 73.5% and 88.2% identity with the corresponding gene products of Helicobacter pylori urease. PMID:8412683

  8. Cloning and sequencing of chloroperoxidase cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, G H; Kenigsberg, P; Axley, M J; Nuell, M; Hager, L P

    1986-01-01

    An oligod-d(T) 12-18 primed cDNA library has been prepared from Caldariomyces fumago mRNA. A clone containing a full-length insert was sequenced on the supercoiled plasmid, pBR322. The complete primary sequence of chloroperoxidase has been derived. We have also determined about 73% of the peptide sequence by amino acid sequencing. The DNA sequence data matches all of the available known peptide sequences. The mature polypeptide contains 300 amino acids having a combined molecular weight of 32,974 daltons. A putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids is proposed from DNA sequence data. The chloroperoxidase gene encodes three potential glycosylation sites recognized as Asn-X-Thr/Ser sequences. Three cysteine residues are found in the protein sequence. A small region around Cys87 bears a minimal homology to the active site of cytochrome P450cam. No other heme protein homologues can be detected. We propose that Cys87 serves as a thiolate ligand to the iron of heme prosthetic group. A rare arginine codon, AGG, is used three times out of twelve in contrast to the very infrequent use of this codon in E. coli or yeast. PMID:3774552

  9. Cloning, sequence, and expression of bovine interleukin 2.

    PubMed Central

    Cerretti, D P; McKereghan, K; Larsen, A; Cantrell, M A; Anderson, D; Gillis, S; Cosman, D; Baker, P E

    1986-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) cDNA clones have been isolated from both human and murine sources. We report here the isolation of a cDNA clone encoding bovine IL-2. This was accomplished by screening a cDNA library constructed from lectin-stimulated bovine lymph node cells, using a human IL-2 probe. Bovine IL-2 is composed of 155 amino acids and has a predicted molecular weight of 19,555. Alignment of the amino acid sequence with human IL-2 indicates that mature bovine IL-2 is composed of 135 amino acids and has a predicted molecular weight of 15,452. It has an amino acid homology of 65% with human IL-2 and 50% with murine IL-2. Bovine IL-2 is unique among IL-2 homologs in that it has a single N-linked glycosylation site. Biologically active bovine IL-2 was synthesized in an Escherichia coli expression system. Images PMID:3517854

  10. Cloning and sequencing of the gene for human. beta. -casein

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.; Bergstroem, S.; Andersson, Y.; Hialmarsson, K.; Sundgyist, A.; Hernell, O. )

    1990-02-26

    Human {beta}-casein is a major protein in human milk. This protein is part of the casein micelle and has been suggested to have several physiological functions in the newborn. Since there is limited information on {beta}casein and the factors that affect its concentration in human milk, the authors have isolated and sequenced the gene for this protein. A human mammary gland cDNA library (Clontech) in gt 11 was screened by plaque hy-hybridization using a 42-mer synthetic {sup 32}p-labelled oligo-nucleotide. Positive clones were identified and isolated, DNA was prepared and the gene isolated by cleavage with EcoR1. Following subcloning (PUC18), restriction mapping and Southern blotting, DNA for sequencing was prepared. The gene was sequenced by the dideoxy method. Human {beta}-casein has 212 amino acids and the amino acid sequence deducted from the nucleotide sequence is to 91% identical to the published sequence for human {beta}-casein show a high degree of conservation at the leader peptide and the highly phosphorylated sequences, but also deletions and divergence at several positions. These results provide insight into the structure of the human {beta}-casein gene and will facilitate studies on factors affecting its expression.

  11. [Physiology and genetics of metabolic flux control in Zymomonas mobilis]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, T.

    1992-07-01

    The funded research deals with the physiology and genetics of glycolytic flux control in Zymomonas mobilis. Two fundamental biological questions are begin addressed: First, how do the enzymes of glycolytic pathways act in concert to regulate metabolic flux? Second, what is the role of gene expression in regulating high level synthesis of the glycolytic enzymes in a balance that allows proper glycolytic flux control? The specific objectives of the grant are as follows: 1. To clone the structural and regulatory regions of the Z. mobilis genes encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucose isomerase, enolase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase, 2- keto-3-deoxy- 6-phosphogluconate aldolase, glucokinase and fructokinase. 2. To characterize the structure of these genes with respect to nucleotide sequence, transcriptional initiation sites promoter location, evolutionary relatedness to similar genes from other organisms, and organization of these genes on the genome. 3. To investigate the effects of genetically engineered alterations in the levels of the cloned enzymes on metabolic flux and cell growth. 4. To study transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding the enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. The first two specific objectives have now been fully completed. Significant progress has been made on the fourth objective and work on the third objective is well underway.

  12. Cloning and sequence analysis of myostatin promoter in sheep.

    PubMed

    Du, Rong; Chen, Yong-Fu; An, Xiao-Rong; Yang, Xing-Yuan; Ma, Yi; Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Xiao-Li; Chen, Li-Mei; Qin, Jian

    2005-12-01

    To better understand the structure and function of the myostatin's gene promoter region in sheep, we cloned and sequenced a 1.517 kb fragment containing the 5'-regulatory region of the sheep myostatin gene (GenBank accession number is AY918121). The promoter sequence consists of three TATA boxes, one CAAT box, and eight putative E-boxes. Some putative muscle growth response elements for Octamer-binding factor 1(Octamer), Activator protein 1(AP1), Growth factor independence 1 zinc finger protein (Gfi-1B), Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), Muscle-specific Mt binding site (MTBF), Glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) and Progesterone receptor binding site (PRE) were detected. Some of the motifs are conserved as compared to with that in the goat, bovine and porcine myostatin promoters. However, some differences were also found. PMID:16287620

  13. A novel approach to sequence validating protein expression clones with automated decision making

    PubMed Central

    Taycher, Elena; Rolfs, Andreas; Hu, Yanhui; Zuo, Dongmei; Mohr, Stephanie E; Williamson, Janice; LaBaer, Joshua

    2007-01-01

    Background Whereas the molecular assembly of protein expression clones is readily automated and routinely accomplished in high throughput, sequence verification of these clones is still largely performed manually, an arduous and time consuming process. The ultimate goal of validation is to determine if a given plasmid clone matches its reference sequence sufficiently to be "acceptable" for use in protein expression experiments. Given the accelerating increase in availability of tens of thousands of unverified clones, there is a strong demand for rapid, efficient and accurate software that automates clone validation. Results We have developed an Automated Clone Evaluation (ACE) system – the first comprehensive, multi-platform, web-based plasmid sequence verification software package. ACE automates the clone verification process by defining each clone sequence as a list of multidimensional discrepancy objects, each describing a difference between the clone and its expected sequence including the resulting polypeptide consequences. To evaluate clones automatically, this list can be compared against user acceptance criteria that specify the allowable number of discrepancies of each type. This strategy allows users to re-evaluate the same set of clones against different acceptance criteria as needed for use in other experiments. ACE manages the entire sequence validation process including contig management, identifying and annotating discrepancies, determining if discrepancies correspond to polymorphisms and clone finishing. Designed to manage thousands of clones simultaneously, ACE maintains a relational database to store information about clones at various completion stages, project processing parameters and acceptance criteria. In a direct comparison, the automated analysis by ACE took less time and was more accurate than a manual analysis of a 93 gene clone set. Conclusion ACE was designed to facilitate high throughput clone sequence verification projects. The

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human Cytomegalovirus Strain AD169 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Eleonore; Spohn, Michael; Indenbirken, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of the human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 (variant ATCC) cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (AD169-BAC, also known as HB15 or pHB15) was determined. The viral genome has a length of 230,290 bp and shows 52 nucleotide differences compared to a previously sequenced AD169varATCC clone. PMID:27034483

  15. Full genome sequencing of the Newcastle disease viruses VS/GA and clone 5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of the Villegas-Glisson/University of Georgia (VG/GA) strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and of a plaque purified clone (clone 5) exhibiting a different phenotype were sequenced and analyzed. The VG/GA strain, isolated from the intestine of healthy turkeys replicat...

  16. Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. ... named Dolly. There are three different types of cloning: Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or ...

  17. Human retinoblastoma susceptibility gene: cloning, identification, and sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Bookstein, R.; Hong, F.; Young, L.; Shew, J.; Lee, E.Y.P.

    1987-03-13

    Recent evidence indicates the existence of a genetic locus in chromosome region 13q14 that confers susceptibility to retinoblastoma, a cancer of the eye in children. A gene encoding a messenger RNA of 4.6 kilobases (kb), located in the proximity of esterase D, was identified as the retinoblastoma susceptibility (RB) gene on the basis of chromosomal location, homozygous deletion, and tumor-specific alterations in expression. Transcription of this gene was abnormal in six of six retinoblastomas examined: in two tumors, RB mRNA was not detectable, while four others expressed variable quantities of RB mRNA with decreased molecular size of about 4.0 kb. In contrast, full-length RB mRNA was present in human fetal retina and placenta, and in other tumors such as neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma. DNA from retinoblastoma cells had a homozygous gene deletion in one case and hemizygous deletion in another case, while the remainder were not grossly different from normal human control DNA. The gene contains at least 12 exons distributed in a region of over 100 kb. Sequence analysis of complementary DNA clones yielded a single long open reading frame that could encode a hypothetical protein of 816 amino acids.

  18. Azotobacter vinelandii NADPH:ferredoxin reductase cloning, sequencing, and overexpression.

    PubMed

    Isas, J M; Yannone, S M; Burgess, B K

    1995-09-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I (AvFdI) controls the expression of another protein that was originally designated Protein X. Recently we reported that Protein X is a NADPH-specific flavoprotein that binds specifically to FdI (Isas, J.M., and Burgess, B.K. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 19404-19409). The gene encoding this protein has now been cloned and sequenced. Protein X is 33% identical and has an overall 53% similarity with the fpr gene product from Escherichia coli that encodes NADPH:ferredoxin reductase. On the basis of this similarity and the similarity of the physical properties of the two proteins, we now designate Protein X as A. vinelandii NADPH:ferredoxin reductase and its gene as the fpr gene. The protein has been overexpressed in its native background in A. vinelandii by using the broad host range multicopy plasmid, pKT230. In addition to being regulated by FdI, the fpr gene product is overexpressed when A. vinelandii is grown under N2-fixing conditions even though the fpr gene is not preceded by a nif specific promoter. By analogy to what is known about fpr expression in E. coli, we propose that FdI may exert its regulatory effect on fpr by interacting with the SoxRS regulon. PMID:7673160

  19. An accurate clone-based haplotyping method by overlapping pool sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Cao, Changchang; Tu, Jing; Sun, Xiao

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome-long haplotyping of human genomes is important to identify genetic variants with differing gene expression, in human evolution studies, clinical diagnosis, and other biological and medical fields. Although several methods have realized haplotyping based on sequencing technologies or population statistics, accuracy and cost are factors that prohibit their wide use. Borrowing ideas from group testing theories, we proposed a clone-based haplotyping method by overlapping pool sequencing. The clones from a single individual were pooled combinatorially and then sequenced. According to the distinct pooling pattern for each clone in the overlapping pool sequencing, alleles for the recovered variants could be assigned to their original clones precisely. Subsequently, the clone sequences could be reconstructed by linking these alleles accordingly and assembling them into haplotypes with high accuracy. To verify the utility of our method, we constructed 130 110 clones in silico for the individual NA12878 and simulated the pooling and sequencing process. Ultimately, 99.9% of variants on chromosome 1 that were covered by clones from both parental chromosomes were recovered correctly, and 112 haplotype contigs were assembled with an N50 length of 3.4 Mb and no switch errors. A comparison with current clone-based haplotyping methods indicated our method was more accurate. PMID:27095193

  20. An accurate clone-based haplotyping method by overlapping pool sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Cao, Changchang; Tu, Jing; Sun, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome-long haplotyping of human genomes is important to identify genetic variants with differing gene expression, in human evolution studies, clinical diagnosis, and other biological and medical fields. Although several methods have realized haplotyping based on sequencing technologies or population statistics, accuracy and cost are factors that prohibit their wide use. Borrowing ideas from group testing theories, we proposed a clone-based haplotyping method by overlapping pool sequencing. The clones from a single individual were pooled combinatorially and then sequenced. According to the distinct pooling pattern for each clone in the overlapping pool sequencing, alleles for the recovered variants could be assigned to their original clones precisely. Subsequently, the clone sequences could be reconstructed by linking these alleles accordingly and assembling them into haplotypes with high accuracy. To verify the utility of our method, we constructed 130 110 clones in silico for the individual NA12878 and simulated the pooling and sequencing process. Ultimately, 99.9% of variants on chromosome 1 that were covered by clones from both parental chromosomes were recovered correctly, and 112 haplotype contigs were assembled with an N50 length of 3.4 Mb and no switch errors. A comparison with current clone-based haplotyping methods indicated our method was more accurate. PMID:27095193

  1. Final progress report, Construction of a genome-wide highly characterized clone resource for genome sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Nierman, William C.

    2000-02-14

    At TIGR, the human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) end sequencing and trimming were with an overall sequencing success rate of 65%. CalTech human BAC libraries A, B, C and D as well as Roswell Park Cancer Institute's library RPCI-11 were used. To date, we have generated >300,000 end sequences from >186,000 human BAC clones with an average read length {approx}460 bp for a total of 141 Mb covering {approx}4.7% of the genome. Over sixty percent of the clones have BAC end sequences (BESs) from both ends representing over five-fold coverage of the genome by the paired-end clones. The average phred Q20 length is {approx}400 bp. This high accuracy makes our BESs match the human finished sequences with an average identity of 99% and a match length of 450 bp, and a frequency of one match per 12.8 kb contig sequence. Our sample tracking has ensured a clone tracking accuracy of >90%, which gives researchers a high confidence in (1) retrieving the right clone from the BA C libraries based on the sequence matches; and (2) building a minimum tiling path of sequence-ready clones across the genome and genome assembly scaffolds.

  2. A compilation of partial sequences of randomly selected cDNA clones from the rat incisor.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Y; Nakashima, M; Amizuka, N; Warshawsky, H; Goltzman, D; Yamada, K M; Yamada, Y

    1995-01-01

    The formation of tooth organs is regulated by a series of developmental programs. We have initiated a genome project with the ultimate goal of identifying novel genes important for tooth development. As an initial approach, we constructed a unidirectional cDNA library from the non-calcified portion of incisors of 3- to 4-week-old rats, sequenced cDNA clones, and classified their sequences by homology search through the GenBank data base and the PIR protein data base. Here, we report partial DNA sequences obtained by automated DNA sequencing on 400 cDNA clones randomly selected from the library. Of the sequences determined, 51% represented sequences of new genes that were not related to any previously reported gene. Twenty-six percent of the clones strongly matched genes and proteins in the data bases, including amelogenin, alpha 1(I) and alpha 2(I) collagen chains, osteonectin, and decorin. Nine percent of clones revealed partial sequence homology to known genes such as transcription factors and cell surface receptors. A significant number of the previously identified genes were expressed redundantly and were found to encode extracellular matrix proteins. Identification and cataloging of cDNA clones in these tissues are the first step toward identification of markers expressed in a tissue- or stage-specific manner, as well as the genetic linkage study of tooth anomalies. Further characterization of the clones described in this paper should lead to the discovery of novel genes important for tooth development. PMID:7876422

  3. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  4. Cost-effective HRMA pre-sequence typing of clone libraries; application to phage display selection

    PubMed Central

    Pepers, Barry A; Schut, Menno H; Vossen, Rolf HAM; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; den Dunnen, Johan T; van Roon-Mom, Willeke MC

    2009-01-01

    Background Methodologies like phage display selection, in vitro mutagenesis and the determination of allelic expression differences include steps where large numbers of clones need to be compared and characterised. In the current study we show that high-resolution melt curve analysis (HRMA) is a simple, cost-saving tool to quickly study clonal variation without prior nucleotide sequence knowledge. Results HRMA results nicely matched those obtained with ELISA and compared favourably to DNA fingerprinting of restriction digested clone insert-PCR. DNA sequence analysis confirmed that HRMA-clustered clones contained identical inserts. Conclusion Using HRMA, analysis of up to 384 samples can be done simultaneously and will take approximately 30 minutes. Clustering of clones can be largely automated using the system's software within 2 hours. Applied to the analysis of clones obtained after phage display antibody selection, HRMA facilitated a quick overview of the overall success as well as the identification of identical clones. Our approach can be used to characterize any clone set prior to sequencing, thereby reducing sequencing costs significantly. PMID:19463169

  5. Nucleotide sequence of a cloned woodchuck hepatitis virus genome: comparison with the hepatitis B virus sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Galibert, F; Chen, T N; Mandart, E

    1982-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a woodchuck hepatitis virus genome cloned in Escherichia coli was determined by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. This sequence was found to be 3,308 nucleotides long. Potential ATG initiator triplets and nonsense codons were identified and used to locate regions with a substantial coding capacity. A striking similarity was observed between the organization of human hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus. Nucleotide sequences of these open regions in the woodchuck virus were compared with corresponding regions present in hepatitis B virus. This allowed the location of four viral genes on the L strand and indicated the absence of protein coded by the S strand. Evolution rates of the various parts of the genome as well as of the four different proteins coded by hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus were compared. These results indicated that: (i) the core protein has evolved slightly less rapidly than the other proteins; and (ii) when a region of DNA codes for two different proteins, there is less freedom for the DNA to evolve and, moreover, one of the proteins can evolve more rapidly than the other. A hairpin structure, very well conserved in the two genomes, was located in the only region devoid of coding function, suggesting the location of the origin of replication of the viral DNA. Images PMID:7086958

  6. Ethanologenic Enzymes of Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    1999-03-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is a unique microorganism in being both obligately fermentative and utilizing a Entner-Doudoroff pathway for glycolysis. Glycolytic flux in this organism is readily measured as evolved carbon dioxide, ethanol, or glucose consumed and exceeds 1 {micro}mole glucose/min per mg cell protein. To support this rapid glycolysis, approximately 50% of cytoplasmic protein is devoted to the 13 glycolytic and fermentative enzymes which constitute this central catabolic pathway. Only 1 ATP (net) is produced from each glucose metabolized. During the past grant period, we have completed the characterization of 11 of the 13 glycolytic genes from Z. mobilis together with complementary but separate DOE-fimded research by a former post-dot and collaborator, Dr. Tyrrell Conway. Research funded in my lab by DOE, Division of Energy Biosciences can be divided into three sections: A. Fundamental studies; B. Applied studies and utility; and C. Miscellaneous investigations.

  7. Cloning and sequencing of the allophycocyanin genes from Spirulina maxima (Cyanophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Hiroyuki, Kojima; Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    The genes coding for the α-and β-subunit of allophycocyanin ( apcA and apcB) from the cyanophyte Spirulina maxima were cloned and sequenced. The results revealed 44.4% of nucleotide sequence similarity and 30.4% of similarity of deduced amino acid sequence between them. The amino acid sequence identities between S. maxima and S. platensis are 99.4% for α subunit and 100% for β subunit.

  8. An expressed sequence tag database of T-cell-enriched activated chicken splenocytes: sequence analysis of 5251 clones.

    PubMed

    Tirunagaru, V G; Sofer, L; Cui, J; Burnside, J

    2000-06-01

    The cDNA and gene sequences of many mammalian cytokines and their receptors are known. However, corresponding information on avian cytokines is limited due to the lack of cross-species activity at the functional level or strong homology at the molecular level. To improve the efficiency of identifying cytokines and novel chicken genes, a directionally cloned cDNA library from T-cell-enriched activated chicken splenocytes was constructed, and the partial sequence of 5251 clones was obtained. Sequence clustering indicates that 2357 (42%) of the clones are present as a single copy, and 2961 are distinct clones, demonstrating the high level of complexity of this library. Comparisons of the sequence data with known DNA sequences in GenBank indicate that approximately 25% of the clones match known chicken genes, 39% have similarity to known genes in other species, and 11% had no match to any sequence in the database. Several previously uncharacterized chicken cytokines and their receptors were present in our library. This collection provides a useful database for cataloging genes expressed in T cells and a valuable resource for future investigations of gene expression in avian immunology. A chicken EST Web site (http://udgenome. ags.udel. edu/chickest/chick.htm) has been created to provide access to the data, and a set of unique sequences has been deposited with GenBank (Accession Nos. AI979741-AI982511). Our new Web site (http://www. chickest.udel.edu) will be active as of March 3, 2000, and will also provide keyword-searching capabilities for BLASTX and BLASTN hits of all our clones. PMID:10860659

  9. Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA Reproductive cloning, which creates copies of whole animals Therapeutic cloning, which creates embryonic stem cells. Researchers hope to use these cells to grow healthy tissue to replace injured or diseased tissues in the human body. NIH: National Human Genome Research Institute

  10. Cloning, sequencing and characterization of lipase genes from a polyhydroxyalkanoate- (PHA-) synthesizing Pseudomonas resinovorans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipase (lip) and lipase-specific foldase (lif) genes of a biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoate- (PHA-) synthesizing Pseudomonas resinovorans NRRL B-2649 were cloned using primers based on consensus sequences, followed by PCR-based genome walking. Sequence analyses showed a putative Lip gene-product (...

  11. CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE-9

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that channel catfish matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene was up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, we cloned and sequenced using the RACE. The complete sequence of the CC MMP-9 cDNA g...

  12. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a cloned DNA fragment from human cells reveals homology to retrotransposons.

    PubMed Central

    Flügel, R M; Maurer, B; Bannert, H; Rethwilm, A; Schnitzler, P; Darai, G

    1987-01-01

    During molecular cloning of proviral DNA of human spumaretrovirus, various recombinant clones were established and analyzed. Blot hybridization revealed that one of the recombinant plasmids had the characteristic features of a member of the long interspersed repetitive sequences family. The DNA element was analyzed by restriction mapping and nucleotide sequencing. It showed a high degree of amino acid sequence homology of 54.3% when compared with the 5'-terminal part of the pol gene product of the murine retrotransposon LIMd. The 3' region of the cloned DNA element encodes proteins with an even higher degree of homology of 67.4% in comparison to the corresponding parts of a member of the primate KpnI sequence family. Images PMID:3031462

  13. Taxonomic and functional assignment of cloned sequences from high Andean forest soil metagenome.

    PubMed

    Montaña, José Salvador; Jiménez, Diego Javier; Hernández, Mónica; Angel, Tatiana; Baena, Sandra

    2012-02-01

    Total metagenomic DNA was isolated from high Andean forest soil and subjected to taxonomical and functional composition analyses by means of clone library generation and sequencing. The obtained yield of 1.7 μg of DNA/g of soil was used to construct a metagenomic library of approximately 20,000 clones (in the plasmid p-Bluescript II SK+) with an average insert size of 4 Kb, covering 80 Mb of the total metagenomic DNA. Metagenomic sequences near the plasmid cloning site were sequenced and them trimmed and assembled, obtaining 299 reads and 31 contigs (0.3 Mb). Taxonomic assignment of total sequences was performed by BLASTX, resulting in 68.8, 44.8 and 24.5% classification into taxonomic groups using the metagenomic RAST server v2.0, WebCARMA v1.0 online system and MetaGenome Analyzer v3.8 software, respectively. Most clone sequences were classified as Bacteria belonging to phlya Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Among the most represented orders were Actinomycetales (34% average), Rhizobiales, Burkholderiales and Myxococcales and with a greater number of sequences in the genus Mycobacterium (7% average), Frankia, Streptomyces and Bradyrhizobium. The vast majority of sequences were associated with the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and catalytic functions, such as phosphatases, glycosyltransferases, dehydrogenases, methyltransferases, dehydratases and epoxide hydrolases. In this study we compared different methods of taxonomic and functional assignment of metagenomic clone sequences to evaluate microbial diversity in an unexplored soil ecosystem, searching for putative enzymes of biotechnological interest and generating important information for further functional screening of clone libraries. PMID:21792685

  14. Infectious hepatitis B virus from cloned DNA of known nucleotide sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Will, H; Cattaneo, R; Darai, G; Deinhardt, F; Schellekens, H; Schaller, H

    1985-01-01

    The infectivity of cloned hepatitis B viral DNA (HBV) has been tested in chimpanzees to identify a fully functional HBV genome and to assess the risk associated with its handling. Only one of two HBV DNA sequence variants tested was shown to be infectious. "Clone purified" virus of predicted nucleotide sequence was produced from the infectious HBV DNA, and the cloned viral genome was identical in structure with naturally occurring HBV. Infection could be initiated independent of whether circular monomeric or plasmid integrated dimeric forms of the viral genome were inoculated, but the infectivity of the DNA depended on liver cell transfection or intrahepatic injection. Intravenous injection of high doses of infectious HBV DNA did not induce hepatitis, suggesting that there is virtually no risk associated with routine laboratory handling of cloned HBV DNA. Images PMID:2983320

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of potato spindle tuber viroid cDNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Robert A.; Cress, Dean E.

    1980-01-01

    Double-stranded cDNA has been synthesized from a polyadenylylated potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) template and inserted in the Pst I endonuclease site of plasmid pBR322 by using the oligo(dC)·oligo(dG)-tailing procedure. Tetracycline-resistant ampicillin-sensitive transformants contained sequences complementary to PSTV [32P]cDNA, and one recombinant clone (pDC-29) contains a 460-base-pair insert. This cloned double-stranded PSTV cDNA contains the cleavage sites for six restriction endonucleases predicted by the published primary sequence of PSTV as well as one additional site each for Ava I, Hae III, Hpa II, and Sma I. The additional Ava I, Hpa II, and Sma I sites are explained by the presence of a second C-C-C-G-G-G sequence in the cloned double-stranded cDNA. The largest fragment released by Hae III digestion contains approximately 360 base pairs. These results suggest that we have cloned almost the entire sequence of PSTV, but the sequence cloned differs slightly from that published. Hybridization probes derived from pDC-29 insert have allowed detection and preliminary characterization of RNA molecules having the same size as PSTV but the opposite polarity. This RNA is present during PSTV replication in infected tomato cells. Images PMID:16592877

  16. Acinetobacter cyclohexanone monooxygenase: gene cloning and sequence determination.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y C; Peoples, O P; Walsh, C T

    1988-01-01

    The gene coding for cyclohexanone monooxygenase from Acinetobacter sp. strain NCIB 9871 was isolated by immunological screening methods. We located and determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene. The structural gene is 1,626 nucleotides long and codes for a polypeptide of 542 amino acids; 389 nucleotides 5' and 108 nucleotides 3' of the coding region are also reported. The complete amino acid sequence of the enzyme was derived by translation of the nucleotide sequence. From a comparison of the amino acid sequence with consensus sequences of nucleotide-binding folds, we identified a potential flavin-binding site at the NH2 terminus of the enzyme (residues 6 to 18) and a potential nicotinamide-binding site extending from residue 176 to residue 208 of the protein. An overproduction system for the gene to facilitate genetic manipulations was also constructed by using the tac promoter vector pKK223-3 in Escherichia coli. Images PMID:3338974

  17. Cloning of urease gene sequences from Providencia stuartii.

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, H L; Jones, B D; Jerse, A E

    1986-01-01

    Providencia stuartii was the most prevalent isolate recovered from urine specimens taken weekly over a 1-year period from 51 nursing home patients with urinary catheters in place. Thirty percent of the isolates were urease positive. Urease, which is implicated in renal stone formation, was shown to be transmissible on an 82-kilobase conjugative plasmid in one isolate. Plasmid DNA isolated from this strain was digested with EcoRI, ligated into the EcoRI site of pBR322, and used to transform Escherichia coli HB101. Ampicillin-resistant clones were replica plated onto urea segregation agar, and a urease-positive clone, designated pMID101, was isolated. Recombinant and native urease from cell lysates had identical electrophoretic mobilities on nondenaturing polyacrylamide urease activity gels. The native enzyme was induced fourfold when cells were grown in the presence of 0.1% urea and had a km of 9.4 mM and a Vmax of 3.2 mumol of NH3 per min per mg of protein. Its molecular weight was estimated to be 375,000 +/- 35,000 by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. The enzyme was cytoplasmic in P. stuartii, was inhibited in vitro by hydroxyurea, acetohydroxamic acid, and EDTA, and appears to have a complex subunit structure and a unique molecular size within genera of the Proteeae tribe. Images PMID:3759233

  18. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of cDNA for human. beta. -glucuronidase

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, A.; Kyle, J.W.; Miller, R.D.; Hoffmann, J.W.; Powell, P.P.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S.; Tropak, M.; Guise, K.S.; Gravel, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    The authors report here the cDNA sequence for human placental ..beta..-glucuronidase (..beta..-D-glucuronoside glucuronosohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.31) and demonstrate expression of the human enzyme in transfected COS cells. They also sequenced a partial cDNA clone from human fibroblasts that contained a 153-base-pair deletion within the coding sequence and found a second type of cDNA clone from placenta that contained the same deletion. Nuclease S1 mapping studies demonstrated two types of mRNAs in human placenta that corresponded to the two types of cDNA clones isolated. The NH/sub 2/-terminal amino acid sequence determined for human spleen ..beta..-glucuronidase agreed with that inferred from the DNA sequence of the two placental clones, beginning at amino acid 23, suggesting a cleaved signal sequence of 22 amino acids. When transfected into COS cells, plasmids containing either placental clone expressed an immunoprecipitable protein that contained N-linked oligosaccharides as evidenced by sensitivity to endoglycosidase F. However, only transfection with the clone containing the 153-base-pair segment led to expression of human ..beta..-glucuronidase activity. These studies provide the sequence for the full-length cDNA for human ..beta..-glucuronidase, demonstrate the existence of two populations of mRNA for ..beta..-glucuronidase in human placenta, only one of which specifies a catalytically active enzyme, and illustrate the importance of expression studies in verifying that a cDNA is functionally full-length.

  19. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Lactobacillus casei lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S F; Baek, S J; Pack, M Y

    1991-01-01

    An allosteric L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined. The gene was composed of an open reading frame of 981 bp, starting with a GTG codon and ending with a TAA codon. The sequences for the promoter and ribosome binding site were identified, and a sequence for a structure resembling a rho-independent transcription terminator was also found. Images PMID:1768113

  20. Cloning and sequence analysis of banana streak virus DNA.

    PubMed

    Harper, G; Hull, R

    1998-01-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV), a member of the Badnavirus group of plant viruses, causes severe problems in banana cultivation, reducing fruit yield and restricting plant breeding and the movement of germplasm. Current detection methods are relatively insensitive. In order to develop a PCR-based diagnostic method that is both reliable and sensitive, the genome of a Nigerian isolate of BSV has been sequenced and shown to comprise 7389 bp and to be organized in a manner characteristic of badnaviruses. Comparison of this sequence with those of other badnaviruses showed that BSV is a distinct virus. PCR with primers based on sequence data indicated that BSV sequences are present in the banana genome. PMID:9926402

  1. Linking the human cytogenetic map with nucleotide sequence: the CCAP clone set.

    PubMed

    Jang, Wonhee; Yonescu, Raluca; Knutsen, Turid; Brown, Theresa; Reppert, Tricia; Sirotkin, Karl; Schuler, Gregory D; Ried, Thomas; Kirsch, Ilan R

    2006-07-15

    We present the completed dataset and clone repository of the Cancer Chromosome Aberration Project (CCAP), an initiative developed and funded through the intramural program of the U.S. National Cancer Institute, to provide seamless linkage of human cytogenetic markers with the primary nucleotide sequence of the human genome. Spaced at 1-2 Mb intervals across the human genome, 1,339 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have been localized to chromosomal bands through high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping. Of these clones, 99.8% can be positioned on the primary human genome sequence and 95% are placed at or close to their precise nucleotide starts and stops. This dataset can be studied and manipulated within generally available public Web sites. The clones are available from a commercial repository. The CCAP BAC clone set provides anchors for the interrogation of gene and sequence involvement in oncogenic and developmental disorders when the starting point is the recognition of a structural, numerical, or interstitial chromosomal aberration. This dataset also provides a current view of the quality and coherence of the available genome sequence and insight into the nucleotide and three-dimensional structures that manifest as Giemsa light and dark chromosomal banding patterns. PMID:16843097

  2. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for human cathepsin D.

    PubMed Central

    Faust, P L; Kornfeld, S; Chirgwin, J M

    1985-01-01

    An 1110-base-pair cDNA clone for human cathepsin D was obtained by screening a lambda gt10 human hepatoma G2 cDNA library with a human renin exon 3 genomic fragment. Poly(A)+ RNA blot analysis with this cathepsin D clone demonstrated a message length of about 2.2 kilobases. The partial clone was used to screen a size-selected human kidney cDNA library, from which two cathepsin D recombinant plasmids with inserts of about 2200 and 2150 base pairs were obtained. The nucleotide sequences of these clones and of the lambda gt10 clone were determined. The amino acid sequence predicted from the cDNA sequence shows that human cathepsin D consists of 412 amino acids with 20 and 44 amino acids in a pre- and a prosegment, respectively. The mature protein region shows 87% amino acid identity with porcine cathepsin D but differs in having nine additional amino acids. Two of these are at the COOH terminus; the other seven are positioned between the previously determined junction for the light and heavy chains of porcine cathepsin D. A high degree of sequence homology was observed between human cathepsin D and other aspartyl proteases, suggesting a conservation of three-dimensional structure in this family of proteins. Images PMID:3927292

  3. Partial sequence analysis of 130 randomly selected maize cDNA clones.

    PubMed Central

    Keith, C S; Hoang, D O; Barrett, B M; Feigelman, B; Nelson, M C; Thai, H; Baysdorfer, C

    1993-01-01

    As part of a project to identify novel maize (Zea mays L. cv B73) genes functionally, we have partially sequenced 130 randomly selected clones from a maize leaf cDNA library. Data base comparisons revealed seven previously sequenced maize cDNAs and 18 cDNAs with sequence similarity to related maize genes or to genes from other organisms. One hundred five cDNAs show little or no similarity to previously sequenced genes. Our results also establish the suitability of this library for large-scale sequencing in terms of its large insert size, proper insert orientation, and low duplication rate. PMID:8278499

  4. Construction of a normalized directionally cloned cDNA library from adult heart and analysis of 3040 clones by partial sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Ogiwara, A; Uchiyama, I; Takagi, T; Yazaki, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1996-07-01

    Large-scale sequencing of clones from cDNA libraries derived from specific tissues is a rapid and efficient way of discovering novel genes expressed in those tissues. However, because the heart is continually contracting and relaxing, it strongly expresses muscle-contractile genes and/or mitochondrial genes, a bias that reduces the efficiency of this method. To improve the efficiency of identifying novel genes expressed in the heart, we constructed a normalized directionally cloned cDNA library from adult heart and partially sequenced 3040 clones. Comparisons of these sequence data with known DNA sequences in the database revealed that 57.1% of the clones matched human genes already known, 23.4% were identical or almost identical to human expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 14.2% bore no significant homology to any sequences in the database, and 1.2% represented repetitive sequences. The remaining 4.1% showed some homology with known genes, and Northern blot analysis of several clones in this category revealed that most of them were expressed mainly in the heart and skeletal muscle. After redundancy was excluded, the 3040 clones accounted for 1395 distinctive ESTs, 446 of which exhibited no match to any known sequence. Our results suggest that our normalized library is less redundant than standard libraries and is a useful resource for cataloging genes expressed in the heart. PMID:8661126

  5. Analysis of a marine picoplankton community by 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, T M; DeLong, E F; Pace, N R

    1991-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of an oligotrophic marine picoplankton community was examined by analyzing the sequences of cloned ribosomal genes. This strategy does not rely on cultivation of the resident microorganisms. Bulk genomic DNA was isolated from picoplankton collected in the north central Pacific Ocean by tangential flow filtration. The mixed-population DNA was fragmented, size fractionated, and cloned into bacteriophage lambda. Thirty-eight clones containing 16S rRNA genes were identified in a screen of 3.2 x 10(4) recombinant phage, and portions of the rRNA gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The resulting sequences were used to establish the identities of the picoplankton by comparison with an established data base of rRNA sequences. Fifteen unique eubacterial sequences were obtained, including four from cyanobacteria and eleven from proteobacteria. A single eucaryote related to dinoflagellates was identified; no archaebacterial sequences were detected. The cyanobacterial sequences are all closely related to sequences from cultivated marine Synechococcus strains and with cyanobacterial sequences obtained from the Atlantic Ocean (Sargasso Sea). Several sequences were related to common marine isolates of the gamma subdivision of proteobacteria. In addition to sequences closely related to those of described bacteria, sequences were obtained from two phylogenetic groups of organisms that are not closely related to any known rRNA sequences from cultivated organisms. Both of these novel phylogenetic clusters are proteobacteria, one group within the alpha subdivision and the other distinct from known proteobacterial subdivisions. The rRNA sequences of the alpha-related group are nearly identical to those of some Sargasso Sea picoplankton, suggesting a global distribution of these organisms. Images PMID:2066334

  6. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the Ecal DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, V; Venetianer, P; Kiss, A

    1990-01-01

    The gene coding for the GGTNACC specific Ecal DNA methyltransferase (M.Ecal) has been cloned in E. coli from Enterobacter cloacae and its nucleotide sequence has been determined. The ecalM gene codes for a protein of 452 amino acids (Mr: 51,111). It was determined that M.Ecal is an adenine methyltransferase. M.Ecal shows limited amino acid sequence similarity to other adenine methyltransferases. A clone that expresses Ecal methyltransferase at high level was constructed. Images PMID:2183182

  7. Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, 10 BAC clone sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. We used labeled DNA probes from the coding reg...

  8. 5'-Terminal sequences of eucaryotic mRNA can be cloned with high efficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Land, H; Grez, M; Hauser, H; Lindenmaier, W; Schütz, G

    1981-01-01

    A method for cloning mRNAs has been used which results in a high yield of recombinants containing complete 5'-terminal mRNA sequences. It is not dependent on self-priming to generate double-stranded DNA and therefore the S1 nuclease digestion step is not required. Instead, the cDNA is dCMP-tailed at its 3'-end with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT). The synthesis of the second strand is primed by oligo(dG) hybridized to the 3'-tail. Double-stranded cDNA is subsequently tailed with dCTP and annealed to dGMP-tailed vector DNA. This approach overcomes the loss of the 5'-terminal mRNA sequences and the problem of artifacts which may be introduced into cloned cDNA sequences. Chicken lysozyme cDNA was cloned into pBR322 by this procedure with a transformation efficiency of 5 x 10(3) recombinant clones per ng of ds-cDNA. Sequence analysis revealed that at least nine out of nineteen randomly isolated plasmids contained the entire 5'-untranslated mRNA sequence. The data strongly support the conclusion that the 5'-untranslated region of the lysozyme mRNA is heterogeneous in length. Images PMID:6166921

  9. Linear plasmid vector for cloning of repetitive or unstable sequences in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Godiska, Ronald; Mead, David; Dhodda, Vinay; Wu, Chengcang; Hochstein, Rebecca; Karsi, Attila; Usdin, Karen; Entezam, Ali; Ravin, Nikolai

    2010-04-01

    Despite recent advances in sequencing, complete finishing of large genomes and analysis of novel proteins they encode typically require cloning of specific regions. However, many of these fragments are extremely difficult to clone in current vectors. Superhelical stress in circular plasmids can generate secondary structures that are substrates for deletion, particularly in regions that contain numerous tandem or inverted repeats. Common vectors also induce transcription and translation of inserted fragments, which can select against recombinant clones containing open reading frames or repetitive DNA. Conversely, transcription from cloned promoters can interfere with plasmid stability. We have therefore developed a novel Escherichia coli cloning vector (termed 'pJAZZ' vector) that is maintained as a linear plasmid. Further, it contains transcriptional terminators on both sides of the cloning site to minimize transcriptional interference between vector and insert. We show that this vector stably maintains a variety of inserts that were unclonable in conventional plasmids. These targets include short nucleotide repeats, such as those of the expanded Fragile X locus, and large AT-rich inserts, such as 20-kb segments of genomic DNA from Pneumocystis, Plasmodium, Oxytricha or Tetrahymena. The pJAZZ vector shows decreased size bias in cloning, allowing more uniform representation of larger fragments in libraries. PMID:20040575

  10. Characterization of sphere-forming HCT116 clones by whole RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eunkyung; Oh, Inkyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine CD133+ cells defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs) in colon cancer, we examined whether CD133+ clones in HCT116 demonstrate known features of CSCs like sphere-forming ability, chemodrug-resistance, and metastatic potential. Methods Magnetic cell isolation and cell separation demonstrated that <1% of HCT116 cells expressed CD133, with the remaining cells being CD133- clones. In colon cancer cells, radioresistance is also considered a CSC characteristic. We performed clonogenic assay using 0.4 Gy γ-irradiation. Results Interestingly, there were no differences between HCT116 parental and HCT116 CD133+ clones when the cells comprised 0.5% of the total cells, and CD133- clone demonstrated radiosensitive changes compared with parental and CD133+ clones. Comparing gene expression profiles between sphere-forming and nonforming culture conditions of HCT116 subclones by whole RNA sequencing failed to obtain specific genes expressed in CD133+ clones. Conclusion Despite no differences of gene expression profiles in monolayer attached culture conditions of each clone, sphere-forming conditions of whole HCT116 subclones, parental, CD133+, and CD133- increased 1,761 coding genes and downregulated 1,384 genes related to CSCs self-renewal and survival. Thus, spheroid cultures of HCT116 cells could be useful to expand colorectal CSCs rather than clonal expansion depending on CD133 expressions. PMID:27073788

  11. Characterization of long cDNA clones from human adult spleen. II. The complete sequences of 81 cDNA clones.

    PubMed

    Jikuya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Jun; Kikuno, Reiko; Hirosawa, Makoto; Nagase, Takahiro; Nomura, Nobuo; Ohara, Osamu

    2003-02-28

    To accumulate information on the coding sequences (CDSs) of unidentified genes, we have conducted a sequencing project of human long cDNA clones. Both the end sequences of approximately 10,000 cDNA clones from two size-fractionated human spleen cDNA libraries (average sizes of 4.5 kb and 5.6 kb) were determined by single-pass sequencing to select cDNAs with unidentified sequences. We herein present the entire sequences of 81 cDNA clones, most of which were selected by two approaches based on their protein-coding potentialities in silico: Fifty-eight cDNA clones were selected as those having protein-coding potentialities at the 5'-end of single-pass sequences by applying the GeneMark analysis; and 20 cDNA clones were selected as those expected to encode proteins larger than 100 amino acid residues by analysis of the human genome sequences flanked by both the end sequences of cDNAs using the GENSCAN gene prediction program. In addition to these newly identified cDNAs, three cDNA clones were isolated by colony hybridization experiments using probes corresponding to known gene sequences since these cDNAs are likely to contain considerable amounts of new information regarding the genes already annotated. The sequence data indicated that the average sizes of the inserts and corresponding CDSs of cDNA clones analyzed here were 5.0 kb and 2.0 kb (670 amino acid residues), respectively. From the results of homology and motif searches against the public databases, functional categories of the 29 predicted gene products could be assigned; 86% of these predicted gene products (25 gene products) were classified into proteins relating to cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, and cell structure/motility. PMID:12693554

  12. Cloning and nucleotide sequence determination of the Clostridium pasteurianum ferredoxin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, M C; Mullenbach, G T; Rabinowitz, J C

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a library of Clostridium pasteurianum DNA cloned in the plasmid pBR322. Based on the known amino acid sequence for C. pasteurianum ferredoxin, a 64-fold degenerate heptadecanucleotide pool was synthesized. This mixed probe hybridized to two clones which were shown to contain greater than 6 kilobase pairs of the same genomic DNA. Sequence analysis of a common Sau3A1 0.6-kilobase-pair fragment revealed that it contains the information for the apoferredoxin structural gene. According to the DNA sequence, the only post-translational processing of this small apoprotein is the hydrolysis of the initiator methionine. Putative transcription and translation start and stop signals are present within the sequence. Images PMID:3856844

  13. Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV).

    PubMed

    Hattermann, K; Schmitt, C; Soike, D; Mankertz, A

    2003-12-01

    The genome of Duck circovirus (DuCV) is circular and 1996 nts in size. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase (V1) and the capsid protein (C1). A stem-loop structure comprising the nonamer 5'-TATTATTAC, conserved in all circo-, nano- and geminiviruses, was found. Unique to DuCV, the region between the 3'-ends of the rep and cap gene contains four repeats of a 44-bp sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows close relation of DuCV with Goose circovirus and suggests classification of DuCV as a new member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae. PMID:14648300

  14. Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding a taste-modifying protein, miraculin.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Y; Nirasawa, S; Nakaya, K; Kurihara, Y

    1995-08-19

    A cDNA clone encoding a taste-modifying protein, miraculin (MIR), was isolated and sequenced. The encoded precursor to MIR was composed of 220 amino acid (aa) residues, including a possible signal sequence of 29 aa. Northern blot analysis showed that the mRNA encoding MIR was already expressed in fruits of Richadella dulcifica at 3 weeks after pollination and was present specifically in the pulp. PMID:7665074

  15. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a novel human P2 nucleotide receptor.

    PubMed

    Southey, M C; Hammet, F; Hutchins, A M; Paidhungat, M; Somers, G R; Venter, D J

    1996-11-11

    A novel human P2 nucleotide receptor has been cloned from a T-cell cDNA library. The predicted amino acid sequence shows characteristics of a G-protein-coupled receptor, and shares 88% homology with a recently characterised rat P2 nucleotide receptor sequence. Distinctive features include an extremely short cytoplasmic tail with only one putative protein kinase C phosphorylation site. Northern blot analysis revealed a 1.9 kb transcript expressed in the placenta. PMID:8950181

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Murine Pneumotropic Virus (Polyomaviridae) Clone pKV(37-1)

    PubMed Central

    Libbey, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    The murine pneumotropic virus genome encoded by the pKV(37-1) clone was sequenced to completion. The regulatory region harbored a mutation not previously reported. The protein coding regions (large and small T antigens, viral proteins 1 to 3) showed multiple regions of high amino acid identity to the human, simian, and bovine polyomaviruses. PMID:27198030

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Murine Pneumotropic Virus (Polyomaviridae) Clone pKV(37-1).

    PubMed

    Libbey, Jane E; Fujinami, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    The murine pneumotropic virus genome encoded by the pKV(37-1) clone was sequenced to completion. The regulatory region harbored a mutation not previously reported. The protein coding regions (large and small T antigens, viral proteins 1 to 3) showed multiple regions of high amino acid identity to the human, simian, and bovine polyomaviruses. PMID:27198030

  18. RTA, a candidate G protein-coupled receptor: cloning, sequencing, and tissue distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, P C; Figler, R A; Corjay, M H; Barber, C M; Adam, N; Harcus, D R; Lynch, K R

    1990-01-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones, encoding a protein that is a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein)-coupled receptor superfamily, were isolated by screening rat genomic and thoracic aorta cDNA libraries with an oligonucleotide encoding a highly conserved region of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Sequence analyses of these clones showed that they encode a 343-amino acid protein (named RTA). The RTA gene is single copy, as demonstrated by restriction mapping and Southern blotting of genomic clones and rat genomic DNA. Sequence analysis of the genomic clone further showed that the RTA gene has an intron interrupting the region encoding the amino terminus of the protein. RTA RNA sequences are relatively abundant throughout the gut, vas deferens, uterus, and aorta but are only barely detectable (on Northern blots) in liver, kidney, lung, and salivary gland. In the rat brain, RTA sequences are markedly abundant in the cerebellum. RTA is most closely related to the mas oncogene (34% identity), which has been suggested to be a forebrain angiotensin receptor. We cannot detect angiotensin binding to the RTA protein after introducing the cognate cDNA or mRNA into COS cells or Xenopus oocytes, respectively, nor can we detect an electrophysiologic response in the oocyte after application of angiotensin peptides. We conclude that RTA is not an angiotensin receptor; to date, we have been unable to identify its ligand. Images PMID:2109324

  19. Cloning, sequencing and characterization of lipase from a polyhydroxyalkanoate- (PHA-) synthesizing Pseudomonas resinovorans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipase gene (lip) of a biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoate- (PHA-) synthesizing bacterium P. resinovorans NRRL B-2649 was cloned, sequenced and characterized by using consensus primers and PCR-based genome walking method. The ORF of the putative Lip (314 amino acids) and its active site (Ser111, Asp...

  20. Approaching a complete repository of sequence-verified protein-encoding clones for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanhui; Rolfs, Andreas; Bhullar, Bhupinder; Murthy, Tellamraju V. S.; Zhu, Cong; Berger, Michael F.; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Kelley, Fontina; McCarron, Seamus; Jepson, Daniel; Richardson, Aaron; Raphael, Jacob; Moreira, Donna; Taycher, Elena; Zuo, Dongmei; Mohr, Stephanie; Kane, Michael F.; Williamson, Janice; Simpson, Andrew; Bulyk, Martha L.; Harlow, Edward; Marsischky, Gerald; Kolodner, Richard D.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2007-01-01

    The availability of an annotated genome sequence for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has made possible the proteome-scale study of protein function and protein–protein interactions. These studies rely on availability of cloned open reading frame (ORF) collections that can be used for cell-free or cell-based protein expression. Several yeast ORF collections are available, but their use and data interpretation can be hindered by reliance on now out-of-date annotations, the inflexible presence of N- or C-terminal tags, and/or the unknown presence of mutations introduced during the cloning process. High-throughput biochemical and genetic analyses would benefit from a “gold standard” (fully sequence-verified, high-quality) ORF collection, which allows for high confidence in and reproducibility of experimental results. Here, we describe Yeast FLEXGene, a S. cerevisiae protein-coding clone collection that covers over 5000 predicted protein-coding sequences. The clone set covers 87% of the current S. cerevisiae genome annotation and includes full sequencing of each ORF insert. Availability of this collection makes possible a wide variety of studies from purified proteins to mutation suppression analysis, which should contribute to a global understanding of yeast protein function. PMID:17322287

  1. Targeted isolation and cloning of 100-kb microbial genomic sequences by Cas9-assisted targeting of chromosome segments.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenjun; Zhu, Ting F

    2016-05-01

    Cloning of long microbial genomic sequences is an essential tool in synthetic biology and genome engineering. Such long sequences are often difficult to obtain directly by traditional PCR or restriction enzyme digestion, and therefore the cloning of these sequences has remained a technical obstacle in molecular biology. Based on the in vitro application of RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease, the method of Cas9-assisted targeting of chromosome segments (CATCH) cleaves target DNA in vitro from intact bacterial chromosomes embedded in agarose plugs, which can be subsequently ligated with cloning vector through Gibson assembly. Here we describe an optimized protocol of CATCH cloning for the targeted cloning of long genomic sequences of up to 100 kb from microorganisms. The protocol uses standard laboratory equipment and takes ∼8 h of bench time over several days, and it may potentially simplify and accelerate efforts to isolate and clone large gene clusters from microorganisms. PMID:27101517

  2. Nucleotide sequence of cDNA clones of the murine myb proto-oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Gonda, T J; Gough, N M; Dunn, A R; de Blaquiere, J

    1985-01-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones of murine c-myb mRNA which contain approximately 2.8 kb of the 3.9-kb mRNA sequence. Nucleotide sequencing has shown that these clones extend both 5' and 3' to sequences homologous to the v-myb oncogenes of avian myeloblastosis virus and avian leukemia virus E26. The sequence contains an open reading frame of 1944 nucleotides, and could encode a protein which is both highly homologous, and of similar size (71 kd), to the chicken c-myb protein. Examination of the deduced amino acid sequence of the murine c-myb protein revealed the presence of a 3-fold tandem repeat of 52 residues near the N terminus of the protein, and has enabled prediction of some of the likely structural features of the protein. These include a high alpha-helix content, a basic region toward the N terminus of the protein and an overall globular configuration. The arrangement of genomic c-myb sequences, detected using the cDNA clones as probes, was compared with the reported structure of rearranged c-myb in certain tumour cells. This comparison suggested that the rearranged c-myb gene may encode a protein which, like the v-myb protein, lacks the N-terminal region of c-myb. Images Fig. 5. PMID:2998780

  3. Selection and sequence analysis of a cDNA clone encoding a known chorion protein of the A family.

    PubMed Central

    Tsitilou, S G; Regier, J C; Kafatos, F C

    1980-01-01

    Using as criteria the size, abundance and developmental specificity of hybridizing mRNA sequences, we have selected from our chorion cDNA library a clone corresponding to a specific chorion protein, A4--cl. Comparison between the clone sequence and the largely known sequence of A4--cl validates the use of the cDNA library for sequence analysis of the chorion multigene families. The two major chorion protein families, A and B, share certain structural similarities. Images PMID:7433133

  4. Identification of genomic sequences corresponding to cDNA clones

    SciTech Connect

    Spoerel, N.A.; Kafatos, F.C.

    1987-01-01

    The general methods applicable to the isolation of genomic sequences from phage lambda or cosmid libraries have been described. This chapter presents strategies for the investigation of genes that occur in several identical or nonidentical copies per genome, or that share a common conserved domain with other genes. The methods discussed are applicable both to the identification of the genes in Southern blots and to their isolation from libraries. Furthermore, the methods are well suited for the analysis of homologous genes in different species. A high proportion of genes in eukaryotes are known to be members of multigene families. Carefully controlled hybridization conditions and well-tailored probes are powerful tools in the isolation and analysis of genes which share a common domain or are members of multigene families. This chapter consists of a short review of recommended strategies and relevant parameters, which have been discussed in more detail earlier. Using three examples from the authors' analysis of the silk moth choriun locus, they demonstrate how powerful carefully tailored short single-stranded probes can be in the analysis of closely related gene copies.

  5. Molecular cloning, expression, and sequence of the pilin gene from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae M37.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, T; Grass, S; Munson, R

    1991-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae M37 adheres to human buccal epithelial cells and exhibits mannose-resistant hemagglutination of human erythrocytes. An isogenic variant of this strain which was deficient in hemagglutination was isolated. A protein with an apparent molecular weight of 22,000 was present in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel profile of sarcosyl-insoluble proteins from the hemagglutination-proficient strain but was absent from the profile of the isogenic hemagglutination-deficient variant. A monoclonal antibody which reacts with the hemagglutination-proficient isolate but not with the hemagglutination-deficient isolate has been characterized. This monoclonal antibody was employed in an affinity column for purification of the protein as well as to screen a genomic library for recombinant clones expressing the gene. Several clones which contained overlapping genomic fragments were identified by reaction with the monoclonal antibody. The gene for the 22-kDa protein was subcloned and sequenced. The gene for the type b pilin from H. influenzae type b strain MinnA was also cloned and sequenced. The DNA sequence of the strain MinnA gene was identical to that reported previously for two other type b strains. The DNA sequence of the strain M37 gene is 77% identical to that of the type b pilin gene, and the derived amino acid sequence is 68% identical to that of the type b pilin. Images PMID:1673447

  6. Nucleotide sequence of a cloned woodchuck hepatitis virus genome: evolutional relationship between hepadnaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, K; Ogasawara, N; Yoshikawa, H; Murakami, S

    1985-01-01

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a cloned DNA of woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), the most oncogenic virus among hepadnaviruses. The genome, designated WHV2, is 3,320 base pairs long and contains four major open reading frames (ORFs) coded on the same strand of nucleotide sequence as in the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequences deduced from it among the genomes of various hepadnaviruses demonstrates that each protein shows an intrinsic property in conserving its amino acid sequence. A parameter, the ratio of the number of triplets with one-letter change but no amino acid substitution to the total number of triplets in which one-letter change occurred, was introduced to measure the intrinsic properties quantitatively. For each ORF, the parameter gave characteristic values in all combinations. Therefore, the relative evolutional distance between these hepadnaviruses can be measured by the amino acid substitution rate of any ORF. These comparisons suggest that (i) the difference between two WHV clones, WHV1 and WHV2, corresponds to that among clones of a HBV subtype, HBVadr, and (ii) WHV and ground squirrel hepatitis virus can be categorized in a way similar to the subgroups of HBV. PMID:3855246

  7. Molecular cloning and sequencing analysis of the interferon β from Coturnix.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bei; Chang, Wei-Shan

    2014-01-01

    One pair of primers was designed according to Gallus and Meleagris gallopavo interferon β (IFN-β) sequences published in GenBank. The primers and RNA extraction from the spleen of Coturnix were used to amplify Coturnix IFN-β cDNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The product was cloned into pEasy-T1 vector. Evaluating recombinant plasmid by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. Sequence the cloning sequences, comparing the sequencing results by NCBI. We successfully got a Coturnix IFN-β partial sequence. The sequence was subtyped and put to homologous analysis. The results suggested the homology of IFN-β gene of Coturnix and gene of Coturnix and chicken (88.7%), the homology of IFN-β gene of Coturnix and chicken (88.7%), the homology of IFN-β gene of Coturnix and Anas platyrhynchos (72.5%), the homology of IFN-β sequence registered in GenBank. The analysis of the genetic tree showed that the relationship of Coturnix and chicken IFN-β had a high homology. It can be seen that in this study we successfully got a partial sequence of IFN-β of quail. PMID:26155095

  8. Angucyclines Sch 47554 and Sch 47555 from Streptomyces sp. SCC-2136: cloning, sequencing, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Devi Bahdur; Oh, Tae-Jin; Vu, Thi Thu Hang; Sthapit, Basundhara; Liou, Kwangkyoung; Lee, Hei Chan; Yoo, Jin-Cheol; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2006-10-31

    The entire gene cluster involved in the biosynthesis of angucyclines Sch 47554 and Sch 47555 was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of genomic DNA spanning 77.5-kb revealed a total of 55 open reading frames, and the deduced products exhibited strong sequence similarities to type II polyketide synthases, deoxysugar biosynthetic enzymes, and a variety of accessory enzymes. The involvement of this gene cluster in the pathway of Sch 47554 and Sch 47555 was confirmed by genetic inactivation of the aromatase, including a portion of the ketoreductase, which was disrupted by inserting the thiostrepton gene. PMID:17085966

  9. Human phosphoribosylformylglycineamide amidotransferase (FGARAT): regional mapping, complete coding sequence, isolation of a functional genomic clone, and DNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Patterson, D; Bleskan, J; Gardiner, K; Bowersox, J

    1999-11-01

    Purines play essential roles in many cellular functions, including DNA replication, transcription, intra- and extra-cellular signaling, energy metabolism, and as coenzymes for many biochemical reactions. The de-novo synthesis of purines requires 10 enzymatic steps for the production of inosine monophosphate (IMP). Defects in purine metabolism are associated with human diseases. Further, many anticancer agents function as inhibitors of the de-novo biosynthetic pathway. Genes or cDNAs for most of the enzymes comprising this pathway have been isolated from humans or other mammals. One notable exception is the phosphoribosylformylglycineamide amidotransferase (FGARAT) gene, which encodes the fourth step of this pathway. This gene has been cloned from numerous microorganisms and from Drosophila melanogaster and C. elegans. We report here the identification of a human cDNA containing the coding region of the FGARAT mRNA and the isolation of a P1 clone that contains an intact human FGARAT gene. The P1 clone corrects the purine auxotrophy and protein deficiency of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants (AdeB) deficient in both the activity and the protein for FGARAT. The P1 clone was used to regionally map the FGARAT gene to chromosome region 17p13, a location consistent with our prior assignment of this gene to chromosome 17. A comparison of the DNA sequence of the human FGARAT and FGARAT DNA sequence from 17 other organisms is reported. The isolation of this gene means that DNA clones for all the 10 steps of IMP synthesis have been isolated from humans or other mammals. PMID:10548741

  10. Cloning and sequence analysis of the muramidase-2 gene from Enterococcus hirae.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, C P; Kariyama, R; Daneo-Moore, L; Shockman, G D

    1992-01-01

    Extracellular muramidase-2 of Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 was purified to homogeneity by substrate binding, guanidine-HCl extraction, and reversed-phase chromatography. A monoclonal antibody, 2F8, which specifically recognizes muramidase-2, was used to screen a genomic library of E. hirae ATCC 9790 DNA in bacteriophage lambda gt11. A positive phage clone containing a 4.5-kb DNA insert was isolated and analyzed. The EcoRI-digested 4.5-kb fragment was cut into 2.3-, 1.0-, and 1.5-kb pieces by using restriction enzymes KpnI, Sau3AI, and PstI, and each fragment was subcloned into plasmid pJDC9 or pUC19. The nucleotide sequence of each subclone was determined. The sequence data indicated an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 666 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular mass of 70,678 Da. The first 24 N-terminal amino acids of purified extracellular muramidase-2 were in very good agreement with the deduced amino acid sequence after a 49-amino-acid putative signal sequence. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed the presence at the C-terminal region of the protein of six highly homologous repeat units separated by nonhomologous intervening sequences that are highly enriched in serine and threonine. The overall sequence showed a high degree of homology with a recently cloned Streptococcus faecalis autolysin. Images PMID:1347040

  11. Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of cloned human and mouse preprocathepsin B cDNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S J; San Segundo, B; McCormick, M B; Steiner, D F

    1986-01-01

    Cathepsin B is a lysosomal thiol proteinase that may have additional extralysosomal functions. To further our investigations on the structure, mode of biosynthesis, and intracellular sorting of this enzyme, we have determined the complete coding sequences for human and mouse preprocathepsin B by using cDNA clones isolated from human hepatoma and kidney phage libraries. The nucleotide sequences predict that the primary structure of preprocathepsin B contains 339 amino acids organized as follows: a 17-residue NH2-terminal prepeptide sequence followed by a 62-residue propeptide region, 254 residues in mature (single chain) cathepsin B, and a 6-residue extension at the COOH terminus. A comparison of procathepsin B sequences from three species (human, mouse, and rat) reveals that the homology between the propeptides is relatively conserved with a minimum of 68% sequence identity. In particular, two conserved sequences in the propeptide that may be functionally significant include a potential glycosylation site and the presence of a single cysteine at position 59. Comparative analysis of the three sequences also suggests that processing of procathepsin B is a multistep process, during which enzymatically active intermediate forms may be generated. The availability of the cDNA clones will facilitate the identification of possible active or inactive intermediate processive forms as well as studies on the transcriptional regulation of the cathepsin B gene. PMID:3463996

  12. The BsaHI restriction-modification system: Cloning, sequencing and analysis of conserved motifs

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Robert K; Roberts, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Background Restriction and modification enzymes typically recognise short DNA sequences of between two and eight bases in length. Understanding the mechanism of this recognition represents a significant challenge that we begin to address for the BsaHI restriction-modification system, which recognises the six base sequence GRCGYC. Results The DNA sequences of the genes for the BsaHI methyltransferase, bsaHIM, and restriction endonuclease, bsaHIR, have been determined (GenBank accession #EU386360), cloned and expressed in E. coli. Both the restriction endonuclease and methyltransferase enzymes share significant similarity with a group of 6 other enzymes comprising the restriction-modification systems HgiDI and HgiGI and the putative HindVP, NlaCORFDP, NpuORFC228P and SplZORFNP restriction-modification systems. A sequence alignment of these homologues shows that their amino acid sequences are largely conserved and highlights several motifs of interest. We target one such conserved motif, reading SPERRFD, at the C-terminal end of the bsaHIR gene. A mutational analysis of these amino acids indicates that the motif is crucial for enzymatic activity. Sequence alignment of the methyltransferase gene reveals a short motif within the target recognition domain that is conserved among enzymes recognising the same sequences. Thus, this motif may be used as a diagnostic tool to define the recognition sequences of the cytosine C5 methyltransferases. Conclusion We have cloned and sequenced the BsaHI restriction and modification enzymes. We have identified a region of the R. BsaHI enzyme that is crucial for its activity. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of the BsaHI methyltransferase enzyme led us to propose two new motifs that can be used in the diagnosis of the recognition sequence of the cytosine C5-methyltransferases. PMID:18479503

  13. Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression of the Chitinase Gene chiA74 from Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Nieto-Mazzocco, Elizabeth; Velázquez-Robledo, Rocio; Salcedo-Hernandez, Rubén; Bautista, Mayela; Jiménez, Beatriz; Ibarra, Jorge E.

    2003-01-01

    The endochitinase gene chiA74 from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kenyae strain LBIT-82 was cloned in Escherichia coli DH5αF′. A sequence of 676 amino acids was deduced when the gene was completely sequenced. A molecular mass of 74 kDa was estimated for the preprotein, which includes a putative 4-kDa signal sequence located at the N terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high degree of identity with other chitinases such as ChiB from Bacillus cereus (98%) and ChiA71 from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar pakistani (70%). Additionally, ChiA74 showed a modular structure comprised of three domains: a catalytic domain, a fibronectin-like domain, and a chitin-binding domain. All three domains showed conserved sequences when compared to other bacterial chitinase sequences. A ca. 70-kDa mature protein expressed by the cloned gene was detected in zymograms, comigrating with a chitinase produced by the LBIT-82 wild-type strain. ChiA74 is active within a wide pH range (4 to 9), although a bimodal activity was shown at pH 4.79 and 6.34. The optimal temperature was estimated at 57.2°C when tested at pH 6. The potential use of ChiA74 as a synergistic agent, along with the B. thuringiensis insecticidal Cry proteins, is discussed. PMID:12571025

  14. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the Taq I restriction-modification system.

    PubMed Central

    Slatko, B E; Benner, J S; Jager-Quinton, T; Moran, L S; Simcox, T G; Van Cott, E M; Wilson, G G

    1987-01-01

    The Taq I modification and restriction genes (recognition sequence TCGA) have been cloned in E. coli and their DNA sequences have been determined. Both proteins were characterized and the N-terminal sequence of the endonuclease was determined. The genes have the same transcriptional orientation with the methylase gene 5' to the endonuclease gene. The methylase gene is 1089 bp in length (363 amino acids, 40,576 daltons); the endonuclease gene is 702 bp in length (234 amino acids, 27,523 daltons); they are separated by 132 bp. Both methylase and endonuclease activity can be detected in cell extracts. The clones fully modify the vector and chromosomal DNA but they fail to restrict infecting phage. Clones carrying only the restriction gene are viable even in the absence of modification. The restriction gene contains 7 Taq I sites; the modification gene contains none. This asymmetric distribution of sites could be important in the regulation of the expression of the endonuclease gene. Images PMID:2827113

  15. Cloning, characterization, and sequence of the yeast DNA topoisomerase I gene.

    PubMed Central

    Thrash, C; Bankier, A T; Barrell, B G; Sternglanz, R

    1985-01-01

    The structural gene for yeast DNA topoisomerase I (TOP1) has been cloned from two yeast genomic plasmid banks. Integration of a plasmid carrying the gene into the chromosome and subsequent genetic mapping shows that TOP1 is identical to the gene previously called MAK1. Seven top1 (mak1) mutants including gene disruptions are viable, demonstrating that DNA topoisomerase I is not essential for viability in yeast. A 3787-base-pair DNA fragment including the gene has been sequenced. The protein predicted from the DNA sequence has 769 amino acids and a molecular weight of 90,020. Images PMID:2989818

  16. Characterization of a novel MICA allele, MICA*012:05, by cloning and sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, W Y; Tian, W; Wang, F; Zhu, F M; Li, L X

    2016-08-01

    A new MICA allelic variant, MICA*012:05, has been identified in a Chinese Mongolian population. Following polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT), this new allele was further confirmed by cloning and sequencing. MICA*012:05 was linked to an HLA-A*24-C*01-B*55:02-DRB1*09 haplotype. MICA*012:05 differs from MICA*012:01 by a single synonymous C to T substitution at nucleotide position 269 in exon 3. PMID:27273902

  17. Cloning, sequencing, and enhanced expression of the dihydropteroate synthase gene of Escherichia coli MC4100.

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, W S; Gowen, J E; Ray, P H; Cox, M J; Dev, I K

    1992-01-01

    The Escherichia coli gene coding for dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) has been cloned and sequenced. The protein has 282 amino acids and a compositional molecular mass of 30,314 daltons. Increased expression of the enzyme was realized by using a T7 expression system. The enzyme was purified and crystallized. A temperature-sensitive mutant was isolated and found to express a DHPS with a lower specific activity and lower affinities for para-aminobenzoic acid and sulfathiazole. The allele had a point mutation that changed a phenylalanine codon to a leucine codon, and the mutation was in a codon that is conserved among published DHPS sequences. Images PMID:1522070

  18. DNA Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Gene: Amino Acid Sequence of Repetitive Epitope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enea, Vincenzo; Ellis, Joan; Zavala, Fidel; Arnot, David E.; Asavanich, Achara; Masuda, Aoi; Quakyi, Isabella; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.

    1984-08-01

    A clone of complementary DNA encoding the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been isolated by screening an Escherichia coli complementary DNA library with a monoclonal antibody to the CS protein. The DNA sequence of the complementary DNA insert encodes a four-amino acid sequence: proline-asparagine-alanine-asparagine, tandemly repeated 23 times. The CS β -lactamase fusion protein specifically binds monoclonal antibodies to the CS protein and inhibits the binding of these antibodies to native Plasmodium falciparum CS protein. These findings provide a basis for the development of a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

  19. Complex structural behavior of oligopurine-oligopyrimidine sequence cloned within the supercoiled plasmid.

    PubMed Central

    Parniewski, P; Galazka, G; Wilk, A; Klysik, J

    1989-01-01

    Synthetic sequence GATCC(AG)7ATCG(AT)4CG(AG)7 was cloned into plasmid and its structural behavior under the influence of supercoiling was analysed by chemical modification at variety of experimental conditions. It was found that this sequence adopts at least two different non-B conformations depending on -delta and pH values. Moreover, 12 nucleotide long non-pur.pyr spacer region separating two identical (AG)7 blocks does not provide a significant energy barrier protecting against unusual structures formation. Images PMID:2644622

  20. Matrix genes of measles virus and canine distemper virus: cloning, nucleotide sequences, and deduced amino acid sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, W J; Englund, G; Richardson, C D; Rozenblatt, S; Lazzarini, R A

    1986-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences encoding the matrix (M) proteins of measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) were determined from cDNA clones containing these genes in their entirety. In both cases, single open reading frames specifying basic proteins of 335 amino acid residues were predicted from the nucleotide sequences. Both viral messages were composed of approximately 1,450 nucleotides and contained 400 nucleotides of presumptive noncoding sequences at their respective 3' ends. MV and CDV M-protein-coding regions were 67% homologous at the nucleotide level and 76% homologous at the amino acid level. Only chance homology was observed in the 400-nucleotide trailer sequences. Comparisons of the M protein sequences of MV and CDV with the sequence reported for Sendai virus (B. M. Blumberg, K. Rose, M. G. Simona, L. Roux, C. Giorgi, and D. Kolakofsky, J. Virol. 52:656-663; Y. Hidaka, T. Kanda, K. Iwasaki, A. Nomoto, T. Shioda, and H. Shibuta, Nucleic Acids Res. 12:7965-7973) indicated the greatest homology among these M proteins in the carboxyterminal third of the molecule. Secondary-structure analyses of this shared region indicated a structurally conserved, hydrophobic sequence which possibly interacted with the lipid bilayer. Images PMID:3754588

  1. Molecular cloning of five individual stage- and tissue-specific mRNA sequences from sea urchin pluteus embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Fregien, N; Dolecki, G J; Mandel, M; Humphreys, T

    1983-01-01

    Five developmentally regulated sea urchin mRNA sequences which increase in abundance between the blastula and pluteus stages of development were isolated by molecular cloning of cDNA. The regulated sequences all appeared in moderately abundant mRNA molecules of pluteus cells and represented 4% of the clones tested. There were no regulated sequences detected in the 40% of the clones which hybridized to the most abundant mRNA, and the screening procedures were inadequate to detect possible regulation in the 20 to 30% of the clones presumably derived from rare-class mRNA. The reaction of 32P[cDNA] from blastula and pluteus mRNA to dots of the cloned DNAs on nitrocellulose filters indicated that the mRNAs complementary to the different cloned pluteus-specific sequences were between 3- and 47-fold more prevalent at the pluteus stage than at the blastula stage. Polyadenylated RNA from different developmental stages was transferred from electrophoretic gels to nitrocellulose filters and reacted to the different cloned sequences. The regulated mRNAs were undetectable in the RNA of 3-h embryos, became evident at the hatching blastula stage, and reached a maximum in abundance by the gastrula or pluteus stage. Certain of the clones reacted to two sizes of mRNA which did not vary coordinately with development. Transfers of RNA isolated from each of the three cell layers of pluteus embryos that were reacted to the cloned sequences revealed that two of the sequences were found in the mRNA of all three layers, two were ectoderm specific, and one was endoderm specific. Four of the regulated sequences were complementary to one or two major bands and one to at least 50 bands on Southern transfers of restriction endonuclease-digested total sea urchin DNA. Images PMID:6688291

  2. Cloning and sequencing of a Bacteroides ruminicola B(1)4 endoglucanase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, O; Russell, J B; Wilson, D B

    1990-01-01

    Bacteroides ruminicola B(1)4, a noncellulolytic rumen bacterium, produces an endoglucanase (carboxymethylcellulase [CMCase]) that is excreted into the culture supernatant. Cultures grown on glucose, fructose, maltose, mannose, and cellobiose had high specific activities of CMCase (greater than 3 mmol of reducing sugar per mg of protein per min), but its synthesis was repressed by sucrose. B. rumincola did not grow on either ball-milled or acid-swollen cellulose even though the CMCase could hydrolyze swollen cellulose. The CMCase gene was cloned into Escherichia coli, and its nucleotide sequence contained a single open reading frame coding for a protein of 40,481 daltons. The enzyme was overproduced in E. coli under the control of the tac promoter and purified to homogeneity. The N-terminal sequence, amino acid composition, and molecular weight of the purified enzyme were similar to the values predicted from the open reading frame of the DNA sequence. However, the CMCase present in B. ruminicola was found to have a monomer molecular weight of 88,000 by Western immunoblotting. This discrepancy appeared to have resulted from our having cloned only part of the CMCase gene into E. coli. The amino acid sequence of the CMCase showed homology to sequences of beta-glucanases from Ruminococcus albus and Clostridium thermocellum. Images PMID:2361940

  3. Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA for Akazara scallop troponin T.

    PubMed

    Inoue, A; Ojima, T; Nishita, K

    1996-10-01

    A cDNA clone encoding troponin T of Akazara scallop (Chlamys nipponensis akazara) striated adductor muscle has been isolated and sequenced. The complete sequence deduced consists of 314 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 37,206. Akazara scallop troponin T contains 55 amino acid residues more and 82 residues fewer than rabbit skeletal muscle troponin T and Drosophila melanogaster troponin T, respectively, showing almost the lowest sequence homology with rabbit troponin T (26%) but the highest homology with Drosophila troponin T (33%). Further, high sequence homology was seen in the functional regions: residues 33-120 and 174-227, corresponding respectively to residues 71-158 and 197-250 of rabbit troponin T (tropomyosin-binding regions); and residues 200-204, corresponding to 223 227 of rabbit troponin T (troponin I-binding region). In residues 1-70 (tropomyosin-binding region), however, only six residues are identical with rabbit troponin T. PMID:8947849

  4. Cloning and sequence analysis of a class A beta-lactamase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra.

    PubMed Central

    Hackbarth, C J; Unsal, I; Chambers, H F

    1997-01-01

    A cosmid library from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra was introduced into Mycobacterium smegmatis, and eight recombinant clones with increased resistance to cefoxitin were identified. Isoelectric focusing detected an M. tuberculosis-derived beta-lactamase in one of these recombinant clones. A sequence analysis identified it as a class A beta-lactamase whose expression correlated with the increased resistance phenotype. PMID:9145897

  5. A new trilocus sequence-based multiplex-PCR to detect major Acinetobacter baumannii clones.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natacha; Picão, Renata Cristina; Cerqueira-Alves, Morgana; Uehara, Aline; Barbosa, Lívia Carvalho; Riley, Lee W; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2016-08-01

    A collection of 163 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates detected in a large Brazilian hospital, was potentially related with the dissemination of four clonal complexes (CC): 113/79, 103/15, 109/1 and 110/25, defined by University of Oxford/Institut Pasteur multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes. The urge of a simple multiplex-PCR scheme to specify these clones has motivated the present study. The established trilocus sequence-based typing (3LST, for ompA, csuE and blaOXA-51-like genes) multiplex-PCR rapidly identifies international clones I (CC109/1), II (CC118/2) and III (CC187/3). Thus, the system detects only one (CC109/1) out of four main CC in Brazil. We aimed to develop an alternative multiplex-PCR scheme to detect these clones, known to be present additionally in Africa, Asia, Europe, USA and South America. MLST, performed in the present study to complement typing our whole collection of isolates, confirmed that all isolates belonged to the same four CC detected previously. When typed by 3LST-based multiplex-PCR, only 12% of the 163 isolates were classified into groups. By comparative sequence analysis of ompA, csuE and blaOXA-51-like genes, a set of eight primers was designed for an alternative multiplex-PCR to distinguish the five CC 113/79, 103/15, 109/1, 110/25 and 118/2. Study isolates and one CC118/2 isolate were blind-tested with the new alternative PCR scheme; all were correctly clustered in groups of the corresponding CC. The new multiplex-PCR, with the advantage of fitting in a single reaction, detects five leading A. baumannii clones and could help preventing the spread in healthcare settings. PMID:27125687

  6. Cloning, analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags from the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    PubMed Central

    Pirooznia, Mehdi; Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Inouye, Laura S; Yang, Kuan; Perkins, Edward J; Deng, Youping

    2007-01-01

    Background Eisenia fetida, commonly known as red wiggler or compost worm, belongs to the Lumbricidae family of the Annelida phylum. Little is known about its genome sequence although it has been extensively used as a test organism in terrestrial ecotoxicology. In order to understand its gene expression response to environmental contaminants, we cloned 4032 cDNAs or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two E. fetida libraries enriched with genes responsive to ten ordnance related compounds using suppressive subtractive hybridization-PCR. Results A total of 3144 good quality ESTs (GenBank dbEST accession number EH669363–EH672369 and EL515444–EL515580) were obtained from the raw clone sequences after cleaning. Clustering analysis yielded 2231 unique sequences including 448 contigs (from 1361 ESTs) and 1783 singletons. Comparative genomic analysis showed that 743 or 33% of the unique sequences shared high similarity with existing genes in the GenBank nr database. Provisional function annotation assigned 830 Gene Ontology terms to 517 unique sequences based on their homology with the annotated genomes of four model organisms Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Caenorhabditis elegans. Seven percent of the unique sequences were further mapped to 99 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways based on their matching Enzyme Commission numbers. All the information is stored and retrievable at a highly performed, web-based and user-friendly relational database called EST model database or ESTMD version 2. Conclusion The ESTMD containing the sequence and annotation information of 4032 E. fetida ESTs is publicly accessible at . PMID:18047730

  7. Cloning and characterization of the major histone H2A genes completes the cloning and sequencing of known histone genes of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Gorovsky, M A

    1996-08-01

    A truncated cDNA clone encoding Tetrahymena thermophila histone H2A2 was isolated using synthetic degenerate oligonucleotide probes derived from H2A protein sequences of Tetrahymena pyriformis. The cDNA clone was used as a homologous probe to isolate a truncated genomic clone encoding H2A1. The remaining regions of the genes for H2A1 (HTA1) and H2A2 (HTA2) were then isolated using inverse PCR on circularized genomic DNA fragments. These partial clones were assembled into intact HTA1 and HTA2 clones. Nucleotide sequences of the two genes were highly homologous within the coding region but not in the noncoding regions. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences with protein sequences of T. pyriformis H2As showed only two and three differences respectively, in a total of 137 amino acids for H2A1, and 132 amino acids for H2A2, indicating the two genes arose before the divergence of these two species. The HTA2 gene contains a TAA triplet within the coding region, encoding a glutamine residue. In contrast with the T. thermophila HHO and HTA3 genes, no introns were identified within the two genes. The 5'- and 3'-ends of the histone H2A mRNAs; were determined by RNase protection and by PCR mapping using RACE and RLM-RACE methods. Both genes encode polyadenylated mRNAs and are highly expressed in vegetatively growing cells but only weakly expressed in starved cultures. With the inclusion of these two genes, T. thermophila is the first organism whose entire complement of known core and linker histones, including replication-dependent and basal variants, has been cloned and sequenced. PMID:8760889

  8. Detection of spurious interruptions of protein-coding regions in cloned cDNA sequences by GeneMark analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirosawa, M; Ishikawa, K; Nagase, T; Ohara, O

    2000-09-01

    cDNA is an artificial copy of mRNA and, therefore, no cDNA can be completely free from suspicion of cloning errors. Because overlooking these cloning errors results in serious misinterpretation of cDNA sequences, development of an alerting system targeting spurious sequences in cloned cDNAs is an urgent requirement for massive cDNA sequence analysis. We describe here the application of a modified GeneMark program, originally designed for prokaryotic gene finding, for detection of artifacts in cDNA clones. This program serves to provide a warning when any spurious split of protein-coding regions is detected through statistical analysis of cDNA sequences based on Markov models. In this study, 817 cDNA sequences deposited in public databases by us were subjected to analysis using this alerting system to assess its sensitivity and specificity. The results indicated that any spurious split of protein-coding regions in cloned cDNAs could be sensitively detected and systematically revised by means of this system after the experimental validation of the alerts. Furthermore, this study offered us, for the first time, statistical data regarding the rates and types of errors causing protein-coding splits in cloned cDNAs obtained by conventional cloning methods. PMID:10984451

  9. Molecular cloning and comparative sequence analysis of fungal β-Xylosidases.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Kousar, Sumaira; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Jamil, Amer

    2016-12-01

    Commercial scale degradation of hemicelluloses into easily accessible sugar residues is practically crucial in industrial as well as biochemical processes. Xylanolytic enzymes have a great number of possible applications in many biotechnological processes and therefore, these enzymes are continuously attracting the attention of scientists. Due to this fact, different β-Xylosidases have been isolated, purified and characterized from several bacteria and fungi. Microorganisms in this respect have gained much momentum for production of these significant biocatalysts with remarkable features. It is difficult to propagate microorganisms for efficient and cost-competitive production of β-Xylosidase from hemicelluloses due to expensive conditions of fermentation. The screening of new organisms with an enhanced production of β-Xylosidases has been made possible with the help of recombinant DNA technology. β-Xylosidase genes haven been cloned and expressed on large scale in both homologous and heterologous hosts with the advent of genetic engineering. Therefore, we have reviewed the literature regarding cloning of β-Xylosidase genes into various hosts for their heterologous production along with sequence similarities among different β-Xylosidases. The study provides insight into the current status of cloning, expression and sequence analysis of β-Xylosidases for industrial applications. PMID:27080227

  10. Cloning, sequencing, gene organization, and localization of the human ribosomal protein RPL23A gene

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Wufang; Christensen, M.; Eichler, E.

    1997-12-01

    The intron-containing gene for human ribosomal protein RPL23A has been cloned, sequenced, and localized. The gene is approximately 4.0 kb in length and contains five exons and four introns. All splice sites exactly match the AG/GT consensus rule. The transcript is about 0.6 kb and is detected in all tissues examined. In adult tissues, the RPL23A transcript is dramatically more abundant in pancreas, skeletal muscle, and heart, while much less abundant in kidney, brain, placenta, lung, and liver. A full-length cDNA clone of 576 nt was identified, and the nucleotide sequence was found to match the exon sequence precisely. The open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 156 amino acids, which is absolutely conserved with the rat RPL23A protein. In the 5{prime} flanking region of the gene, a canonical TATA sequence and a defined CAAT box were found for the first time in a mammalian ribosomal protein gene. The intron-containing RPL23A gene was mapped to cytogenetic band 17q11 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA for human liver arginase

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, Y.; Takiguchi, M.; Amaya, Y.; Kawamoto, S.; Matsuda, I.; Mori, M.

    1987-01-01

    Arginase (EC3.5.3.1) catalyzes the last step of the urea cycle in the liver of ureotelic animals. Inherited deficiency of the enzyme results in argininemia, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hyperammonemia. To facilitate investigation of the enzyme and gene structures and to elucidate the nature of the mutation in argininemia, the authors isolated cDNA clones for human liver arginase. Oligo(dT)-primed and random primer human liver cDNA libraries in lambda gt11 were screened using isolated rat arginase cDNA as a probe. Two of the positive clones, designated lambda hARG6 and lambda hARG109, contained an overlapping cDNA sequence with an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 322 amino acid residues (predicted M/sub r/, 34,732), a 5'-untranslated sequence of 56 base pairs, a 3'-untranslated sequence of 423 base pairs, and a poly(A) segment. Arginase activity was detected in Escherichia coli cells transformed with the plasmid carrying lambda hARG6 cDNA insert. RNA gel blot analysis of human liver RNA showed a single mRNA of 1.6 kilobases. The predicted amino acid sequence of human liver arginase is 87% and 41% identical with those of the rat liver and yeast enzymes, respectively. There are several highly conserved segments among the human, rat, and yeast enzymes.

  12. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubin, Gerard; Goldman, Debra S.; Luce, Judith; Neiman, Paul E.; Cooper, Geoffrey M.

    1983-03-01

    A transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA has been isolated by molecular cloning. It is homologous to a conserved family of sequences present in normal chicken and human DNAs but is not related to transforming genes of acutely transforming retroviruses. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned transforming gene suggests that it encodes a protein that is partially homologous to the amino terminus of transferrin and related proteins although only about one tenth the size of transferrin.

  13. Molecular cloning and sequencing of mRNAs coding for minor adult globin polypeptides of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed Central

    Knöchel, W; Meyerhof, W; Hummel, S; Grundmann, U

    1983-01-01

    Globin mRNA was isolated from immature red blood cells of an adult Xenopus laevis female. mRNA/cDNA hybrids were integrated in the Pst I cleavage site of pBR 322 by G/C tailing, and cloned in Escherichia coli strain HB 101. By restriction site analysis as well as hybridization behaviour we identified two clones coding for minor adult alpha and beta globin chains. Nucleotide sequence analysis and derived amino acid sequences are presented. PMID:6298748

  14. Human secreted carbonic anhydrase: cDNA cloning, nucleotide sequence, and hybridization histochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Aldred, P.; Fu, Ping; Barrett, G.; Penschow, J.D.; Wright, R.D.; Coghlan, J.P.; Fernley, R.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones coding for the human secreted carbonic anhydrase isozyme (CAVI) have been isolated and their nucleotide sequences determined. These clones identify a 1.45-kb mRNA that is present in high levels in parotid submandibular salivary glands but absent in other tissues such as the sublingual gland, kidney, liver, and prostate gland. Hybridization histochemistry of human salivary glands shows mRNA for CA VI located in the acinar cells of these glands. The cDNA clones encode a protein of 308 amino acids that includes a 17 amino acid leader sequence typical of secreted proteins. The mature protein has 291 amino acids compared to 259 or 260 for the cytoplasmic isozymes, with most of the extra amino acids present as a carboxyl terminal extension. In comparison, sheep CA VI has a 45 amino acid extension. Overall the human CA VI protein has a sequence identity of 35 {percent} with human CA II, while residues involved in the active site of the enzymes have been conserved. The human and sheep secreted carbonic anhydrases have a sequence identity of 72 {percent}. This includes the two cysteine residues that are known to be involved in an intramolecular disulfide bond in the sheep CA VI. The enzyme is known to be glycosylated and three potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn-X-Thr/Ser) have been identified. Two of these are known to be glycosylated in sheep CA VI. Southern analysis of human DNA indicates that there is only one gene coding for CA VI.

  15. The nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of the geminivirus beet curly top virus.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J; Markham, P G; Callis, R J; Pinner, M S

    1986-08-01

    A number of infectious clones of a Californian isolate of the leafhopper-transmitted geminivirus beet curly top virus (BCTV) have been constructed from virus-specific double-stranded DNA isolated from infected Beta vulgaris and used to demonstrate a single component genome. The nucleotide sequence of one infectious clone has been determined (2993 nucleotides). Comparison with other geminiviruses has shown that the organisation of the genome closely resembles DNA 1 of the whitefly-transmitted members. The four conserved coding regions of DNA 1 have highly homologous counterparts in BCTV with the exception of the putative coat protein which is more closely related to those of the leafhopper-transmitted geminiviruses suggesting a strong interrelationship between coat protein and insect vector. A BCTV component equivalent to DNA 2 is not required for virus infection or transmission and has not been isolated from infected plants. PMID:16453696

  16. Quantifying the metabolic capabilities of engineered Zymomonas mobilis using linear programming analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsantili, Ivi C; Karim, M Nazmul; Klapa, Maria I

    2007-01-01

    Background The need for discovery of alternative, renewable, environmentally friendly energy sources and the development of cost-efficient, "clean" methods for their conversion into higher fuels becomes imperative. Ethanol, whose significance as fuel has dramatically increased in the last decade, can be produced from hexoses and pentoses through microbial fermentation. Importantly, plant biomass, if appropriately and effectively decomposed, is a potential inexpensive and highly renewable source of the hexose and pentose mixture. Recently, the engineered (to also catabolize pentoses) anaerobic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis has been widely discussed among the most promising microorganisms for the microbial production of ethanol fuel. However, Z. mobilis genome having been fully sequenced in 2005, there is still a small number of published studies of its in vivo physiology and limited use of the metabolic engineering experimental and computational toolboxes to understand its metabolic pathway interconnectivity and regulation towards the optimization of its hexose and pentose fermentation into ethanol. Results In this paper, we reconstructed the metabolic network of the engineered Z. mobilis to a level that it could be modelled using the metabolic engineering methodologies. We then used linear programming (LP) analysis and identified the Z. mobilis metabolic boundaries with respect to various biological objectives, these boundaries being determined only by Z. mobilis network's stoichiometric connectivity. This study revealed the essential for bacterial growth reactions and elucidated the association between the metabolic pathways, especially regarding main product and byproduct formation. More specifically, the study indicated that ethanol and biomass production depend directly on anaerobic respiration stoichiometry and activity. Thus, enhanced understanding and improved means for analyzing anaerobic respiration and redox potential in vivo are needed to yield further

  17. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of a fibronectin/fibrinogen-binding protein from group A streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, H S; Li, Y; Dale, J B; Hasty, D L

    1994-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid and several streptococcal proteins have been reported to bind fibronectin (Fn) or fibrinogen (Fgn), which may serve as host receptors. We searched for such proteins by screening a library of genes from M type 5 group A streptococci cloned into Escherichia coli. Lysates of clones were probed with biotinylated Fn and biotinylated Fgn. One clone expressed a 54-kDa protein that reacted with Fn and Fgn. The protein, termed FBP54, was purified and used to immunize rabbits. Anti-FBP54 serum reacted with purified, recombinant FBP54 and with a protein of similar electrophoretic mobility in extracts of M type 5, 6, and 24 streptococci. Anti-FBP54 serum also reacted with 5 of 15 strains of intact, live streptococci, suggesting that FBP54 may be a surface antigen. Southern blot analysis confirmed that the gene is found in group A streptococci but not in Staphylococcus aureus or E. coli. The cloned gene was sequenced and contained an open reading frame encoding a protein with a calculated molecular weight of 54,186. Partial amino acid sequencing of purified FBP54 confirmed that this open reading frame encoded the protein. As determined by utilizing fusion proteins containing truncated forms of FBP54, the primary Fn/Fgn-binding domain appears to be contained in residues 1 to 89. These data suggest that FBP54 may be a surface protein of streptococci that reacts with both Fn and Fgn and therefore may participate in the adhesion of group A streptococci to host cells. Images PMID:8063411

  18. Cloning and sequence analysis of chitin synthase gene fragments of Demodex mites*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ya-e; Wang, Zheng-hang; Xu, Yang; Xu, Ji-ru; Liu, Wen-yan; Wei, Meng; Wang, Chu-ying

    2012-01-01

    To our knowledge, few reports on Demodex studied at the molecular level are available at present. In this study our group, for the first time, cloned, sequenced and analyzed the chitin synthase (CHS) gene fragments of Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis, and Demodex canis (three isolates from each species) from Xi’an China, by designing specific primers based on the only partial sequence of the CHS gene of D. canis from Japan, retrieved from GenBank. Results show that amplification was successful only in three D. canis isolates and one D. brevis isolate out of the nine Demodex isolates. The obtained fragments were sequenced to be 339 bp for D. canis and 338 bp for D. brevis. The CHS gene sequence similarities between the three Xi’an D. canis isolates and one Japanese D. canis isolate ranged from 99.7% to 100.0%, and those between four D. canis isolates and one D. brevis isolate were 99.1%–99.4%. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods shared the same clusters, according with the traditional classification. Two open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in each CHS gene sequenced, and their corresponding amino acid sequences were located at the catalytic domain. The relatively conserved sequences could be deduced to be a CHS class A gene, which is associated with chitin synthesis in the integument of Demodex mites. PMID:23024043

  19. Serine protease variants encoded by Echis ocellatus venom gland cDNA: cloning and sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Hasson, S S; Mothana, R A; Sallam, T A; Al-balushi, M S; Rahman, M T; Al-Jabri, A A

    2010-01-01

    Envenoming by Echis saw-scaled viper is the leading cause of death and morbidity in Africa due to snake bite. Despite its medical importance, there have been few investigations into the toxin composition of the venom of this viper. Here, we report the cloning of cDNA sequences encoding four groups or isoforms of the haemostasis-disruptive Serine protease proteins (SPs) from the venom glands of Echis ocellatus. All these SP sequences encoded the cysteine residues scaffold that form the 6-disulphide bonds responsible for the characteristic tertiary structure of venom serine proteases. All the Echis ocellatus EoSP groups showed varying degrees of sequence similarity to published viper venom SPs. However, these groups also showed marked intercluster sequence conservation across them which were significantly different from that of previously published viper SPs. Because viper venom SPs exhibit a high degree of sequence similarity and yet exert profoundly different effects on the mammalian haemostatic system, no attempt was made to assign functionality to the new Echis ocellatus EoSPs on the basis of sequence alone. The extraordinary level of interspecific and intergeneric sequence conservation exhibited by the Echis ocellatus EoSPs and analogous serine proteases from other viper species leads us to speculate that antibodies to representative molecules should neutralise (that we will exploit, by epidermal DNA immunization) the biological function of this important group of venom toxins in vipers that are distributed throughout Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. PMID:20936075

  20. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Bzik, D J; Li, W B; Horii, T; Inselburg, J

    1987-01-01

    Genomic DNA clones that coded for the bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) (DHFR-TS) activities from a pyrimethamine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum were isolated and sequenced. The deduced DHFR-TS protein contained 608 amino acids (71,682 Da). The coding region for DHFR-TS contained no intervening sequences and had a high A + T content (75%). The DHFR domain, in the amino-terminal portion of the protein, was joined by a 94-amino acid junction sequence to the TS domain in the carboxyl-terminal portion of the protein. The TS domain was more conserved than the DHFR domain and both P. falciparum domains were more homologous to eukaryotic than to prokaryotic forms of the enzymes. Predicted secondary structures of the DHFR and TS domains were nearly identical to the structures identified in other DHFR and TS enzymes. PMID:2825189

  1. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Bzik, D J; Li, W B; Horii, T; Inselburg, J

    1987-12-01

    Genomic DNA clones that coded for the bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) (DHFR-TS) activities from a pyrimethamine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum were isolated and sequenced. The deduced DHFR-TS protein contained 608 amino acids (71,682 Da). The coding region for DHFR-TS contained no intervening sequences and had a high A + T content (75%). The DHFR domain, in the amino-terminal portion of the protein, was joined by a 94-amino acid junction sequence to the TS domain in the carboxyl-terminal portion of the protein. The TS domain was more conserved than the DHFR domain and both P. falciparum domains were more homologous to eukaryotic than to prokaryotic forms of the enzymes. Predicted secondary structures of the DHFR and TS domains were nearly identical to the structures identified in other DHFR and TS enzymes. PMID:2825189

  2. Purification, characterization cloning, and sequencing of metalloendopeptidase from Streptomyces septatus TH-2.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Tadashi; Yoshiko Uesugi, Jiro Arima; Iwabuchi, Masaki

    2005-02-15

    Streptomyces septatus TH-2 secretes a large amount of a protease when cultured on a medium containing K(2)HPO(4) and glucose. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a three-step procedure. This enzyme had a molecular mass of approximately 35kDa, and was particularly inhibited by EDTA and phosphoramidon. Its substrate specificity was investigated using novel fluorescence energy transfer combinatorial libraries. The protease was found to prefer Phe and Tyr at the P(1) position, a hydrophobic or basic residue at the P(2) position, and a basic or small residue at the P(3) position. Its gene was cloned and sequenced, and its deduced amino acid sequence contained an HEXXH consensus sequence for zinc binding, confirming that it encodes metalloendopeptidase. The primary structure of the enzyme showed 40 and 69% identities with that of thermolysin from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus and that of a metalloendopeptidase from Streptomyces griseus, respectively. PMID:15639229

  3. Cloning and sequence analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni membrane glycoprotein antigen gene GP22.

    PubMed

    el-Sherbeini, M; Ramadan, N; Bostian, K A; Knopf, P M

    1991-11-01

    A family of Schistosoma mansoni proteins (18-22 kDa, pI 5.3-5.8) are biosynthesized in juvenile worms and immunoprecipitated by antibodies uniquely present in protective Fischer rat antiserum. A cDNA clone, lambda gt11-40, expressing epitopes common to this protein family was used to obtain a genomic DNA clone, by hybridization with a lambda gt11-40 oligonucleotide probe. In the 1.37 kb of genomic DNA sequenced, an open reading frame of 182 amino acids was identified on the strand corresponding to lambda gt11-40 coding sequences, and those of identical independently isolated cDNA clones defining a 25-kDa surface membrane glycoprotein. The new S. mansoni gene is termed GP22. There are two candidate promoters, confirmed by primer extension studies with worm RNA. Promoter 1 (P1) is preceded by a G + C-rich region and potential CAAT sequences, and is to the 5'-side of P2. Transcription from P1 is initiated at 2 different sites, apparently producing mRNAs with different translation start sites (ATG). Decoding these mRNAs yields protein products of 182 (P1), 175 (P1), 140 (P2) and 136 (P2) amino acids. The polypeptides share the following features: a hydrophobic segment near the carboxy terminus sufficient to span a lipid bilayer, with a consensus sequence for thio-esterification by a fatty acid; an external domain containing 2 potential N-linked glycosylation sites; and a candidate leucine-zipper motif, suggesting the protein may exist as a dimer on the worm surface. While sharing these common features in their carboxy terminal regions, the three proteins differ in the length and properties of their amino termini. The 140-amino acid protein has a short hydrophobic amino terminus, while the 175- and 182-amino acid proteins have more extensive hydrophobic sequences, each preceded by a hydrophilic amino terminal sequence. The heterogeneity observed in 2-dimensional gels of the antigen may be explained in part by the size and charge differences among the proteins deduced

  4. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of interferon-γ from elk in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Steven J.; Emerson, Carlene; Eriks, Inge S.

    2001-01-01

    Eradication of Mycobacterium bovis relies on accurate detection of infected animals, including potential domestic and wildlife reservoirs. Available diagnostic tests lack the sensitivity and specificity necessary for accurate detection, particularly in infected wildlife populations. Recently, an in vitro diagnostic test for cattle which measures plasma interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels in blood following in vitro incubation with M. bovis purified protein derivative has been enveloped. This test appears to have increased sensitivity over traditional testing. Unfortunately, it does not detect IFN-γ from Cervidae. To begin to address this problem, the IFN-γ gene from elk (Cervus elaphus) was cloned, sequenced, expressed, and characterized. cDNA was cloned from mitogen stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The predicted amino acid (aa) sequence was compared to known sequences from cattle, sheep, goats, red deer (Cervus elaphus), humans, and mice. Biological activity of the recombinant elk IFN-γ (rElkIFN-γ) was confirmed in a vesicular stomatitis virus cytopathic effect reduction assay. Production of monoclonal antibodies to IFN-γ epitopes conserved between ruminant species could provide an important tool for the development of reliable, practical diagnostic assays for detection of a delayed type hypersensitivity response to a variety of persistent infectious agents in ruminants, including M. bovis and Brucella abortus. Moreover, development of these reagents will aid investigators in studies to explore immunological responses of elk that are associated with resistance to infectious diseases.

  5. Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression of a serine proteinase inhibitor gene from Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Pszenny, V; Angel, S O; Duschak, V G; Paulino, M; Ledesma, B; Yabo, M I; Guarnera, E; Ruiz, A M; Bontempi, E J

    2000-04-15

    A cDNA clone from a Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite cDNA library encoding a serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) was isolated. The 1376 bp cDNA sequence encodes a 294 amino acid protein with a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acids resulting in a mature protein with a predicted mass of 30,190 Da and a pI of 4.86. This protein has internal sequence similarity of residues 30-66, 114-150, 181-217 and 247-283 indicating a four-domain structure. The four domains exhibit high identity to serine proteinase inhibitors belonging to the non-classical Kazal-type family. The gene is single copy in the tachyzoite haploid genome of RH strain and was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Several introns were identified. The sequence encoding the mature protein was amplified by PCR, cloned into the pQE30 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. Specific antiserum generated against the recombinant protein was used in immunoblot assay and two bands of 38 and 42 kDa were detected in a whole parasite homogenate. The recombinant protein showed trypsin-inhibitory activity, one of the two potential specificities. We discuss the possible roles that T. gondii serpin(s) may play in the survival of the tachyzoites in the host. PMID:10779600

  6. Shuttle cloning and nucleotide sequences of Helicobacter pylori genes responsible for urease activity.

    PubMed

    Labigne, A; Cussac, V; Courcoux, P

    1991-03-01

    Production of a potent urease has been described as a trait common to all Helicobacter pylori so far isolated from humans with gastritis as well as peptic ulceration. The detection of urease activity from genes cloned from H. pylori was made possible by use of a shuttle cosmid vector, allowing replication and movement of cloned DNA sequences in either Escherichia coli or Campylobacter jejuni. With this approach, we cloned a 44-kb portion of H. pylori chromosomal DNA which did not lead to urease activity when introduced into E. coli but permitted, although temporarily, biosynthesis of the urease when transferred by conjugation to C. jejuni. The recombinant cosmid (pILL585) expressing the urease phenotype was mapped and used to subclone an 8.1-kb fragment (pILL590) able to confer the same property to C. jejuni recipient strains. By a series of deletions and subclonings, the urease genes were localized to a 4.2-kb region of DNA and were sequenced by the dideoxy method. Four open reading frames were found, encoding polypeptides with predicted molecular weights of 26,500 (ureA), 61,600 (ureB), 49,200 (ureC), and 15,000 (ureD). The predicted UreA and UreB polypeptides correspond to the two structural subunits of the urease enzyme; they exhibit a high degree of homology with the three structural subunits of Proteus mirabilis (56% exact matches) as well as with the unique structural subunit of jack bean urease (55.5% exact matches). Although the UreD-predicted polypeptide has domains relevant to transmembrane proteins, no precise role could be attributed to this polypeptide or to the UreC polypeptide, which both mapped to a DNA sequence shown to be required to confer urease activity to a C. jejuni recipient strain. PMID:2001995

  7. Generation of expressed sequence tags of random root cDNA clones of Brassica napus by single-run partial sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Y S; Kwak, J M; Kwon, O Y; Kim, Y S; Lee, D S; Cho, M J; Lee, H H; Nam, H G

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred thirty-seven expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Brassica napus were generated by single-run partial sequencing of 197 random root cDNA clones. A computer search of these root ESTs revealed that 21 ESTs show significant similarity to the protein-coding sequences in the existing data bases, including five stress- or defense-related genes and four clones related to the genes from other kingdoms. Northern blot analysis of the 10 data base-matched cDNA clones revealed that many of the clones are expressed most abundantly in root but less abundantly in other organs. However, two clones were highly root specific. The results show that generation of the root ESTs by partial sequencing of random cDNA clones along with the expression analysis is an efficient approach to isolate genes that are functional in plant root in a large scale. We also discuss the results of the examination of cDNA libraries and sequencing methods suitable for this approach. PMID:8029332

  8. Rapid cloning of disease-resistance genes in plants using mutagenesis and sequence capture.

    PubMed

    Steuernagel, Burkhard; Periyannan, Sambasivam K; Hernández-Pinzón, Inmaculada; Witek, Kamil; Rouse, Matthew N; Yu, Guotai; Hatta, Asyraf; Ayliffe, Mick; Bariana, Harbans; Jones, Jonathan D G; Lagudah, Evans S; Wulff, Brande B H

    2016-06-01

    Wild relatives of domesticated crop species harbor multiple, diverse, disease resistance (R) genes that could be used to engineer sustainable disease control. However, breeding R genes into crop lines often requires long breeding timelines of 5-15 years to break linkage between R genes and deleterious alleles (linkage drag). Further, when R genes are bred one at a time into crop lines, the protection that they confer is often overcome within a few seasons by pathogen evolution. If several cloned R genes were available, it would be possible to pyramid R genes in a crop, which might provide more durable resistance. We describe a three-step method (MutRenSeq)-that combines chemical mutagenesis with exome capture and sequencing for rapid R gene cloning. We applied MutRenSeq to clone stem rust resistance genes Sr22 and Sr45 from hexaploid bread wheat. MutRenSeq can be applied to other commercially relevant crops and their relatives, including, for example, pea, bean, barley, oat, rye, rice and maize. PMID:27111722

  9. Cloning of human papilloma virus genomic DNAs and analysis of homologous polynucleotide sequences.

    PubMed

    Heilman, C A; Law, M F; Israel, M A; Howley, P M

    1980-11-01

    The complete DNA genomes of four distinct human papilloma viruses (human papilloma virus subtype 1a [HPV-1a], HPV-1b, HPV-2a, and HPV-4) were molecularly cloned in Escherichia coli, using the certified plasmid vector pBR322. The restriction endonuclease patterns of the cloned HPV-1a and HPV-1b DNAs were similar to those already published for uncloned DNAs. Physical maps were constructed for HPV-2a DNA and HPV-4 DNA, since these viral DNAs had not been previously mapped. By using the cloned DNAs, the genomes of HPV-1a, HPV-2a, and HPV-4 were analyzed for nucleotide sequence homology. Under standard hybridization conditions (Tm = --28 degrees C), no homology was detectable among the genomes of these papilloma viruses, in agreement with previous reports. However, under less stringent conditions (i.e., Tm = --50 degrees C), stable DNA hybrids could be detected between these viral DNAs, indicating homologous segments in the genomes with approximately 30% base mismatch. By using specific DNA fragments immobilized on nitrocellulose filters, these regions of homology were mapped. Hybridization experiments between radiolabeled bovine papilloma virus type 1 (BPV-1) DNA and the unlabeled HPV-1a, HPV-2a, or HPV-4 DNA restriction fragments under low-stringency conditions indicated that the regions of homology among the HPV DNAs are also conserved in the BPV-1 genome with approximately the same degree of base mismatch. PMID:6253665

  10. Dynamics of defective hepatitis C virus clones in reinfected liver grafts in liver transplant recipients: ultradeep sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuru, Shigeru; Ueda, Yoshihide; Marusawa, Hiroyuki; Inuzuka, Tadashi; Nishijima, Norihiro; Nasu, Akihiro; Shimizu, Kazuharu; Koike, Kaoru; Uemoto, Shinji; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2013-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfects liver allografts in transplant recipients by replicating immediately after transplantation, causing a rapid increase in blood serum HCV RNA levels. We evaluated dynamic changes in the viral genetic complexity after HCV reinfection of the graft liver; we also identified the characteristics of replicating HCV clones using a massively parallel ultradeep sequencing technique to determine the full-genome HCV sequences in the liver and serum specimens of five transplant recipients with genotype 1b HCV infection before and after liver transplantation. The recipients showed extremely high genetic heterogeneity before transplantation, and the HCV population makeup was not significantly different between the liver and blood serum specimens of the individuals. Viral quasispecies complexity in serum was significantly lower after liver transplantation than before it, suggesting that certain HCV clones selectively proliferated after transplantation. Defective HCV clones lacking the structural region of the HCV genome did not increase in number, and full-genome HCV clones selectively increased in number immediately after liver transplantation. A re-increase in the same defective clone existing before transplantation was detected 22 months after transplantation in one patient. Ultradeep sequencing technology revealed that the genetic heterogeneity of HCV was reduced after liver transplantation. Dynamic changes in defective HCV clones after liver transplantation indicate that these clones have important roles in the HCV life cycle. PMID:23985907

  11. Existence of a True Phosphofructokinase in Bacillus sphaericus: Cloning and Sequencing of the pfk Gene

    PubMed Central

    Alice, Alejandro F.; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Sánchez-Rivas, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Some strains of Bacillus sphaericus are entomopathogenic to mosquito larvae, which transmit diseases, such as filariasis and malaria, affecting millions of people worldwide. This species is unable to use hexoses and pentoses as unique carbon sources, which was proposed to be due to the lack of glycolytic enzymes, such as 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK). In this study, PFK activity was detected and the pfk gene was cloned and sequenced. Furthermore, this gene was shown to be present in strains belonging to all the homology groups of this heterogeneous species, in which PFK activity was also detected. A careful sequence analysis revealed the conservation of different catalytic and regulatory residues, as well as the enzyme's phylogenetic affiliation with the family of allosteric ATP-PFK enzymes. PMID:12450869

  12. Biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from Pseudozyma antarctica: cloning, sequencing, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Morita, Tomotake; Cao, Xiao-hong; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2013-04-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317 exhibits a strong degradation activity for biodegradable plastics (BPs) such as agricultural mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). An enzyme named PaE was isolated and the gene encoding PaE was cloned from the strain by functional complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced amino acid sequence of PaE contains 198 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 20,362.41. High identity was observed between this sequence and that of cutinase-like enzymes (CLEs) (61-68%); therefore, the gene encoding PaE was named PaCLE1. The specific activity of PaE against emulsified PBSA was 54.8±6.3 U/mg. In addition to emulsified BPs, PaE degraded solid films of PBS, PBSA, poly(ε-caprolactone), and poly(lactic acid). PMID:22678026

  13. Cloning and sequence analysis of candidate human natural killer-enhancing factor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Shau, H.; Butterfield, L.H.; Chiu, R.; Kim, A.

    1994-12-31

    A cytosol factor from human red blood cells enhances natural killer (NK) activity. This factor, termed NK-enhancing factor (NKEF), is a protein of 44000 M{sub r} consisting of two subunits of equal size linked by disulfide bonds. NKEF is expressed in the NK-sensitive erythroleukemic cell line K562. Using an antibody specific for NKEF as a probe for immunoblot screening, we isolated several clones from a {lambda}gt11 cDNA library of K562. Additional subcloning and sequencing revealed that the candidate NKEF cDNAs fell into one of two categories of closely related but non-identical genes, referred to as NKEF A and B. They are 88% identical in amino acid sequence and 71% identical in nucleotide sequence. Southern blot analysis suggests that there are two to three NKEF family members in the genome. Analysis of predicted amino acid sequences indicates that both NKEF A and B are cytosol proteins with several phosphorylation sites each, but that they have no glycosylation sites. They are significantly homologous to several other proteins from a wide variety of organisms ranging from prokaryotes to mammals, especially with regard to several well-conserved motifs within the amino acid sequences. The biological functions of these proteins in other species are mostly unknown, but some of them were reported to be induced by oxidative stress. Therefore, as well as for immunoregulation of NK activity, NKEF may be important for cells in coping with oxidative insults. 32 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of an aac(3)-Vb gene from Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed Central

    Rather, P N; Mierzwa, R; Hare, R S; Miller, G H; Shaw, K J

    1992-01-01

    The AAC(3)-V resistance mechanism is characterized by high-level resistance to the aminoglycosides gentamicin, netilmicin, 2'-N-ethylnetilmicin, and 6'-N-ethylnetilmicin and moderate resistance levels to tobramycin. Serratia marcescens 82041944 contains an AA(3)-V resistance mechanism as determined from aminoglycoside resistance profiles. This strain, however, does not exhibit hybridization with a probe derived from the previously cloned aac(3)-Va gene, (R. Allmansberger, B. Bräu, and W. Piepersberg, Mol. Gen. Genet. 198:514-520, 1985). High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of the acetylation products of sisomicin carried out by extracts of S. marcescens 82041944 have demonstrated the presence of an AAC(3) enzyme. We have cloned the gene encoding this acetyltransferase and have designated it aac(3)-Vb. Nucleotide sequence comparisons show that the aac(3)-Va and aac(3)-Vb genes are 72% identical. The predicted AAC(3)-Vb protein is 28,782 Da. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequences show 75% identity and 84% similarity between the AAC(3)-Va and AAC(3)-Vb proteins. The use of a DNA fragment internal to the aac(3)-Vb as a hybridization probe demonstrated that the aac(3)-Vb gene is very rare in clinical isolates possessing an AAC(3)-V mechanism. PMID:1444303

  15. Sequencing and generation of an infectious clone of the pathogenic goose parvovirus strain LH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianye; Duan, Jinkun; Zhu, Liqian; Jiang, Zhiwei; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the complete genome of the virulent strain LH of goose parvovirus (GPV) was sequenced and cloned into the pBluescript II (SK) plasmid vector. Sequence alignments of the inverted terminal repeats (ITR) of GPV strains revealed a common 14-nt-pair deletion in the stem of the palindromic structure in the LH strain and three other strains isolated after 1982 when compared to three GPV strains isolated earlier than that time. Transfection of 11-day-old embryonated goose eggs with the plasmid pLH, which contains the entire genome of strain LH, resulted in successful rescue of the infectious virus. Death of embryos after transfection via the chorioallantoic membrane infiltration route occurred earlier than when transfection was done via the allantoic cavity inoculation route. The rescued virus exhibited virulence similar to that of its parental virus, as evaluated by the mortality rate in goslings. Generation of the pathogenic infectious clone provides us with a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of GPV in the future. PMID:25559668

  16. Cloning, sequence analysis and phylogeny of connexin43 isolated from American black bear heart.

    PubMed

    Van Der Heyden, Marcel A G; Kok, Bart; Kouwenhoven, Evelyn N; Toien, Oivind; Barnes, Brian M; Fedorov, Vadim G; Efimov, Igor R; Opthof, Tobias

    2007-10-01

    Conduction in the heart requires gap junctions. In mammalian ventricular myocytes these consist of connexin43 (Cx43). Hearts of non-hibernating species display conduction disturbances at reduced temperatures. These may exacerbate into lethal arrhythmias. Hibernating species are protected against these arrhythmias by a non-resolved mechanism. To analyze whether the amino acid composition of Cx43 from the hibernating American black bear displays specific features, we cloned the full coding sequence of Ursus americanus Cx43 and compared with that of other (non)hibernating species. UaCx43 displays 99.7% identity to rabbit Cx43 at the amino acid level. No specific features were observed in UaCx43 when compared to previously cloned Cx43 from hibernating and non-hibernating mammals. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction of this and other published full-length Cx43 sequences reveals a very high level of conservation from fish to men. Finally, one of the previously identified six mammalian characteristic amino acids, is not conserved in the black bear. PMID:17654014

  17. Cloning, sequencing, characterisation and implications for vaccine design of the novel dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase of Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Ala' Aldeen, D A; Westphal, A H; De Kok, A; Weston, V; Atta, M S; Baldwin, T J; Bartley, J; Borriello, S P

    1996-12-01

    A lambdaZap-II expression library of Neisseria meningitidis was screened with a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (R-70) raised against c. 70-kDa proteins purified from outer membrane vesicles by elution from preparative SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Selected clones were isolated, further purified, and their recombinant pBluescript SKII plasmids were excised. The cloned DNA insert was sequenced from positive clones and analysed. Four open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, three of which showed a high degree of homology with the pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1p), dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2p) and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3) components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) of a number of prokaryotic and eukaryotic species. Sequence analysis indicated that the meningococcal E2p (Men-E2p) contains two N-terminal lipoyl domains, an E1/E3 binding domain and a catalytic domain. The domains are separated by hinge regions rich in alanine, proline and charged residues. Another lipoyl domain with high sequence similarity to the Men-E2p lipoyl domain was found at the N-terminal of the E3 component. A further ORF, coding for a 16.5-kDa protein, was found between the ORFs encoding the E2p and E3 components. The identity and functional characteristics of the expressed and purified heterologous Men-E2p were confirmed as dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase by immunological and biochemical assays. N-terminal amino-acid analysis confirmed the sequence of the DNA-derived mature protein. Purified Men-E2p reacted with monospecific antisera raised against the whole E2p molecule and against the lipoyl domain of the Azotobacter vinelandii E2p. Conversely, rabbit antiserum raised against Men-E2p reacted with protein extracts of A. vinelandii, Escherichia coli and N. gonorrhoeae and with the lipoyl and catalytic domains of E2p obtained by limited proteolysis. In contrast, the original R-70 antiserum reacted almost exclusively with the lipoyl domain, indicating the strong immunogenicity

  18. Characterization of cDNA clones encoding rabbit and human serum paraoxonase: The mature protein retains its signal sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, C.; Richter, R.J.; Humbert, R.; Omiecinski, C.J.; Furlong, C.E. ); Chapline, C.; Crabb, J.W. )

    1991-10-22

    Serum paraoxonase hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. High serum paraoxonase levels appear to protect against the neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus substrates of this enzyme. The amino acid sequence accounting for 42% of rabbit paraoxonase was determined. From these data, two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized and used to screen a rabbit liver cDNA library. Human paraoxonase clones were isolated from a liver cDNA library by using the rabbit cDNA as a hybridization probe. Inserts from three of the longest clones were sequenced, and one full-length clone contained an open reading frame encoding 355 amino acids, four less than the rabbit paraoxonase protein. Amino-terminal sequences derived from purified rabbit and human paraoxonase proteins suggested that the signal sequence is retained, with the exception of the initiator methionine residue. Characterization of the rabbit and human paraoxonase cDNA clones confirms that the signal sequences are not processed, except for the N-terminal methionine residue. The rabbit and human cDNA clones demonstrate striking nucleotide and deduced amino acid similarities (greater than 85%), suggesting an important metabolic role and constraints on the evolution of this protein.

  19. Molecular cloning, expression, and primary sequence of outer membrane protein P2 of Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Munson, R; Tolan, R W

    1989-01-01

    The structural gene for the porin of Haemophilus influenzae type b, designated outer membrane protein P2, was cloned, and the DNA sequence was determined. An oligonucleotide probe generated by reverse translation of N-terminal amino acid sequence data from the purified protein was used to screen genomic DNA. The probe detected a single EcoRI fragment of approximately 1,700 base pairs which was cloned to lambda gt11 and then into M13 and partially sequenced. The derived amino acid sequence indicated that we had cloned the N-terminal portion of the P2 gene. An overlapping approximately 1,600-base-pair PvuII genomic fragment was cloned into M13, and the sequence of the remainder of the P2 gene was determined. The gene for P2 was then reconstructed under the control of the T7 promoter and expressed in Escherichia coli. The N-terminal sequence of the purified protein corresponds to residues 21 through 34 of the derived amino acid sequence. Thus, the protein is synthesized with a 20-amino-acid leader peptide. The Mr of the processed protein is 37,782, in good agreement with the estimate of 37,000 from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Images PMID:2535836

  20. GIPS: A Software Guide to Sequencing-Based Direct Gene Cloning in Forward Genetics Studies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Han; Wang, Weitao; Zhu, Zhongxu; Zhu, Jianhua; Tan, Deyong; Zhou, Zhipeng; Mao, Chuanzao; Chen, Xin

    2016-04-01

    The Gene Identification via Phenotype Sequencing (GIPS) software considers a range of experimental and analysis choices in sequencing-based forward genetics studies within an integrated probabilistic framework, which enables direct gene cloning from the sequencing of several unrelated mutants of the same phenotype without the need to create segregation populations. GIPS estimates four measurements to help optimize an analysis procedure as follows: (1) the chance of reporting the true phenotype-associated gene; (2) the expected number of random genes that may be reported; (3) the significance of each candidate gene's association with the phenotype; and (4) the significance of violating the Mendelian assumption if no gene is reported or if all candidate genes have failed validation. The usage of GIPS is illustrated with the identification of a rice (Oryza sativa) gene that epistatically suppresses the phenotype of the phosphate2 mutant from sequencing three unrelated ethyl methanesulfonate mutants. GIPS is available at https://github.com/synergy-zju/gips/wiki with the user manual and an analysis example. PMID:26842621

  1. cDNA cloning and sequencing of rat alpha sub 1 -macroglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Waermegaard, B.; Martin, N.; Johansson, S. )

    1992-03-03

    cDNA clones coding for the plasma protease inhibitor {alpha}{sub 1}-macroglobulin were isolated from a rat liver library. The obtained cDNA sequence contained 4701 nucleotides and had an open reading frame coding for a 1500 amino acid long protein, including a 24 amino acid signal peptide. The identity of the deduced protein sequence as {alpha}{sub 1}-macroglobulin was established by comparison with published peptide sequences of the protein. The mature protein shares 53% and 57% overall amino acid identity with the two other identified members of the rat {alpha}-macroglobulin family, {alpha}{sub 1}-inhibitor 3 and {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin. A sequence typical for an internal thiol ester was identified. Of the 24 cysteines, 23 are conserved with {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin. However, instead of the two most C-terminal cysteines in {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin, which forms a disulfide bridge in the receptor binding domain, {alpha}{sub 1}-macroglobulin contains phenylalanine. One MRNA species hybridizing with the {alpha}{sub 1}-macroglobulin probe was observed in rat and mouse liver RNA ({approximately} 6.2 kb), whereas no corresponding transcript was detected in RNA from human liver.

  2. Proteus mirabilis ambient-temperature fimbriae: cloning and nucleotide sequence of the aft gene cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Massad, G; Fulkerson, J F; Watson, D C; Mobley, H L

    1996-01-01

    Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis produces at least four types of fimbriae. Amino acid sequences from two peptides, derived by tryptic digestion of the structural subunit of one type of these fimbriae, the ambient-temperature fimbriae, were determined: NVVPGQPSSTQ and LIEGENQLNYNA. PCR primers, based on these sequences and that of the N terminus, were used to amplify a 359-bp fragment. A cosmid clone, isolated from a P. mirabilis genomic library by hybridization with the 359-bp PCR product, was used to determine the nucleotide sequence of the atf gene cluster. A 3,903-bp region encodes three polypeptides: AtfA, the structural subunit; AtfB, the chaperone; and AtfC, the outer membrane molecular usher. No fimbria-related genes are evident either 5' or 3' to the three contiguous genes. AtfA demonstrates significant amino acid sequence identity with type 1 major fimbrial subunits of several enteric species. The 359-bp PCR product hybridized strongly with all Proteus isolates (n = 9) and 25% of 355 Escherichia coli isolates but failed to hybridize with any of 26 isolates among nine other uropathogenic species. Ambient-temperature fimbriae of P. mirabilis may represent a novel type of fimbriae of enteric species. PMID:8926119

  3. Molecular cloning, sequence characteristics, and tissue expression analysis of ECE1 gene in Tibetan pig.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Dong; Zhang, Jian; Li, Chuan-Hao; Xu, Hai-Peng; Chen, Wei; Zeng, Yong-Qing; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-25

    Low air pressure and low oxygen partial pressure at high altitude seriously affect the survival and development of human beings and animals. ECE1 is a recently discovered gene that is involved in anti-hypoxia, but the full-length cDNA sequence has not been obtained. For a better understanding of the structure and function of the ECE1 gene and to study its effect in Tibetan pig, the cDNA of the ECE1 gene from the muscle of Tibetan pig was cloned, sequenced and characterized. The ECE1 full-length cDNA sequence consists of 2262 bp coding sequence (CDS) that encodes 753 amino acids with a molecular mass of 85,449 kD, 2 bp 5'UTR and 1507 bp 3'UTR. In addition, the phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the Tibetan pig ECE1 has a closer genetic relationship and evolution distance with the land mammals ECE1. Furthermore, analysis by qPCR showed that the ECE1 transcript is constitutively expressed in the 10 tissues tested: the liver, subcutaneous fat, kidney, muscle, stomach, heart, brain, spleen, pancreas, and lung. These results serve as a foundation for further insight into the Tibetan pig ECE1 gene. PMID:26115769

  4. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the leucyl-tRNA synthetase gene of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Vander Horn, P B; Zahler, S A

    1992-01-01

    The leucyl-tRNA synthetase gene (leuS) of Bacillus subtilis was cloned and sequenced. A mutation in the gene, leuS1, increases the transcription and expression of the ilv-leu operion, permitting monitoring of leuS alleles. The leuS1 mutation was mapped to 270 degrees on the chromosome. Sequence analysis showed that the mutation is a single-base substitution, possibly in a monocistronic operon. The leader mRNA predicted by the sequence would contain a number of possible secondary structures and a T box, a sequence observed upstream of leader mRNA terminators of Bacillus tRNA synthetases and the B. subtilis ilv-leu operon. The DNA of the B. subtilis leuS open reading frame is 48% identical to the leuS gene of Escherichia coli and is predicted to encode a polypeptide with 46% identity to the leucyl-tRNA synthetase of E. coli. PMID:1317842

  5. Cloning and sequence analysis of the ces10 gene encoding a Sphingomonas paucimobilis esterase.

    PubMed

    Videira, P A; Fialho, A M; Marques, A R; Coutinho, P M; Sá-Correia, I

    2003-06-01

    The ces10 gene of the gellan gum-producing strain Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 was cloned and sequenced. Multi-sequence alignment of the deduced protein indicated that Ces10 belongs to the serine hydrolase family with a potential catalytic triad comprising Ser(153) (within the G-X-S-X-G consensus sequence), His(75) and Asp(125). The mixed block results obtained following pattern search and the low identities detected in a BLAST analysis indicate that Ces10 is significantly different from other characterised bacterial esterases/lipases. Nevertheless, the Ces10 amino acid sequence showed 45% similarity with Rhodococcus sp. heroin esterase and 48% with Bacillus subtilis p-nitrobenzyl esterase. Ces10, with a predicted molecular mass of 30,641 Da, was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity in a histidine-tagged form. Enzyme assays using p-nitrophenyl-esters (p-NP-esters) with different acyl chain-lengths as the substrate confirmed the anticipated esterase activity. Ces10 exhibited a marked preference for short-chain fatty acids, yielding the highest activity with p-NP-propionate (optimal pH 7.4, optimal temperature 37 degrees C). PMID:12764567

  6. Flow Cytometry-assisted Cloning of Specific Sequence Motifs fromComplex 16S ribosomal RNA Gene Libraries.

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, J.L.; Schramm, A.; Bernhard, A.E.; van den Engh, G.J.; Stahl, D.A.

    2004-07-21

    A flow cytometry method was developed for rapid screeningand recovery of cloned DNA containing common sequence motifs. Thisapproach, termed fluorescence-activated cell sorting-assisted cloning,was used to recover sequences affiliated with a unique lineage within theBacteroidetes not abundant in a clone library of environmental 16S rRNAgenes. Retrieval and sequence analysis of phylogenetically informativegenes has become a standard cultivation-independent technique toinvestigate microbial diversity in nature (7, 18). Genes encoding the 16SrRNA, because of the relative ease of their selective amplification, havebeen most frequently employed for general diversity surveys (16).Environmental studies have also focused on specific subpopulationsaffiliated with a phylogenetic group or identified by genes encodingspecific metabolic functions (e.g., ammonia oxidation, sulfaterespiration, and nitrate reduction) (8,15,20). However, specificpopulations may be of low abundance (1,23), or the genes encodingspecific metabolic functions may be insufficiently conserved to providepriming sites for general PCR amplification. Three general approacheshave been used to obtain 16S rRNA sequence information from low-abundancepopulations: screening hundreds to thousands of clones in a general 16SrRNA gene library (21), flow cytometric sorting of a subpopulation ofenvironmentally derived cells labeled by fluorescent in situhybridization (FISH) (27), or selective PCR amplification using primersspecific for the subpopulation (2,23). While the first approach is simplytime-consuming and tedious, the second has been restricted to fairlylarge and strongly fluorescent cells from aquatic samples (5, 27). Thethird approach often generates fragments of only a few hundred bases dueto the limited number of specific priming sites. Partial sequenceinformation often degrades analysis, obscuring or distorting thephylogenetic placement of the new sequences (11, 20). A more robustcharacterization of environ

  7. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of luxR, a regulatory gene controlling bioluminescence in Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, R E; Martin, M O; Silverman, M R

    1990-01-01

    Mutagenesis with transposon mini-Mulac was used previously to identify a regulatory locus necessary for expression of bioluminescence genes, lux, in Vibrio harveyi (M. Martin, R. Showalter, and M. Silverman, J. Bacteriol. 171:2406-2414, 1989). Mutants with transposon insertions in this regulatory locus were used to construct a hybridization probe which was used in this study to detect recombinants in a cosmid library containing the homologous DNA. Recombinant cosmids with this DNA stimulated expression of the genes encoding enzymes for luminescence, i.e., the luxCDABE operon, which were positioned in trans on a compatible replicon in Escherichia coli. Transposon mutagenesis and analysis of the DNA sequence of the cloned DNA indicated that regulatory function resided in a single gene of about 0.6-kilobases named luxR. Expression of bioluminescence in V. harveyi and in the fish light-organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri is controlled by density-sensing mechanisms involving the accumulation of small signal molecules called autoinducers, but similarity of the two luminescence systems at the molecular level was not apparent in this study. The amino acid sequence of the LuxR product of V. harveyi, which indicates a structural relationship to some DNA-binding proteins, is not similar to the sequence of the protein that regulates expression of luminescence in V. fischeri. In addition, reconstitution of autoinducer-controlled luminescence in recombinant E. coli, already achieved with lux genes cloned from V. fischeri, was not accomplished with the isolation of luxR from V. harveyi, suggesting a requirement for an additional regulatory component. PMID:2160932

  8. Development of positive control materials for DNA-based detection of cystic fibrosis: Cloning and sequencing of 31 mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Iovannisci, D.; Brown, C.; Winn-Deen, E.

    1994-09-01

    The cloning and sequencing of the gene associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) now provides the opportunity for earlier detection and carrier screening through DNA-based detection schemes. To date, over 300 mutations have been reported to the CF Consortium; however, only 30 mutations have been observed frequently enough world-wide to warrant routine screening. Many of these mutations are not available as cloned material or as established tissue culture cell lines to aid in the development of DNA-based detection assays. We have therefore cloned the 30 most frequently reported mutations, plus the mutation R347H due to its association with male infertility (31 mutations, total). Two approaches were employed: direct PCR amplification, where mutations were available from patient sources, and site-directed PCR mutagenesis of normal genomic DNA to generate the remaining mutations. After amplification, products were cloned into a sequencing vector, bacterial transformants were screened by a novel method (PCR/oligonucleotide litigation assay/sequence-coded separation), and plamid DNA sequences determined by automated fluorescent methods on the Applied Biosystems 373A. Mixing of the clones allows the construction of artificial genotypes useful as positive control material for assay validation. A second round of mutagenesis, resulting in the construction of plasmids bearing multiple mutations, will be evaluated for their utility as reagent control materials in kit development.

  9. Production, characterization, cloning and sequence analysis of a monofunctional catalase from Serratia marcescens SYBC08.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hua-Wei; Cai, Yu-Jie; Liao, Xiang-Ru; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Da-Bing

    2011-04-01

    A monofunctional catalase from Serratia marcescens SYBC08 produced by liquid state fermentation in 7 liter fermenter was isolated and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (ASP), ion exchange chromatography (IEC), and gel filtration (GF) and characterized. Its sequence was analyzed by LC-MS/MS technique and gene cloning. The highest catalase production (20,289 U · ml(-1)) was achieved after incubation for 40 h. The purified catalase had an estimated molecular mass of 230 kDa, consisting of four identical subunits of 58 kDa. High specific activity of the catalase (199,584 U · mg(-1) protein) was 3.44 times higher than that of Halomonas sp. Sk1 catalase (57,900 U · mg(-1) protein). The enzyme without peroxidase activity was found to be an atypical electronic spectrum of monofunctional catalase. The apparent K(m) and V(max) were 78 mM and 188, 212 per µM H(2) O(2) µM heme(-1) s(-1), respectivly. The enzyme displayed a broad pH activity range (pH 5.0-11.0), with optimal pH range of 7.0-9.0: It was most active at 20 °C and had 78% activity at 0 °C. Its thermo stability was slightly higher compared to that of commercial catalase from bovine liver. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed that the deduced amino acid sequence of cloning gene was the catalase sequence from Serratia marcescens SYBC08. The sequence was compared with that of 23 related catalases. Although most of active site residues, NADPH-binding residues, proximal residues of the heme, distal residues of the heme and residues interacting with a water molecule in the enzyme were well conserved in 23 related catalases, weakly conserved residues were found. Its sequence was closely related with that of catalases from pathogenic bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. This result imply that the enzyme with high specific activity plays a significant role in preventing those microorganisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae against hydrogen peroxide resulted in cellular damage. Calalase yield by Serratia

  10. Characterization of four human YAC libraries for clone size, chimerism and X chromosome sequence representation.

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, R; Kere, J; MacMillan, S; Masisi, M J; Johnson, D; Molini, B J; Halley, G R; Wein, K; Trusgnich, M; Eble, B

    1994-01-01

    Four collections of human X-specific YACs, derived from human cells containing supernumerary X chromosomes or from somatic cell hybrids containing only X human DNA were characterized. In each collection, 80-85% of YAC strains contained a single X YAC. Five thousand YACs from the various libraries were sized, and cocloning was assessed in subsets by the fraction of YAC insert-ends with non-X sequences. Cocloning was substantial, ranging up to 50% for different collections; and in agreement with previous indications, in all libraries the larger the YACs, the higher the level of cocloning. In libraries made from human-hamster hybrid cells, expected numbers of clones were recovered by STS-based screening; but unexpectedly, the two collections from cells with 4 or 5 X chromosomes yielded numbers of YACs corresponding to an apparent content of only about two X equivalents. Thus it is possible that the DNA of inactive X chromosomes is poorly cloned into YACs, speculatively perhaps because of its specialized chromatin structure. Images PMID:8078777

  11. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of bacteriophage BF23 late genes 24 and 25 encoding tail proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, S; Kaneko, T; Ishimaru, H; Moriwaki, H; Mizobuchi, K

    1994-01-01

    Two bacteriophage BF23 late genes, genes 24 and 25, were isolated on a 7.4-kb PstI fragment from the phage DNA, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. Gene 24 encodes a minor tail protein with the expected M(r) of 34,309, and gene 25 located 4 bp upstream of gene 24 encodes a major tail protein with the expected M(r) of 50,329. When total cellular RNA isolated from either phage-infected cells or cells bearing the cloned genes was analyzed by the primer extension method using the primers specific to either gene 25 or gene 24, we identified a possible late gene promoter, designated P25, in the 5'-flanking region of gene 25. This promoter was similar in structure to Escherichia coli promoters for sigma 70. Studies of the translational gene 25- and gene 24-lacZ fusions in the cloned gene system revealed that the promoter P25 was responsible for the expression of both genes 25 and 24 even in the absence of the regulatory genes which were absolutely required for late gene expression in the normal phage-infected cells. These results indicate that the two genes constitute an operon under the control of P25 and that the regulatory gene products of BF23 do not participate directly in specifying the late gene promoter. Images PMID:7961500

  12. Cloning, sequencing, expression and characterization of DNA photolyase from Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y F; Sancar, A

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned the phr gene that encodes DNA photolyase from Salmonella typhimurium by in vivo complementation of Escherichia coli phr gene defect. The S.typhimurium phr gene is 1419 base pairs long and the deduced amino acid sequence has 80% identity with that of E. coli photolyase. We expressed the S.typhimurium phr gene in E.coli by ligating the E.coli trc promoter 5' to the gene, and purified the enzyme to near homogeneity. The apparent molecular weight of S.typhimurium photolyase is 54,000 dalton as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which is consistent with the calculated molecular weight of 53,932 dalton from the deduced phr gene product. S.typhimurium photolyase is purple-blue in color with near UV-visible absorption peaks at 384, 480, 580, and 625 nm and a fluorescence peak at 470 nm. From the characteristic absorption and fluorescence spectra and reconstitution experiments, S.typhimurium photolyase appears to contain flavin and methenyltetrahydrofolate as chromophore-cofactors as do the E.coli and yeast photolyases. Thus, S.typhimurium protein is the third folate class photolyase to be cloned and characterized to date. The binding constant of S.typhimurium photolyase to thymine dimer in DNA is kD = 1.6 x 10(-9) M, and the quantum yield of photorepair at 384 nm is 0.5. Images PMID:1840665

  13. Molecular cloning, sequence identification, and gene expression analysis of bovine ADCY2 gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Y X; Jin, H G; Yan, C G; Ren, C Y; Jiang, C J; Jin, C D; Seo, K S; Jin, X

    2014-06-01

    Adenylyl cyclase 2 (ADCY2), a class B member of adenylyl cyclases, is important in accelerating phosphor-acidification as well as glycogen synthesis and breakdown. Given its distinct role in flesh tenderization after butchering, we cloned and sequenced the ADCY2 gene from Yanbian cattle and assessed its expression in bovine tissues. A 2947 bp nucleotide sequence representing the full-length cDNA of bovine ADCY2 gene was obtained by 5' and 3' remote analysis computations for gene expression. Analyses of the putative protein sequence showed that ADCY2 had high homology among species, except with the non-mammal Oreochromis niloticus. Gene structural domain analyses in humans and rats indicated that the ADCY2 protein had no flaw; only the transmembrane domain was reduced and the CYCc structure domain was shortened. Assessment of ADCY2 expression in bovine tissues by real-time PCR showed that the highest expression was in the testes, followed by the longissimus dorsi, tensor fasciae latae, and latissimus dorsi. These data will serve as a foundation for further insight into the cattle ADCY2 gene. PMID:24797538

  14. Molecular cloning and sequencing analysis of the interferon receptor (IFNAR-1) from Columba livia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei Shan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Partial sequence cloning of interferon receptor (IFNAR-1) of Columba livia. Material and methods In order to obtain a certain length (630 bp) of gene, a pair of primers was designed according to the conserved nucleotide sequence of Gallus (EU477527.1) and Taeniopygia guttata (XM_002189232.1) IFNAR-1 gene fragment that was published by GenBank. Special primers were designed by the Race method to amplify the 3'terminal cDNA. Results The Columba livia IFNAR-1 displayed 88.5%, 80.5% and 73.8% nucleotide identity to Falco peregrinus, Gallus and Taeniopygia guttata, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the IFNAR1 gene showed that the relationship of Columba livia, Falco peregrinus and chicken had high homology. Conclusions We successfully obtained a Columba livia IFNAR-1 gene partial sequence. Analysis of the genetic tree showed that the relationship of Columba livia and Falco peregrinus IFNAR-1 had high homology. This result can be used as reference for further research and practical application. PMID:26155117

  15. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and tissue-specific expression of Akirin2 gene in Tianfu goat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jisi; Xu, Gangyi; Wan, Lu; Wang, Nianlu

    2015-01-01

    The Akirin2 gene is a nuclear factor and is considered as a potential functional candidate gene for meat quality. To better understand the structures and functions of Akirin2 gene, the cDNA of the Tianfu goat Akirin2 gene was cloned. Sequence analysis showed that the Tianfu goat Akirin2 cDNA full coding sequence (CDS) contains 579bp nucleotides that encode 192 amino acids. A phylogenic tree of the Akirin2 protein sequence from the Tianfu goat and other species revealed that the Tianfu goat Akirin2 was closely related with cattle and sheep Akirin2. RT-qPCR analysis showed that Akirin2 was expressed in the myocardium, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, leg muscle, abdominal muscle and the longissimus dorsi muscle. Especially, high expression levels of Akirin2 were detected in the spleen, lung, and kidney whereas lower expression levels were seen in the liver, myocardium, leg muscle, abdominal muscle and longissimus dorsi muscle. Temporal mRNA expression showed that Akirin2 expression levels in the longissimus dorsi muscle, first increased then decreased from day 1 to month 12. Western blotting results showed that the Akirin2 protein was only detected in the lung and three skeletal muscle tissues. PMID:25239665

  16. Cloning and sequence analysis of the Blumea balsamifera DC farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y X; Guan, L L; Wu, L F; Chen, Z X; Wang, K; Xie, X L; Yu, F L; Chen, X L; Zhang, Y B; Jiang, Q

    2014-01-01

    Blumea balsamifera DC is a member of the Compositae family and is frequently used as traditional Chinese medicine. Blumea balsamifera is rich in monoterpenes, which possess a variety of pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-bacteria, and anti-viral activities. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of terpenes, playing an important regulatory role in plant growth, such as resistance and secondary metabolism. Based on the conserved oligo amino acid residues of published FPS genes from other higher plant species, a cDNA sequence, designated BbFPS, was isolated from B. balsamifera DC using polymerase chain reaction. The clones were an average of 1.6 kb and contained an open reading frame that predicted a polypeptide of 342 amino acids with 89.07% identity to FPS from other plants. The deduced amino acid sequence was dominated by hydrophobic regions and contained 2 highly conserved DDxxD motifs that are essential for proper functioning of FPS. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that FPS grouped with other composite families. Prediction of secondary structure and subcellular localization suggested that alpha helices made up 70% of the amino acids of the sequence. PMID:25501197

  17. Cloning and sequencing of a gene coding for an actin binding protein of Saccharomyces exiguus.

    PubMed

    Lange, U; Steiner, S; Grolig, F; Wagner, G; Philippsen, P

    1994-03-01

    The actin binding protein Abp1p of the yeast Saccharomyces cervisiae is thought to be involved in the spatial organisation of cell surface growth. It contains a potential actin binding domain and an SH-3 region, a common motif of many signal transduction proteins [1]. We have cloned and sequenced an ABP1 homologous gene of Saccharomyces exiguus, a yeast which is only distantly related to S. cerevisiae. The protein encoded by this gene is slightly larger than the respective S. cerevisiae protein (617 versus 592 amino acids). The two genes are 67.4% identical and the deduced amino acid sequences share an overall identity of 59.8%. The most conserved regions are the 148 N-terminal amino acids containing the potential actin binding site and the 58 C-terminal amino acids including the SH3 domain. In addition, both proteins contain a repeated motif of unknown function which is rich in glutamic acids with the sequence EEEEEEEAPAPSLPSR in the S. exiguus Abp1p. PMID:8110838

  18. The Complete Genome Sequences, Unique Mutational Spectra, and Developmental Potency of Adult Neurons Revealed by Cloning.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Jennifer L; Faust, Gregory G; Rodriguez, Alberto R; Ferguson, William C; Shumilina, Svetlana; Clark, Royden A; Boland, Michael J; Martin, Greg; Chubukov, Pavel; Tsunemoto, Rachel K; Torkamani, Ali; Kupriyanov, Sergey; Hall, Ira M; Baldwin, Kristin K

    2016-03-16

    Somatic mutation in neurons is linked to neurologic disease and implicated in cell-type diversification. However, the origin, extent, and patterns of genomic mutation in neurons remain unknown. We established a nuclear transfer method to clonally amplify the genomes of neurons from adult mice for whole-genome sequencing. Comprehensive mutation detection and independent validation revealed that individual neurons harbor ∼100 unique mutations from all classes but lack recurrent rearrangements. Most neurons contain at least one gene-disrupting mutation and rare (0-2) mobile element insertions. The frequency and gene bias of neuronal mutations differ from other lineages, potentially due to novel mechanisms governing postmitotic mutation. Fertile mice were cloned from several neurons, establishing the compatibility of mutated adult neuronal genomes with reprogramming to pluripotency and development. PMID:26948891

  19. Cloning, Sequencing, and Role in Serum Susceptibility of Porin II from Mesophilic Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Nogueras, Maria Mercé; Merino, Susana; Aguilar, Alicia; Benedi, Vicente Javier; Tomás, Juan M.

    2000-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced the structural gene for Aeromonas hydrophila porin II from strain AH-3 (serogroup O:34). The genetic position of this gene, like that of ompF in Escherichia coli, is adjacent to aspC and transcribed in the same direction. However, upstream of the porin II gene no similarities with E. coli were found. We obtained defined insertion mutants in porin II gene either in A. hydrophila (O:34) or A. veronii sobria (serogroup O:11) serum-resistant or -sensitive strains. Furthermore, we complemented these mutants with a plasmid harboring only the porin II gene, which allowed us to define the role of porin II as an important surface molecule involved in serum susceptibility and C1q binding in these strains. PMID:10722573

  20. cDNA cloning, sequence analysis, and chromosomal localization of the gene for human carnitine palmitoyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Finocchiaro, G; Taroni, F; Rocchi, M; Martin, A L; Colombo, I; Tarelli, G T; DiDonato, S

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding human liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPTase; palmitoyl-CoA:L-carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.21), an inner mitochondrial membrane enzyme that plays a major role in the fatty acid oxidation pathway. Mixed oligonucleotide primers whose sequences were deduced from one tryptic peptide obtained from purified CPTase were used in a polymerase chain reaction, allowing the amplification of a 0.12-kilobase fragment of human genomic DNA encoding such a peptide. A 60-base-pair (bp) oligonucleotide synthesized on the basis of the sequence from this fragment was used for the screening of a cDNA library from human liver and hybridized to a cDNA insert of 2255 bp. This cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1974 bp that encodes a protein of 658 amino acid residues including 25 residues of an NH2-terminal leader peptide. The assignment of this open reading frame to human liver CPTase is confirmed by matches to seven different amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides derived from pure human CPTase and by the 82.2% homology with the amino acid sequence of rat CPTase. The NH2-terminal region of CPTase contains a leucine-proline motif that is shared by carnitine acetyl- and octanoyltransferases and by choline acetyltransferase. The gene encoding CPTase was assigned to human chromosome 1, region 1q12-1pter, by hybridization of CPTase cDNA with a DNA panel of 19 human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. Images PMID:1988962

  1. [Cloning, sequence analysis and expression of N-acetylglutamate kinase gene in Corynebacterium crenatum].

    PubMed

    Hao, Ning; Zhao, Zhi; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Ying-zi; Ding, Jiu-yuan

    2006-02-01

    N-Acetylglutamate kinase (EC 2.7.2.8;NAGK) genes from wild-type Corynebacterium crenatum AS 1.542 and a L-arginine-producing mutant C. crenatum 971.1 were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of argB sequences revealed that only one ORF existed, which used ATG as the initiation codon and coded a peptide of 317 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 33.6kDa. Only one nucleotide difference was found in the structure gene and the difference did not cause a change of amino acid by comparison of the gene sequences between the wild type C. crenatum AS 1.542 and the mutant 971.1. The ORF sequence of argB from C. crenatum AS 1.542 showed homologies of 99.89%, 76.62%, 37.94% to those from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032, Corynebacterium efficient YS-314 and Escherichia coli k12. And the amino acid sequence deduced from ORF displayed homologies of 100%, 78.55%, 25.25% to those from microorganisms above, respectively. An internal promoter was found in the upstream of the argB gene from C. crenatum. The argB gene from C. crenatum AS 1.542 was expressed both in C. crenatum AS 1.542 and 971.1. The NAGK activity of transformed C. crenatum AS 1.542 was greatly increased by the induction of IPTG. The NAGK activity of transformed C. crenatum 971.1 was almost twice as much as that of C. crenatum 971.1 under the same induction. The amplification of the NAGK activity yielded 25% increase of L-arginine production in C. crenatum 971.1. PMID:16579472

  2. Recombinant Zymomonas mobilis with improved xylose utilization

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min

    2003-05-20

    A strain derived from Zymomonas mobilis ATCC31821 or its derivative capable of producing ethanol upon fermentation of a carbohydrate medium containing xylose to provide enhanced xylose utilization and enhanced ethanol process yield, the strain or its derivative comprising exogenous genes encoding xylose isornerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase, the genes are fused to at least one promotor recognized by Zymomonas which regulates the expression of at least one of the genes.

  3. Production of acetaldehyde by Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Wecker, M.S.A.; Zall, R.R.

    1987-12-01

    Mutants of Zymomonas mobilis were selected for decreased alcohol dehydrogenase activity by using consecutively higher concentration of allyl alcohol. A mutant selected by using 100 mM allyl alcohol produced acetaldehyde at a level of 4.08 g/liter when the organism was grown in aerated batch cultures on a medium containing 4.0% (wt/wt) glucose. On the basis of the amount of glucose utilized, this level of acetaldehyde production represents nearly 40% of the maximum theoretical yield. Acetaldehyde produced during growth was continuously air stripped from the reactor. Acetaldehyde present in the exhaust stream was then trapped as the acetaldehyde-bisulfite addition product in an aqueous solution of sodium bisulfite and released by treatment with base. Acetaldehyde was found to inhibit growth of Z. mobilis at concentrations as low as 0.05% (wt/wt) acetaldehyde. An acetaldehyde-tolerant mutant of Z. mobilis was isolated after both mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine and selection in the presence of vapor-phase acetaldehyde. The production of acetaldehyde has potential advantages over that of ethanol: lower energy requirements for production separation, efficient separation of product from dilute feed streams, continuous separation of product from the reactor, and a higher marketplace value.

  4. Production of Acetaldehyde by Zymomonas mobilis

    PubMed Central

    Wecker, Matt S. A.; Zall, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Mutants of Zymomonas mobilis were selected for decreased alcohol dehydrogenase activity by using consecutively higher concentrations of allyl alcohol. A mutant selected by using 100 mM allyl alcohol produced acetaldehyde at a level of 4.08 g/liter when the organism was grown in aerated batch cultures on a medium containing 4.0% (wt/wt) glucose. On the basis of the amount of glucose utilized, this level of acetaldehyde production represents nearly 40% of the maximum theoretical yield. Acetaldehyde produced during growth was continuously air stripped from the reactor. Acetaldehyde present in the exhaust stream was then trapped as the acetaldehyde-bisulfite addition product in an aqueous solution of sodium bisulfite and released by treatment with base. Acetaldehyde was found to inhibit growth of Z. mobilis at concentrations as low as 0.05% (wt/wt) acetaldehyde. An acetaldehyde-tolerant mutant of Z. mobilis was isolated after both mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine and selection in the presence of vapor-phase acetaldehyde. The production of acetaldehyde has potential advantages over that of ethanol: lower energy requirements for product separation, efficient separation of product from dilute feed streams, continuous separation of product from the reactor, and a higher marketplace value. PMID:16347497

  5. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for citrate synthase from a thermotolerant Bacillus sp

    SciTech Connect

    Schendel, F.J.; August, P.R.; Anderson, C.R.; Flickinger, M.C. ); Hanson, R.S. )

    1992-01-01

    Acetate salts are emerging as potentially attractive bulk chemicals for a variety of environmental applications, for example, as catalysts to facilitate combustion of high-sulfur coal by electrical utilities and as the biodegradable noncorrosive highway deicing salt calcium magnesium acetate. The structural gene coding for citrate synthase from the gram-positive soil isolate Bacillus sp. strain C4 (ATCC 55182) capable of secreting acetic acid at pH 5.0 to 7.0 in the presence of dolime has been cloned from a genomic library by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic mutant lacking citrate synthase. The nucleotide sequence of the entire 3.1-kb HindIII fragment has been determined, and one major open reading frame was found coding for citrate synthase (ctsA). Citrate synthase from Bacillus sp. strain C4 was found to be a dimer (M{sub r}, 84,500) with a sub unit with an M{sub r} of 42,000. The N-terminal sequence was found to be identical with that predicted from the gene sequence. The kinetics were best fit to a bisubstrate enzyme with an ordered mechanism. Bacillus sp. strain C4 citrate synthase was not activated by potassium chloride and was not inhibited by NADH, ATP, ADP, or AMP at levels up to 1 mM. The predicted amino acid sequence was compared with that of the E. coli, Acinetobacter anitratum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rickettsia prowazekii, porcine heart, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes.

  6. Ethanol production by recombinant Escherichia coli carrying genes from Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, H.G.; Rousseau, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic feedstocks offers an opportunity to reduce the cost of producing fuel ethanol. The fermentation performance characteristics of recombinant Escherichia coli ATCC 11303 carrying the {open_quotes}PET plasmid{close_quotes} (pLO1297) with the lac operon controlling the expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase 11 (adhB) genes cloned from Zymomonas mobilis CP4 were assessed in batch and continuous processes with sugar mixtures designed to mimic process streams from lignocellulosic hydrolysis systems.

  7. Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence of a cDNA clone encoding part of human transketolase.

    PubMed

    Abedinia, M; Layfield, R; Jones, S M; Nixon, P F; Mattick, J S

    1992-03-31

    Transketolase is a key enzyme in the pentose-phosphate pathway which has been implicated in the latent human genetic disease, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Here we report the cloning and partial characterisation of the coding sequences encoding human transketolase from a human brain cDNA library. The library was screened with oligonucleotide probes based on the amino acid sequence of proteolytic fragments of the purified protein. Northern blots showed that the transketolase mRNA is approximately 2.2 kb, close to the minimum expected, of which approximately 60% was represented in the largest cDNA clone. Sequence analysis of the transketolase coding sequences reveals a number of homologies with related enzymes from other species. PMID:1567394

  8. Biosynthesis of riboflavin: cloning, sequencing, mapping, and expression of the gene coding for GTP cyclohydrolase II in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, G; Ritz, H; Katzenmeier, G; Volk, R; Kohnle, A; Lottspeich, F; Allendorf, D; Bacher, A

    1993-01-01

    GTP cyclohydrolase II catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin. The gene coding for this enzyme in Escherichia coli has been cloned by marker rescue. Sequencing indicated an open reading frame of 588 bp coding for a 21.8-kDa peptide of 196 amino acids. The gene was mapped to a position at 28.2 min on the E. coli chromosome and is identical with ribA. GTP cyclohydrolase II was overexpressed in a recombinant strain carrying a plasmid with the cloned gene. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity from the recombinant strain. The N-terminal sequence determined by Edman degradation was identical to the predicted sequence. The sequence is homologous to the 3' part of the central open reading frame in the riboflavin operon of Bacillus subtilis. PMID:8320220

  9. Cloning of DNA sequences localized on proximal fluorescent chromosome bands by microdissection in Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc.

    PubMed

    Hizume, M; Shibata, F; Maruyama, Y; Kondo, T

    2001-09-01

    Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, has 2n=24 chromosomes, of which most carry chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) bands at their centromere-proximal regions. It was proposed that these regions contain highly repetitive DNA. The DNA localized in the proximal fluorescent bands was isolated and characterized. In P. densiflora, centromeric and neighboring segments of the somatic chromosomes were dissected with a manual micromanipulator. The centromeric DNA was amplified from the DNA contained in dissected centromeric segments by degenerate oligonucleotide primed-polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and a cloned DNA library was constructed. Thirty-one clones carrying highly repetitive DNA were selected by colony hybridization using Cot-1 DNA from this species as a probe, and their chromosomal localization was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Clone PDCD501 was localized to the proximal CMA band of 20 chromosomes. This clone contained tandem repeats, comprising a 27 bp repeat unit, which was sufficient to provide the proximal FISH signal, with a 52.3% GC content. The repetitive sequence was named PCSR (proximal CMA band-specific repeat). Clone PDCD159 was 1700 bp in length, with a 61.7% AT content, and produced FISH signals at the proximal DAPI band of the remaining four chromosomes. Four clones hybridized strongly to the secondary constriction and gave weak signals at the centromeric region of several chromosomes. Clone PDCD537, one of the four clones, was homologous to the 26S rRNA gene. A PCR experiment using microdissected centromeric regions suggested that the centromeric region contains 18S and 26S rDNA. Another 24 clones hybridized to whole chromosome arms, with varying intensities and might represent dispersed repetitive DNA. PMID:11685534

  10. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization, and tissue expression analysis of Hi-Line Brown chicken Akirin2.

    PubMed

    Man, Chaolai; Li, Xiang; Lee, Jongeun

    2011-10-01

    Akirins are novel important nuclear proteins able to modulate transcriptional activities in a gene-specific manner. Akirin2 is an important gene related to immune responses, it is necessary to isolate the akirin2 gene from chicken because it may be associated with vaccine and enhancement of immune response. In this study, a Hi-Line Brown chicken homolog of the vertebrate akirin2 gene was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The akirin2 full-length coding sequence (CDS) consisted of 576nt and encoded 191 amino acids with a molecular weight of 21.58 kD. The COOH-terminal alpha-helix region was well conserved between chicken and other animals. RT-PCR analysis showed that the akirin2 transcripts were constitutively expressed in 16 tissues tested. Several microRNA target sites were predicted in the CDS of chicken akirin2 gene. We presume that Akirin2 protein may be used as a new-type immunopotentiator in poultry immune system in the future. PMID:21858694

  11. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris.

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, B; Kok, J; Venema, K; Bockelmann, W; Teuber, M; Reinke, H; Venema, G

    1991-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris P8-2-47 contains an X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (X-PDAP; EC 3.4.14.5). A mixed-oligonucleotide probe prepared on the basis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was made and used to screen a partial chromosomal DNA bank in Escherichia coli. A partial XbaI fragment cloned in pUC18 specified X-PDAP activity in E. coli clones. The fragment was also able to confer X-PDAP activity on Bacillus subtilis. The fact that none of these organisms contain this enzymatic activity indicated that the structural gene for X-PDAP had been cloned. The cloned fragment fully restored X-PDAP activity in X-PDAP-deficient mutants of L. lactis. We have sequenced a 3.8-kb fragment that includes the X-PDAP gene and its expression signals. The X-PDAP gene, designated pepXP, comprises 2,289 nucleotide residues encoding a protein of 763 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 87,787. No homology was detected between pepXP and genes that had been previously sequenced. A second open reading frame, divergently transcribed, was present in the sequenced fragment; the function or relationship to pepXP of this open reading frame is unknown. Images PMID:1674655

  12. Genome size evolution in pufferfish: an insight from BAC clone-based Diodon holocanthus genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in genome size within and between species have been observed since the 1950 s in diverse taxonomic groups. Serving as model organisms, smooth pufferfish possess the smallest vertebrate genomes. Interestingly, spiny pufferfish from its sister family have genome twice as large as smooth pufferfish. Therefore, comparative genomic analysis between smooth pufferfish and spiny pufferfish is useful for our understanding of genome size evolution in pufferfish. Results Ten BAC clones of a spiny pufferfish Diodon holocanthus were randomly selected and shotgun sequenced. In total, 776 kb of non-redundant sequences without gap representing 0.1% of the D. holocanthus genome were identified, and 77 distinct genes were predicted. In the sequenced D. holocanthus genome, 364 kb is homologous with 265 kb of the Takifugu rubripes genome, and 223 kb is homologous with 148 kb of the Tetraodon nigroviridis genome. The repetitive DNA accounts for 8% of the sequenced D. holocanthus genome, which is higher than that in the T. rubripes genome (6.89%) and that in the Te. nigroviridis genome (4.66%). In the repetitive DNA, 76% is retroelements which account for 6% of the sequenced D. holocanthus genome and belong to known families of transposable elements. More than half of retroelements were distributed within genes. In the non-homologous regions, repeat element proportion in D. holocanthus genome increased to 10.6% compared with T. rubripes and increased to 9.19% compared with Te. nigroviridis. A comparison of 10 well-defined orthologous genes showed that the average intron size (566 bp) in D. holocanthus genome is significantly longer than that in the smooth pufferfish genome (435 bp). Conclusion Compared with the smooth pufferfish, D. holocanthus has a low gene density and repeat elements rich genome. Genome size variation between D. holocanthus and the smooth pufferfish exhibits as length variation between homologous region and different accumulation of non

  13. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of LipL32, a Surface–Exposed Lipoprotein of Pathogenic Leptospira Spp

    PubMed Central

    Khodaverdi Darian, Ebrahim; Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi; Moradi Bidhendi, Soheila; Chang, Yung-Fu; Yahaghi, Emad; Esmaelizad, Majid; Khaleghizadeh, Maryam; Khaki, Pejvak

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. A major challenge of this disease is the application of basic research to improve diagnostic methods and related vaccine development. Outer membrane proteins of Leptospira are potential candidates that may be useful as diagnostic or immunogenic factors in treatment and analysis of the disease. Objectives To develop an effective subunit vaccine against prevalent pathogenic Leptospira species, we sequenced and analyzed the LipL32 gene from three different Leptospira interrogans (L.interrogans) vaccinal serovars in Iran. Materials and Methods Following DNA extraction from these three serovars, the related LipL32 genes were amplified and cloned in the pTZ57R/T vector. Recombinant clones were confirmed by colony- PCR and DNA sequencing. The related sequences were subjected to homology analysis by comparing them to sequences in the Genbank database. Results The LipL32 sequences were >94% homologous among the vaccinal and other pathogenic Leptospira serovars in GenBank. This result indicates the conservation of this gene within the pathogenic Leptospires. Conclusions The cloned gene in this study may provide a potentially suitable platform for development of a variety of applications such as serological diagnostic tests or recombinant vaccines against leptospirosis. PMID:24719688

  14. L-asparaginase II of Escherichia coli K-12: cloning, mapping and sequencing of the ansB gene.

    PubMed

    Bonthron, D T

    1990-07-01

    The Escherichia coli gene ansB, encoding the chemotherapeutic enzyme L-asparaginase II, has been cloned, using a strategy based on the polymerase chain reaction, and sequenced. The amino acid (aa) sequence differs in eleven positions from the data previously derived by direct aa sequencing. A cleavable secretory signal peptide precedes the N terminus of the mature protein. The ansB gene maps to position 3114 kb on the physical map of E. coli [Kohara et al., Cell 50 (1987) 495-508], corresponding to approx. 63.8 min on the genetic map. PMID:2144836

  15. Multilocus sequence typing identifies epidemic clones of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Hanne; Sundell, Krister; Duchaud, Eric; Nicolas, Pierre; Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone; Aspán, Anna; Jansson, Eva; Colquhoun, Duncan J; Wiklund, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD), which affects a variety of freshwater-reared salmonid species. A large-scale study was performed to investigate the genetic diversity of F. psychrophilum in the four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Multilocus sequence typing of 560 geographically and temporally disparate F. psychrophilum isolates collected from various sources between 1983 and 2012 revealed 81 different sequence types (STs) belonging to 12 clonal complexes (CCs) and 30 singleton STs. The largest CC, CC-ST10, which represented almost exclusively isolates from rainbow trout and included the most predominant genotype, ST2, comprised 65% of all isolates examined. In Norway, with a shorter history (<10 years) of BCWD in rainbow trout, ST2 was the only isolated CC-ST10 genotype, suggesting a recent introduction of an epidemic clone. The study identified five additional CCs shared between countries and five country-specific CCs, some with apparent host specificity. Almost 80% of the singleton STs were isolated from non-rainbow trout species or the environment. The present study reveals a simultaneous presence of genetically distinct CCs in the Nordic countries and points out specific F. psychrophilum STs posing a threat to the salmonid production. The study provides a significant contribution toward mapping the genetic diversity of F. psychrophilum globally and support for the existence of an epidemic population structure where recombination is a significant driver in F. psychrophilum evolution. Evidence indicating dissemination of a putatively virulent clonal complex (CC-ST10) with commercial movement of fish or fish products is strengthened. PMID:24561585

  16. Cloning and sequencing of a plasmid-borne gene (opd) encoding a phosphotriesterase.

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, C S; Harper, L L; Wild, J R

    1988-01-01

    Plasmid pCMS1 was isolated from Pseudomonas diminuta MG, a strain which constitutively hydrolyzes a broad spectrum of organophosphorus compounds. The native plasmid was restricted with PstI, and individual DNA fragments were subcloned into pBR322. A recombinant plasmid transformed into Escherichia coli possessed weak hydrolytic activity, and Southern blotting with the native plasmid DNA verified that the DNA sequence originated from pCMS1. When the cloned 1.3-kilobase fragment was placed behind the lacZ' promoter of M13mp10 and retransformed into E. coli, clear-plaque isolates with correctly sized inserts exhibited isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible whole-cell activity. Sequence determination of the M13 constructions identified an open reading frame of 975 bases preceded by a putative ribosome-binding site appropriately positioned upstream of the first ATG codon in the open reading frame. An intragenic fusion of the opd gene with the lacZ gene produced a hybrid polypeptide which was purified by beta-galactosidase immunoaffinity chromatography and used to confirm the open reading frame of opd. The gene product, an organophosphorus phosphotriesterase, would have a molecular weight of 35,418 if the presumed start site is correct. Eighty to ninety percent of the enzymatic activity was associated with the pseudomonad membrane fractions. When dissociated by treatment with 0.1% Triton and 1 M NaCl, the enzymatic activity was associated with a molecular weight of approximately 65,000, suggesting that the active enzyme was dimeric. Images PMID:2834339

  17. Pediococcus acidilactici ldhD gene: cloning, nucleotide sequence, and transcriptional analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Garmyn, D; Ferain, T; Bernard, N; Hols, P; Delplace, B; Delcour, J

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding D-lactate dehydrogenase was isolated on a 2.9-kb insert from a library of Pediococcus acidilactici DNA by complementation for growth under anaerobiosis of an Escherichia coli lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate-formate lyase double mutant. The nucleotide sequence of ldhD encodes a protein of 331 amino acids (predicted molecular mass of 37,210 Da) which shows similarity to the family of D-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases. The enzyme encoded by the cloned fragment is equally active on pyruvate and hydroxypyruvate, indicating that the enzyme has both D-lactate and D-glycerate dehydrogenase activities. Three other open reading frames were found in the 2.9-kb insert, one of which (rpsB) is highly similar to bacterial genes coding for ribosomal protein S2. Northern (RNA) blotting analyses indicated the presence of a 2-kb dicistronic transcript of ldhD (a metabolic gene) and rpsB (a putative ribosomal protein gene) together with a 1-kb monocistronic rpsB mRNA. These transcripts are abundant in the early phase of exponential growth but steadily fade away to disappear in the stationary phase. Primer extension analysis identified two distinct promoters driving either cotranscription of ldhD and rpsB or transcription of rpsB alone. PMID:7539419

  18. Cloning, sequencing and characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster of sanglifehrin A, a potent cyclophilin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xudong; Jiang, Nan; Xu, Fei; Shao, Lei; Tang, Gongli; Wilkinson, Barrie; Liu, Wen

    2011-03-01

    Sanglifehrin A (SFA), a potent cyclophilin inhibitor produced by Streptomyces flaveolus DSM 9954, bears a unique [5.5] spirolactam moiety conjugated with a 22-membered, highly functionalized macrolide through a linear carbon chain. SFA displays a diverse range of biological activities and offers significant therapeutic potential. However, the structural complexity of SFA poses a tremendous challenge for new analogue development via chemical synthesis. Based on a rational prediction of its biosynthetic origin, herein we report the cloning, sequencing and characterization of the gene cluster responsible for SFA biosynthesis. Analysis of the 92 776 bp contiguous DNA region reveals a mixed polyketide synthase (PKS)/non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) pathway which includes a variety of unique features for unusual PKS and NRPS building block formation. Our findings suggest that SFA biosynthesis requires a crotonyl-CoA reductase/carboxylase (CCR) for generation of the putative unusual PKS starter unit (2R)-2-ethylmalonamyl-CoA, an iterative type I PKS for the putative atypical extender unit (2S)-2-(2-oxo-butyl)malonyl-CoA and a phenylalanine hydroxylase for the NRPS extender unit (2S)-m-tyrosine. A spontaneous ketalization of significant note, may trigger spirolactam formation in a stereo-selective manner. This study provides a framework for the application of combinatorial biosynthesis methods in order to expand the structural diversity of SFA. PMID:21416665

  19. Cloning, sequencing, and analysis of inv8 chromosome breakpoints associated with recombinant 8 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Graw, S L; Sample, T; Bleskan, J; Sujansky, E; Patterson, D

    2000-03-01

    Rec8 syndrome (also known as "recombinant 8 syndrome" and "San Luis Valley syndrome") is a chromosomal disorder found in individuals of Hispanic descent with ancestry from the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. Affected individuals typically have mental retardation, congenital heart defects, seizures, a characteristic facial appearance, and other manifestations. The recombinant chromosome is rec(8)dup(8q)inv(8)(p23.1q22.1), and is derived from a parental pericentric inversion, inv(8)(p23.1q22.1). Here we report on the cloning, sequencing, and characterization of the 8p23.1 and 8q22 breakpoints from the inversion 8 chromosome associated with Rec8 syndrome. Analysis of the breakpoint regions indicates that they are highly repetitive. Of 6 kb surrounding the 8p23.1 breakpoint, 75% consists of repetitive gene family members-including Alu, LINE, and LTR elements-and the inversion took place in a small single-copy region flanked by repetitive elements. Analysis of 3.7 kb surrounding the 8q22 breakpoint region reveals that it is 99% repetitive and contains multiple LTR elements, and that the 8q inversion site is within one of the LTR elements. PMID:10712224

  20. A novel halotolerant xylanase from marine isolate Bacillus subtilis cho40: gene cloning and sequencing.

    PubMed

    Khandeparker, Rakhee; Verma, Preeti; Deobagkar, Deepti

    2011-10-01

    Although several xylanases have been studied, only few xylanases from marine micro-organisms have been reported. We report here a novel halotolerant xylanase from marine bacterium Bacillus subtilis cho40 isolated from Chorao island of mandovi estuary Goa, India. Extracellular xylanase was produced by using agricultural residue such as wheat bran as carbon source under solid-state fermentation (SSF). The optimal pH and temperature of xylanase were reported to be 6.0 and 60°C, respectively. Xyn40 was highly salt-tolerant, and showed highest activity at 0.5M NaCl. Xylanase activity was greatly induced (140%) when pre-incubated with 0.5M NaCl for 4h. The xylanase gene, xyn40, from marine bacterium B. subtilis cho40 was cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The xylanase gene was 645 bp long and had a 215 amino acid ORF protein with a molecular mass of 22.9 kDa. It had all features of xylanase enzyme and showed homology to xylanases reported from B. subtilis. It differs from the earlier reported xylanase sequences by the presence of more serine residues compared to threonine and also by the presence of polar (hydrophilic) amino acids in higher abundance (61%) than non-polar amino acids (39%). The novel xylanase, reported in this study is a halotolerant enzyme from marine isolate and can play a very important role in bioethanol production from marine seaweeds. PMID:21890005

  1. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of a novel gene induced by near-UV light in Bipolaris oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kihara, J; Sato, A; Okajima, S; Kumagai, T

    2001-09-01

    A cDNA clone derived from a novel gene (uvi-1) that is inducible by near-UV light was isolated by a differential screening procedure from a cDNA library of the fungus Bipolaris oryzae and characterized further. Sequence analysis of the clone revealed that uvi-1 encodes a protein with a putative molecular mass of 17 kDa; the UVI-1 protein shows significant similarity to a putative protein encoded by a cDNA which is expressed during appressorium formation in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. The corresponding genomic clone was also isolated, and Southern analysis of genomic DNA indicated the presence of a single copy of the uvi-1 gene in B. oryzae. Northern analysis showed that the uvi-1 transcripts are induced by exposure to near-UV light, but not by blue or red light. Furthermore, accumulation of uvi-1 transcripts is observed during differentiation of the appressorium. PMID:11589579

  2. Cost-Effective Sequencing of Full-Length cDNA Clones Powered by a De Novo-Reference Hybrid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Sumio; Morishita, Shinichi; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Background Sequencing full-length cDNA clones is important to determine gene structures including alternative splice forms, and provides valuable resources for experimental analyses to reveal the biological functions of coded proteins. However, previous approaches for sequencing cDNA clones were expensive or time-consuming, and therefore, a fast and efficient sequencing approach was demanded. Methodology We developed a program, MuSICA 2, that assembles millions of short (36-nucleotide) reads collected from a single flow cell lane of Illumina Genome Analyzer to shotgun-sequence ∼800 human full-length cDNA clones. MuSICA 2 performs a hybrid assembly in which an external de novo assembler is run first and the result is then improved by reference alignment of shotgun reads. We compared the MuSICA 2 assembly with 200 pooled full-length cDNA clones finished independently by the conventional primer-walking using Sanger sequencers. The exon-intron structure of the coding sequence was correct for more than 95% of the clones with coding sequence annotation when we excluded cDNA clones insufficiently represented in the shotgun library due to PCR failure (42 out of 200 clones excluded), and the nucleotide-level accuracy of coding sequences of those correct clones was over 99.99%. We also applied MuSICA 2 to full-length cDNA clones from Toxoplasma gondii, to confirm that its ability was competent even for non-human species. Conclusions The entire sequencing and shotgun assembly takes less than 1 week and the consumables cost only ∼US$3 per clone, demonstrating a significant advantage over previous approaches. PMID:20479877

  3. Stable zymomonas mobilis xylose and arabinose fermenting strains

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen

    2008-04-08

    The present invention briefly includes a transposon for stable insertion of foreign genes into a bacterial genome, comprising at least one operon having structural genes encoding enzymes selected from the group consisting of xylAxylB, araBAD and tal/tkt, and at least one promoter for expression of the structural genes in the bacterium, a pair of inverted insertion sequences, the operons contained inside the insertion sequences, and a transposase gene located outside of the insertion sequences. A plasmid shuttle vector for transformation of foreign genes into a bacterial genome, comprising at least one operon having structural genes encoding enzymes selected from the group consisting of xylAxylB, araBAD and tal/tkt, at least one promoter for expression of the structural genes in the bacterium, and at least two DNA fragments having homology with a gene in the bacterial genome to be transformed, is also provided.The transposon and shuttle vectors are useful in constructing significantly different Zymomonas mobilis strains, according to the present invention, which are useful in the conversion of the cellulose derived pentose sugars into fuels and chemicals, using traditional fermentation technology, because they are stable for expression in a non-selection medium.

  4. Phenotype Microarray Profiling of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4

    SciTech Connect

    Bochner, Barry; Gomez, Vanessa; Ziman, michael; Yang, Shihui; Brown, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we developed a Phenotype MicroArray{trademark} (PM) protocol to profile cellular phenotypes in Zymomonas mobilis, which included a standard set of nearly 2,000 assays for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur source utilization, nutrient stimulation, pH and osmotic stresses, and chemical sensitivities with 240 inhibitory chemicals. We observed two positive assays for C-source utilization (fructose and glucose) using the PM screen, which uses redox chemistry and cell respiration as a universal reporter to profile growth phenotypes in a high-throughput 96-well plate-based format. For nitrogen metabolism, the bacterium showed a positive test results for ammonia, aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, and peptides. Z. mobilis appeared to use a diverse array of P-sources with two exceptions being pyrophosphate and tripolyphosphate. The assays suggested that Z. mobilis uses both inorganic and organic compounds as S-sources. No stimulation by nutrients was detected; however, there was evidence of partial inhibition by purines and pyrimidines, NAD, and deferoxamine. Z. mobilis was relatively resistant to acid pH, tolerating a pH down to about 4.0. It also tolerated phosphate, sulfate, and nitrate, but was rather sensitive to chloride and nitrite. Z. mobilis showed resistance to a large number of diverse chemicals that inhibit most bacteria. The information from PM analysis provides an overview of Z. mobilis physiology and a foundation for future comparisons of other wild-type and mutant Z. mobilis strains.

  5. Cloning, sequencing and overexpression of the gene for prokaryotic factor EF-P involved in peptide bond synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, H; Adams, S L; Chung, D G; Yaguchi, M; Chuang, S E; Ganoza, M C

    1991-01-01

    A soluble protein EF-P (elongation factor P) from Escherichia coli has been purified and shown to stimulate efficient translation and peptide-bond synthesis on native or reconstituted 70S ribosomes in vitro. Based on the partial amino acid sequence of EF-P, 18- and 24-nucleotide DNA probes were synthesized and used to screen lambda phage clones from the Kohara Gene Bank. The entire EF-P gene was detected on lambda clone #650 which contains sequences from the 94 minute region of the E.coli genome. Two DNA fragments, 3.0 and 0.78 kilobases in length encompassing the gene, were isolated and cloned into pUC18 and pUC19. Partially purified extracts from cells transformed with these plasmids overrepresented a protein which co-migrates with EF-P upon SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and also exhibited increased EF-P mediated peptide-bond synthetic activity. Based on DNA sequence analysis of this gene, the EF-P protein consists of 187 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 20,447. The sequence and chromosomal location of EF-P establishes it as a unique gene product. Images PMID:1956781

  6. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA for human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variant A(-)

    SciTech Connect

    Hirono, A.; Beutler, E. )

    1988-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase A(-) is a common variant in Blacks that causes sensitivity to drug- and infection-induced hemolytic anemia. A cDNA library was constructed from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cells from a male who was G6PD A(-). One of four cDNA clones isolated contained a sequence not found in the other clones nor in the published cDNA sequence. Consisting of 138 bases and coding 46 amino acids, this segment of cDNA apparently is derived from the alternative splicing involving the 3{prime} end of intron 7. Comparison of the remaining sequences of these clones with the published sequence revealed three nucleotide substitutions: C{sup 33} {yields} G, G{sup 202} {yields} A, and A{sup 376} {yields} G. Each change produces a new restriction site. Genomic DNA from five G6PD A(-) individuals was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. The findings of the same mutation in G6PD A(-) as is found in G6PD A(+) strongly suggests that the G6PD A(-) mutation arose in an individual with G6PD A(+), adding another mutation that causes the in vivo instability of this enzyme protein.

  7. The cloning and sequencing of the UDP-galactose 4-epimerase gene (galE) from Avibacterium paragallinarum.

    PubMed

    Roodt, Yolande; Bragg, Robert; Albertyn, Jacobus

    2007-08-01

    The putative uridine diphosphate (UDP)-galactose 4-epimerase encoding gene, galE, was isolated from Avibacterium paragallinarum with the use of degenerate primers, colony hybridization and inverse PCR. The data revealed an open reading frame of 1017 bp encoding a protein of 338 amino acids with a molecular weight of 37 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.5. High sequence homology was obtained with an 87, 91 and 89% sequence identity on protein level towards the galE genes from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Pasteurella multocida, respectively. To verify that the cloned galE gene encodes for a UDP-galactose 4-epimeras, this gene was cloned into the pYES-2 expression vector, followed by transformation in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gal10 deletion strain. Complementation of the gal10 deletion mutant with the galE gene confirmed that this gene encodes a UDP-galactose 4-epimerase. PMID:17541831

  8. A novel phospholipase A(2) from the venom glands of Bungarus candidus: cloning and sequence-comparison.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Inn-Ho; Hsu, Hwa-Yao; Wang, Ying-Ming

    2002-09-01

    The presence of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) in the venom of Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) and its structure were studied. The PLA(2) cDNAs from the venom gland of B. candidus (Indonesia origin) were amplified by the polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and cloned. The primers used were based on the cDNA sequences of several homologous B. multicinctus venom PLA(2)s. In addition to the A-chains of beta-bungarotoxins, a novel B. candidus PLA(2) was cloned and its full amino acid sequence deduced. Having totally 125 amino acid residues, the PLA(2) contains a pancreatic loop and is 61% identical to the acidic PLA(2) of king cobra venom. However, the enzyme was not detected from the venom sample. Its structural relationships to other elapid venom PLA(2)s were analyzed with a phylogenetic tree and discussed. PMID:12220723

  9. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of ansB from Pseudomonas fluorescens, encoding periplasmic glutaminase/asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Hüser, A; Klöppner, U; Röhm, K H

    1999-09-15

    A gene (ansB) encoding a class II glutaminase/asparaginase has been cloned from Pseudomonas fluorescens and characterized by DNA sequencing, promoter analysis and heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. We show that ansB is monocistronic and depends on the alternate sigma factor sigma 54 for expression. A second open reading frame located downstream of ansB is highly homologous to a number of bacterial genes that encode secreted endonucleases of unknown function. PMID:10499283

  10. Molecular Cloning, Nucleotide Sequence, and Expression of Genes Encoding a Polycyclic Aromatic Ring Dioxygenase from Mycobacterium sp. Strain PYR-1

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ashraf A.; Wang, Rong-Fu; Cao, Wei-Wen; Doerge, Daniel R.; Wennerstrom, David; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 degrades high-molecular-weight polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) primarily through the introduction of both atoms of molecular oxygen by a dioxygenase. To clone the dioxygenase genes involved in PAH degradation, two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis of PAH-induced proteins from cultures of Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 was used to detect proteins that increased after phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and pyrene exposure. Comparison of proteins from induced and uninduced cultures on 2D gels indicated that at least six major proteins were expressed (105, 81, 52, 50, 43, and 13 kDa). The N-terminal sequence of the 50-kDa protein was similar to those of other dioxygenases. A digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe designed from this protein sequence was used to screen dioxygenase-positive clones from a genomic library of Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1. Three clones, each containing a 5,288-bp DNA insert with three genes of the dioxygenase system, were obtained. The genes in the DNA insert, from the 5′ to the 3′ direction, were a dehydrogenase, the dioxygenase small (β)-subunit, and the dioxygenase large (α)-subunit genes, arranged in a sequence different from those of genes encoding other bacterial dioxygenase systems. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the large α subunit did not cluster with most of the known α-subunit sequences but rather with three newly described α subunits of dioxygenases from Rhodococcus spp. and Nocardioides spp. The genes from Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 were subcloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli with the pBAD/ThioFusion system. The functionality of the genes for PAH degradation was confirmed in a phagemid clone containing all three genes, as well as in plasmid subclones containing the two genes encoding the dioxygenase subunits. PMID:11472934

  11. Duplication of the mmoX gene in Methylosinus sporium: cloning, sequencing and mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hanif; Scanlan, Julie; Dumont, Marc G; Murrell, J Colin

    2006-10-01

    The soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) is a key enzyme for methane oxidation, and is found in only some methanotrophs, including Methylosinus sporium 5. sMMO expression is regulated at the level of transcription from a sigma(54) promoter by a copper-switch, and is only expressed when the copper-to-biomass ratio during growth is low. Extensive phylogenetic and genetic analyses of sMMOs and other soluble di-iron monooxygenases reveal that these enzymes have only been acquired relatively recently through horizontal gene transfer. In this study, further evidence of horizontal gene transfer was obtained, through cloning and sequencing of the genes encoding the sMMO enzyme complex plus the regulatory genes mmoG and mmoR, and identification of a duplicate copy of the mmoX gene in Ms. sporium. mmoX encodes the alpha subunit of the hydroxylase of the sMMO enzyme, which constitutes the active site (Prior & Dalton, 1985). The mmoX genes were characterized at the molecular and biochemical levels. Although both copies were transcribed, only mmoX copy 1 was essential for sMMO activity. Construction of an sMMO(-) mutant by marker-exchange mutagenesis gave some possible insights into the role of the water-soluble pigment in siderophore-mediated iron acquisition. Finally, the amenability of Ms. sporium to genetic manipulation was demonstrated by complementing the sMMO(-) mutant by heterologous expression of sMMO genes from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), and it was shown that Ms. sporium could be used as an alternative model organism for molecular analysis of MMO regulation. PMID:17005974

  12. Differences in Biofilm Mass, Expression of Biofilm-Associated Genes, and Resistance to Desiccation between Epidemic and Sporadic Clones of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Sequence Type 191.

    PubMed

    Selasi, Gati Noble; Nicholas, Asiimwe; Jeon, Hyejin; Na, Seok Hyeon; Kwon, Hyo Il; Kim, Yoo Jeong; Heo, Sang Taek; Oh, Man Hwan; Lee, Je Chul

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biology behind the epidemicity and persistence of Acinetobacter baumannii in the hospital environment is critical to control outbreaks of infection. This study investigated the contributing factors to the epidemicity of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) sequence type (ST) 191 by comparing the differences in biofilm formation, expression of biofilm-associated genes, and resistance to desiccation between major epidemic (n = 16), minor epidemic (n = 12), and sporadic (n = 12) clones. Biofilm mass was significantly greater in the major epidemic than the minor epidemic and sporadic clones. Major and minor epidemic clones expressed biofilm-associated genes, abaI, bap, pgaABCD, and csuA/BABCDE, higher than the sporadic clones in sessile conditions. The csuC, csuD, and csuE genes were more highly expressed in the major epidemic than minor epidemic clones. Interestingly, minor epidemic clones expressed more biofilm-associated genes than the major epidemic clone under planktonic conditions. Major epidemic clones were more resistant to desiccation than minor epidemic and sporadic clones on day 21. In conclusion, the epidemic CRAB ST191 clones exhibit a higher capacity to form biofilms, express the biofilm-associated genes under sessile conditions, and resist desiccation than sporadic clones. These phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of CRAB ST191 may account for the epidemicity of specific CRAB ST191 clones in the hospital. PMID:27622249

  13. Cloning, sequence analysis, expression of Cyathus bulleri laccase in Pichia pastoris and characterization of recombinant laccase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laccases are blue multi-copper oxidases and catalyze the oxidation of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. There is considerable interest in using these enzymes for dye degradation as well as for synthesis of aromatic compounds. Laccases are produced at relatively low levels and, sometimes, as isozymes in the native fungi. The investigation of properties of individual enzymes therefore becomes difficult. The goal of this study was to over-produce a previously reported laccase from Cyathus bulleri using the well-established expression system of Pichia pastoris and examine and compare the properties of the recombinant enzyme with that of the native laccase. Results In this study, complete cDNA encoding laccase (Lac) from white rot fungus Cyathus bulleri was amplified by RACE-PCR, cloned and expressed in the culture supernatant of Pichia pastoris under the control of the alcohol oxidase (AOX)1 promoter. The coding region consisted of 1,542 bp and encodes a protein of 513 amino acids with a signal peptide of 16 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the matured protein displayed high homology with laccases from Trametes versicolor and Coprinus cinereus. The sequence analysis indicated the presence of Glu 460 and Ser 113 and LEL tripeptide at the position known to influence redox potential of laccases placing this enzyme as a high redox enzyme. Addition of copper sulfate to the production medium enhanced the level of laccase by about 12-fold to a final activity of 7200 U L-1. The recombinant laccase (rLac) was purified by ~4-fold to a specific activity of ~85 U mg-1 protein. A detailed study of thermostability, chloride and solvent tolerance of the rLac indicated improvement in the first two properties when compared to the native laccase (nLac). Altered glycosylation pattern, identified by peptide mass finger printing, was proposed to contribute to altered properties of the rLac. Conclusion Laccase of C. bulleri was successfully produced extra

  14. Continuous production of ethanol by use of flocculent zymomonas mobilis

    DOEpatents

    Arcuri, Edward J.; Donaldson, Terrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Ethanol is produced by means of a floc-forming strain of Zymomonas mobilis bacteria. Gas is vented along the length of a column containing the flocculent bacteria to preclude disruption of liquid flow.

  15. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the genes coding for the Sau96I restriction and modification enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Szilák, L; Venetianer, P; Kiss, A

    1990-01-01

    The genes coding for the GGNCC specific Sau96I restriction and modification enzymes were cloned and expressed in E. coli. The DNA sequence predicts a 430 amino acid protein (Mr: 49,252) for the methyltransferase and a 261 amino acid protein (Mr: 30,486) for the endonuclease. No protein sequence similarity was detected between the Sau96I methyltransferase and endonuclease. The methyltransferase contains the sequence elements characteristic for m5C-methyltransferases. In addition to this, M.Sau96I shows similarity, also in the variable region, with one m5C-methyltransferase (M.SinI) which has closely related recognition specificity (GGA/TCC). M.Sau96I methylates the internal cytosine within the GGNCC recognition sequence. The Sau96I endonuclease appears to act as a monomer. Images PMID:2204026

  16. Cloning and sequencing of the trpE gene from Arthrobacter globiformis ATCC 8010 and several related subsurface Arthrobacter isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Chernova, T.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Austria, N.; Nichols, B.P.

    1998-09-01

    Tryptophan dependent mutants of Arthrobacter globiformis ATCC 8010 were isolated and trp genes were cloned by complementation and marker rescue of the auxotrophic strains. Rescue studies and preliminary sequence analysis reveal that at least the genes trpE, trpC, and trpB are clustered together in this organism. In addition, sequence analysis of the entire trpE gene, which encodes component I of anthranilate synthase, is described. Segments of the trpE gene from 17 subsurface isolates of Arthrobacter sp. were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The partial trpE sequences from the various strains were aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The data suggest that in addition to single base changes, recombination and genetic exchange play a major role in the evolution of the Arthrobacter genome.

  17. Isolation, characterization, and primary structure of rubredoxin from the photosynthetic bacterium, Heliobacillus mobilis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W. Y.; Brune, D. C.; LoBrutto, R.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    Rubredoxin is a small nonheme iron protein that serves as an electron carrier in bacterial systems. Rubredoxin has now been isolated and characterized from the strictly anaerobic phototroph, Heliobacillus mobilis. THe molecular mass (5671.3 Da from the amino acid sequence) was confirmed and partial formylation of the N-terminal methionyl residue was established by matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectroscopy. The complete 52-amino-acid sequence was determined by a combination of N-terminal sequencing by Edman degradation and C-terminal sequencing by a novel method using carboxypeptidase treatment in conjunction with amino acid analysis and laser desorption time of flight mass spectrometry. The molar absorption coefficient of Hc. mobilis rubredoxin at 490 nm is 6.9 mM-1 cm-1 and the midpoint redox potential at pH 8.0 is -46 mV. The EPR spectrum of the oxidized form shows resonances at g = 9.66 and 4.30 due to a high-spin ferric iron. The amino acid sequence is homologous to those of rubredoxins from other species, in particular, the gram-positive bacteria, and the phototrophic green sulfur bacteria, and the evolutionary implications of this are discussed.

  18. Emergence of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae hypervirulent clone of capsular serotype K1 that belongs to sequence type 11 in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dan-Dan; Wan, La-Gen; Deng, Qiong; Liu, Yang

    2016-06-01

    KPC-2 has been rarely reported in hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Here, we describe a KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae hypervirulent clone of capsular serotype K1 belonging to sequence type 11. The presence of KPC carbapenemase in hypervirulent clone could mark an evolutionary step toward its establishment as major nosocomial pathogen. PMID:27049969

  19. Incorporation of partial polyhedrin homology sequences (PPHS) enhances the production of cloned foreign genes in a baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhaohui; Jin, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2006-03-01

    Baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVSs) have been used extensively for high-level expression of cloned foreign genes. In many instances, the levels of recombinant protein(s) produced in insect cells and larvae are insufficient for experimental purposes. Thus new techniques and methods are needed to increase significantly the protein expression levels in BEVS. In the present paper, we describe the incorporation of a 15 bp element derived from the 5'-end partial sequence of the polyhedrin gene, which contains the non-coding sequence ATAAAT and the coding sequence ATGCCGAAT, into the 5'-end of the CTB (cholera toxin B subunit)-INS (insulin) fusion gene. With the addition of the PPHS (partial polyhedrin homology sequences), two extra amino acids (Pro-Asn) were added to the N-terminus of the mCTB-INS (modified CTB-INS) fusion protein. This new fusion protein was expressed in both insect cells and larvae using BEVSs. We found that the addition of PPHS enhanced 4-fold the expression of CTB-INS in both insect cells and larvae. Further analysis revealed that the additional two amino acids in mCTB-INS did not significantly affect binding affinity for G(M1) ganglioside. Therefore the PPHS can be used as a constitutive element immediately downstream of the polyhedrin promoter to induce significant increases in the expression levels of cloned foreign genes. PMID:16313236

  20. Cloning, Nucleotide Sequencing and Bioinformatics Study of NcSRS2 Gene, an Immunogen from Iranian Isolate of Neospora caninum

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, M; Sadrebazzaz, A; Nassiri, M; Tahmoorespoor, M

    2013-01-01

    Background Neosporosis is caused by an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoa Neospora caninum which infect variety of hosts. NcSRS2 is an immuno-dominant antigen of N. caninum which is considered as one of the most promising targets for a recombinant or DNA vaccine against neosporosis. As no study has been carried out to identify the molecular structure of N. caninum in Iran, as first step, we prepared a scheme to identify this gene in this parasite in Iran. Methods Tachyzoite total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized and NcSRS2 gene was amplified using cDNA as template. Then the PCR product was cloned into pTZ57R/T vector and transformed into E. coli (DH5α strain). Finally, the recombinant plasmid was extracted from transformed E. coli and sequenced. Bioinformatics analysis also carried out. Results The PCR product of NcSRS2 gene was sequenced and recorded in GenBank. The deduced amino acid sequence of NcSRS2 in current study was compared with other N. caninum NcSRS2 and showed some identities and differences. Conclusion NcSRS2 gene of N. caninum successfully cloned in pTZ57R/T. Recombinant plasmid was confirmed by sequencing, colony PCR and enzymatic digestion. It is ready to express recombinant protein for further studies. PMID:23682269

  1. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and characterization of a new cell wall hydrolase, CwlL, of Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Oda, Y; Nakayama, R; Kuroda, A; Sekiguchi, J

    1993-11-01

    We have cloned a DNA fragment containing the gene for a cell wall hydrolase from Bacillus licheniformis FD0120 into Escherichia coli. Sequencing of the fragment showed the presence of an open reading frame (ORF; designated as cwlL), which is different from the B. licheniformis cell wall hydrolase gene cwlM, and encodes a polypeptide of 360 amino acids with a molecular mass of 38,994. The enzyme purified from the E. coli clone is an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, which has a M(r) value of 41 kDa as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and is able to digest B. licheniformis, B. subtilis and Micrococcus luteus cell walls. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of cwlL are very similar to those of ORF3 in the putative operon xpaL1-xpaL2-ORF3 in B. licheniformis MC14. Moreover, the amino acid sequence homology of CwlL with the B. subtilis amidase CwlA indicates two evolutionarily distinguishable regions in CwlL. The sequence homology of CwlL with other cell wall hydrolases and the regulation of cwlL are discussed. PMID:7902527

  2. Molecular characterization and clonal diversity of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the community in Spain: emergence of clone sequence type 72.

    PubMed

    Potel, C; Rey, S; Otero, S; Rubio, J; Álvarez, M

    2016-08-01

    Sequence type 72 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ST72 MRSA) was recently detected in our hospital. Although in Europe this clone is rarely isolated, it is the leading cause of community-associated MRSA infections in Korea, spreading also into hospitals, where it has also emerged as the main MRSA clone recovered from raw meat. We studied MRSA isolated from outpatients in Spain during a nine-year period. More than 70% of the isolates belonged to predominant clones found in hospitals. There was a significant increase in the ST72 prevalence. It appears that boundaries of dominance among MRSA clones have become blurred, demanding continuous surveillance. PMID:27112049

  3. Vibrio harveyi NADPH-flavin oxidoreductase: cloning, sequencing and overexpression of the gene and purification and characterization of the cloned enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Lei, B; Liu, M; Huang, S; Tu, S C

    1994-01-01

    NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases (flavin reductases) from luminous bacteria catalyze the reduction of flavin by NAD(P)H and are believed to provide the reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) for luciferase in the bioluminescence reaction. By using an oligonucleotide probe based on the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase (flavin reductase P), a recombinant plasmid, pFRP1, was obtained which contained the frp gene encoding this enzyme. The DNA sequence of the frp gene was determined; the deduced amino acid sequence for flavin reductase P consists of 240 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 26,312. The frp gene was overexpressed, apparently through induction, in Escherichia coli JM109 cells harboring pFRP1. The cloned flavin reductase P was purified to homogeneity by following a new and simple procedure involving FMN-agarose chromatography as a key step. The same chromatography material was also highly effective in concentrating diluted flavin reductase P. The purified enzyme is a monomer and is unusual in having a tightly bound FMN cofactor. Distinct from the free FMN, the bound FMN cofactor showed a diminished A375 peak and a slightly increased 8-nm red-shifted A453 peak and was completely or nearly nonfluorescent. The Kms for FMN and NADPH and the turnover number of this flavin reductase were determined. In comparison with other flavin reductases and homologous proteins, this flavin reductase P shows a number of distinct features with respect to primary sequence, redox center, and/or kinetic mechanism. Images PMID:8206832

  4. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA for human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variant A(-).

    PubMed Central

    Hirono, A; Beutler, E

    1988-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; D-glucose-6-phosphate:NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.49) A(-) is a common variant in Blacks that causes sensitivity to drug-and infection-induced hemolytic anemia. A cDNA library was constructed from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cells from a male who was G6PD A(-). One of four cDNA clones isolated contained a sequence not found in the other clones nor in the published cDNA sequence. Consisting of 138 bases and coding 46 amino acids, this segment of cDNA apparently is derived from the alternative splicing involving the 3' end of intron 7. Comparison of the remaining sequences of these clones with the published sequence revealed three nucleotide substitutions: C33----G, G202----A, and A376----G. Each change produces a new restriction site. Genomic DNA from five G6PD A(-) individuals was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. The base substitution at position 376, identical to the substitution that has been reported in G6PD A(+), was present in all G6PD A(-) samples and none of the control G6PD B(+) samples examined. The substitution at position 202 was found in four of the five G6PD A(-) samples and no normal control sample. At position 33 guanine was found in all G6PD A(-) samples and seven G6PD B(+) control samples and is, presumably, the usual nucleotide found at this position. The finding of the same mutation in G6PD A(-) as is found in G6PD A(+) strongly suggests that the G6PD A(-) mutation arose in an individual with G6PD A(+), adding another mutation that causes the in vivo instability of this enzyme protein. Images PMID:2836867

  5. Cloning and sequence analysis demonstrate the chromate reduction ability of a novel chromate reductase gene from Serratia sp

    PubMed Central

    DENG, PENG; TAN, XIAOQING; WU, YING; BAI, QUNHUA; JIA, YAN; XIAO, HONG

    2015-01-01

    The ChrT gene encodes a chromate reductase enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of Cr(VI). The chromate reductase is also known as flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase (FMN_red). The aim of the present study was to clone the full-length ChrT DNA from Serratia sp. CQMUS2 and analyze the deduced amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. The putative ChrT gene fragment of Serratia sp. CQMUS2 was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), according to the known FMN_red gene sequence from Serratia sp. AS13. The flanking sequences of the ChrT gene were obtained by high efficiency TAIL-PCR, while the full-length gene of ChrT was cloned in Escherichia coli for subsequent sequencing. The nucleotide sequence of ChrT was submitted onto GenBank under the accession number, KF211434. Sequence analysis of the gene and amino acids was conducted using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, and open reading frame (ORF) analysis was performed using ORF Finder software. The ChrT gene was found to be an ORF of 567 bp that encodes a 188-amino acid enzyme with a calculated molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. In addition, the ChrT protein was hypothesized to be an NADPH-dependent FMN_red and a member of the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. The amino acid sequence of ChrT showed high sequence similarity to the FMN reductase genes of Klebsiella pneumonia and Raoultella ornithinolytica, which belong to the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. Furthermore, ChrT was shown to have a 85.6% similarity to the three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli ChrR, sharing four common enzyme active sites for chromate reduction. Therefore, ChrT gene cloning and protein structure determination demonstrated the ability of the gene for chromate reduction. The results of the present study provide a basis for further studies on ChrT gene expression and protein function. PMID:25667630

  6. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: characterization of major clones and emergence of epidemic clones of sequence type (ST) 36 and ST 121 in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ohadian Moghadam, Solmaz; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Sadighian, Hooman

    2015-04-01

    Information about the molecular structure of MRSA strains provides significant insights into the epidemiology of this important pathogen. To investigate the molecular characteristics of MRSA isolates, MRSA isolates were subjected to molecular typing by means of spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) grouping and to phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing by means of disk diffusion assay. Then the presence of pvl genes was evaluated. Cluster analysis by eBURSTv3 showed that MRSA isolates belonged to two major clonal complexes (CC); CC8 (ST239, ST585, ST2732, ST1294) and CC30 (ST30, ST36, ST1163) and four singletons. Subsequent analysis of MRSA isolates revealed that the most prevalent SCCmec type was type III (55.8%) followed by type IV (34.9%) and type II (2.3%). Totally 11 different spa types were discriminated among which types t037 and t030 were predominant. The prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive MRSA strains was high (20%), which is a matter of great concern, because the PVL is frequently associated with severe and recurrent SSTIs. ST239-III- t037 represented the most predominant MRSA clone. The presence of sequence type (ST) 36 and ST 121 are being reported for the first time in Iran. PMID:25795589

  7. Molecular Profiling of Microbial Communities from Contaminated Sources: Use of Subtractive Cloning Methods and rDNA Spacer Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Frank T.

    2001-04-10

    The major objective of this research was to provide appropriate sequences and assemble a DNA array of oligonucleotides to be used for rapid profiling of microbial populations from polluted areas and other areas of interest. The sequences to be assigned to the DNA array were chosen from cloned genomic DNA taken from groundwater sites having well characterized pollutant histories at Hanford Nuclear Plant and Lawrence Livermore Site 300. Glass-slide arrays were made and tested; and a new multiplexed, bead-based method was developed that uses nucleic acid hybridization on the surface of microscopic polystyrene spheres to identify specific sequences in heterogeneous mixtures of DNA sequences. The test data revealed considerable strain variation between sample sites showing a striking distribution of sequences. It also suggests that diversity varies greatly with bioremediation, and that there are many bacterial intergenic spacer region sequences that can indicate its effects. The bead method exhibited superior sequence discrimination and has features for easier and more accurate measurement.

  8. Eukaryotic gene invasion by a bacterial mobile insertion sequence element IS2 during cloning into a plasmid vector.

    PubMed

    Senejani, Alireza G; Sweasy, Joann B

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) are commonly used as hosts for DNA cloning and sequencing. Upon transformation of E. coli with recombined vector carrying a gene of interest, the bacteria multiply the gene of interest while maintaining the integrity of its content. During the subcloning of a mouse genomic fragment into a plasmid vector, we noticed that the size of the insert increased significantly upon replication in E. coli. The sequence of the insert was determined and found to contain a novel DNA sequence within the mouse genomic insert. A BLAST search of GenBank revealed the novel sequence to be that of the Insertion Sequence 2 (IS2) element from E. coli that was likely inserted during replication in that organism. Importantly, a detailed search of GenBank shows that the IS2 is present within many eukaryotic nucleotide sequences, and in many cases, has been annotated as being part of the protein. The results of this study suggest that one must perform additional careful analysis of the sequence results using BLAST comparisons, and further verification of gene annotation before submission into the GenBank. PMID:20678256

  9. Morquio A syndrome: Cloning, sequence, and structure of the human N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfatase (GALNS) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.P.; Guo, Xiao-Hui; Apostolou, S.

    1994-08-01

    Deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme, N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfatase (GALNS;EC 3.1.6.4), results in the storage of the glycosaminoglycans, keratan sulfate and chrondroitin 6-sulfate, which leads to the lysosomal storage disorder Morquio A syndrome. Four overlapping genomic clones derived from a chromosome 16-specific gridded cosmid library containing the entire GALNS gene were isolated. The structure of the gene and the sequence of the exon/intron boundaries and the 5{prime} promoter region were determined. The GALNS gene is split into 14 exons spanning approximately 40 kb. The potential promoter for GALNS lacks a TATA box but contains GC box consensus sequences, consistent with its role as a housekeeping gene. The GALNS gene contains an Alu repeat in intron 5 and a VNTR-like sequence in intron 6. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) mitochondrial ATP synthase ATP5G1.

    PubMed

    Hou, W-R; Hou, Y-L; Ding, X; Wang, T

    2012-01-01

    The ATP5G1 gene is one of the three genes that encode mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit c of the proton channel. We cloned the cDNA and determined the genomic sequence of the ATP5G1 gene from the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using RT-PCR technology and touchdown-PCR, respectively. The cloned cDNA fragment contains an open reading frame of 411 bp encoding 136 amino acids; the length of the genomic sequence is of 1838 bp, containing three exons and two introns. Alignment analysis revealed that the nucleotide sequence and the deduced protein sequence are highly conserved compared to Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bos taurus, and Sus scrofa. The homologies for nucleotide sequences of the giant panda ATP5G1 to those of these species are 93.92, 92.21, 92.46, 93.67, and 92.46%, respectively, and the homologies for amino acid sequences are 90.44, 95.59, 93.38, 94.12, and 91.91%, respectively. Topology prediction showed that there is one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, one casein kinase II phosphorylation site, five N-myristoylation sites, and one ATP synthase c subunit signature in the ATP5G1 protein of the giant panda. The cDNA of ATP5G1 was transfected into Escherichia coli, and the ATP5G1 fused with the N-terminally GST-tagged protein gave rise to accumulation of an expected 40-kDa polypeptide, which had the characteristics of the predicted protein. PMID:23007995

  11. PCR Cloning of Partial "nbs" Sequences from Grape ("Vitis aestivalis" Michx)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ming-Mei; DiGennaro, Peter; Macula, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Plants defend themselves against pathogens via the expressions of disease resistance (R) genes. Many plant R gene products contain the characteristic nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. There are highly conserved motifs within the NBS domain which could be targeted for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cloning of R…

  12. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of genes for three small, acid-soluble proteins from Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed Central

    Connors, M J; Mason, J M; Setlow, P

    1986-01-01

    Three Bacillus subtilis genes (termed sspA, sspB, and sspD) which code for small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASPs) have been cloned, and their complete nucleotide sequence has been determined. The amino acid sequences of the SASPs coded for by these genes are similar to each other and to those of the SASP-1 of B. subtilis (coded for by the sspC gene) and the SASP-A/C family of B. megaterium. The sspA and sspB genes are expressed only in sporulation, in parallel with each other and with the sspC gene. Two regions upstream of the postulated transcription start sites for the sspA and B genes have significant homology with the analogous regions of the sspC gene and the SASP-A/C gene family. Purification of two of the three major B, subtilis SASPs (alpha and beta) and determination of their amino-terminal sequences indicated that the sspA gene codes for SASP-alpha and that the sspB gene codes for SASP-beta. This was confirmed by the introduction of deletion mutations into the cloned sspA and sspB genes and transfer of these deletions into the B. subtilis chromosome with concomitant loss of the wild-type gene. Images PMID:3009398

  13. Cloning and sequencing of sakP encoding sakacin P, the bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake LTH 673.

    PubMed

    Tichaczek, P S; Vogel, R F; Hammes, W P

    1994-02-01

    Sakacin P is a heat-stable, unmodified peptide bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake LTH 673. The strain was isolated from fermented dry sausages and is well adapted to this habitat. The bacteriocin inhibits the growth of the opportunistic food pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and Listeria monocytogenes and therefore, it may improve the hygienic status of fermented food, i.e. meat products. Oligonucleotide probes were designed from the N-terminal amino acid sequence of sakacin P and used to identify sakP, the structural gene of sakacin P, on the chromosome of L. sake LTH 673. SakP was cloned into Escherichia coli NM554 and the nucleotide sequence of the gene and its adjacent regions were determined. Sakacin P appears to be synthesized as a prepeptide of 61 amino acids which is proteolytically processed to the mature bacteriocin consisting of 43 amino acids. Sequencing of the cloned fragment also revealed the presence of two other open reading frames orfX and orfY, which are located upstream and downstream of sakP, respectively, putatively encoding proteins of 52 and 98 amino acids, respectively. The functions of both ORFs remain unknown. Primer extension analysis revealed a promoter upstream of sakP. Two transcripts of approximately 0.35 and 1.0 kb were detected by Northern hybridization encoding either only sakP, or both sakP and orfY, respectively. PMID:8180701

  14. The human myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) from hippocampus: Cloning, sequencing, expression, and localization to 3qcen-q21

    SciTech Connect

    Potier, M.C.; Rossier, J.; Turnell, W.G.; Pekarsky, Y.; Gardiner, K.

    1995-10-10

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), a key enzyme in muscle contraction, has been shown by immunohistology to be present in neurons and glia. We describe here the cloning of the cDNA for human MLCK from hippocampus, encoding a protein sequence 95% similar to smooth muscle MLCKs but less than 60% similar to skeletal muscle MLCKs. The cDNA clone detected two RNA transcripts in human frontal and entorhinal cortex, in hippocampus, and in jejunum, one corresponding to MLCK and the other probably to telokin, the carboxy-terminal 154 codons of MLCK expressed as an independent protein in smooth muscle. Levels of expression were lower in brain compared to smooth muscle. We show that within the protein sequence, a motif of 28 or 24 residues is repeated five times, the second repeat ending with the putative methionine start codon. These repeats overlap with a second previously reported module of 12 residues repeated five times in the human sequence. In addition, the acidic C-terminus of all MLCKs from both brain and smooth muscle resembles the C-terminus of tubulins. The chromosomal localization of the gene for human MLCK is shown to be at 3qcen-q21, as determined by PCR and Southern blotting using two somatic cell hybrid panels. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Amino acid sequence of the serine-repeat antigen (SERA) of Plasmodium falciparum determined from cloned cDNA.

    PubMed

    Bzik, D J; Li, W B; Horii, T; Inselburg, J

    1988-09-01

    We report the isolation of cDNA clones for a Plasmodium falciparum gene that encodes the complete amino acid sequence of a previously identified exported blood stage antigen. The Mr of this antigen protein had been determined by sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, by different workers, to be 113,000, 126,000, and 140,000. We show, by cDNA nucleotide sequence analysis, that this antigen gene encodes a 989 amino acid protein (111 kDa) that contains a potential signal peptide, but not a membrane anchor domain. In the FCR3 strain the serine content of the protein was 11%, of which 57% of the serine residues were localized within a 201 amino acid sequence that included 35 consecutive serine residues. The protein also contained three possible N-linked glycosylation sites and numerous possible O-linked glycosylation sites. The mRNA was abundant during late trophozoite-schizont parasite stages. We propose to identity this antigen, which had been called p126, by the acronym SERA, serine-repeat antigen, based on its complete structure. The usefulness of the cloned cDNA as a source of a possible malaria vaccine is considered in view of the previously demonstrated ability of the antigen to induce parasite-inhibitory antibodies and a protective immune response in Saimiri monkeys. PMID:2847041

  16. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the large subunit of the human lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2

    SciTech Connect

    Lumadue, J.A.; Glick, A.B.; Ruddle, F.H.

    1987-12-01

    Among the earliest expressed antigens on the surface of activated human lymphocytes is the surface antigen 4F2. The authors have used DNA-mediated gene transfer and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to obtain cell lines that contain the gene encoding the large subunit of the human 4F2 antigen in a mouse L-cell background. Human DNAs cloned from these cell lines were subsequently used as hybridization probes to isolate a full-length cDNA clone expressing 4F2. Sequence analysis of the coding region has revealed an amino acid sequence of 529 residues. Hydrophobicity plotting has predicted a probable structure for the protein that includes an external carboxyl terminus, an internal leader sequence, a single hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and two possible membrane-associated domains. The 4F2 cDNA detects a single 1.8-kilobase mRNA in T-cell and B-cell lines. RNA gel blot analysis of RNA derived from quiescent and serum-stimulated Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts reveals a cell-cycle modulation of 4F2 gene expression: the mRNA is present in quiescent fibroblasts but increases 8-fold 24-36 hr after stimulation, at the time of maximal DNA synthesis.

  17. Cloning and sequence analysis of an Ophiophagus hannah cDNA encoding a precursor of two natriuretic peptide domains.

    PubMed

    Lei, Weiwei; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Jiang, Ping; He, Yingying; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2011-04-01

    The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake. Despite the components are mainly neurotoxins, the venom contains several proteins affecting blood system. Natriuretic peptide (NP), one of the important components of snake venoms, could cause local vasodilatation and a promoted capillary permeability facilitating a rapid diffusion of other toxins into the prey tissues. Due to the low abundance, it is hard to purify the snake venom NPs. The cDNA cloning of the NPs become a useful approach. In this study, a 957 bp natriuretic peptide-encoding cDNA clone was isolated from an O. hannah venom gland cDNA library. The open-reading frame of the cDNA encodes a 210-amino acid residues precursor protein named Oh-NP. Oh-NP has a typical signal peptide sequence of 26 amino acid residues. Surprisingly, Oh-NP has two typical NP domains which consist of the typical sequence of 17-residue loop of CFGXXDRIGC, so it is an unusual NP precursor. These two NP domains share high amino acid sequence identity. In addition, there are two homologous peptides of unknown function within the Oh-NP precursor. To our knowledge, Oh-NP is the first protein precursor containing two NP domains. It might belong to another subclass of snake venom NPs. PMID:21334357

  18. Cloning, Sequencing, and Characterization of a Gene Cluster Involved in EDTA Degradation from the Bacterium BNC1

    PubMed Central

    Bohuslavek, Jan; Payne, Jason W.; Liu, Yong; Bolton, Harvey; Xun, Luying

    2001-01-01

    EDTA is a chelating agent, widely used in many industries. Because of its ability to mobilize heavy metals and radionuclides, it can be an environmental pollutant. The EDTA monooxygenases that initiate EDTA degradation have been purified and characterized in bacterial strains BNC1 and DSM 9103. However, the genes encoding the enzymes have not been reported. The EDTA monooxygenase gene was cloned by probing a genomic library of strain BNC1 with a probe generated from the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the monooxygenase. Sequencing of the cloned DNA fragment revealed a gene cluster containing eight genes. Two of the genes, emoA and emoB, were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene products, EmoA and EmoB, were purified and characterized. Both experimental data and sequence analysis showed that EmoA is a reduced flavin mononucleotide-utilizing monooxygenase and that EmoB is an NADH:flavin mononucleotide oxidoreductase. The two-enzyme system oxidized EDTA to ethylenediaminediacetate (EDDA) and nitrilotriacetate (NTA) to iminodiacetate (IDA) with the production of glyoxylate. The emoA and emoB genes were cotranscribed when BNC1 cells were grown on EDTA. Other genes in the cluster encoded a hypothetical transport system, a putative regulatory protein, and IDA oxidase that oxidizes IDA and EDDA. We concluded that this gene cluster is responsible for the initial steps of EDTA and NTA degradation. PMID:11157232

  19. Cloning, sequence, and phenotypic expression of katA, which encodes the catalase of Lactobacillus sake LTH677.

    PubMed Central

    Knauf, H J; Vogel, R F; Hammes, W P

    1992-01-01

    Lactobacillus sake LTH677 is a strain, isolated from fermented sausage, which forms a heme-dependent catalase. This rare property is highly desirable in sausage fermentation, as it prevents rancidity and discoloration caused by hydrogen peroxide. A gene bank containing MboI fragments of chromosomal DNA from Lactobacillus sake LTH677 in Escherichia coli plasmid pBR328 was constructed. The catalase gene was cloned by heterologous complementation of the Kat- phenotype of E. coli UM2. The catalase structural gene, designated katA, was assigned to a 2.3-kb region by deletion analysis of the originally cloned fragment in plasmid pHK1000. The original chromosomal arrangement was determined by Southern hybridization. Protein analysis revealed that the catalase subunit has a molecular size of 65,000 Da and that the active catalase possesses a hexameric structure. The molecular size of the subunit deduced from the nucleotide sequence was determined to 54,504 Da. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 65,000-Da protein corresponded to the one deduced from the DNA sequence. After recloning of katA in the E. coli-Lactococcus shuttle vector pGKV210, the gene was successfully transferred and phenotypically expressed in Lactobacillus casei, which is naturally deficient in catalase activity. Images PMID:1575485

  20. Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase of Escherichia coli: cloning and sequencing of the fpg structural gene and overproduction of the protein.

    PubMed Central

    Boiteux, S; O'Connor, T R; Laval, J

    1987-01-01

    An Escherichia coli genomic library composed of large DNA fragments (10-15 kb) was constructed using the plasmid pBR322 as vector. From it 700 clones were individually screened for increased excision of the ring-opened form of N7-methylguanine (2-6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5N-methyl-formamidopyrimidine) or Fapy. One clone overproduced the Fapy-DNA glycosylase activity by a factor of 10-fold as compared with the wild-type strain. The Fapy-DNA glycosylase overproducer character was associated with a 15-kb recombinant plasmid (pFPG10). After subcloning a 1.4-kb fragment which contained the Fapy-DNA glycosylase gene (fpg+) was inserted in the plasmids pUC18 and pUC19 yielding pFPG50 and pFPG60 respectively. The cells harbouring pFPG60 displayed a 50- to 100-fold increase in glycosylase activity and overexpressed a 31-kd protein. From these cells the Fapy-DNA glycosylase was purified to apparent physical homogeneity as evidenced by a single protein band at 31 kd on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The amino acid composition of the protein and the amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence demonstrate that the cloned fragment contains the structural gene coding for the Fapy-DNA glycosylase. The nucleotide sequence of the fpg gene is composed of 809 base pairs and codes for a protein of 269 amino acids with a calculated mol. wt of 30.2 kd. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3319582

  1. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Vibrio cholerae hemagglutinin/protease (HA/protease) gene and construction of an HA/protease-negative strain.

    PubMed Central

    Häse, C C; Finkelstein, R A

    1991-01-01

    The structural gene hap for the extracellular hemagglutinin/protease (HA/protease) of Vibrio cholerae was cloned and sequenced. The cloned DNA fragment contained a 1,827-bp open reading frame potentially encoding a 609-amino-acid polypeptide. The deduced protein contains a putative signal sequence followed by a large propeptide. The extracellular HA/protease consists of 414 amino acids with a computed molecular weight of 46,700. In the absence of protease inhibitors, this is processed to the 32-kDa form which is usually isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature HA/protease showed 61.5% identity with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase. The cloned hap gene was inactivated and introduced into the chromosome of V. cholerae by recombination to construct the HA/protease-negative strain HAP-1. The cloned fragment containing the hap gene was then shown to complement the mutant strain. Images PMID:2045361

  2. Characterization of a novel HLA-B*40 allele, HLA-B*40:186:02, by cloning and sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, W Y; Zhang, W; Cai, J H; Zhu, F M; Tian, W

    2016-08-01

    A novel HLA-B*40 variant, HLA-B*40:186:02, has been identified by cloning and sequencing in a southern Chinese Han population. Aligned with HLA-B*40:01:01, HLA-B*40:186:02 has a nonsynonymous cytosine mutation at nucleotide position 165 in exon 2, leading to amino acid change from glycine to arginine at codon 56. It differs from HLA-B*40:186:01 by a synonymous change (adenine to cytosine) at position 165 in exon 2. PMID:27273892

  3. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and heterologous expression of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oviduct-specific glycoprotein in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Singh, Surender; Choudhary, Suman; Pradeep, Mangottil A; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kumaresan, A; Das, Subrata K; Kaushik, Jai K; Mohanty, Ashok K

    2012-12-01

    Oviductin is a high molecular weight oviduct-specific glycoprotein secreted by the non-ciliated epithelial cells of oviduct during estrous cycle and early pregnancy. It plays an important role during fertilization and early embryonic development. The oviductin gene from oviductal tissues of buffalo was successfully cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis revealed that buffalo and cattle oviductin share very high homology between their cDNA sequences. The predicted amino acid sequences of the buffalo oviductin exhibited the highest percent of identity of 97 % with bovine followed by 94 % with goat, 93 % with sheep, 78 % with porcine, 72 % with human, 67 % with hamster and rabbit and 65 % with mouse. Oviductin was also observed to share high similarity with the mammalian chitinase, however oviductins do not show chitinase activity due to Glu→Ile mutation in the active site responsible for chitinase activity. The phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences of oviductin indicated that buffalo oviductin was closely related to its cattle counterpart, and this clustering is in accordance with the classic taxonomic relationship. Tissue specific expression of the transcripts for buffalo oviductin revealed a high level expression in oviduct and ovary followed by testis, mammary gland, kidney, while in mammary epithelial cells and liver its expression was very low. The full length matured oviductin and its domains constituting chitinase-like domain and mucin-like domain were cloned into pET and pGEX series of expression vectors and over expressed in E. coli. The soluble recombinant oviductin was successfully purified to homogeneity. Full length recombinant oviductin was expressed partially in soluble form, where as the chitinase-like and mucin-like domains of oviductin were expressed in insoluble form and aggregating to form inclusion bodies at both 37 and 16 °C induction temperatures. PMID:22782592

  4. Sequencing and analysis of 10967 full-length cDNA clones from Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R D; Chang, E; Petrescu, A; Liao, N; Kirkpatrick, R; Griffith, M; Butterfield, Y; Stott, J; Barber, S; Babakaiff, R; Matsuo, C; Wong, D; Yang, G; Smailus, D; Brown-John, M; Mayo, M; Beland, J; Gibson, S; Olson, T; Tsai, M; Featherstone, R; Chand, S; Siddiqui, A; Jang, W; Lee, E; Klein, S; Prange, C; Myers, R M; Green, E D; Wagner, L; Gerhard, D; Marra, M; Jones, S M; Holt, R

    2005-10-31

    Sequencing of full-insert clones from full-length cDNA libraries from both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis has been ongoing as part of the Xenopus Gene Collection initiative. Here we present an analysis of 10967 clones (8049 from X. laevis and 2918 from X. tropicalis). The clone set contains 2013 orthologs between X. laevis and X. tropicalis as well as 1795 paralog pairs within X. laevis. 1199 are in-paralogs, believed to have resulted from an allotetraploidization event approximately 30 million years ago, and the remaining 546 are likely out-paralogs that have resulted from more ancient gene duplications, prior to the divergence between the two species. We do not detect any evidence for positive selection by the Yang and Nielsen maximum likelihood method of approximating d{sub N}/d{sub S}. However, d{sub N}/d{sub S} for X. laevis in-paralogs is elevated relative to X. tropicalis orthologs. This difference is highly significant, and indicates an overall relaxation of selective pressures on duplicated gene pairs. Within both groups of paralogs, we found evidence of subfunctionalization, manifested as differential expression of paralogous genes among tissues, as measured by EST information from public resources. We have observed, as expected, a higher instance of subfunctionalization in out-paralogs relative to in-paralogs.

  5. Cloning and sequence of two different cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in tomato.

    PubMed

    Van der Straeten, D; Van Wiemeersch, L; Goodman, H M; Van Montagu, M

    1990-06-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase; S-adenosyl-L-methionine methylthioadenosine-lyase, EC 4.4.1.14), the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis, was purified 5000-fold from induced tomato pericarp. ACC synthase activity was unambiguously correlated with a 45-kDa protein by two independent methods. Peptide sequences were obtained both from the N terminus after electroblotting and from tryptic peptides separated by reversed-phase chromatography. Mixed oligonucleotide probes were used to screen a lambda gt11 library prepared from RNA of induced pericarp tissue. Putative ACC synthase clones were isolated with a frequency of 0.01%. One of these contained a 1.9-kilobase insert with a single open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 55 kDa. A second, partial cDNA clone was found that differed from the first one in 18% of its bases. Genomic Southern blotting suggests possible tandem organization of the two genes in tomato. The entire coding region was expressed in Escherichia coli and the denatured recombinant polypeptide was used to raise polyclonal antibodies. The antibody preparation both immunoinhibits and immunoprecipitates ACC synthase activity from an enriched tomato extract, confirming the identity of the clone. Northern blot analysis demonstrates that the ACC synthase messenger accumulation is coordinated with fruit ripening. PMID:2191304

  6. Cloning, expression, and sequencing of a protease gene (tpr) from Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeau, G; Lapointe, H; Péloquin, P; Mayrand, D

    1992-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a highly proteolytic organism which metabolizes small peptides and amino acids. Indirect evidence suggests that the proteases produced by this microorganism constitute an important virulence factor. In this study, a gene bank of P. gingivalis W83 DNA was constructed by cloning 0.5- to 20-kb HindIII-cut DNA fragments into Escherichia coli DH5 alpha by using the plasmid vector pUC19. A clone expressing a protease from P. gingivalis was isolated on LB agar containing 1% skim milk. The clone contained a 3.0-kb insert that coded for a protease with an apparent molecular mass of 64 kDa. Sequencing part of the 3.0-kb DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame encoding a protein of 482 amino acids with a molecular mass of 62.5 kDa. Putative promoter and termination elements flanking the open reading frame were identified. The activity expressed in E. coli was extensively characterized by using various substrates and protease inhibitors, and the results suggest that it is possibly a thiol protease. Images PMID:1322368

  7. Molecular cloning, genomic analysis, and biological properties of rat leukemia virus and the onc sequences of Rasheed rat sarcoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    Gonda, M A; Young, H A; Elser, J E; Rasheed, S; Talmadge, C B; Nagashima, K; Li, C C; Gilden, R V

    1982-01-01

    Rasheed rat sarcoma virus (RaSV) has been shown to code for a protein of 29,000 Mr not present in replication-competent rat type C helper virus (RaLV)-infected cells. This protein is a fused gene product consisting of a portion of the RaLV p15 gag protein and the transformation-specific 21,000 Mr (p21) ras protein, which is also found in Harvey murine sarcoma virus. We now report the molecular cloning of both the SD-1 (Sprague-Dawley) strain of RaLV and the transforming ras sequences of RaSV. Heteroduplex analysis of these cloned DNAs demonstrated that the RaSV ras gene (v-Ra-ras) was inserted into the rat type C viral genome with a small deletion of RaLV genetic information in the 5' region of the gag gene and that the v-Ra-ras gene (0.72 kilobase pair) is homologous to and colinear with the p21 ras gene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus (v-Ha-ras). Restriction enzyme mapping confirmed the homology demonstrated by heteroduplex mapping, showing strong site conservation of restriction endonucleases known to cleave v-Ha-ras. Cloned v-Ra-ras DNA transformed NIH 3T3 cells, inducing the synthesis of the p29 RaSVgag-ras protein. Images PMID:6292516

  8. Sequences of cDNA Clones from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen sequences have been deposited to augment the expressed sequences of Lygus lineolaris in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, GenBank. These sequences were obtained from laboratory reared specimens. Total RNA was extracted from specimens, and then pooled and used to ob...

  9. Discovery of Ethanol-Responsive Small RNAs in Zymomonas mobilis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seung Hee; Lei, Roy; Henninger, Trey D.

    2014-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is a bacterium that can produce ethanol by fermentation. Due to its unique metabolism and efficient ethanol production, Z. mobilis has attracted special interest for biofuel energy applications; an important area of study is the regulation of those specific metabolic pathways. Small RNAs (sRNAs) have been studied as molecules that function as transcriptional regulators in response to cellular stresses. While sRNAs have been discovered in various organisms by computational prediction and experimental approaches, their discovery in Z. mobilis has not yet been reported. In this study, we have applied transcriptome analysis and computational predictions to facilitate identification and validation of 15 novel sRNAs in Z. mobilis. We furthermore characterized their expression in the context of high and low levels of intracellular ethanol. Here, we report that 3 of the sRNAs (Zms2, Zms4, and Zms6) are differentially expressed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, when low and high ethanol productions are observed, respectively. Importantly, when we tested the effect of ethanol stress on the expression of sRNAs in Z. mobilis, Zms2, Zms6, and Zms18 showed differential expression under 5% ethanol stress conditions. These data suggest that in this organism regulatory RNAs can be associated with metabolic functions involved in ethanol stress responses. PMID:24795378

  10. Zymomonas mobilis: a novel platform for future biorefineries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of liquid fuels and biomass-based building block chemicals from microorganisms have been regarded as a competitive alternative route to traditional. Zymomonas mobilis possesses a number of desirable characteristics for its special Entner-Doudoroff pathway, which makes it an ideal platform for both metabolic engineering and commercial-scale production of desirable bio-products as the same as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on consideration of future biomass biorefinery. Z. mobilis has been studied extensively on both fundamental and applied level, which will provide a basis for industrial biotechnology in the future. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of Z. mobilis for enhancing bio-ethanol production from biomass resources has been significantly promoted by different methods (i.e. mutagenesis, adaptive laboratory evolution, specific gene knock-out, and metabolic engineering). In addition, the feasibility of representative metabolites, i.e. sorbitol, bionic acid, levan, succinic acid, isobutanol, and isobutanol produced by Z. mobilis and the strategies for strain improvements are also discussed or highlighted in this paper. Moreover, this review will present some guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using Z. mobilis as a novel industrial platform for future biofineries. PMID:25024744

  11. Zymomonas mobilis: a novel platform for future biorefineries.

    PubMed

    He, Ming Xiong; Wu, Bo; Qin, Han; Ruan, Zhi Yong; Tan, Fu Rong; Wang, Jing Li; Shui, Zong Xia; Dai, Li Chun; Zhu, Qi Li; Pan, Ke; Tang, Xiao Yu; Wang, Wen Guo; Hu, Qi Chun

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of liquid fuels and biomass-based building block chemicals from microorganisms have been regarded as a competitive alternative route to traditional. Zymomonas mobilis possesses a number of desirable characteristics for its special Entner-Doudoroff pathway, which makes it an ideal platform for both metabolic engineering and commercial-scale production of desirable bio-products as the same as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on consideration of future biomass biorefinery. Z. mobilis has been studied extensively on both fundamental and applied level, which will provide a basis for industrial biotechnology in the future. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of Z. mobilis for enhancing bio-ethanol production from biomass resources has been significantly promoted by different methods (i.e. mutagenesis, adaptive laboratory evolution, specific gene knock-out, and metabolic engineering). In addition, the feasibility of representative metabolites, i.e. sorbitol, bionic acid, levan, succinic acid, isobutanol, and isobutanol produced by Z. mobilis and the strategies for strain improvements are also discussed or highlighted in this paper. Moreover, this review will present some guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using Z. mobilis as a novel industrial platform for future biofineries. PMID:25024744

  12. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding partial putative molt-inhibiting hormone from Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zai-Zhao; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2002-09-01

    Total RNA was extracted from eyestalks of shrimp Penaeus chinensis. Eyestalk cDNA was obtained from total RNA by reverse transcription. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was initiated using eyestalk cDNA and degenerate primers designed from the amino acid sequence of molt-inhibiting hormone from shrimp Penaeus japonicus. A specific cDNA was obtained and cloned into a T vector for sequencing. The cDNA consisted of 201 base pairs and encoding for a peptide of 67 amino acid residues. The peptide of P. chinensis had the highest identity with molt-inhibiting hormones of P. japonicus. The cDNA could be a partial gene of molt-inhibiting hormones from P. chinensis. This paper reports for the first time cDNA encoding for neuropeptide of P. chinensis.

  13. Cloning, sequence, and expression of a lipase gene from Pseudomonas cepacia: lipase production in heterologous hosts requires two Pseudomonas genes.

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, S; Skov, K W; Diderichsen, B

    1991-01-01

    The lipA gene encoding an extracellular lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was cloned and sequenced. Downstream from the lipase gene an open reading frame was identified, and the corresponding gene was named limA. lipA was well expressed only in the presence of limA. limA exerts its effect both in cis and in trans and therefore produces a diffusible gene product, presumably a protein of 344 amino acids. Replacement of the lipA expression signals (promoter, ribosome-binding site, and signal peptide-coding sequences) by heterologous signals from gram-positive bacteria still resulted in limA-dependent lipA expression in Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptomyces lividans. Images PMID:1987151

  14. Vasotocin and isotocin precursors from the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni: cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Heierhorst, J; Morley, S D; Figueroa, J; Krentler, C; Lederis, K; Richter, D

    1989-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of cloned cDNAs encoding the precursors for vasotocin and isotocin have been elucidated by analyzing a lambda gt11 library constructed from poly(A)+ RNA from the hypothalamic region of the teleost fish Catostomus commersoni. Screening of the library was carried out with synthetic oligonucleotide probes deduced from the amino acid sequences of the nonapeptides vasotocin and isotocin. The cDNA nucleotide sequences predict isotocin and vasotocin prohormone precursors each consisting of a signal peptide, a hormone moiety, and a neurophysin-like molecule. However, in comparison to their mammalian counterparts, both fish neurophysins are extended at their C termini by an approximately 30 amino acid sequence with a leucine-rich core segment. These extensions show striking similarities with the glycopeptide moiety (the so-called copeptin) present in mammalian vasopressin precursors, except that they lack the consensus sequence for N-glycosylation. These data suggest that mammalian copeptin is derived from the C terminus of an ancestral neurophysin. Images PMID:2748582

  15. Identification of a 35-kilodalton serovar-cross-reactive flagellar protein, FlaB, from Leptospira interrogans by N-terminal sequencing, gene cloning, and sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, M; Surujballi, O; Nielsen, K; Nadin-Davis, S; Randall, G

    1997-01-01

    During the screening of antibodies to pathogenic leptospires, a murine monoclonal antibody (designated M138) was found to react with various serovars. An antigen of approximately 35 kDa from Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona, which reacted strongly with M138, was characterized by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and identified as a flagellin, a class B polypeptide subunit (FlaB) of the periplasmic flagella. The gene encoding the FlaB protein, flaB, was amplified from the genomic DNA of several pathogenic serovars by PCR with a single pair of oligonucleotide primers, suggesting that FlaB is highly conserved among these serovars. Cloning and sequence analysis of flaB from serovar pomona revealed that it contains an 849-bp open reading frame with a G + C content of 46.88% which encodes a 283-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 31.297 kDa and a predicted pI of 9.065. A sequence comparison of flagellin proteins revealed that the amino acid sequence is most variable in the central portion of the serovar pomona FlaB, which is believed to contain specific sequence information and which may thus be useful in the design of DNA or synthetic peptide probes suitable for the detection of infection with pathogenic leptospires. PMID:9317049

  16. A Swordless Knight: Epidemiology and Molecular Characteristics of the blaKPC-Negative Sequence Type 258 Klebsiella pneumoniae Clone

    PubMed Central

    Paikin, Svetlana; Sterlin, Yelena; Glick, Josef; Edgar, Rotem; Aronov, Rima; Schwaber, Mitchell J.; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2012-01-01

    In June 2010, a blaKPC-negative, ertapenem-resistant ST-258 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was isolated from a patient in the Laniado Medical Center (LMC). Our aims were (i) to describe its molecular characteristics and resistance mechanisms and (ii) to assess whether the blaKPC-negative ST-258 K. pneumoniae clone spreads as efficiently as its KPC-producing isogenic strain. In a prospective study, surveillance of all ertapenem-resistant, carbapenemase-negative K. pneumoniae (ERCNKP) isolates was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011 at LMC (314 beds) and from July 2008 to December 2010 at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (TASMC) (1,200 beds). Molecular typing was done by arbitrarily primed PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 8 of 42 (19%) ERCNKP isolates in LMC and 1 of 32 (3.1%) in TASMC belonged to the ST-258 clone. These strains carried the blaCTX-M-2 or the blaCTX-M-25 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene. Sequencing of the ompK genes showed a frameshift mutation in the ompK35 gene. The fate of the blaKPC-carrying plasmid, pKpQIL, was determined by S1 analysis and by PCR of the Tn4401 transposon, repA, and the truncated blaOXA-9. Plasmid analysis of the ERCNKP ST-258 isolates showed variability in plasmid composition and absence of the Tn4401 transposon and the pKpQIL plasmid. In addition, the ST-258 clone was identified in 35/35 (100%) of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates but in none of 62 ertapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates collected in the two centers. Our results suggest that ERCNKP ST-258 evolved by loss of the blaKPC-carrying plasmid pKpQIL. ERCNKP ST-258 appears to have low epidemic potential. PMID:22814467

  17. DNA sequences and composition from 12 BAC clones-derived MUSB SSR markers mapped to cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. x G. Barbadense L.)chromosomes 11 and 21

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To discover resistance (R) and/or pathogen-induced (PR) genes involved in disease response, 12 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from cv. Acala Maxxa (G. hirsutum) were sequenced at the Clemson University, Genomics Institute, Clemson, SC. These BACs derived MUSB single sequence repeat (SS...

  18. Complete sequence and development of a full-length infectious clone of an Ohio isolate of Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) is an important and widespread aphid-transmitted virus of corn. It is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae. Here we report the complete genome sequence of, and construction of an infectious clone of an Ohio isolate of MDMV-A. MDMV sequences from i...

  19. Accelerated cloning of a potato late blight-resistance gene using RenSeq and SMRT sequencing.

    PubMed

    Witek, Kamil; Jupe, Florian; Witek, Agnieszka I; Baker, David; Clark, Matthew D; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2016-06-01

    Global yields of potato and tomato crops have fallen owing to potato late blight disease, which is caused by Phytophthora infestans. Although most commercial potato varieties are susceptible to blight, many wild potato relatives show variation for resistance and are therefore a potential source of Resistance to P. infestans (Rpi) genes. Resistance breeding has exploited Rpi genes from closely related tuber-bearing potato relatives, but is laborious and slow. Here we report that the wild, diploid non-tuber-bearing Solanum americanum harbors multiple Rpi genes. We combine resistance (R) gene sequence capture (RenSeq) with single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing (SMRT RenSeq) to clone Rpi-amr3i. This technology should enable de novo assembly of complete nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptor (NLR) genes, their regulatory elements and complex multi-NLR loci from uncharacterized germplasm. SMRT RenSeq can be applied to rapidly clone multiple R genes for engineering pathogen-resistant crops. PMID:27111721

  20. Sucrose utilization by Zymomonas mobilis: formation of a levan

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, E. A.; Ribbons, D. W.; Rees, D. A.

    1966-01-01

    1. Molar growth-yield coefficients of Zymomonas mobilis for glucose, fructose, glucose plus fructose, and sucrose are reported. Yield coefficients for sucrose are appreciably lower than those for the equivalent concentrations of glucose plus fructose. 2. Only 2·6% of [U-14C]glucose supplied in the growth medium is incorporated into cell substance by Z. mobilis utilizing glucose as the energy source. 3. During growth on sucrose a levan is formed. It has been characterized and shown to resemble other bacterial levans. 4. Levan formation from sucrose could be demonstrated with both washed cell suspensions and cell extracts of Z. mobilis. 5. Sucrose phosphorylase could not be demonstrated in extracts of the organism. PMID:4287843

  1. Paradigm for industrial strain improvement identifies sodium acetate tolerance loci in Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shihui; Land, Miriam L; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Pelletier, Dale A; Lu, Tse-Yuan; Martin, S L.; Guo, Hao-Bo; Smith, Jeremy C; Brown, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    The application of systems biology tools holds promise for rational industrial microbial strain development. Here, we characterize a Zymomonas mobilis mutant (AcR) demonstrating sodium acetate tolerance that has potential importance in biofuel development. The genome changes associated with AcR are determined using microarray comparative genome sequencing (CGS) and 454-pyrosequencing. Sanger sequencing analysis is employed to validate genomic differences and to investigate CGS and 454-pyrosequencing limitations. Transcriptomics, genetic data and growth studies indicate that over-expression of the sodium-proton antiporter gene nhaA confers the elevated AcR sodium acetate tolerance phenotype. nhaA over-expression mostly confers enhanced sodium (Na{sup +}) tolerance and not acetate (Ac{sup -}) tolerance, unless both ions are present in sufficient quantities. NaAc is more inhibitory than potassium and ammonium acetate for Z. mobilis and the combination of elevated Na{sup +} and Ac{sup -} ions exerts a synergistic inhibitory effect for strain ZM4. A structural model for the NhaA sodium-proton antiporter is constructed to provide mechanistic insights. We demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae sodium-proton antiporter genes also contribute to sodium acetate, potassium acetate, and ammonium acetate tolerances. The present combination of classical and systems biology tools is a paradigm for accelerated industrial strain improvement and combines benefits of few a priori assumptions with detailed, rapid, mechanistic studies.

  2. Single-Cell Analysis and Next-Generation Immuno-Sequencing Show That Multiple Clones Persist in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kriangkum, Jitra; Motz, Sarah N.; Mack, Tanner; Beiggi, Sara; Baigorri, Eva; Kuppusamy, Hemalatha; Belch, Andrew R.; Johnston, James B.; Pilarski, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) provides a unique molecular signature; however, we demonstrate that 26/198 CLL patients (13%) had more than one IGH rearrangement, indicating the power of molecular technology over phenotypic analysis. Single-cell PCR analysis and next-generation immuno-sequencing identified IGH-defined clones. In 23% (18/79) of cases whose clones carried unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes (U-CLL), IGH rearrangements were bialleic with one productive (P) and one non-productive (NP) allele. Two U-CLL were biclonal, each clone being monoallelic (P). In 119 IGHV-mutated (M-CLL) cases, one had biallelic rearrangements in their CLL (P/NP) and five had 2–4 distinct clones. Allelic exclusion was maintained in all B-clones analyzed. Based on single-cell PCR analysis, 5/11 partner clones (45%) reached levels of >5x109 cells/L, suggesting second CLL clones. Partner clones persisted over years. Conventional IGH characterization and next-generation sequencing of 13 CLL, 3 multiple myeloma, 2 Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia and 3 age-matched healthy donors consistently identified the same rearranged IGH sequences. Most multiple clones occurred in M-CLL, perhaps indicative of weak clonal dominance, thereby associating with a good prognosis. In contrast, biallelic CLL occurred primarily in U-CLL thus being associated with poor prognosis. Extending beyond intra-clonal diversity, molecular analysis of clonal evolution and apparent subclones in CLL may also reflect inter-clonal diversity. PMID:26353109

  3. Molecular cloning and organization of two leghaemoglobin genomic sequences of soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D.; Brisson, N.; Goodchild, B.; Verma, D. P. S.

    1981-02-01

    The leghaemoglobins (Lb) are myoglobin-like proteins found in all nitrogen-fixing root nodules of legumes1-3. They are encoded by plant nuclear genes4 which are specifically induced and form the predominant protein in nodules developed in symbiosis with the appropriate species of Rhizobium. The Lb is located in the host-cell cytoplasm of the infected cell5 and is thought to facilitate oxygen diffusion6,7. Amino acid sequencing of the soybean Lbs has revealed at least four primary structures differing only in a few amino acids8-10. We have previously estimated about 40 copies of Lb sequences in the soybean (Glycine max L.) genome by cDNA hybridization4. To investigate Lb gene organization and function, we prepared and characterized a Lb cDNA recombinant molecule, pLb1, and used it to isolate two genomic Lb sequences from a library constructed in Charon 4. We report here that the organization of the two genomic Lb sequences is quite distinct and one of them seems to have an intervening sequence(s). Hybridization of pLb1 with genomic DNA from various tissues showed that Lb sequences are dispersed through more than 30 kilobases of genomic DNA and that there is no apparent sequence rearrangement or methylation changes following induction of Lb genes.

  4. Controlling Morphological Instability of Zymomonas mobilis Strains in Continuous Culture

    PubMed Central

    Fein, Jared E.; Zawadzki, Bogdan C.; Lawford, Hugh G.; Lawford, G. Ross

    1983-01-01

    Growth of Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 29191 and CP4 in a continuous stirred tank fermentor resulted in the selection of stable flocculating variants. Factors responsible for enhancing the system pressures selective for the morphological variants were identified. By incorporating some modifications into the design of the fermentor, it was possible to achieve steady-state operation of the chemostat with both wild-type and flocculating strains. Biochemical and microscopic studies were performed to elucidate the mechanism of flocculation in Z. mobilis. Images PMID:16346320

  5. Single Zymomonas mobilis strain for xylose and arabinose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, M.; Chou, Y.C.; Picataggio, S.K.; Finkelstein, M.

    1998-12-01

    This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of added genes are under the control of Z. mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting glucose, xylose and arabinose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose or starch, to produce ethanol. 6 figs.

  6. Single zymomonas mobilis strain for xylose and arabinose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; Picataggio, Stephen K.; Finkelstein, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of added genes are under the control of Z. mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting glucose, xylose and arabinose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose or starch, to produce ethanol.

  7. Demonstration of biological activity and nucleotide sequence of an in vitro synthesized clone of the Moloney murine sarcoma virus mos gene.

    PubMed Central

    Donoghue, D J

    1982-01-01

    A clone of the Moloney murine sarcoma virus mos gene derived by in vitro reverse transcription was characterized. When assayed for focus formation by DNA transfection on NIH/3T3 cells, this clone was biologically inactive, presumably due to the absence of a long terminal repeat sequence. Therefore, a long terminal repeat was inserted into the clone by in vitro recombination, after which the most gene was able to transform NIH/3T3 cells efficiently. The nucleotide sequence encompassing the transforming region of this clone was determined. A single long open reading frame was observed, which potentially encodes a polypeptide of 41,000 daltons. This open reading frame initiates with the first five amino acids of the murine leukemia virus env gene, after which it enters the mos sequence, where it terminates. The nucleotide sequence described in this paper was compared with other sequences of mos in an effort to resolve discrepancies in the position of the long open reading frame. Although Moloney murine sarcoma virus retains the 3' splicing site of the murine leukemia virus env gene, a mos-specific mRNA which corresponds structurally to the murine leukemia virus env mRNA was not identified. The sequence described here revealed a single nucleotide change in the proposed env gene 3' splicing site which was retained in Moloney murine sarcoma virus. This deviation from the consensus 3' splicing sequence may underlie the observed absence of mos expression via the env gene splicing pathway. Images PMID:7045395

  8. Investigation of bacterial and archaeal communities: novel protocols using modern sequencing by Illumina MiSeq and traditional DGGE-cloning.

    PubMed

    Kraková, Lucia; Šoltys, Katarína; Budiš, Jaroslav; Grivalský, Tomáš; Ďuriš, František; Pangallo, Domenico; Szemes, Tomáš

    2016-09-01

    Different protocols based on Illumina high-throughput DNA sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-cloning were developed and applied for investigating hot spring related samples. The study was focused on three target genes: archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA and mcrA of methanogenic microflora. Shorter read lengths of the currently most popular technology of sequencing by Illumina do not allow analysis of the complete 16S rRNA region, or of longer gene fragments, as was the case of Sanger sequencing. Here, we demonstrate that there is no need for special indexed or tailed primer sets dedicated to short variable regions of 16S rRNA since the presented approach allows the analysis of complete bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons (V1-V9) and longer archaeal 16S rRNA and mcrA sequences. Sample augmented with transposon is represented by a set of approximately 300 bp long fragments that can be easily sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Furthermore, a low proportion of chimeric sequences was observed. DGGE-cloning based strategies were performed combining semi-nested PCR, DGGE and clone library construction. Comparing both investigation methods, a certain degree of complementarity was observed confirming that the DGGE-cloning approach is not obsolete. Novel protocols were created for several types of laboratories, utilizing the traditional DGGE technique or using the most modern Illumina sequencing. PMID:27338271

  9. [Cloning of full-length coding sequence of tree shrew CD4 and prediction of its molecular characteristics].

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei-Wei; Gao, Yue-Dong; Guo, Yan; Huang, Jing-Fei; Xiao, Chang; Li, Zuo-Sheng; Zhang, Hua-Tang

    2012-02-01

    The tree shrews, as an ideal animal model receiving extensive attentions to human disease research, demands essential research tools, in particular cellular markers and monoclonal antibodies for immunological studies. In this paper, a 1 365 bp of the full-length CD4 cDNA encoding sequence was cloned from total RNA in peripheral blood of tree shrews, the sequence completes two unknown fragment gaps of tree shrews predicted CD4 cDNA in the GenBank database, and its molecular characteristics were analyzed compared with other mammals by using biology software such as Clustal W2.0 and so forth. The results showed that the extracellular and intracellular domains of tree shrews CD4 amino acid sequence are conserved. The tree shrews CD4 amino acid sequence showed a close genetic relationship with Homo sapiens and Macaca mulatta. Most regions of the tree shrews CD4 molecule surface showed positive charges as humans. However, compared with CD4 extracellular domain D1 of human, CD4 D1 surface of tree shrews showed more negative charges, and more two N-glycosylation sites, which may affect antibody binding. This study provides a theoretical basis for the preparation and functional studies of CD4 monoclonal antibody. PMID:22345010

  10. Cloning and sequencing of complement component C9 and its linkage to DOC-2 in the pufferfish Fugu rubripes.

    PubMed

    Yeo, G S; Elgar, G; Sandford, R; Brenner, S

    1997-10-24

    The Japanese pufferfish Fugu rubripes has a 400 Mb genome with high gene density and minimal non-coding complexity, and is therefore an ideal vertebrate model for sequence comparison. The identification of regions of conserved synteny between Fugu and humans would greatly accelerate the mapping and ordering of genes. Fugu C9 was cloned and sequenced as a first step in an attempt to characterize the region in Fugu homologous to human chromosome 5p13. The 11 exons of the Fugu C9 gene share 33% identity with human C9 and span 2.9 kb of genomic DNA. By comparison, human C9 spans 90 kb, representing a 30-fold difference in size. We have also determined by cosmid sequence scanning that DOC-2, a tumour suppresser gene which also maps to human 5p13, lies 6-7 kb from C9 in a head-to-head or 5' to 5' orientation. These results demonstrate that the Fugu C9/DOC-2 locus is a region of conserved synteny. Sequence scanning of overlapping cosmids has identified two other genes, GAS-1 and FBP, both of which map to human chromosome 9q22, and lie adjacent to the Fugu C9/DOC-2 locus, indicating the boundary between two syntenic regions. PMID:9373156

  11. Cloning and sequence analysis of the heat-stable acrylamidase from a newly isolated thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius AUT-01.

    PubMed

    Cha, Minseok; Chambliss, Glenn H

    2013-02-01

    A thermophilic bacterium capable of degrading acrylamide, AUT-01, was isolated from soil collected from a hot spring area in Montana, USA. The thermophilic strain grew with 0.2 % glucose as the sole carbon source and 1.4 mM acrylamide as the sole nitrogen source. The isolate AUT-01 was identified as Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius based on 16S rDNA sequence. An enzyme from the strain capable of transforming acrylamide to acrylic acid was purified by a series of chromatographic columns. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 38 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme activity had pH and temperature optima of 6.2 and 70 ºC, respectively. The influence of different metals and amino acids on the ability of the purified protein to transform acrylamide to acrylic acid was evaluated. The gene from G. thermoglucosidasius encoding the acrylamidase was cloned, sequenced, and compared to aliphatic amidases from other bacterial strains. The G. thermoglucosidasius gene, amiE, encoded a 38 kDa, monomeric, heat-stable amidase that catalysed the cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bonds in acrylamide. Comparison of the amino acid sequence to other bacterial amidases revealed 99 and 82 % similarity to the amino acid sequences of Bacillus stearothermophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. PMID:22639115

  12. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA encoding rat liver cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD).

    PubMed

    Reymond, I; Sergeant, A; Tappaz, M

    1996-06-01

    The taurine biosynthesis enzyme, cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD), was purified to homogeneity from rat liver. Three CSD peptides generated by tryptic cleavage were isolated and partially sequenced. Two of them showed a marked homology with glutamate decarboxylase and their respective position on the CSD amino acid sequence was postulated accordingly. Using appropriate degenerated primers derived from these two peptides, a PCR amplified DNA fragment was generated from liver poly(A)+ mRNA, cloned and used as a probe to screen a rat liver cDNA library. Three cDNAs, length around 1800 bp, were isolated which all contained an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 493 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 55.2 kDa close to the experimental values for CSD. The encoded protein contained the sequence of the three peptides isolated from homogenous liver CSD. Our data confirm and significantly extend those recently published (Kaisaki et al. (1995) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1262, 79-82). Indeed, an additional base pair found 1371 bp downstream from the initiation codon led to a shift in the open reading frame which extended the carboxy-terminal end by 15 amino acid residues and altogether modified 36 amino acids. The validity of this correction is supported by the finding that the corrected reading frame encoded a peptide issued from CSD tryptic cleavage that was not encoded anywhere in the CSD sequence previously reported. PMID:8679699

  13. Cloning and comparative mapping of a human chromosome 4-specific alpha satellite DNA sequence

    SciTech Connect

    D'Aiuto, L.; Marzella, R.; Archidiacono, N.; Rocchi, M. ); Antonacci, R. )

    1993-11-01

    The authors have isolated and characterized two human alphoid DNA clones: p4n1/4 and pZ4.1. Clone p4n1/4 identifies specifically the centromeric region of chromosome 4; pZ4.1 recognizes a subset of alphoid DNA shared by chromosomes 4 and 9. The specificity was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments on metaphase spreads and Southern blotting analysis of human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. The genomic organization of both subsets was also investigated. Comparative mapping on chimpanzee and gorilla chromosomes was performed. p4n1/4 hybridizes to chimpanzee chromosomes 11 and 13, homologs of human chromosomes 9 and 2q, respectively. On gorilla metaphase spreads, p4n1/4 hybridizes exclusively to the centromeric region of chromosome 19, partially homologous to human chromosome 17. No hybridization signal was detected on chromosome 3 of both chimpanzee and gorilla, in both species homolog of human chromosome 4. Identical comparative mapping results were obtained using pZ4.1 probe, although the latter recognizes an alphoid subset distinct from the one recognized by p4n1/4. The implications of these results in the evolution of centromeric regions of primate chromosomes are discussed. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Cloning and sequence analysis of complete gene encoding an alkaline lipase from Penicillium cyclopium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H M; Wu, M C; Guo, J; Li, J F

    2011-01-01

    The complete gene (PG37 lipI) encoding an alkaline lipase (PG37 LipI) was cloned from the genomic DNA of Penicillium cyclopium PG37. The cloned PG37 lipI is 2020 bp in length, consisting of 632 bp of the 5' flanking promoter region and 1388 bp of the downstream fragment that contains 6 exons and 5 short introns. The promoter region harbors putative TATA box, CAAT box and several transcription factor binding sites. The open reading frame (ORF) encodes a PG37 LipI of 285 amino acid residues, which was predicted to contain a 20-aa signal peptide, a 7-aa propeptide and a 258-aa mature peptide with a conserved motif Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly. However, PG37 LipI shows only 32%, 30%, 28% and 26% identity with lipases of Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium camembertii, Thermomyces lanuginosus and Rhizomucor miehei, respectively. It was predicted that the main secondary structures of PG37 LipI are alpha-helix and random coil. Three amino acid residues, Ser132-Asp188-His241, compose the enzymatic active center in the tertiary structure. PMID:22288192

  15. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of thermophilic Bacillus sp. strain TB-90 urease gene complex in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, M; Hidaka, M; Nakamura, A; Masaki, H; Uozumi, T

    1994-01-01

    The urease of thermophilic Bacillus sp. strain TB-90 is composed of three subunits with molecular masses of 61, 12, and 11 kDa. By using synthetic oligonucleotide probes based on N-terminal amino acid sequences of each subunit, we cloned a 3.2-kb EcoRI fragment of TB-90 genomic DNA. Moreover, we cloned two other DNA fragments by gene walking starting from this fragment. Finally, we reconstructed in vitro a 6.2-kb DNA fragment which expressed catalytically active urease in Escherichia coli by combining these three DNA fragments. Nucleotide sequencing analysis revealed that the urease gene complex consists of nine genes, which were designed ureA, ureB, ureC, ureE, ureF, ureG, ureD, ureH, and ureI in order of arrangement. The structural genes ureA, ureB, and ureC encode the 11-, 12-, and 61-kDa subunits, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of UreD, UreE, UreF, and UreG, the gene products of four accessory genes, are homologous to those of the corresponding Ure proteins of Klebsiella aerogenes. UreD, UreF, and UreG were essential for expression of urease activity in E. coli and are suggested to play important roles in the maturation step of the urease in a co- and/or posttranslational manner. On the other hand, UreH and UreI exhibited no significant similarity to the known accessory proteins of other bacteria. However, UreH showed 23% amino acid identity to the Alcaligenes eutrophus HoxN protein, a high-affinity nickel transporter. Images PMID:8288539

  16. Serial Next Generation Sequencing of Circulating Cell Free DNA Evaluating Tumour Clone Response To Molecularly Targeted Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Frenel, Jean Sebastien; Carreira, Suzanne; Goodall, Jane; Roda, Desam; Perez-Lopez, Raquel; Tunariu, Nina; Riisnaes, Ruth; Miranda, Susana; Figueiredo, Ines; NavaRodrigues, Daniel; Smith, Alan; Leux, Christophe; Garcia-Murillas, Isaac; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Lorente, David; Mateo, Joaquin; Ong, Michael; Yap, Timothy A; Banerji, Udai; Tandefelt, Delila Gasi; Turner, Nick; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann S

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated whether next generation sequencing (NGS) of cfDNA could be used for patient selection and as a tumor clone response biomarker in patients with advanced cancers participating in early phase clinical trials of targeted drugs. Methods Plasma samples from patients with known tumor mutations who completed at least 2 courses of investigational targeted therapy were collected monthly, until disease progression. NGS was performed sequentially on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. Results cfDNA was extracted from 39 patients with various tumor types. Treatments administered targeted mailnly the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway (n=28) or MEK (n=7). Overall 159 plasma samples were sequenced with a mean sequencing coverage achieved of 1,685X across experiments. At trial initiation (C1D1), 23 of 39 (59%) patients had at least one mutation identified in cfDNA (mean 2, range 1-5). TP53, PIK3CA and KRAS were the top 3 mutated genes identified, with 16 (39%), 9 (22%) and 8 (17%) different mutations, respectively. Out of these 23 patients, 13 received a targeted drug matching their tumor profile. For the 23 patients with cfDNA mutation at C1D1, the monitoring of mutation allele frequency (AF) in consecutive plasma samples during treatment with targeted drugs demonstrated potential treatment associated clonal responses. Longitudinal monitoring of cfDNA samples with multiple mutations indicated the presence of separate clones behaving discordantly. Molecular changes at cfDNA mutation level were associated with time to disease progression by RECIST criteria. Conclusion Targeted NGS of cfDNA has potential clinical utility to monitor the delivery of targeted therapies. PMID:26085511

  17. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of thermophilic Bacillus sp. strain TB-90 urease gene complex in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Hidaka, M; Nakamura, A; Masaki, H; Uozumi, T

    1994-01-01

    The urease of thermophilic Bacillus sp. strain TB-90 is composed of three subunits with molecular masses of 61, 12, and 11 kDa. By using synthetic oligonucleotide probes based on N-terminal amino acid sequences of each subunit, we cloned a 3.2-kb EcoRI fragment of TB-90 genomic DNA. Moreover, we cloned two other DNA fragments by gene walking starting from this fragment. Finally, we reconstructed in vitro a 6.2-kb DNA fragment which expressed catalytically active urease in Escherichia coli by combining these three DNA fragments. Nucleotide sequencing analysis revealed that the urease gene complex consists of nine genes, which were designed ureA, ureB, ureC, ureE, ureF, ureG, ureD, ureH, and ureI in order of arrangement. The structural genes ureA, ureB, and ureC encode the 11-, 12-, and 61-kDa subunits, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of UreD, UreE, UreF, and UreG, the gene products of four accessory genes, are homologous to those of the corresponding Ure proteins of Klebsiella aerogenes. UreD, UreF, and UreG were essential for expression of urease activity in E. coli and are suggested to play important roles in the maturation step of the urease in a co- and/or posttranslational manner. On the other hand, UreH and UreI exhibited no significant similarity to the known accessory proteins of other bacteria. However, UreH showed 23% amino acid identity to the Alcaligenes eutrophus HoxN protein, a high-affinity nickel transporter. PMID:8288539

  18. A high density physical map of chromosome 1BL supports evolutionary studies, map-based cloning and sequencing in wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As for other major crops, achieving a complete wheat genome sequence is essential for the application of genomics to breeding new and improved varieties. To overcome the complexities of the large, highly repetitive and hexaploid wheat genome, the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium established a chromosome-based strategy that was validated by the construction of the physical map of chromosome 3B. Here, we present improved strategies for the construction of highly integrated and ordered wheat physical maps, using chromosome 1BL as a template, and illustrate their potential for evolutionary studies and map-based cloning. Results Using a combination of novel high throughput marker assays and an assembly program, we developed a high quality physical map representing 93% of wheat chromosome 1BL, anchored and ordered with 5,489 markers including 1,161 genes. Analysis of the gene space organization and evolution revealed that gene distribution and conservation along the chromosome results from the superimposition of the ancestral grass and recent wheat evolutionary patterns, leading to a peak of synteny in the central part of the chromosome arm and an increased density of non-collinear genes towards the telomere. With a density of about 11 markers per Mb, the 1BL physical map provides 916 markers, including 193 genes, for fine mapping the 40 QTLs mapped on this chromosome. Conclusions Here, we demonstrate that high marker density physical maps can be developed in complex genomes such as wheat to accelerate map-based cloning, gain new insights into genome evolution, and provide a foundation for reference sequencing. PMID:23800011

  19. Mining tissue-specific contigs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) for promoter cloning by deep transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lili; Duan, Xiaohong; Liang, Chun; Shu, Changlong; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the most important oil legumes in the world, is heavily damaged by white grubs. Tissue-specific promoters are needed to incorporate insect resistance genes into peanut by genetic transformation to control the subterranean pests. Transcriptome sequencing is the most effective way to analyze differential gene expression in this non-model species and contribute to promoter cloning. The transcriptomes of the roots, seeds and leaves of peanut were sequenced using Illumina technology. A simple digital expression profile was established based on number of transcripts per million clean tags (TPM) from different tissues. Subsequently, 584 root-specific candidate transcript assembly contigs (TACs) and 316 seed-specific candidate TACs were identified. Among these candidate TACs, 55.3% were root-specific and 64.6% were seed-specific by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, the consistency of semi-quantitative RT-PCR with the simple digital expression profile was correlated with the length and TPM value of TACs. The results of gene ontology showed that some root-specific TACs are involved in stress resistance and respond to auxin stimulus, whereas, seed-specific candidate TACs are involved in embryo development, lipid storage and long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. One root-specific promoter was cloned and characterized. We developed a high-yield screening system in peanut by establishing a simple digital expression profile based on Illumina sequencing. The feasible and rapid method presented by this study can be used for other non-model crops to explore tissue-specific or spatially specific promoters. PMID:25231965

  20. Cloning, sequencing, and regulation of a xylanase gene from the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans Y-2311-1

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1994-09-01

    Aureobasidium pullulans Y-2311-1 growing on xylan secretes four major xylanases with different masses and isoelectric points. Two of these enzymes, named APX-I and APX-II, have been purified previously. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences are identical except that APX-I has Asp and APX-II has Asn at position 7. An 83-bp DNA region was amplified by PCR and used as a probe for the xylanase gene cloning. The longest cDNA (xynA) obtained by cDNA cloning and PCR amplification consisted of 895 bp. A. pullulans xynA had an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 221 amino acids with a calculated mass of 23,531 Da and contained a putative 34-amino-acid signal peptide in front of the amino terminus of the mature enzyme. Strong homology was found between the deduced amino acid sequence of XynA and some xylanases from bacterial and fungal sources. It is suggested that A. pullulans XynA belongs to the family G glycanases. Northern (RNA blot) analysis revealed that only one transcript of 900 bases was present in cultures grown in medium containing D-xylose or oat spelt xylan. Transcription was completely repressed in the presence of glucose in the medium. Southern blot analysis indicated that A. pullulans xynA was present as a single copy in the genome. Comparison between the genomic and cDNA sequences revealed that one intron of 59 bp was present in the coding region. The data presented suggest that the highly active xylanases, APX-I and APX-II, secreted by A. pullulans are encoded by the same gene. 36 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Cloning, Sequencing, and In Silico Analysis of β-Propeller Phytase Bacillus licheniformis Strain PB-13

    PubMed Central

    Sangwan, Punesh; Verma, A. K.; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    β-Propeller phytases (BPPhy) are widely distributed in nature and play a major role in phytate-phosphorus cycling. In the present study, a BPPhy gene from Bacillus licheniformis strain was expressed in E. coli with a phytase activity of 1.15 U/mL and specific activity of 0.92 U/mg proteins. The expressed enzyme represented a full length ORF “PhyPB13” of 381 amino acid residues and differs by 3 residues from the closest similar existing BPPhy sequences. The PhyPB13 sequence was characterized in silico using various bioinformatic tools to better understand structural, functional, and evolutionary aspects of BPPhy class by multiple sequence alignment and homology search, phylogenetic tree construction, variation in biochemical features, and distribution of motifs and superfamilies. In all sequences, conserved sites were observed toward their N-terminus and C-terminus. Cysteine was not present in the sequence. Overall, three major clusters were observed in phylogenetic tree with variation in biophysical characteristics. A total of 10 motifs were reported with motif “1” observed in all 44 protein sequences and might be used for diversity and expression analysis of BPPhy enzymes. This study revealed important sequence features of BPPhy and pave a way for determining catalytic mechanism and selection of phytase with desirable characteristics. PMID:24864215

  2. Cloning and DNA sequence of the gene coding for Clostridium thermocellum cellulase Ss (CelS), a major cellulosome component.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W K; Kruus, K; Wu, J H

    1993-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 produces an extracellular cellulase system capable of hydrolyzing crystalline cellulose. The enzyme system involves a multicomponent protein aggregate (the cellulosome) with a total molecular weight in the millions, impeding mechanistic studies. However, two major components of the aggregate, SS (M(r) = 82,000) and SL (M(r) = 250,000), which act synergistically to hydrolyze crystalline cellulose, have been identified (J. H. D. Wu, W. H. Orme-Johnson, and A. L. Demain, Biochemistry 27:1703-1709, 1988). To further study this synergism, we cloned and sequenced the gene (celS) coding for the SS (CelS) protein by using a degenerate, inosine-containing oligonucleotide probe whose sequence was derived from the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the CelS protein. The open reading frame of celS consisted of 2,241 bp encoding 741 amino acid residues. It encoded the N-terminal amino acid sequence and two internal peptide sequences determined for the native CelS protein. A putative ribosome binding site was identified at the 5' end of the gene. A putative signal peptide of 27 amino acid residues was adjacent to the N terminus of the CelS protein. The predicted molecular weight of the secreted protein was 80,670. The celS gene contained a conserved reiterated sequence encoding 24 amino acid residues found in proteins encoded by many other clostridial cel or xyn genes. A palindromic structure was found downstream from the open reading frame. The celS gene is unique among the known cel genes of C. thermocellum. However, it is highly homologous to the partial open reading frame found in C. cellulolyticum and in Caldocellum saccharolyticum, indicating that these genes belong to a new family of cel genes. Images PMID:8444792

  3. Cloning and sequence of the gene for heat shock protein 60 from Chlamydia trachomatis and immunological reactivity of the protein.

    PubMed Central

    Cerrone, M C; Ma, J J; Stephens, R S

    1991-01-01

    We isolated and sequenced the gene for the chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (HSP-60) from a Chlamydia trachomatis genomic library by molecular genetic methods. The DNA sequence derived revealed an operon-like gene structure with two open reading frames encoding an 11,122- and a 57,956-Da protein. The translated amino acid sequence of the larger open reading frame showed a high degree of homology with known sequences for HSP-60 from several bacterial species as well as with plant and human sequences. By using the determined nucleotide sequence, fragments of the gene were cloned into the plasmid vector pGEX for expression as fusion proteins consisting of glutathione S-transferase and peptide portions of the chlamydial HSP-60. HSP-60 antigenic identity was confirmed by an immunoblot with anti-HSP-60 rabbit serum. Sera from patients that exhibited both high antichlamydial titers and reactivity to chlamydial HSP-60 showed reactivity on immunoblots to two fusion proteins that represented portions of the carboxyl-terminal half of the molecule, whereas fusion proteins defining the amino-terminal half were nonreactive. No reactivity with the fusion proteins was seen with sera from patients that had been previously screened as nonreactive to native chlamydial HSP-60 but which had high antichlamydial titers. Sera from noninfected control subjects also exhibited no reactivity. Definition of recognized HSP-60 epitopes may provide a predictive screen for those patients with C. trachomatis infections who may develop damaging sequelae, as well as providing tools for the study of immunopathogenic mechanisms of Chlamydia-induced disease. Images PMID:1987066

  4. Analysis of a cDNA clone expressing a human autoimmune antigen: full-length sequence of the U2 small nuclear RNA-associated B antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Habets, W.J.; Sillekens, P.T.G.; Hoet, M.H.; Schalken, J.A.; Roebroek, A.J.M.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Van de Ven, W.J.M.; Van Venrooij, W.J.

    1987-04-01

    A U2 small nuclear RNA-associated protein, designated B'', was recently identified as the target antigen for autoimmune sera from certain patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. Such antibodies enabled them to isolate cDNA clone lambdaHB''-1 from a phage lambdagt11 expression library. This clone appeared to code for the B'' protein as established by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mRNA. The identity of clone lambdaHB''-1 was further confirmed by partial peptide mapping and analysis of the reactivity of the recombinant antigen with monospecific and monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 1015-base-pair cDNA insert of clone lambdaHB''-1 revealed a large open reading frame of 800 nucleotides containing the coding sequence for a polypeptide of 25,457 daltons. In vitro transcription of the lambdaHB''-1 cDNA insert and subsequent translation resulted in a protein product with the molecular size of the B'' protein. These data demonstrate that clone lambdaHB''-1 contains the complete coding sequence of this antigen. The deduced polypeptide sequence contains three very hydrophilic regions that might constitute RNA binding sites and/or antigenic determinants. These findings might have implications both for the understanding of the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases as well as for the elucidation of the biological function of autoimmune antigens.

  5. Cloning and sequence analysis of endoglucanase genes from an industrial fungus, Aspergillus kawachii.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yukari; Hinoki, Yumi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Ito, Kiyoshi

    2003-09-01

    Three endoglucanase genes (cel5A, cel5B, and cel61A) were cloned from an industrial fungus, Aspergillus kawachii. Yeasts transformed with these cDNAs showed endoglucanase activity in medium. Cel5A and Cel61A contained a type 1 cellulose-binding domain (CBD1) at the C-terminus of the enzyme. The putative catalytic regions of Cel5A and Cel5B showed homology with various endoglucanases belonging glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5). Cel5B showed high homology with Cel5A in catalytic region, but it lacked CBD1 and linker. The cel5A contained four introns, whereas cel5B contained five introns. The putative catalytic region of Cel61A showed homology with enzymes belonging to GH61. The cel61A contained no introns. PMID:14519993

  6. Cloning, mapping, and sequencing of plasmid R100 traM and finP genes.

    PubMed Central

    Fee, B E; Dempsey, W B

    1986-01-01

    The fertility control gene finP, the transfer gene traM, and the transfer origin, oriT, of plasmid R100 were isolated on a single 1.2-kilobase EcoRV fragment and were then subcloned as HaeIII fragments. The sequence of the 754-base-pair finP-containing fragment is reported here. In addition to the finP gene, the sequence includes all but two bases of the R100 traM open reading frame and apparently all of the leader mRNA sequence and amino end of the traJ gene of R100. The sequence contains two open reading frames which encode small proteins on the opposite strand from the traM and traJ genes. It also shows two sets of inverted repeats that have the characteristics of transcription terminators. One set is positioned as if it was the traM terminator, and the other set, which is downstream from the first, sits in the middle of the leader mRNA sequence for traJ. On the bottom strand, this inverted repeat has the structure of a rho-independent terminator. Other less-stable inverted repeats overlap this second terminator in the same way as is seen in attenuation sequences, and the two separate small open reading frames on the bottom strand also totally overlap the stem of the rho-independent terminator, suggesting that their translation would cause shifting of termination to the bottom strand homolog of the putative traM terminator. The finP gene product was not identified, but the gene was mapped to the sequence which contains the traJ gene. It either overlaps traJ or is antisense to it. PMID:3522549

  7. Sequence analysis of a complete 1.66 Mb Prochlorococcus marinus MED4 genome cloned in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tagwerker, Christian; Dupont, Christopher L.; Karas, Bogumil J.; Ma, Li; Chuang, Ray-Yuan; Benders, Gwynedd A.; Ramon, Adi; Novotny, Mark; Montague, Michael G.; Venepally, Pratap; Brami, Daniel; Schwartz, Ariel; Andrews-Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Gibson, Daniel G.; Glass, John I.; Smith, Hamilton O.; Venter, J. Craig; Hutchison, Clyde A.

    2012-01-01

    Marine cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorococcus represent numerically dominant photoautotrophs residing throughout the euphotic zones in the open oceans and are major contributors to the global carbon cycle. Prochlorococcus has remained a genetically intractable bacterium due to slow growth rates and low transformation efficiencies using standard techniques. Our recent successes in cloning and genetically engineering the AT-rich, 1.1 Mb Mycoplasma mycoides genome in yeast encouraged us to explore similar methods with Prochlorococcus. Prochlorococcus MED4 has an AT-rich genome, with a GC content of 30.8%, similar to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (38%), and contains abundant yeast replication origin consensus sites (ACS) evenly distributed around its 1.66 Mb genome. Unlike Mycoplasma cells, which use the UGA codon for tryptophane, Prochlorococcus uses the standard genetic code. Despite this, we observed no toxic effects of several partial and 15 whole Prochlorococcus MED4 genome clones in S. cerevisiae. Sequencing of a Prochlorococcus genome purified from yeast identified 14 single base pair missense mutations, one frameshift, one single base substitution to a stop codon and one dinucleotide transversion compared to the donor genomic DNA. We thus provide evidence of transformation, replication and maintenance of this 1.66 Mb intact bacterial genome in S. cerevisiae. PMID:22941652

  8. Molecular cloning and long terminal repeat sequences of human endogenous retrovirus genes related to types A and B retrovirus genes

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, M.

    1986-06-01

    By using a DNA fragment primarily encoding the reverse transcriptase (pol) region of the Syrian hamster intracisternal A particle (IAP; type A retrovirus) gene as a probe, human endogenous retrovirus genes, tentatively termed HERV-K genes, were cloned from a fetal human liver gene library. Typical HERV-K genes were 9.1 or 9.4 kilobases in length, having long terminal repeats (LTRs) of ca. 970 base pairs. Many structural features commonly observed on the retrovirus LTRs, such as the TATAA box, polyadenylation signal, and terminal inverted repeats, were present on each LTR, and a lysine (K) tRNA having a CUU anticodon was identified as a presumed primer tRNA. The HERV-K LTR, however, had little sequence homology to either the IAP LTR or other typical oncovirus LTRs. By filter hybridization, the number of HERV-K genes was estimated to be ca. 50 copies per haploid human genome. The cloned mouse mammary tumor virus (type B) gene was found to hybridize with both the HERV-K and IAP genes to essentially the same extent.

  9. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Salmonella typhimurium dcp gene encoding dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, S; Miller, C G

    1992-01-01

    Plasmids carrying the Salmonella typhimurium dcp gene were isolated from a pBR328 library of Salmonella chromosomal DNA by screening for complementation of a peptide utilization defect conferred by a dcp mutation. Strains carrying these plasmids overproduced dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase approximately 50-fold. The nucleotide sequence of a 2.8-kb region of one of these plasmids contained an open reading frame coding for a protein of 77,269 Da, in agreement with the 80-kDa size for dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase (determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase purified from an overproducer strain agreed with that predicted by the nucleotide sequence. Northern (RNA) blot data indicated that dcp is not cotranscribed with other genes, and primer extension analysis showed the start of transcription to be 22 bases upstream of the translational start. The amino acid sequence of dcp was not similar to that of a mammalian dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, angiotensin I-converting enzyme, but showed striking similarities to the amino acid sequence of another S. typhimurium peptidase encoded by the opdA (formerly optA) gene. Images PMID:1537804

  10. Cloning and sequencing of viral integration site in human fibroblasts immortalized by simian virus 40.

    PubMed

    Yano, O; Hirano, H; Karasaki, Y; Higashi, K; Nakamura, H; Akiya, S; Gotoh, S

    1991-02-01

    We have analyzed cellular DNA sequences at the viral genome integration site in a human fibroblast cell line VA13 immortalized by simian virus 40 (SV40). The computer analysis of the junctional cellular DNA sequences did not show any homology to the DNA sequences previously reported. This suggests that immortalization by SV40 was not induced by the destruction of any known oncogene or anti-oncogene at the integration site. We did not find the precise substantial sequence homology at the junctional site between the cellular DNA and SV40 DNA, indicating that the recombination mechanism involved does not require precise sequence homology and therefore, SV40 genome was probably not integrated by homologous recombination. Short direct and inverted repeats of 5 to 29 nucleotides were found in the junctional cellular and SV40 DNA. Cellular DNA abutting SV40 DNA was found by the Northern blot analysis to be expressed in diploid human fibroblasts and SV40-transformed cells. The nature of this RNA is now under study. PMID:1851675

  11. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of Fein-Penaeidin from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    PubMed Central

    Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Shanthi, Sathappan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Penaeidins are members of a special family of antimicrobial peptide existing in penaeid shrimp and play an important role in the immunological defense of shrimp. Here, we report a penaeidin sequence cloned from the Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaus indicus (Fein-Penaeidin). The Fein-Penaeidin open reading frame encodes a 77 amino acid peptide including a 19 amino acid signal peptide. The deduced amino acid sequences of Fein-Penaeidin include a proline rich N-terminal domain and a carboxyl-domain that contains six cysteine residues. Structural analysis revealed an alpha-helix in its secondary structure and the predicted 3D structure indicated two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparison with other known peaneidin suggest the gene shows high similarity to that of penaeidin from Peneaus monodon (95%), F. indicus (80%) and Fenneropenaeus chinensis (74%). Fein-Penaeidin was examined in normal and microbial challenged shrimp and was found to be constitutively expressed in haemocytes, Heart, gills, muscles, intestine, hepatopancreas and eyestalk. Bacterial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, inducing expression at 6 h post injection indicating the penaeidin involved in the innate immunity. PMID:24371565

  12. Cloning and sequencing of curA encoding curvacin A, the bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH1174.

    PubMed

    Tichaczek, P S; Vogel, R F; Hammes, W P

    1993-01-01

    Curvacin A is a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH1174 which is a potential starter organism for the production of fermented dry sausages. This peptide inhibits the growth of the opportunistic food pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis and thus, curvacin A may enable better performance of a starter and improvement of the hygienic status of meat products. Oligonucleotides were constructed deduced from the peptide sequence and used for the identification of the curvacin A structural gene curA on a 60 kb plasmid of L. curvatus LTH1174. Plasmid-cured derivatives of this strain were unable to produce curvacin A but were still resistant to the bacteriocin. CurA was cloned into Escherichia coli NM554 and its nucleotide sequence was determined. Sequencing revealed the presence of an additional open reading frame of 51 amino acids with unknown function. A promoter was detected upstream of curA by primer extension. Both reading frames form a single transcript. Curvacin A is synthesised as a prepeptide of 59 amino acids which is proteolytically processed to the mature bacteriocin of 41 amino acids. PMID:7694558

  13. Gene Cloning and Nucleotide Sequencing and Properties of a Cocaine Esterase from Rhodococcus sp. Strain MB1

    PubMed Central

    Bresler, Matthew M.; Rosser, Susan J.; Basran, Amrik; Bruce, Neil C.

    2000-01-01

    A strain of Rhodococcus designated MB1, which was capable of utilizing cocaine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen for growth, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of the tropane alkaloid-producing plant Erythroxylum coca. A cocaine esterase was found to initiate degradation of cocaine, which was hydrolyzed to ecgonine methyl ester and benzoate; both of these esterolytic products were further metabolized by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB1. The structural gene encoding a cocaine esterase, designated cocE, was cloned from Rhodococcus sp. strain MB1 genomic libraries by screening recombinant strains of Rhodococcus erythropolis CW25 for growth on cocaine. The nucleotide sequence of cocE corresponded to an open reading frame of 1,724 bp that codes for a protein of 574 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of cocaine esterase has a region of similarity with the active serine consensus of X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidases, suggesting that the cocaine esterase is a serine esterase. The cocE coding sequence was subcloned into the pCFX1 expression plasmid and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant cocaine esterase was purified to apparent homogeneity and was found to be monomeric, with an Mr of approximately 65,000. The apparent Km of the enzyme (mean ± standard deviation) for cocaine was measured as 1.33 ± 0.085 mM. These findings are of potential use in the development of a linked assay for the detection of illicit cocaine. PMID:10698749

  14. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the genes encoding lytic functions of Bacteriophage phi g1e.

    PubMed

    Oki, M; Kakikawa, M; Yamada, K; Taketo, A; Kodaira, K I

    1996-10-17

    The lysis genes of a Lactobacillus phage phi g1e were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing of a 3813-bp phi g1e DNA revealed five successive open reading frames (ORF), Rorf50, Rorf118, hol, and lys and Rorf175, in the same DNA strand. By comparative analysis of the DNA sequence, the putative hol product (holin) has an estimated molecular weight is 14.2 kDa, and contains two potential transmembrane helices and highly charged N- and C-termini, resembling predicted holins (which are thought to be a cytoplasmic membrane-disrupting protein) encoded by other phages such as mv1 from Lactobacillus bulgaricus, phi adh from Lactobacillus gasseri, as well as monocins from Listeria. On the other hand, the putative phi g1e lys product (lysin) of 48.4 kDa shows significant similarity with presumed muramidase, known as a cell wall peptidoglycandegrading enzyme, encoded by the Lactobacillus phage mv1 and phi adh, the Lactococcus lactis phage phi LC3, and the Streptococcus pneumoniae phages Cp-1, Cp-7 and Cp-9. When expressed in E. coli, the phi g1e lysin and/or holin decreased the cell turbidity significantly, suggesting that the phi g1e hol-lys system is involved in cytolytic process. PMID:8918256

  15. Trichinella spiralis thymidylate synthase: cDNA cloning and sequencing, and developmental pattern of mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, M; Jagielska, E; Cieśla, J; Płucienniczak, A; Kwiatowski, J; Wranicz, M; Boireau, P; Rode, W

    2004-02-01

    The persistent expression of thymidylate synthase activity has previously been demonstrated not only in adult forms, but also in non-developing muscle larvae of Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis, pointing to an unusual pattern of cell cycle regulation, and prompting further studies on the developmental pattern of T. spiralis thymidylate synthase gene expression. The enzyme cDNA was cloned and sequenced, allowing the characterization of a single open reading frame of 307 amino acids coding for a putative protein of 35,582 Da molecular weight. The amino acid sequence of the parasite enzyme was analysed, the consensus phylogenetic tree built and its stability assessed. The aa sequence identity with thymidylate synthase was confirmed by the enzymatic activity of the recombinant protein expressed in E. coli. As compared with the enzyme purified from muscle larvae, it showed apparently similar Vmax value, but higher Km(app) values desscribing interactions with dUMP (28.8 microM vs. 3.9 microM) and (6RS,alphaS)-N(5,10)-methylenetetrahydrofolate (383 microM vs. 54.7 microM). With the coding region used as a probe, thymidylate synthase mRNA levels, relative to 18S rRNA, were found to be similar in muscle larvae, adult forms and newborn larvae, in agreement with muscle larvae cells being arrested in the cell cycle. PMID:15030008

  16. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the simian rotavirus gene 6 that codes for the major inner capsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, M K; Mason, B B; Crawford, S; Cohen, J

    1984-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the gene that codes for the major inner capsid protein of the simian rotavirus SA11 has been determined. A DNA copy of mRNA from gene 6 was cloned in the E. coli plasmid pBR322. The full-length gene is 1357 nucleotides long with a 5'-noncoding region of 23 nucleotides and a 3'-noncoding region of 140 nucleotides. The gene contains a single, long, open reading-frame of 1194 nucleotides capable of coding for a protein of 397 amino acids with a molecular weight of 44,816. The predicted protein product is relatively proline-rich with a net charge at neutral pH of -3.5. One stretch of 53 amino acids (encoded by nucleotides 327-485) is basic. Images PMID:6322125

  17. Cloning and genomic sequence of the Physarum polycephalum Ppras1 gene, a homologue of the ras protooncogene.

    PubMed

    Trzcinska-Danielewicz, J; Kozlowski, P; Toczko, K

    1996-02-22

    We have cloned the genomic copy of the Ppras1 gene, a homologue of the ras proto-oncogene, from the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum. Ppras1 contains five small introns, four of which have a high content of pyrimidines. The (dC)-homopolymers present in introns 4 and 5 may be responsible for the observed recA-independent deletion in Ppras1 upon amplification of the Ppras1-bearing plasmid by choramphenicol. Although Ppras1 exhibits amino acid and nucleotide homologies with the DdrasG gene, a homologue of ras from another slime mold, Distyostelium discoideum, locations and sequences of their introns are quite different. This discordance suggests that introns of the ras genes in these species were acquired independently. PMID:8635743

  18. [Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of Phytoplasma CWB1 strain associated with cactus witches' broom].

    PubMed

    Cai, H; Li, F; Kong, B; Chen, H

    2001-12-01

    A 1.5 kb DNA fragment was amplified in DNA samples extracted from Opuntia salmiana porm showed witches'-broom symptom. The result indicates the existence of phytoplasma associated with this disease and this phytoplasma was designated as CWB1. The amplified fragment was ligated to pGEM-T easy vector and then transformed into JM109 strain of E. coli. Cloned DNA fragments were verified by PCR, restriction endonuclease (EcoRI) digestion and sequence analysis. The result revealed that the 16S rRNA gene of CWB1 consists of 1489 bp and shared 99.7% homology with Faba bean phyllody which belongs to phytoplasma 16S rII-C subgroup. So we can classify this strain into phytoplasma 16S rII-C subgroup. PMID:12552825

  19. Cloning, sequencing, and functional analysis of the biosynthetic gene cluster of macrolactam antibiotic vicenistatin in Streptomyces halstedii.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Katayama, Kinya; Minami, Atsushi; Otsuka, Miyuki; Eguchi, Tadashi; Kakinuma, Katsumi

    2004-01-01

    Vicenistatin, an antitumor antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces halstedii, is a unique 20-membered macrocyclic lactam with a novel aminosugar vicenisamine. The vicenistatin biosynthetic gene cluster (vin) spanning approximately 64 kbp was cloned and sequenced. The cluster contains putative genes for the aglycon biosynthesis including four modular polyketide synthases (PKSs), glutamate mutase, acyl CoA-ligase, and AMP-ligase. Also found in the cluster are genes of NDP-hexose 4,6-dehydratase and aminotransferase for vicenisamine biosynthesis. For the functional confirmation of the cluster, a putative glycosyltransferase gene product, VinC, was heterologously expressed, and the vicenisamine transfer reaction to the aglycon was chemically proved. A unique feature of the vicenistatin PKS is that the loading module contains only an acyl carrier protein domain, in contrast to other known PKS-loading modules containing certain activation domains. Activation of the starter acyl group by separate polypeptides is postulated as well. PMID:15112997

  20. Preliminary functional characterization, cloning and primary sequence of Fastuosain, a cysteine peptidase isolated from fruits of Bromelia fastuosa.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Hamilton; Leopoldino, Andréia M; Tajara, Eloiza H; Greene, Lewis J; Faça, Vitor M; Mateus, Rogério P; Ceron, Carlos R; de Souza Judice, Wagner A; Julianod, Luiz; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo O

    2006-01-01

    The present work reports the characterization of Fastuosain, a novel cysteine protease of 25kDa, purified from the unripe fruits of Bromelia fastuosa, a wild South American Bromeliaceae. Proteolytic activity, measured using casein and synthetic substrates, was dependent on the presence of thiol reagents, having maximum activity at pH 7.0. The present work reports cDNA cloning of Fastuosain; cDNA was amplified by PCR using specific primers. The product was 1096pb long. Mature fastuosain has 217 residues, and with the proregion has a total length of 324 residues. Its primary sequence showed high homology with ananain(74%), stem bromelain (66%) and papain (44%). PMID:16454675

  1. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of a gene from Campylobacter jejuni encoding a protein (Omp18) with similarity to peptidoglycan-associated lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Konkel, M E; Mead, D J; Cieplak, W

    1996-01-01

    A Campylobacter jejuni genomic plasmid library was screened with antiserum generated against whole C. jejuni, revealing two immunoreactive clones. Sequence analysis of the recombinant plasmids revealed a common open reading frame of 498 nucleotides encoding a protein of 165 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 18,018 Da. The recombinant product partitioned to the outer membrane fractions of Escherichia coli transformants and has been designated Omp18. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cloned C. jejuni gene exhibits considerable similarity to peptidoglycan-associated lipoproteins from other gram-negative bacteria. PMID:8613402

  2. Early trypsin, a female-specific midgut protease in Aedes aegypti: isolation, aminoterminal sequence determination, and cloning and sequencing of the gene.

    PubMed

    Noriega, F G; Wang, X Y; Pennington, J E; Barillas-Mury, C V; Wells, M A

    1996-02-01

    Early trypsin is a female-specific protease present in the Aedes aegypti midgut during the first hours after ingestion of a blood meal. It plays an essential role in the transcriptional activation of the late trypsin form, the major midgut endoprotease involved in the blood meal digestion. Early trypsin is the most abundant midgut polypeptide isolated by benzamidine-sepharose affinity chromatography 3 h after feeding. The amino-terminal sequence of the early trypsin protein matches that of the 3a1 cDNA for a putative trypsinogen described by Kalhok et al. (Insect. Molec. Biol., 2, 71-79, 1993). The early trypsin cDNA was over expressed in Escherichia coli. Polyclonal antibodies generated against this recombinant protein were used to show that the enzyme was present in the midgut during the first 4 h after feeding. A 2.5 kb genomic clone of the early trypsin was isolated, mapped and subcloned. A 1.56 kb subclone, corresponding to 1303 bp of the upstream regulatory region and 265 bp of the coding region, was sequenced. The gene contains a 64 nucleotide intron which interrupts the codon for Val at position 18 of the protein. This Val is located toward the end of the putative signal sequence of the protein. PMID:8882654

  3. Cloning and DNA sequence of the gene coding for Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6 xylanase.

    PubMed Central

    Gat, O; Lapidot, A; Alchanati, I; Regueros, C; Shoham, Y

    1994-01-01

    Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6 produces an extracellular thermostable xylanase. Affinity-purified polyclonal serum raised against the enzyme was used to screen a genomic library of B. stearothermophilus T-6 constructed in lambda-EMBL3. Two positive phages were isolated, both containing similar 13-kb inserts, and their lysates exhibited xylanase activity. A 3,696-bp SalI-BamHI fragment containing the xylanase gene was subcloned in Escherichia coli and subsequently sequenced. The open reading frame of xylanase T-6 consists of 1,236 bp. On the basis of sequence similarity, two possible -10 and -35 regions, a ribosome-binding site at the 5' end of the gene and a potential transcriptional termination motif at the 3' end of the gene, were identified. From the previously known N-terminal amino acid sequence of xylanase T-6 and the possible ribosome-binding site, a putative 28-amino-acid signal peptide was deduced. The mature xylanase T-6 consists of 379 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight and pI of 43,808 and 6.88, respectively. Multiple alignment of beta-glycanase amino acid sequences revealed highly conserved regions. Northern (RNA) blot analysis indicated that the xylanase T-6 transcript is about 1.4 kb and that the induction of this enzyme synthesis by xylose is on the transcriptional level. Images PMID:8031084

  4. dcp gene of Escherichia coli: cloning, sequencing, transcript mapping, and characterization of the gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, B; Becker, S; Schroeder, U; Plapp, R

    1993-01-01

    Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase is a C-terminal exopeptidase of Escherichia coli. We have isolated the respective gene, dcp, from a low-copy-number plasmid library by its ability to complement a dcp mutation preventing the utilization of the unique substrate N-benzoyl-L-glycyl-L-histidyl-L-leucine. Sequence analysis of a 2.9-kb DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame of 2,043 nucleotides which was assigned to the dcp gene by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and electrophoretic molecular mass determination of the purified dcp product. Transcript mapping by primer extension and S1 protection experiments verified the physiological significance of potential initiation and termination signals for dcp transcription and allowed the identification of a single species of monocistronic dcp mRNA. The codon usage pattern and the effects of elevated gene copy number indicated a relatively low level of dcp expression. The predicted amino acid sequence of dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, containing a potential zinc-binding site, is highly homologous (78.8%) to the corresponding enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium. It also displays significant homology to the products of the S. typhimurium opdA and the E. coli prlC genes and to some metalloproteases from rats and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No potential export signals could be inferred from the amino acid sequence. Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase was enriched 80-fold from crude extracts of E. coli and used to investigate some of its biochemical and biophysical properties. Images PMID:8226676

  5. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and transcriptional analysis of the Pediococcus acidilactici L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Garmyn, D; Ferain, T; Bernard, N; Hols, P; Delcour, J

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant plasmids containing the Pediococcus acidilactici L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) were isolated by complementing for growth under anaerobiosis of an Escherichia coli lactate dehydrogenase-pyruvate formate lyase double mutant. The nucleotide sequence of the ldhL gene predicted a protein of 323 amino acids showing significant similarity with other bacterial L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenases and especially with that of Lactobacillus plantarum. The ldhL transcription start points in P. acidilactici were defined by primer extension, and the promoter sequence was identified as TCAAT-(17 bp)-TATAAT. This sequence is closely related to the consensus sequence of vegetative promoters from gram-positive bacteria as well as from E. coli. Northern analysis of P. acidilactici RNA showed a 1.1-kb ldhL transcript whose abundance is growth rate regulated. These data, together with the presence of a putative rho-independent transcriptional terminator, suggest that ldhL is expressed as a monocistronic transcript in P. acidilactici. PMID:7887607

  6. Cloning, characterization and chromosomal localization of a repeated sequence in Crypthecodinium cohnii, a marine dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Moreau, H; Géraud, M L; Bhaud, Y; Soyer-Gobillard, M O

    1998-03-01

    Genomic DNA of Crypthecodinium cohnii has been extracted in the presence of cetylmethylammonium bromide and hydrolysed by 13 restriction enzymes. No typical ladder-like pattern or isolated band of satellite sequences were found with any of these enzymes. A "mini" genomic DNA library had been made and screened by reverse hybridization to isolate highly repeated sequences. Seven such DNA fragments were sequenced. The copy number of one of them (Cc18), 226 bp long, was estimated at around 25,000, representing 0.06% of the total genome. Cc18 was found to be included in a higher fragment of 3.0 kb by Southern blot analysis after cleavage by PstI. This higher molecular weight fragment could be composed either of tandemly repeated Cc18 sequences, or by only one or a very low copy number of Cc18. In this latter case, these fragments, also repeated 25,000 times would represent 1 to 2% of the total genome. Genomic localization of Cc18 by in situ hybridization on squashed C. cohnii cells showed that it was widely distributed on the different chromosomes. All the chromosomes observed displayed Cc18 labeling, which appeared homogeneously distributed. The ability of Cc18 to be a specific molecular marker to distinguish sibling C. cohnii species is discussed. PMID:10943339

  7. Complete Genomic Sequence and an Infectious BAC Clone of Feline Herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) is classified under the genus Varicellovirus within the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, and is a major cause of upper respiratory infection in cats. In this report, we present the first complete genomic sequence of FHV-1, as well as a bacterial artificial chromosome (...

  8. Cloning and Characterization of a Human Genomic Sequence that Alleviates Repeat-Induced Gene Silencing.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Miki; Ganmyo, Yuto; Miura, Osamu; Ohyama, Takashi; Shimizu, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    Plasmids bearing a mammalian replication initiation region (IR) and a nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR) are spontaneously amplified in transfected mammalian cells, and such amplification generates chromosomal homogeneously staining regions (HSRs) or extrachromosomal double minutes (DMs). This method provides a novel, efficient, and rapid way to establish cells that stably produce high levels of recombinant proteins. However, because IR/MAR plasmids are amplified as repeats, they are frequently targeted by repeat-induced gene silencing (RIGS), which silences a variety of repeated sequences in transgenes and the genome. To address this problem, we developed a novel screening system using the IR/MAR plasmid to isolate human genome sequences that alleviate RIGS. The screen identified a 3,271 bp sequence (B-3-31) that elevated transgene expression without affecting the amplification process. Neither non-B structure (i.e., the inverted repeats or bending) nor known epigenetic modifier elements such as MARs, insulators, UCOEs, or STARs could explain the anti-silencing activity of B-3-31. Instead, the activity was distributed throughout the entire B-3-31 sequence, which was extremely A/T-rich and CpG-poor. Because B-3-31 effectively and reproducibly alleviated RIGS of repeated genes, it could be used to increase recombinant protein production. PMID:27078685

  9. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Sequence Variants of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Genes from Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are very harmful to living organisms due to the potential oxidation of membrane lipids, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. Transformed E.coli strain QC 871, superoxide dismutase (SOD) double-mutant, with three sequence variant MnSOD1, MnSOD2, and MnSOD3 manganese supero...

  10. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Cathepsin H and L cDNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cathepsin H and L, a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family, are ubiquitously expressed and involve in antigen processing. In this communication, the channel catfish cathepsin H and L transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. Total RNA from tissues was extracted and cDNA libraries we...

  11. Molecular cloning of extensive sequences of the in vitro synthesized chicken ovalbumin structural gene.

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, P; Cochet, M; Krust, A; Gerlinger, P; Kourilsky, P; Chambon, P

    1977-01-01

    Double-stranded DNA molecules complementary to ovalbumin chicken messenger RNA were synthesized in vitro and integrated into the E. coli plasmid pCR1 using an oligodG-dc tailing procedure. The resultant hybrid plasmids, amplified by transfection of E. coli, were shown by hybridization and gel electrophoresis to contain extensive DNA sequences of the ovalbumin structural gene. Images PMID:333389

  12. Cloning and Characterization of a Human Genomic Sequence that Alleviates Repeat-Induced Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Osamu; Ohyama, Takashi; Shimizu, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    Plasmids bearing a mammalian replication initiation region (IR) and a nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR) are spontaneously amplified in transfected mammalian cells, and such amplification generates chromosomal homogeneously staining regions (HSRs) or extrachromosomal double minutes (DMs). This method provides a novel, efficient, and rapid way to establish cells that stably produce high levels of recombinant proteins. However, because IR/MAR plasmids are amplified as repeats, they are frequently targeted by repeat-induced gene silencing (RIGS), which silences a variety of repeated sequences in transgenes and the genome. To address this problem, we developed a novel screening system using the IR/MAR plasmid to isolate human genome sequences that alleviate RIGS. The screen identified a 3,271 bp sequence (B-3-31) that elevated transgene expression without affecting the amplification process. Neither non-B structure (i.e., the inverted repeats or bending) nor known epigenetic modifier elements such as MARs, insulators, UCOEs, or STARs could explain the anti-silencing activity of B-3-31. Instead, the activity was distributed throughout the entire B-3-31 sequence, which was extremely A/T-rich and CpG-poor. Because B-3-31 effectively and reproducibly alleviated RIGS of repeated genes, it could be used to increase recombinant protein production. PMID:27078685

  13. Escherichia coli thymidylate kinase: molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and genetic organization of the corresponding tmk locus.

    PubMed Central

    Reynes, J P; Tiraby, M; Baron, M; Drocourt, D; Tiraby, G

    1996-01-01

    Thymidylate kinase (dTMP kinase; EC 2.7.4.9) catalyzes the phosphorylation of dTMP to form dTDP in both de novo and salvage pathways of dTTP synthesis. The nucleotide sequence of the tmk gene encoding this essential Escherichia coli enzyme is the last one among all the E. coli nucleoside and nucleotide kinase genes which has not yet been reported. By subcloning the 24.0-min region where the tmk gene has been previously mapped from the lambda phage 236 (E9G1) of the Kohara E. coli genomic library (Y. Kohara, K. Akiyama, and K. Isono, Cell 50:495-508, 1987), we precisely located tmk between acpP and holB genes. Here we report the nucleotide sequence of tmk, including the end portion of an upstream open reading frame (ORF 340) of unknown function that may be cotranscribed with the pabC gene. The tmk gene was located clockwise of and just upstream of the holB gene. Our sequencing data allowed the filling in of the unsequenced gap between the acpP and holB genes within the 24-min region of the E. coli chromosome. Identification of this region as the E. coli tmk gene was confirmed by functional complementation of a yeast dTMP kinase temperature-sensitive mutant and by in vitro enzyme assay of the thymidylate kinase activity in cell extracts of E. coli by use of tmk-overproducing plasmids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the E. coli tmk gene showed significant similarity to the sequences of the thymidylate kinases of vertebrates, yeasts, and viruses as well as two uncharacterized proteins of bacteria belonging to Bacillus and Haemophilus species. PMID:8631667

  14. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA species for mammalian dimeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed Central

    Arimitsu, E; Aoki, S; Ishikura, S; Nakanishi, K; Matsuura, K; Hara, A

    1999-01-01

    Cynomolgus and Japanese monkey kidneys, dog and pig livers and rabbit lens contain dimeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.20) associated with high carbonyl reductase activity. Here we have isolated cDNA species for the dimeric enzymes by reverse transcriptase-PCR from human intestine in addition to the above five animal tissues. The amino acid sequences deduced from the monkey, pig and dog cDNA species perfectly matched the partial sequences of peptides digested from the respective enzymes of these animal tissues, and active recombinant proteins were expressed in a bacterial system from the monkey and human cDNA species. Northern blot analysis revealed the existence of a single 1.3 kb mRNA species for the enzyme in these animal tissues. The human enzyme shared 94%, 85%, 84% and 82% amino acid identity with the enzymes of the two monkey strains (their sequences were identical), the dog, the pig and the rabbit respectively. The sequences of the primate enzymes consisted of 335 amino acid residues and lacked one amino acid compared with the other animal enzymes. In contrast with previous reports that other types of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, carbonyl reductases and enzymes with either activity belong to the aldo-keto reductase family or the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, dimeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenase showed no sequence similarity with the members of the two protein families. The dimeric enzyme aligned with low degrees of identity (14-25%) with several prokaryotic proteins, in which 47 residues are strictly or highly conserved. Thus dimeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenase has a primary structure distinct from the previously known mammalian enzymes and is suggested to constitute a novel protein family with the prokaryotic proteins. PMID:10477285

  15. Complete sequence of an HLA-dR beta chain deduced from a cDNA clone and identification of multiple non-allelic DR beta chain genes.

    PubMed Central

    Long, E O; Wake, C T; Gorski, J; Mach, B

    1983-01-01

    At least three polymorphic class II antigens are encoded in the human major histocompatibility complex (HLA): DR, DC and SB. cDNA clones encoding beta chains of HLA-DR antigen, derived from mRNA of a heterozygous B-cell line, were isolated and could be divided into four subsets, clearly distinct from cDNA clones encoding DC beta chains. Therefore, at least two non-allelic DR beta chain genes exist. The complete sequence of one of the DR beta chain cDNA clones is presented. It defines a putative signal sequence, two extracellular domains, a trans-membrane region and a cytoplasmic tail. Comparison with a DC beta chain cDNA clone revealed a homology of 70% between the two beta chains and that the two genes diverged under relatively little selective pressure. A set of amino acids conserved in immunoglobulin molecules was found to be identical in both DR and DC beta chains. Comparison of the DR beta chain sequence with the amino acid sequence of another DR beta chain revealed a homology of 87% and that most differences are single amino acid substitutions. Allelic polymorphism in DR beta chains has probably not arisen by changes in long blocks of sequence. PMID:11894954

  16. Fast and Efficient Cloning of Cis-Regulatory Sequences for High-Throughput Yeast One-Hybrid Analyses of Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Zsolt; Przybyla-Toscano, Jonathan; Tissot, Nicolas; Lepiniec, Loïc; Dubos, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assay has been proven to be a powerful technique to characterize in vivo the interaction between a given transcription factor (TF), or its DNA-binding domain (DBD), and target DNA sequences. Comprehensive characterization of TF/DBD and DNA interactions should allow designing synthetic promoters that would undoubtedly be valuable for biotechnological approaches. Here, we use the ligation-independent cloning system (LIC) in order to enhance the cloning efficiency of DNA motifs into the pHISi Y1H vector. LIC overcomes important limitations of traditional cloning technologies, since any DNA fragment can be cloned into LIC compatible vectors without using restriction endonucleases, ligation, or in vitro recombination. PMID:27557765

  17. Cloning, sequencing, expression and structural investigation of mnemiopsin from Mnemiopsis leidyi: an attempt toward understanding Ca2+-regulated photoproteins.

    PubMed

    Aghamaali, Mahmoud Reza; Jafarian, Vahab; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Molakarimi, Maryam; Rasti, Behnam; Taghdir, Majid; Sajedi, Reza Hasan; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2011-12-01

    A comparison of the two most famous groups of calcium-regulated photoproteins, cnidarians and ctenophores, showed unexpectedly high degree of structural similarity regardless of their low sequence identity. It was suggested these photoproteins can play an important role in understanding the structural basis of bioluminescence activity. Based on this postulate, in this study the cDNA of mnemiopsin from luminous ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi was cloned, expressed, purified and sequenced. The purified cDNA, with 621 base pairs, coded a 206 residues protein. Sequence of mnemiopsin showed 93.5 and 51% similarity to other ctenophore proteins and cnidarians, respectively. The cDNA encoding apo-mnemiopsin of M. leidyi was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified apo-protein showed a single band on SDS-PAGE (molecular weight ~27 kDa). A semi-synthetic mnemiopsin was prepared using coelenterazine and EDTA and its luminescence activity was measured in the presence of CaCl(2). The results showed an optimum pH of 9.0 and lower calcium sensitivity compared to aequorin. Comparison of amino acid residues in substrate binding site indicated that binding pocket of ctenophores contains less aromatic residues than cnidarians. This can lead to a decline in the number of stacking interactions between substrate and protein which can affect the stability of coelenterazine in binding cavity. Structural comparison of photoproteins with low sequence identity and high 3D structural similarity, can present a new insight into the mechanism of light emission in photoproteins. PMID:21987124

  18. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of Rhizobium meliloti aminotransferase genes: an aspartate aminotransferase required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation is atypical.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, R J; Rastogi, V K

    1993-01-01

    In Rhizobium meliloti, an aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) encoded within a 7.3-kb HindIII fragment was previously shown to be required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation and aspartate catabolism (V. K. Rastogi and R.J. Watson, J. Bacteriol. 173:2879-2887, 1991). A gene coding for an aromatic aminotransferase located within an 11-kb HindIII fragment was found to complement the AspAT deficiency when overexpressed. The genes encoding these two aminotransferases, designated aatA and tatA, respectively, have been localized by subcloning and transposon Tn5 mutagenesis. Sequencing of the tatA gene revealed that it encodes a protein homologous to an Escherichia coli aromatic aminotransferase and most of the known AspAT enzymes. However, sequencing of the aatA gene region revealed two overlapping open reading frames, neither of which encoded an enzyme with homology to the typical AspATs. Polymerase chain reaction was used to selectively generate one of the candidate sequences for subcloning. The cloned fragment complemented the original nitrogen fixation and aspartate catabolism defects and was shown to encode an AspAT with the expected properties. Sequence analysis showed that the aatA protein has homology to AspATs from two thermophilic bacteria and the eukaryotic tyrosine aminotransferases. These aminotransferases form a distinct class in which only 13 amino acids are conserved in comparison with the well-known AspAT family. DNA homologous to the aatA gene was found to be present in Agrobacterium tumefaciens and other rhizobia but not in Klebsiella pneumoniae or E. coli. Images PMID:8096210

  19. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and expression pattern of Rab18 gene from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Xinli, Xiao; Lei, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The complete mRNA sequence of watermelon Rab18 gene was amplified through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full-length mRNA was 1010 bp containing a 645 bp open reading frame, which encodes a protein of 214 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 protein shares high homology with the Rab18 of cucumber (99%), muskmelon (98%), Morus notabilis (90%), tomato (89%), wine grape (89%) and potato (88%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 gene has a closer genetic relationship with Rab18 gene of cucumber and muskmelon. Tissue expression profile analysis indicated that watermelon Rab18 gene was highly expressed in root, stem and leaf, moderately expressed in flower and weakly expressed in fruit. PMID:26019638

  20. Cloning and sequencing of columbid circovirus (coCV), a new circovirus from pigeons.

    PubMed

    Mankertz, A; Hattermann, K; Ehlers, B; Soike, D

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of columbid circovirus (CoCV) isolated from pigeons is described. CoCV was amplified using a consensus primer PCR approach directed against conserved sequences within the rep genes of vertebrate circoviruses. The genome of CoCV is circular and 2037 nt in size. It displays 55% homology to the genome of psittacine beak and feather disease virus and is more distantly related (< 40% homology) to porcine circovirus type 1 and 2. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase and the putative capsid protein of CoCV. A region similar to the origin of replication of other circoviruses was found: it encompasses a stem-loop structure with the nonamer 5'-TAGTATTAC, conserved in circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggest classification of CoCV as member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae. PMID:11205099

  1. Cloning, sequence analysis and crystal structure determination of a miraculin-like protein from Murraya koenigii.

    PubMed

    Gahloth, Deepankar; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Shee, Chandan; Kumar, Pravindra; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar

    2010-02-01

    Earlier, the purification of a 21.4kDa protein with trypsin inhibitory activity from seeds of Murraya koenigii has been reported. The present study, based on the amino acid sequence deduced from both cDNA and genomic DNA, establishes it to be a miraculin-like protein and provides crystal structure at 2.9A resolution. The mature protein consists of 190 amino acid residues with seven cysteines arranged in three disulfide bridges. The amino acid sequence showed maximum homology and formed a distinct cluster with miraculin-like proteins, a soybean Kunitz super family member, in phylogenetic analyses. The major differences in sequence were observed at primary and secondary specificity sites in the reactive loop when compared to classical Kunitz family members. The crystal structure analysis showed that the protein is made of twelve antiparallel beta-strands, loops connecting beta-strands and two short helices. Despite similar overall fold, it showed significant differences from classical Kunitz trypsin inhibitors. PMID:19914199

  2. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression of a L -glutamine D-fructose 6-phosphate amidotransferase gene from Volvariella volvacea.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuping; Shao, Weilan; Li, Xun; Chen, Zhiyi; Liu, Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Using 3'-RACE and 5'-RACE, we have cloned and sequenced the genomic gene and complete cDNA encoding L: -glutamine D: -fructose 6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) from the edible straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea. Gfat contains five introns, and encodes a predicted protein of 697 amino acids that is homologous to other reported GFAT sequences. Southern hybridization indicated that a single gfat gene locus exists in the V. volvacea genome. Recombinant native V. volvacea GFAT enzyme, over-expressed using Escherichia coli and partially purified, had an estimated molecular mass of 306 kDa and consisted of four equal-sized subunits of 77 kD. Reciprocal plots revealed K (m) values of 0.55 and 0.75 mM for fructose 6-phosphate and L: -glutamine, respectively. V. volvacea GFAT activity was inhibited by the end-product of the hexosamine pathway, UDP-GlcNAc, and by the glutamine analogues N (3)-(4-methoxyfumaroyl)-L: -2,3-diaminopropanoic acid and 2-amino-2-deoxy-D: -glucitol-6-phosphate. PMID:19165584

  3. Cloning and sequencing of the metallothioprotein beta-lactamase II gene of Bacillus cereus 569/H in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M; Carlino, A; Madonna, M J; Lampen, J O

    1985-01-01

    The structural gene for beta-lactamase II (EC 3.5.2.6), a metallothioenzyme, from Bacillus cereus 569/H (constitutive for high production of the enzyme) was cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. This is the first class B beta-lactamase whose primary structure has been reported. The amino acid sequence of the exoenzyme form, deduced from the DNA, indicates that beta-lactamase II, like other secreted proteins, is synthesized as a precursor with a 30-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide. The pre-beta-lactamase II (Mr, 28,060) is processed in E. coli and in B. cereus to a single mature protein (Mr, 24,932) which is totally secreted by B. cereus but in E. coli remains intracellular, probably in the periplasm. The expression of the gene in E. coli RR1 on the multicopy plasmid pRWHO12 was comparable to that in B. cereus, where it is presumably present as a single copy. The three histidine residues that are involved (along with the sole cysteine of the mature protein) in Zn(II) binding and hence in enzymatic activity against beta-lactams were identified. These findings will help to define the secondary structure, mechanism of action, and evolutionary lineage of B. cereus beta-lactamase II and other class B beta-lactamases. Images PMID:3930467

  4. Xylose isomerase from polycentric fungus Orpinomyces: gene sequencing, cloning, and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bioconversion of xylose to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Anjali; Tamalampudi, Sriappareddy; Ushida, Kazunari; Kanai, Daisuke; Katahira, Satoshi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Fukuda, Hideki; Bisaria, Virendra S; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-04-01

    The cDNA sequence of the gene for xylose isomerase from the rumen fungus Orpinomyces was elucidated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The 1,314-nucleotide gene was cloned and expressed constitutively in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced polypeptide sequence encoded a protein of 437 amino acids which showed the highest similarity to the family II xylose isomerases. Further, characterization revealed that the recombinant enzyme was a homodimer with a subunit of molecular mass 49 kDa. Cell extract of the recombinant strain exhibited high specific xylose isomerase activity. The pH optimum of the enzyme was 7.5, while the low temperature optimum at 37 degrees C was the property that differed significantly from the majority of the reported thermophilic xylose isomerases. In addition to the xylose isomerase gene, the overexpression of the S. cerevisiae endogenous xylulokinase gene and the Pichia stipitis SUT1 gene for sugar transporter in the recombinant yeast facilitated the efficient production of ethanol from xylose. PMID:19050860

  5. cDNA cloning and sequencing of human fibrillarin, a conserved nucleolar protein recognized by autoimmune antisera

    SciTech Connect

    Aris, J.P.; Blobel, G. )

    1991-02-01

    The authors have isolated a 1.1-kilobase cDNA clone that encodes human fibrillarin by screening a hepatoma library in parallel with DNA probes derived from the fibrillarin genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NOP1) and Xenopus laevis. RNA blot analysis indicates that the corresponding mRNA is {approximately}1,300 nucleotides in length. Human fibrillarin expressed in vitro migrates on SDS gels as a 36-kDa protein that is specifically immunoprecipitated by antisera from humans with scleroderma autoimmune disease. Human fibrillarin contains an amino-terminal repetitive domain {approximately}75-80 amino acids in length that is rich in glycine and arginine residues and is similar to amino-terminal domains in the yeast and Xenopus fibrillarins. The occurrence of a putative RNA-binding domain and an RNP consensus sequence within the protein is consistent with the association of fibrillarin with small nucleolar RNAs. Protein sequence alignments show that 67% of amino acids from human fibrillarin are identical to those in yeast fibrillarin and that 81% are identical to those in Xenopus fibrillarin. This identity suggests the evolutionary conservation of an important function early in the pathway for ribosome biosynthesis.

  6. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression in Escherichia coli of Camelus dromedarius glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Hesham Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Al-Amri, Abdullah; Khan, Zahid

    2012-06-01

    This study determined the full length sequence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA (G6PD) from the Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The C. dromedarius G6PD has an open reading frame of 1545 bp, and the cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 59.0 KDa. The amino acid sequence showed the highest identity with Equus caballus (92%) and Homo sapiens (92%). The G6PD cDNA was cloned and expressed into Escherichia coli as a fusion protein and was purified in a single chromatographic step using nickel affinity gel column. The purity and the molecular weight of the enzyme were checked on SDS-PAGE and the purified enzyme showed a single band on the gel with a molecular weight of 63.0 KDa. The specific activity of G6PD was determined to be 289.6 EU/mg protein with a fold purification of 95.45 and yield of 56.8%. PMID:22538316

  7. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, prokaryotic expression, and function prediction of foot-specific peroxidase in Hydra magnipapillata Chinese strain.

    PubMed

    Pan, H C; Yang, H Q; Zhao, F X; Qian, X C

    2014-01-01

    The cDNA sequence of foot-specific peroxidase PPOD1 from the Chinese strain of Hydra magnipapillata was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cDNA sequence contained a coding region with an 873-bp open reading frame, a 31-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 36-bp 3'-untranslated region. The structure prediction results showed that PPOD1 contains 10.34% of α-helix, 38.62% of extended strand, 12.41% of β-turn, and 38.62% of random coil. The structural core was α-helix at the N terminus. The GenBank protein blast server showed that PPOD1 contains 2 fascin-like domains. In addition, high-level PPOD1 activity was only present in the ectodermal epithelial cells located on the edge of the adhesive face of the basal disc, and that these cells extended lamellipodia and filopodia when the basal disc was tightly attached to a glass slide. The fascin-like domains of Hydra PPOD1 might contribute to the bundling of the actin filament of these cells, and hence, the formation of filopodia. In conclusion, these cells might play an important role in strengthening the adsorbability of the basal disc to substrates. PMID:25177942

  8. Cloning, Sequencing, Purification, and Crystal Structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) Polyphenol Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Virador, V.; Reyes Grajeda, J; Blanco-Labra, A; Mendiola-Olaya, E; Smith, G; Moreno, A; Whitaker, J

    2010-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622{_}VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C2221. The structure was obtained at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed.

  9. Cloning, sequencing, purification, and crystal structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Virador, Victoria M; Reyes Grajeda, Juan P; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; Mendiola-Olaya, Elizabeth; Smith, Gary M; Moreno, Abel; Whitaker, John R

    2010-01-27

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622_VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C222(1). The structure was obtained at 2.2 A resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1 ) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and alpha, beta, and gamma) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed. PMID:20039636

  10. Sequence analysis, cloning and over-expression of an endoxylanase from the alkaliphilic Bacillus halodurans.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M Alejandra; Delgado, Osvaldo D; Baigorí, Mario D; Siñeriz, Faustino

    2005-04-01

    The BhMIR32 xyn11A gene, encoding an extracellular endoxylanase of potential interest in bio-bleaching applications, was amplified from Bacillus halodurans MIR32 genomic DNA. The protein encoded is an endo-1,4-beta-xylanase belonging to family 11 of glycosyl hydrolases. Its nucleotide sequence was analysed and the mature peptide was subcloned into pET22b(+) expression vector. The enzyme was over-expressed in a high density Escherichia coli culture as a soluble and active protein, and purified in a single step by immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography with a specific activity of 3073 IU mg-1. PMID:15973487

  11. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, 5 BAC clone sequencing, including two encoding Cytochrome P450s and one encoding CzEst9 carboxylesterase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. BAC clones give insight into the genome struct...

  12. Agouti signalling protein (ASIP) gene: molecular cloning, sequence characterisation and tissue distribution in domestic goose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Wang, C; Liu, Y; Liu, J; Wang, H Y; Liu, A F; He, D Q

    2016-06-01

    Agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) and is involved in the regulation of pigmentation in mammals. The objective of this study was to identify and characterise the ASIP gene in domestic goose. The goose ASIP cDNA consisted of a 44-nucleotide 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR), a 390-nucleotide open-reading frame (ORF) and a 45-nucleotide 3'-UTR. The length of goose ASIP genomic DNA was 6176 bp, including three coding exons and two introns. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the ORF encodes a protein of 130 amino-acid residues with a molecular weight of 14.88 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.73. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis showed that the amino-acid sequence of ASIP was conserved in vertebrates, especially in the avian species. RT-qPCR showed that the goose ASIP mRNA was differentially expressed in the pigment deposition tissues, including eye, foot, feather follicle, skin of the back, as well as in skin of the abdomen. The expression level of the ASIP gene in skin of the abdomen was higher than that in skin of the back. Those findings will contribute to further understanding the functions of the ASIP gene in geese plumage colouring. PMID:26750999

  13. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the Escherichia coli gene encoding carnitine dehydratase.

    PubMed Central

    Eichler, K; Schunck, W H; Kleber, H P; Mandrand-Berthelot, M A

    1994-01-01

    Carnitine dehydratase from Escherichia coli O44 K74 is an inducible enzyme detectable in cells grown anaerobically in the presence of L-(-)-carnitine or crotonobetaine. The purified enzyme catalyzes the dehydration of L-(-)-carnitine to crotonobetaine (H. Jung, K. Jung, and H.-P. Kleber, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1003:270-276, 1989). The caiB gene, encoding carnitine dehydratase, was isolated by oligonucleotide screening from a genomic library of E. coli O44 K74. The caiB gene is 1,215 bp long, and it encodes a protein of 405 amino acids with a predicted M(r) of 45,074. The identity of the gene product was first assessed by its comigration in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels with the purified enzyme after overexpression in the pT7 system and by its enzymatic activity. Moreover, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was found to be identical to that predicted from the gene sequence. Northern (RNA) analysis showed that caiB is likely to be cotranscribed with at least one other gene. This other gene could be the gene encoding a 47-kDa protein, which was overexpressed upstream of caiB. Images PMID:8188598

  14. Cloning and sequencing of the growth hormone gene of large yellow croaker and its phylogenetic significance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Wang, Yaping; He, Shunping; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2004-10-01

    Using conserved primers and the PCR reaction, the growth hormone (GH) gene and the 3'-UTR of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) were amplified and sequenced. The gene structure was analyzed and compared to the GH genes of 5 other percoid fish downloaded from Genbank. Also the GH gene of the large yellow croaker and the genes from 14 Percoidei and 2 Labroidei species were aligned using Clustal X. A matrix of 564 bp was used to construct the phylogenetic tree using maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining methods. Phylogenetic trees by the two methods are identical in most of the clades with high bootstrap support. The results are also identical to those from morphological data. In general, this analysis does not support the monophyll of the families Centropomidae and Carangidae. But our GH gene tree indicates that the representative species of the families Sparidae and Sciaenidae are a monophyletic group. PMID:15524313

  15. The kdp system of Clostridium acetobutylicum: cloning, sequencing, and transcriptional regulation in response to potassium concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Treuner-Lange, A; Kuhn, A; Dürre, P

    1997-01-01

    The complete sequence of the kdp gene region of Clostridium acetobutylicum has been determined. This part of the chromosome comprises two small open reading frames (orfZ and orfY), putatively encoding hydrophobic peptides, and the genes kdpA, kdpB, kdpC, and kdpX, followed by an operon encoding a pair of sensor-effector regulatory proteins (KdpD and KdpE). Except for orfZ, orfY, and kdpX, all genes showed significant homology to the kdp genes of Escherichia coli, encoding a high-affinity potassium transport ATPase and its regulators. The complete genome sequence of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and a recently published part of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome indicate the existence of a kdp system in these organisms as well, but all three systems comprise neither a second orf upstream of kdpA nor an additional kdpX gene. Expression of the clostridial kdp genes, including the unique kdpX gene, was found to be inducible by low potassium concentrations. A transcription start point could be mapped upstream of orfZ. A promoter upstream of kdpD was active only under noninducing conditions. Lowering the potassium content of the medium led to formation of a common transcript (orfZYkdpABCXDE), with a putative internal RNase E recognition site, which could be responsible for the instability of the common transcript. Except for the two small peptides, all gene products could be detected in in vitro transcription-translation experiments. PMID:9226259

  16. Sequence composition of BAC clones and SSR markers mapped to Upland cotton chromosomes 11 and 21 targeting resistance to soil-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congli; Ulloa, Mauricio; Shi, Xinyi; Yuan, Xiaohui; Saski, Christopher; Yu, John Z; Roberts, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and physical framework mapping in cotton (Gossypium spp.) were used to discover putative gene sequences involved in resistance to common soil-borne pathogens. Chromosome (Chr) 11 and its homoeologous Chr 21 of Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) are foci for discovery of resistance (R) or pathogen-induced R (PR) genes underlying QTLs involved in response to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis), Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum), Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae), and black root rot (Thielaviopsis basicola). Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from a BAC library developed from the Upland cotton Acala Maxxa were mapped on Chr 11 and Chr 21. DNA sequence through Gene Ontology (GO) of 99 of 256 Chr 11 and 109 of 239 Chr 21 previously mapped SSRs revealed response elements to internal and external stimulus, stress, signaling process, and cell death. The reconciliation between genetic and physical mapping of gene annotations from new DNA sequences of 20 BAC clones revealed 467 (Chr 11) and 285 (Chr 21) G. hirsutum putative coding sequences, plus 146 (Chr 11) and 98 (Chr 21) predicted genes. GO functional profiling of Unigenes uncovered genes involved in different metabolic functions and stress response elements (SRE). Our results revealed that Chrs 11 and 21 harbor resistance gene rich genomic regions. Sequence comparisons with the ancestral diploid D5 (G. raimondii), A2 (G. arboreum) and domesticated tetraploid TM-1 AD1 (G. hirsutum) genomes revealed abundance of transposable elements and confirmed the richness of resistance gene motifs in these chromosomes. The sequence information of SSR markers and BAC clones and the genetic mapping of BAC clones provide enhanced genetic and physical frameworks of resistance gene-rich regions of the cotton genome, thereby aiding discovery of R and PR genes and breeding for resistance to cotton diseases. PMID

  17. Sequence composition of BAC clones and SSR markers mapped to Upland cotton chromosomes 11 and 21 targeting resistance to soil-borne pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Congli; Ulloa, Mauricio; Shi, Xinyi; Yuan, Xiaohui; Saski, Christopher; Yu, John Z.; Roberts, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and physical framework mapping in cotton (Gossypium spp.) were used to discover putative gene sequences involved in resistance to common soil-borne pathogens. Chromosome (Chr) 11 and its homoeologous Chr 21 of Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) are foci for discovery of resistance (R) or pathogen-induced R (PR) genes underlying QTLs involved in response to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis), Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum), Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae), and black root rot (Thielaviopsis basicola). Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from a BAC library developed from the Upland cotton Acala Maxxa were mapped on Chr 11 and Chr 21. DNA sequence through Gene Ontology (GO) of 99 of 256 Chr 11 and 109 of 239 Chr 21 previously mapped SSRs revealed response elements to internal and external stimulus, stress, signaling process, and cell death. The reconciliation between genetic and physical mapping of gene annotations from new DNA sequences of 20 BAC clones revealed 467 (Chr 11) and 285 (Chr 21) G. hirsutum putative coding sequences, plus 146 (Chr 11) and 98 (Chr 21) predicted genes. GO functional profiling of Unigenes uncovered genes involved in different metabolic functions and stress response elements (SRE). Our results revealed that Chrs 11 and 21 harbor resistance gene rich genomic regions. Sequence comparisons with the ancestral diploid D5 (G. raimondii), A2 (G. arboreum) and domesticated tetraploid TM-1 AD1 (G. hirsutum) genomes revealed abundance of transposable elements and confirmed the richness of resistance gene motifs in these chromosomes. The sequence information of SSR markers and BAC clones and the genetic mapping of BAC clones provide enhanced genetic and physical frameworks of resistance gene-rich regions of the cotton genome, thereby aiding discovery of R and PR genes and breeding for resistance to cotton diseases. PMID

  18. Sequence, Cloning, and Analysis of the Fluvirucin B1 Polyketide Syn-thase from Actinomadura vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tsung-Yi; Borketey, Lawrence S.; Prasad, Gitanjeli; Waters, Stephanie A.; Schnarr, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Fluvirucin B1, produced by Actinomadura vulgaris, is a 14-membered macrolactam active against a variety of infectious fungi as well as influenza A. Despite considerable interest from the synthetic community, very little information is available regarding the biosynthetic origins of the fluvirucins. Herein, we report the identification and initial characterization of the fluvirucin B1 polyketide synthase and related enzymes. The cluster consists of five extender modules flanked by an N-terminal acyl carrier protein and C-terminal thioesterase domain. All but one of the synthase modules contain the full complement of tailoring domains (ketoreductase, dehydratase, and enoyl reductase) as determined by sequence homology with known polyketide synthases. Acitve site analyses of several key components of the cluster are performed to further verify that this gene cluster is associated with production of fluvirucin B1. This work will both open doors toward a better understanding of macrolactam formation and provide an avenue to genetics-based diversification of fluvirucin structure. PMID:23654262

  19. Cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the small GTPase gene cdc-42 from Ancylostoma caninum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yurong; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Jiaxin

    2012-12-01

    CDC-42 is a member of the Rho GTPase subfamily that is involved in many signaling pathways, including mitosis, cell polarity, cell migration and cytoskeleton remodeling. Here, we present the first characterization of a full-length cDNA encoding the small GTPase cdc-42, designated as Accdc-42, isolated from the parasitic nematode Ancylostoma caninum. The encoded protein contains 191 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 21 kDa and displays a high level of identity with the Rho-family GTPase protein CDC-42. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Accdc-42 was most closely related to Caenorhabditis briggsae cdc-42. Comparison with selected sequences from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Xenopus laevis, Danio rerio, Mus musculus and human genomes showed that Accdc-42 is highly conserved. AcCDC-42 demonstrates the highest identity to CDC-42 from C. briggsae (94.2%), and it also exhibits 91.6% identity to CDC-42 from C. elegans and 91.1% from Brugia malayi. Additionally, the transcript of Accdc-42 was analyzed during the different developmental stages of the worm. Accdc-42 was expressed in the L1/L2 larvae, L3 larvae and female and male adults of A. caninum. PMID:23000556

  20. DNA sequencing of the gene encoding a bacterial superantigen, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen (YPM), and characterization of the gene product, cloned YPM

    SciTech Connect

    Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Kato, Hidehito; Uchiyama, Takehiko

    1995-05-15

    Previously, we found a novel bacterial superantigen from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, designated Y. pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen (YPM). In the present study, we analyzed the DNA sequence of the gene encoding YPM. The YPM gene was cloned into a plasmid vector pMW119 and expressed in Escherichia coli DH10B. Like the native YPM, the cloned YPM required the expression of MHC class II molecules on accessory cells in the induction of IL-2 production by human T cells. TCR-V{beta} repertoire of human T cells reactive with the cloned YPM was V{beta}3, V{beta}9, V{beta}13.1, and V{beta}13.2. This repertoire is the same as that of T cells reactive with the native YPM. These results indicate that the cloned YPM expressed in E. coli is identical to the native YPM. Sequencing of the YPM gene revealed that the gene contained an open reading frame of 456 base pairs encoding a precursor form of 151 amino acid residues with m.w. 16,679 that is processed into a mature form of 131 amino acid residues with m.w. 14,529. Homology analysis revealed that the homology of amino acid sequence is quite low among YPM and other well known bacterial superantigens. We designated the gene encoding YPM as ypm. 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Molecular cloning of the. alpha. -subunit of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase: The complete cDNA-derived amino acid sequence and evidence for alternative splicing of RNA transcripts

    SciTech Connect

    Helaakoski, T.; Vuori, K.; Myllylae, R.; Kivirikko, K.I.; Pihlajaniemi, T. )

    1989-06-01

    Prolyl 4-hydroxylase an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} tetramer, catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline in collagens by the hydroxylation of proline residues in peptide linkages. The authors report here on the isolation of cDNA clones encoding the {alpha}-subunit of the enzyme from human tumor HT-1080, placenta, and fibroblast cDNA libraries. Eight overlapping clones covering almost all of the corresponding 3,000-nucleotide mRNA, including all the coding sequences, were characterized. These clones encode a polypeptide of 517 amino acid residues and a signal peptide of 17 amino acids. Previous characterization of cDNA clones for the {beta}-subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase has indicated that its C terminus has the amino acid sequence Lys-Asp-Gly-Leu, which, it has been suggested, is necessary for the retention of a polypeptide within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. The {alpha}-subunit does not have this C-terminal sequence, and thus one function of the {beta}-subunit in the prolyl 4-hydroxylase tetramer appears to be to retain the enzyme within this cell organelle. Southern blot analyses of human genomic DNA with a cDNA probe for the {alpha}-subunit suggested the presence of only one gene encoding the two types of mRNA, which appear to result from mutually exclusive alternative splicing of primary transcripts of one gene.

  2. Cloning and sequence analysis of two cDNAs encoding cyclin A and cyclin B in the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Lamers, A E; Heiney, J P; Ram, J L

    1999-01-11

    Cyclins are key components in the progression of both mitotic and meiotic cell cycle control. Full-length cDNA clones encoding cyclin A and cyclin B were isolated from a zebra mussel testis cDNA library. The clones contained open reading frames of 419 and 434 amino acids, had similarity to cyclins A and B from other species, but also some unique features in their sequences. Cyclin A and B mRNA was expressed in testis, ovary, gill, mantle, muscle, and eggs, as shown by specific polymerase chain reaction. PMID:9990304

  3. A New Clone Sweeps Clean: the Enigmatic Emergence of Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is an extensively antimicrobial-resistant E. coli clonal group that has spread explosively throughout the world. Recent molecular epidemiologic and whole-genome phylogenetic studies have elucidated the fine clonal structure of ST131, which comprises multiple ST131 subclones with distinctive resistance profiles, including the (nested) H30, H30-R, and H30-Rx subclones. The most prevalent ST131 subclone, H30, arose from a single common fluoroquinolone (FQ)-susceptible ancestor containing allele 30 of fimH (type 1 fimbrial adhesin gene). An early H30 subclone member acquired FQ resistance and launched the rapid expansion of the resulting FQ-resistant subclone, H30-R. Subsequently, a member of H30-R acquired the CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and launched the rapid expansion of the CTX-M-15-containing subclone within H30-R, H30-Rx. Clonal expansion clearly is now the dominant mechanism for the rising prevalence of both FQ resistance and CTX-M-15 production in ST131 and in E. coli generally. Reasons for the successful dissemination and expansion of the key ST131 subclones remain undefined but may include increased transmissibility, greater ability to colonize and/or persist in the intestine or urinary tract, enhanced virulence, and more-extensive antimicrobial resistance compared to other E. coli. Here we discuss the epidemiology and molecular phylogeny of ST131 and its key subclones, possible mechanisms for their ecological success, implications of their widespread dissemination, and future research needs. PMID:24867985

  4. Genetic alteration of Zymomonas mobilis for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Skotnicki, M.L.; Lee, K.J.; Tribe, D.E.; Rogers, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Strain improvement by mutagenesis with UV resulted in Zymomonas mobilis strains which were highly EtOH and temperature tolerant and which were able to produce more than 100 g EtOH /h at EtOH concentrations of 80-90 g/L. Genetic engineering has the potential of producing strains with the ability to ferment starch and cellulose directly to EtOH.

  5. Molecular cloning of a major human gall bladder mucin: complete C-terminal sequence and genomic organization of MUC5B.

    PubMed Central

    Keates, A C; Nunes, D P; Afdhal, N H; Troxler, R F; Offner, G D

    1997-01-01

    Gall bladder mucin has been shown to play a central role in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease. While cloning and sequencing studies have provided a wealth of information on the structure of other gastrointestinal and respiratory mucins, nothing is known about the primary structure of human gall bladder mucin. In this study, we show that the tracheobronchial mucin MUC5B is a major mucin gene product expressed in the gall bladder. Antibodies directed against deglycosylated human gall bladder mucin were used to screen a gall bladder cDNA expression library, and most of the isolated clones contained repetitive sequences nearly identical with those in the tandem repeat region of MUC5B. An additional clone (hGBM2-3) contained an open reading frame coding for a 389 residue cysteine-rich sequence. The arrangement of cysteine residues in this sequence was very similar to that in the C-terminal regions of MUC2, MUC5AC and human von Willebrand factor. This cysteine-rich sequence was connected to a series of degenerate MUC5B tandem repeats in a 7.5 kb HincII genomic DNA fragment. This fragment, with ten exons and nine introns, contained MUC5B repeats in exon 1 and a 469 residue cysteine-rich sequence in exons 2-10 that provided a 152 nucleotide overlap with cDNA clone hGBM2-3. Interestingly, the exon-intron junctions in the MUC5B genomic fragment occurred at positions equivalent to those in the D4 domain of human von Willebrand factor, suggesting that these proteins evolved from a common evolutionary ancestor through addition or deletion of exons encoding functional domains. PMID:9164870

  6. Crystal structure of cbbF from Zymomonas mobilis and its functional implication

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Suk-Youl; Kim, Jeong-Sun

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • The crystal structure of one cbbF from Zymomonas mobilis was revealed. • Scores of residues form two secondary structures with a non-polar protruded residue. • It exists as a dimeric form in solution. - Abstract: A phosphate group at the C1-atom of inositol-monophosphate (IMP) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) is hydrolyzed by a phosphatase IMPase and FBPase in a metal-dependent way, respectively. The two enzymes are almost indiscernible from each other because of their highly similar sequences and structures. Metal ions are bound to residues on the β1- and β2-strands and one mobile loop. However, FBP has another phosphate and FBPases exist as a higher oligomeric state, which may discriminate FBPases from IMPases. There are three genes annotated as FBPases in Zymomonas mobilis, termed also cbbF (ZmcbbF). The revealed crystal structure of one ZmcbbF shows a globular structure formed by five stacked layers. Twenty-five residues in the middle of the sequence form an α-helix and a β-strand, which occupy one side of the catalytic site. A non-polar Leu residue among them is protruded to the active site, pointing out unfavorable access of a bulky charged group to this side. In vitro assays have shown its dimeric form in solution. Interestingly, two β-strands of β1 and β2 are disordered in the ZmcbbF structure. These data indicate that ZmcbbF might structurally belong to IMPase, and imply that its active site would be reorganized in a yet unreported way.

  7. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene encoding the high-molecular-weight cytochrome c from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, W B; Loutfi, M; Bruschi, M; Rapp-Giles, B J; Wall, J D; Voordouw, G

    1991-01-01

    By using a synthetic deoxyoligonucleotide probe designed to recognize the structural gene for cytochrome cc3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a 3.7-kb XhoI genomic DNA fragment containing the cc3 gene was isolated. The gene encodes a precursor polypeptide of 58.9 kDa, with an NH2-terminal signal sequence of 31 residues. The mature polypeptide (55.7 kDa) has 16 heme binding sites of the form C-X-X-C-H. Covalent binding of heme to these 16 sites gives a holoprotein of 65.5 kDa with properties similar to those of the high-molecular-weight cytochrome c (Hmc) isolated from the same strain by Higuchi et al. (Y. Higuchi, K. Inaka, N. Yasuoka, and T. Yagi, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 911:341-348, 1987). Since the data indicate that cytochrome cc3 and Hmc are the same protein, the gene has been named hmc. The Hmc polypeptide contains 31 histidinyl residues, 16 of which are integral to heme binding sites. Thus, only 15 of the 16 hemes can have bis-histidinyl coordination. A comparison of the arrangement of heme binding sites and coordinated histidines in the amino acid sequences of cytochrome c3 and Hmc from D. vulgaris Hildenborough suggests that the latter contains three cytochrome c3-like domains. Cloning of the D. vulgaris Hildenborough hmc gene into the broad-host-range vector pJRD215 and subsequent conjugational transfer of the recombinant plasmid into D. desulfuricans G200 led to expression of a periplasmic Hmc gene product with covalently bound hemes. Images PMID:1846136

  8. Cloning and Sequencing of the Klebsiella pneumoniae O5 wb Gene Cluster and Its Role in Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Altarriba, Maria; Izquierdo, Luis; Nogueras, María Mercé; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2000-01-01

    One representative recombinant clone encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae O5-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found upon screening for serum resistance in a cosmid-based genomic library of K. pneumoniae KT769 (O5:K57) introduced into Escherichia coli DH5α. A total of eight open reading frames (wbO5 gene cluster) were necessary to produce K. pneumoniae O5-antigen LPS in E. coli K-12. The enzymatic activities proposed for the wbO5 gene cluster are in agreement with the activities proposed for the biosynthesis of K. pneumoniae O5-antigen LPS. Using the complete DNA sequence of the K. pneumoniae wbO5 gene cluster, we obtained (by single or double recombination) genetically well-characterized mutants devoid only of this O5-antigen LPS. Finally, using these O5− mutants and the corresponding wild-type strains or complemented mutants with the wbO5 gene cluster (O5+ strains), we found that the presence of K. pneumoniae O5-antigen LPS is essential for some pathogenic features like serum resistance, adhesion to uroepithelial cells, and colonization (experimental infections) of the urinary tract in rats. PMID:10768928

  9. Cloning, Sequencing, and Role in Virulence of Two Phospholipases (A1 and C) from Mesophilic Aeromonas sp. Serogroup O:34

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Aguilar, Alicia; Nogueras, Maria Mercedes; Regue, Miguel; Swift, Simon; Tomás, Juan M.

    1999-01-01

    Two different representative recombinant clones encoding Aeromonas hydrophila lipases were found upon screening on tributyrin (phospholipase A1) and egg yolk agar (lecithinase-phospholipase C) plates of a cosmid-based genomic library of Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 (serogroup O34) introduced into Escherichia coli DH5α. Subcloning, nucleotide sequencing, and in vitro-coupled transcription-translation experiments showed that the phospholipase A1 (pla) and C (plc) genes code for an 83-kDa putative lipoprotein and a 65-kDa protein, respectively. Defined insertion mutants of A. hydrophila AH-3 defective in either pla or plc genes were defective in phospholipase A1 and C activities, respectively. Lecithinase (phospholipase C) was shown to be cytotoxic but nonhemolytic or poorly hemolytic. A. hydrophila AH-3 plc mutants showed a more than 10-fold increase in their 50% lethal dose on fish and mice, and complementation of the plc single gene on these mutants abolished this effect, suggesting that Plc protein is a virulence factor in the mesophilic Aeromonas sp. serogroup O:34 infection process. PMID:10417167

  10. Molecular gene cloning and nucleotide sequencing and construction of an aroA mutant of Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A1.

    PubMed Central

    Tatum, F M; Briggs, R E; Halling, S M

    1994-01-01

    The aroA gene of Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A1 was cloned by complementation of the aroA mutation in Escherichia coli K-12 strain AB2829. The nucleotide sequence of a 2.2-kb fragment encoding aroA predicted an open reading frame product 434 amino acids long that shows homology to other bacterial AroA proteins. Several strategies to inactivate aroA were unsuccessful. Gene replacement was finally achieved by constructing a replacement plasmid with aroA inactivated by insertion of a P. haemolytica ampicillin resistance fragment into a unique NdeI site in aroA. A hybrid plasmid was constructed by joining the aroA replacement plasmid with a 4.2-kb P. haemolytica plasmid which encodes streptomycin resistance. Following PhaI methylation, the replacement plasmid was introduced by electroporation into P. haemolytica NADC-D60, a plasmidless strain of serotype 1A. Allelic exchange between the replacement plasmid and the chromosome of P. haemolytica gave rise to an ampicillin-resistant mutant which grew on chemically defined P. haemolytica medium supplemented with aromatic amino acids but failed to grow on the same medium lacking tryptophan. Southern blot analysis confirmed that aroA of the mutant was inactivated and that the mutant was without a plasmid. Images PMID:8031095

  11. Cloning and Characterization of 5′ Flanking Regulatory Sequences of AhLEC1B Gene from Arachis Hypogaea L.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Guiying; Xu, Pingli; Liu, Wei; Liu, Zhanji; Shan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) is a B subunit of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-YB) transcription factor that mainly accumulates during embryo development. We cloned the 5′ flanking regulatory sequence of AhLEC1B gene, a homolog of Arabidopsis LEC1, and analyzed its regulatory elements using online software. To identify the crucial regulatory region, we generated a series of GUS expression frameworks driven by different length promoters with 5′ terminal and/or 3′ terminal deletion. We further characterized the GUS expression patterns in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines. Our results show that both the 65bp proximal promoter region and the 52bp 5′ UTR of AhLEC1B contain the key motifs required for the essential promoting activity. Moreover, AhLEC1B is preferentially expressed in the embryo and is co-regulated by binding of its upstream genes with both positive and negative corresponding cis-regulatory elements. PMID:26426444

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel sequence, vof-16, with enhanced expression in permanent ischemic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Tohda, Michihisa; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2004-08-01

    We reported previously that chronic hypoperfusion induced by permanent occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO) in rats caused progressive cognitive deficits and neuronal damage in the hippocampus and the white matter. These changes are similar to those observed in human dementia. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) differential display was carried out to identify mRNAs encoding the intrinsic factors involved in permanent ischemia from the 2VO rat brain. Over 20 clones which showed different expression levels in 2VO and sham-operated rats were isolated. One of these, named vof-16, was markedly enhanced the expression by 2VO. The whole sequence of vof-16 mRNA was 2098 nt. The distribution of vof-16 transcripts was examined by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. The results revealed that vof-16 was abundant in the hippocampus, the tenia tecta, the piriform cortex and the area around the aorta. The expression levels of vof-16 in 2VO and sham-operated rat hippocampus were determined by a quantitative PCR method. The expression was abundant in the hippocampus of rats with cognitive impairment induced by 2VO. In contrast, the expression levels of vof-16 were lower in the 2VO rats with no impairment and in sham-operated rats. These results suggest that the expression levels of vof-16 may be related to the cognitive impairment induced by chronic ischemia after 2VO. PMID:15305027

  13. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR: automatable amplification and sequencing of insert end fragments from P1 and YAC clones for chromosome walking

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yao-Guang; Whittier, R.F.

    1995-02-10

    Isolation of DNA segments adjacent to known sequences is a tedious task in genome-related research. We have developed an efficient PCR strategy that overcomes the shortcomings of existing methods and can be automated. This strategy, thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR, utilizes nested sequence-specific primers together with a shorter arbitrary degenerate primer so that the relative amplification efficiencies of specific and nonspecific products can be thermally controlled. One low-stringency PCR cycle is carried out to create annealing site(s) adapted for the arbitrary primer within the unknown target sequence bordering the known segment. This sequence is then preferentially and geometrically amplified over nontarget ones by interspersion of high-stringency PCR cycles with reduced-stringency PCR cycles. We have exploited the efficiency of this method to expedite amplification and sequencing of insert end segments from P1 and YAC clones for chromosome walking. In this study we present protocols that are amenable to automation of amplification and sequencing of insert end sequences directly from cells of P1 and YAC clones. 19 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Genes galore: a summary of methods for accessing results from large-scale partial sequencing of anonymous Arabidopsis cDNA clones.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, T; de Bruijn, F J; Green, P; Keegstra, K; Kende, H; McIntosh, L; Ohlrogge, J; Raikhel, N; Somerville, S; Thomashow, M

    1994-01-01

    High-throughput automated partial sequencing of anonymous cDNA clones provides a method to survey the repertoire of expressed genes from an organism. Comparison of the coding capacity of these expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with the sequences in the public data bases results in assignment of putative function to a significant proportion of the ESTs. Thus, the more than 13,400 plant ESTs that are currently available provide a new resource that will facilitate progress in many areas of plant biology. These opportunities are illustrated by a description of the results obtained from analysis of 1500 Arabidopsis ESTs from a cDNA library prepared from equal portions of poly(A+) mRNA from etiolated seedlings, roots, leaves, and flowering inflorescences. More than 900 different sequences were represented, 32% of which showed significant nucleotide or deduced amino acid sequences similarity to previously characterized genes or proteins from a wide range of organisms. At least 165 of the clones had significant deduced amino acid sequence homology to proteins or gene products that have not been previously characterized from higher plants. A summary of methods for accessing the information and materials generated by the Arabidopsis cDNA sequencing project is provided. PMID:7846151

  15. Brief report: genome sequence and construction of an infectious cDNA clone of Ribgrass mosaic virus from Chinese cabbage in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, So-Young; Hong, Jin-Sung; Rhee, Sun-Ju; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2012-04-01

    Ribgrass mosaic virus (RMV) has severely decreased the production and lowered quality of Chinese cabbage co-infected with Turnip mosaic virus (63.4%) in Korea. The complete genome sequence of RMV isolated from Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis was determined. The full genome consisted of 6,304 nucleotides and showed sequence identities of 91.5-94.2% with the corresponding genome of other RMV strains. Full-length cDNA of RMV-Br was amplified by RT-PCR with a 5'-end primer harboring a T7 promoter sequence and a 3'-end RMV specific primer. Subsequently, the full-length cDNA was cloned into plasmid vectors. Capped transcripts synthesized from the cDNA clone were highly infectious and caused characteristic symptoms in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and several indicator plants, similar to wild type RMV. Since there has not been found RMV resistant Chinese cabbage yet and the virus has been prevalent already throughout the natural fields of Korea, the identification of full sequence and development of infectious clone would help developing breeding program for RMV resistant crops. PMID:22143325

  16. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the cDNAs Encoding Toxin-Like Peptides from the Venom Glands of Tarantula Grammostola rosea

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tadashi; Ono, Seigo; Kubo, Tai

    2012-01-01

    Tarantula venom glands produce a large variety of bioactive peptides. Here we present the identification of venom components obtained by sequencing clones isolated from a cDNA library prepared from the venom glands of the Chilean common tarantula, Grammostola rosea. The cDNA sequences of about 1500 clones out of 4000 clones were analyzed after selection using several criteria. Forty-eight novel toxin-like peptides (GTx1 to GTx7, and GTx-TCTP and GTx-CRISP) were predicted from the nucleotide sequences. Among these peptides, twenty-four toxins are ICK motif peptides, eleven peptides are MIT1-like peptides, and seven are ESTX-like peptides. Peptides similar to JZTX-64, aptotoxin, CRISP, or TCTP are also obtained. GTx3 series possess a cysteine framework that is conserved among vertebrate MIT1, Bv8, prokineticins, and invertebrate astakines. GTx-CRISP is the first CRISP-like protein identified from the arthropod venom. Real-time PCR revealed that the transcripts for TCTP-like peptide are expressed in both the pereopodal muscle and the venom gland. Furthermore, a unique peptide GTx7-1, whose signal and prepro sequences are essentially identical to those of HaTx1, was obtained. PMID:22500178

  17. The D-Alanyl carrier protein in Lactobacillus casei: cloning, sequencing, and expression of dltC.

    PubMed

    Debabov, D V; Heaton, M P; Zhang, Q; Stewart, K D; Lambalot, R H; Neuhaus, F C

    1996-07-01

    The incorporation of D-alanine into membrane-associated D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid in Lactobacillus casei requires the 56-kDa D-alanine-D-alanyl carrier protein ligase (Dcl) and the 8.9-kDa D-alanyl carrier protein (Dcp). To identify and isolate the gene encoding Dcp, we have cloned and sequenced a 4.3-kb chromosomal fragment that contains dcl (dltA). In addition to this gene, the fragment contains three other genes, dltB, d1tC, and a partial dltD gene. dltC (246 nucleotides) was subcloned from this region and expressed in Escherichia coli. The product was identified as apo-Dcp lacking the N-terminal methionine (8,787.9 Da). The in vitro conversion of the recombinant apo-Dcp to holo-Dcp by recombinant E. coli holo-ACP synthase provided Dcp which accepts activated D-alanine in the reaction catalyzed by Bcl. The recombinant D-alanyl-Dcp was functionally identical to native D-alanyl-Dcp in the incorporation of D-alanine into lipoteichoic acid. L. casei Dcp is 46% identical to the putative product of dltC in the Bacillus subtilis dlt operon (M. Perego, P. Glaser, A. Minutello, M. A. Strauch, K. Leopold, and W. Fischer, J. Biol. Chem. 270:15598-15606, 1995), and therefore, this gene also encodes Dcp. Comparisons of the primary sequences and predicted secondary structures of the L. casei and B. subtilis Dcps with that of the E. coli acyl carrier protein (ACP) were undertaken together with homology modeling to identify the functional determinants of the donor and acceptor specificities of Dcp. In the region of the phospho-pantetheine attachment site, significant similarity between Dcps and ACPs was observed. This similarity may account for the relaxed acceptor specificity of the Dcps and ACPs in the ligation Of D-alanine catalyzed by Dcl. In contrast, two Dcp consensus sequences, KXXVLDXLA and DXVKXNXD, share little identity with the rest of the ACP family and, thus, may determine the donor specificity of D-alanyl-Dcp in the D-alanylation of membrane-associated D

  18. Identification of key factors conquering developmental arrest of somatic cell cloned embryos by combining embryo biopsy and single-cell sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenqiang; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Chenfei; Gao, Yawei; Gao, Rui; Kou, Xiaochen; Zhao, Yanhong; Li, Jingyi; Wu, You; Xiu, Wenchao; Wang, Su; Yin, Jiqing; Liu, Wei; Cai, Tao; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Shaorong

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into totipotent embryos through somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, most cloned embryos arrest at early stages and the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unexplored. Here, we first developed a somatic cell nuclear transfer embryo biopsy system at two- or four-cell stage, which allows us to trace the developmental fate of the biopsied embryos precisely. Then, through single-cell transcriptome sequencing of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos with different developmental fates, we identified that inactivation of Kdm4b, a histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation demethylase, functions as a barrier for two-cell arrest of cloned embryos. Moreover, we discovered that inactivation of another histone demethylase Kdm5b accounts for the arrest of cloned embryos at the four-cell stage through single-cell analysis. Co-injection of Kdm4b and Kdm5b can restore transcriptional profiles of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos and greatly improve the blastocyst development (over 95%) as well as the production of cloned mice. Our study therefore provides an effective approach to identify key factors responsible for the developmental arrest of somatic cell cloned embryos. PMID:27462457

  19. Identification of key factors conquering developmental arrest of somatic cell cloned embryos by combining embryo biopsy and single-cell sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenqiang; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Chenfei; Gao, Yawei; Gao, Rui; Kou, Xiaochen; Zhao, Yanhong; Li, Jingyi; Wu, You; Xiu, Wenchao; Wang, Su; Yin, Jiqing; Liu, Wei; Cai, Tao; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Shaorong

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into totipotent embryos through somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, most cloned embryos arrest at early stages and the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unexplored. Here, we first developed a somatic cell nuclear transfer embryo biopsy system at two- or four-cell stage, which allows us to trace the developmental fate of the biopsied embryos precisely. Then, through single-cell transcriptome sequencing of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos with different developmental fates, we identified that inactivation of Kdm4b, a histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation demethylase, functions as a barrier for two-cell arrest of cloned embryos. Moreover, we discovered that inactivation of another histone demethylase Kdm5b accounts for the arrest of cloned embryos at the four-cell stage through single-cell analysis. Co-injection of Kdm4b and Kdm5b can restore transcriptional profiles of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos and greatly improve the blastocyst development (over 95%) as well as the production of cloned mice. Our study therefore provides an effective approach to identify key factors responsible for the developmental arrest of somatic cell cloned embryos. PMID:27462457

  20. Selection strategy and the design of hybrid oligonucleotide primers for RACE-PCR: cloning a family of toxin-like sequences from Agelena orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhensheng; Barry, Richard; Lipkin, Alexey; Soloviev, Mikhail

    2007-01-01

    Background the use of specific but partially degenerate primers for nucleic acid hybridisations and PCRs amplification of known or unknown gene families was first reported well over a decade ago and the technique has been used widely since then. Results here we report a novel and successful selection strategy for the design of hybrid partially degenerate primers for use with RT-PCR and RACE-PCR for the identification of unknown gene families. The technique (named PaBaLiS) has proven very effective as it allowed us to identify and clone a large group of mRNAs encoding neurotoxin-like polypeptide pools from the venom of Agelena orientalis species of spider. Our approach differs radically from the generally accepted CODEHOP principle first reported in 1998. Most importantly, our method has proven very efficient by performing better than an independently generated high throughput EST cloning programme. Our method yielded nearly 130 non-identical sequences from Agelena orientalis, whilst the EST cloning technique yielded only 48 non-identical sequences from 2100 clones obtained from the same Agelena material. In addition to the primer design approach reported here, which is almost universally applicable to any PCR cloning application, our results also indicate that venom of Agelena orientalis spider contains a much larger family of related toxin-like sequences than previously thought. Conclusion with upwards of 100,000 species of spider thought to exist, and a propensity for producing diverse peptide pools, many more peptides of pharmacological importance await discovery. We envisage that some of these peptides and their recombinant derivatives will provide a new range of tools for neuroscience research and could also facilitate the development of a new generation of analgesic drugs and insecticides. PMID:17498297

  1. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE OF THE PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA 142 OHB GENES CODING FOR OXYGENOLYTIC ORTHO DEHALOGENATION OF HALOBENZOATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have cloned and characterized novel oxygenolytic ortho-dehalogenation (ohb) genes from 2-chlorobenzoate (2-CBA)- and2,4-dichlorobenzoate (2,4-dCBA)-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa 142. Among 3,700 Escherichia coli recombinants, two clones,DH5alphaF' (pOD22) and DH5alphaF'; ...

  2. Reclassification of Desulfurococcus mobilis as a synonym of Desulfurococcus mucosus, Desulfurococcus fermentans and Desulfurococcus kamchatkensis as synonyms of Desulfurococcus amylolyticus, and emendation of the D. mucosus and D. amylolyticus species descriptions.

    PubMed

    Perevalova, Anna A; Kublanov, Ilya V; Bidzhieva, Salima Kh; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Lebedinsky, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Representatives of the crenarchaeal genus Desulfurococcus are strictly anaerobic hyperthermophiles with an organotrophic type of metabolism. Since 1982, five Desulfurococcus species names have been validly published: Desulfurococcus mucosus, D. mobilis, D. amylolyticus, D. fermentans and D. kamchatkensis. Recently, the genomic sequences of all five species became available, promoting the refinement of their taxonomic status. Analysis of full-length high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences shows that the sequences of D. mobilis and D. mucosus are 100 % identical and differ by 2.2 % from those of D. amylolyticus, D. fermentans and D. kamchatkensis. The latter three sequences differ from each other by 0.1-0.3 % (99.9 % similarity in the D amylolyticus-D. kamchatkensis pair and 99.7 % in the pairs involving D. fermentans). In silico prediction of DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values by comparison of genomes using ggdc 2.0 blast+ at http://ggdc.dsmz.de/ produced results that correlated with the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values. In the D. mucosus-D. mobilis and D. amylolyticus-D. kamchatkensis pairs, the predicted DDH values were 99 and 92 %, respectively, much higher than the recommended 70 % species-delimiting DDH value. Between members of different pairs, these values were no higher than 20 %. For D. fermentans, its predicted DDH values were around 70 % with D. amylolyticus and D. kamchatkensis and no higher than 20 % with D. mobilis and D. mucosus. These results indicated that D. mobilis should be reclassified as a synonym of D. mucosus, whereas D. kamchatkensis and D. fermentans should be reclassified as synonyms of D. amylolyticus. PMID:26596623

  3. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of factor C cDNA from the Singapore horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda.

    PubMed

    Ding, J L; Navas, M A; Ho, B

    1995-03-01

    Two forms of Factor C cDNAs: CrFC21 (3448 bp) and CrFC26 (4182 bp) have been cloned into lambda gt22. CrFC26 includes 568 nucleotides of 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) containing seven ATGs before the real initiation site, an open reading frame (ORF) of 3249 nucleotides, a stop codon, and 365 nucleotides of 3' untranslated sequence. There are four polyadenylation signals and six potential glycosylation sites. The ORF codes for a signal peptide of 24 amino acids and a Factor C zymogen of 1059 residues. The CrFC21 lacks most of the 5' UTR, and has some base changes in its ORF. The predicted secondary mRNA structures of the 5' end of CrFC26 showed numerous stem-and-loop structures, thus obscuring its real start codon. In contrast, CrFC21 has a well-exposed AUG start site, and expresses Factor C in transcription-translation reactions in vitro. There is a typical serine protease catalytic triad of Asp-His-Ser, which is structurally like prothrombin, but catalytically more similar to trypsin. Although an overall homology of 97.7% was observed in comparison with the Tachypleus tridentatus Factor C (TtFC) cDNA, there were notable differences in the restriction sites and subtle base substitutions in the CrFC cDNA. The high degree of homology between Factor C from T. tridentatus and C. rotundicauda substantiates, at the molecular level, the proximity of these two species in the course of evolution. This finding contravenes the apparent disparities with respect to their morphology, ecological habitat, and taxonomical classification. PMID:7538401

  4. Cloning, sequencing and partial characterisation of sorbitol transporter (srlT) gene encoding phosphotransferase system, glucitol/sorbitol-specific IIBC components of Erwinia herbicola ATCC 21998.

    PubMed

    Qazi, P H; Johri, S; Verma, V; Khan, L; Qazi, G N

    2004-09-01

    A DNA fragment of approximately 1500 bp, harbouring the sorbitol transport gene (srlT), was amplified from the chromosomal DNA of Erwinia herbicola ATCC 21998 by PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli JM109. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers used were designed based on the conserved regions in the gene sequences within the gut operon of E. coli (Gene Bank accession no. J02708) and the srl operon of Erwinia amylovora (Gene Bank accession no. Y14603). The cloned DNA fragment was sequenced and found to contain an open reading frame of 1473 nucleotides coding for a protein of 491 amino acids, corresponding to a mass of 52410 Da. The nucleotide sequence of this ORF was highly homologous to that of the gutA gene of Escherichia coli gut operon, the srlE gene of Shigella flexrni and the sorbitol transporter gene sequence of Escherichia coli K12 (Gene Bank accession nos. J02708, AE016987 and D90892 respectively). The protein sequence showed significant homology to that of the phosphotransferase system i.e. the glucitol/sorbitol-specific IIBC components of Escherichia coli and Erwinia amylovora (P56580, O32522). The cloned DNA fragment was introduced into a pRA90 vector and the recombinant was used for developing srlT mutants of Erwinia herbicola, by homologous recombination. Mutants obtained were unable to grow on minimal medium with sorbitol. The insertion of the pRA90 vector inside the srlT gene sequence of the mutants was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridisation. PMID:15560368

  5. Characterization of cDNA clones for human myeloperoxidase: predicted amino acid sequence and evidence for multiple mRNA species.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K R; Nauseef, W M; Care, A; Wheelock, M J; Shane, S; Hudson, S; Koeffler, H P; Selsted, M; Miller, C; Rovera, G

    1987-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is a component of the microbicidal network of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The enzyme is a tetramer consisting of two heavy and two light subunits. A large proportion of humans demonstrate genetic deficiencies in the production of myeloperoxidase. As a first step in analyzing these deficiencies in more detail, we have isolated cDNA clones for myeloperoxidase from an expression library of the HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. Two overlapping plasmids (pMP02 and pMP062) were identified as myeloperoxidase cDNA clones based on the detection with myeloperoxidase antiserum of 70 kDa protein expressed in pMP02-containing bacteria and a 75 kDa polypeptide produced by hybridization selection and translation using pMP062 and HL-60 RNA. Formal identification of the clones was made by matching the predicted amino acid sequences with the amino terminal sequences of the heavy and light subunits. Both subunits are encoded by one mRNA in the following order: pre-pro-sequences--light subunit--heavy subunit. The molecular weight of the predicted primary translation product is 83.7 kDa. Northern blots reveal two size classes of hybridizing RNAs (approximately 3.0-3.3 and 3.5-4.0 kilobases) whose expression is restricted to cells of the granulocytic lineage and parallels the changes in enzymatic activity observed during differentiation. Images PMID:3031585

  6. Molecular and Cytogenetic Analysis of the Heterochromatin-Euchromatin Junction Region of the Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome Using Cloned DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, M. T.; Mitchelson, A.; Tudor, M.; O'Hare, K.; Davies, J. A.; Miklos, GLG.

    1990-01-01

    We have used three cloned DNA sequences consisting of (1) part of the suppressor of forked transcription unit, (2) a cloned 359-bp satellite, and (3), a type I ribosomal insertion, to examine the structure of the base of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster where different chromatin types are found in juxtaposition. A DNA probe from the suppressor of forked locus hybridizes exclusively to the very proximal polytenized part of division 20, which forms part of the β-heterochromatin of the chromocenter. The cloned 359-bp satellite sequence, which derives from the proximal mitotic heterochromatin between the centromere and the ribosomal genes, hybridizes to the under replicated α-heterochromatin of the chromocenter. The type I insertion sequence, which has major locations in the ribosomal genes and in the distal mitotic heterochromatin of the X chromosome, hybridizes as expected to the nucleolus but does not hybridize to the β-heterochromatic division 20 of the polytene X chromosome. Our molecular data reveal that the suppressor of forked locus, which on cytogenetic grounds is the most proximal ordinary gene on the X chromosome, is very close to the junction of the polytenized and non-polytenized region of the X chromosome. The data have implications for the structure of β-heterochromatin-α-heterochromatin junction zones in both mitotic and polytene chromosomes, and are discussed with reference to models of chromosome structure. PMID:2118871

  7. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and cadmium stress-rated expression changes of BTG1 in freshwater pearl mussel (Hyriopsis schlegelii)

    PubMed Central

    PENG, Kou; WANG, Cheng-Yuan; WANG, Jun-Hua; SHENG, Jun-Qing; SHI, Jian-Wu; LI, Jian; HONG, Yi-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    The B cells translocation gene 1 (BTG1) is a member of the BTG/TOB family of anti-proliferative genes, which have recently emerged as important regulators of cell growth and differentiation among vertebrates. Here, for the first time we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of Hyriopsis schlegelii (Hs-BTG1), an economically important freshwater shellfish and potential indicator of environmental heavy metal pollution, for the first time. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) together with splicing the EST sequence from a haemocyte cDNA library, we found that Hs-BTG1 contains a 525 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 174 amino-acid polypeptide, a 306 bp 5' untranslated region (5' UTR), and a 571 bp 3' UTR with a Poly(A) tail as well as a transcription termination signal (AATAAA). Homologue searching against GenBank revealed that Hs-BTG1 was closest to Crassostrea gigas BTG1, sharing 50.57% of protein identities. Hs-BTG1 also shares some typical features of the BTG/TOB family, possessing two well-conserved A and B boxes. Clustering analysis of Hs-BTG1 and other known BTGs showed that Hs-BTG1 was also closely related to BTG1 of C. gigas from the invertebrate BTG1 clade. Function prediction via homology modeling showed that both Hs-BTG1 and C. gigas BTG1 share a similar three-dimensional structure with Homo sapiens BTG1. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the Hs-BTG1 via real-time PCR showed that the transcripts were constitutively expressed, with the highest levels in the hepatopancreas and gills, and the lowest in both haemocyte and muscle tissue. Expression levels of Hs-BTG1 in hepatopancreas (2.03-fold), mantle (2.07-fold), kidney (2.2-fold) and haemocyte (2.5-fold) were enhanced by cadmium (Cd2+) stress, suggesting that Hs-BTG1 may have played a significant role in H. schlegelii adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25297078

  8. Effectiveness of a Cloning and Sequencing Exercise on Student Learning with Subsequent Publication in the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Joann M.

    2009-01-01

    With rapid advances in biotechnology and molecular biology, instructors are challenged to not only provide undergraduate students with hands-on experiences in these disciplines but also to engage them in the “real-world” scientific process. Two common topics covered in biotechnology or molecular biology courses are gene-cloning and bioinformatics, but to provide students with a continuous laboratory-based research experience in these techniques is difficult. To meet these challenges, we have partnered with Bio-Rad Laboratories in the development of the “Cloning and Sequencing Explorer Series,” which combines wet-lab experiences (e.g., DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, ligation, transformation, and restriction digestion) with bioinformatics analysis (e.g., evaluation of DNA sequence quality, sequence editing, Basic Local Alignment Search Tool searches, contig construction, intron identification, and six-frame translation) to produce a sequence publishable in the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank. This 6- to 8-wk project-based exercise focuses on a pivotal gene of glycolysis (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), in which students isolate, sequence, and characterize the gene from a plant species or cultivar not yet published in GenBank. Student achievement was evaluated using pre-, mid-, and final-test assessments, as well as with a survey to assess student perceptions. Student confidence with basic laboratory techniques and knowledge of bioinformatics tools were significantly increased upon completion of this hands-on exercise. PMID:19952101

  9. Sequencing analysis of 20,000 full-length cDNA clones from cassava reveals lineage specific expansions in gene families related to stress response

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Tetsuya; Plata, Germán; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Seki, Motoaki; Salcedo, Andrés; Toyoda, Atsushi; Ishiwata, Atsushi; Tohme, Joe; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Ishitani, Manabu

    2007-01-01

    Background Cassava, an allotetraploid known for its remarkable tolerance to abiotic stresses is an important source of energy for humans and animals and a raw material for many industrial processes. A full-length cDNA library of cassava plants under normal, heat, drought, aluminum and post harvest physiological deterioration conditions was built; 19968 clones were sequence-characterized using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Results The ESTs were assembled into 6355 contigs and 9026 singletons that were further grouped into 10577 scaffolds; we found 4621 new cassava sequences and 1521 sequences with no significant similarity to plant protein databases. Transcripts of 7796 distinct genes were captured and we were able to assign a functional classification to 78% of them while finding more than half of the enzymes annotated in metabolic pathways in Arabidopsis. The annotation of sequences that were not paired to transcripts of other species included many stress-related functional categories showing that our library is enriched with stress-induced genes. Finally, we detected 230 putative gene duplications that include key enzymes in reactive oxygen species signaling pathways and could play a role in cassava stress response features. Conclusion The cassava full-length cDNA library here presented contains transcripts of genes involved in stress response as well as genes important for different areas of cassava research. This library will be an important resource for gene discovery, characterization and cloning; in the near future it will aid the annotation of the cassava genome. PMID:18096061

  10. Effectiveness of a cloning and sequencing exercise on student learning with subsequent publication in the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joann M; Robinson, David L

    2009-01-01

    With rapid advances in biotechnology and molecular biology, instructors are challenged to not only provide undergraduate students with hands-on experiences in these disciplines but also to engage them in the "real-world" scientific process. Two common topics covered in biotechnology or molecular biology courses are gene-cloning and bioinformatics, but to provide students with a continuous laboratory-based research experience in these techniques is difficult. To meet these challenges, we have partnered with Bio-Rad Laboratories in the development of the "Cloning and Sequencing Explorer Series," which combines wet-lab experiences (e.g., DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, ligation, transformation, and restriction digestion) with bioinformatics analysis (e.g., evaluation of DNA sequence quality, sequence editing, Basic Local Alignment Search Tool searches, contig construction, intron identification, and six-frame translation) to produce a sequence publishable in the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank. This 6- to 8-wk project-based exercise focuses on a pivotal gene of glycolysis (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), in which students isolate, sequence, and characterize the gene from a plant species or cultivar not yet published in GenBank. Student achievement was evaluated using pre-, mid-, and final-test assessments, as well as with a survey to assess student perceptions. Student confidence with basic laboratory techniques and knowledge of bioinformatics tools were significantly increased upon completion of this hands-on exercise. PMID:19952101

  11. Species-Level Phylogeny and Polyploid Relationships in Hordeum (Poaceae) Inferred by Next-Generation Sequencing and In Silico Cloning of Multiple Nuclear Loci

    PubMed Central

    Brassac, Jonathan; Blattner, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidization is an important speciation mechanism in the barley genus Hordeum. To analyze evolutionary changes after allopolyploidization, knowledge of parental relationships is essential. One chloroplast and 12 nuclear single-copy loci were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in all Hordeum plus six out-group species. Amplicons from each of 96 individuals were pooled, sheared, labeled with individual-specific barcodes and sequenced in a single run on a 454 platform. Reference sequences were obtained by cloning and Sanger sequencing of all loci for nine supplementary individuals. The 454 reads were assembled into contigs representing the 13 loci and, for polyploids, also homoeologues. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted for all loci separately and for a concatenated data matrix of all loci. For diploid taxa, a Bayesian concordance analysis and a coalescent-based dated species tree was inferred from all gene trees. Chloroplast matK was used to determine the maternal parent in allopolyploid taxa. The relative performance of different multilocus analyses in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization was also assessed. The resulting multilocus phylogeny reveals for the first time species phylogeny and progenitor-derivative relationships of all di- and polyploid Hordeum taxa within a single analysis. Our study proves that it is possible to obtain a multilocus species-level phylogeny for di- and polyploid taxa by combining PCR with next-generation sequencing, without cloning and without creating a heavy load of sequence data. PMID:26048340

  12. Discovery of Novel dsRNA Viral Sequences by In Silico Cloning and Implications for Viral Diversity, Host Range and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiquan; Fu, Yanping; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Ghabrial, Said A.; Li, Guoqing; Yi, Xianhong; Jiang, Daohong

    2012-01-01

    Genome sequence of viruses can contribute greatly to the study of viral evolution, diversity and the interaction between viruses and hosts. Traditional molecular cloning methods for obtaining RNA viral genomes are time-consuming and often difficult because many viruses occur in extremely low titers. DsRNA viruses in the families, Partitiviridae, Totiviridae, Endornaviridae, Chrysoviridae, and other related unclassified dsRNA viruses are generally associated with symptomless or persistent infections of their hosts. These characteristics indicate that samples or materials derived from eukaryotic organisms used to construct cDNA libraries and EST sequencing might carry these viruses, which were not easily detected by the researchers. Therefore, the EST databases may include numerous unknown viral sequences. In this study, we performed in silico cloning, a procedure for obtaining full or partial cDNA sequence of a gene by bioinformatics analysis, using known dsRNA viral sequences as queries to search against NCBI Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) database. From this analysis, we obtained 119 novel virus-like sequences related to members of the families, Endornaviridae, Chrysoviridae, Partitiviridae, and Totiviridae. Many of them were identified in cDNA libraries of eukaryotic lineages, which were not known to be hosts for these viruses. Furthermore, comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of these newly discovered virus-like sequences with known dsRNA viruses revealed that these dsRNA viruses may have co-evolved with respective host supergroups over a long evolutionary time while potential horizontal transmissions of viruses between different host supergroups also is possible. We also found that some of the plant partitiviruses may have originated from fungal viruses by horizontal transmissions. These findings extend our knowledge of the diversity and possible host range of dsRNA viruses and offer insight into the origin and evolution of relevant viruses with their hosts. PMID

  13. Cloning and physical mapping of DNA sequences encompassing a region in N-myc amplicons of a human neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, K; Nishi, Y

    1991-01-01

    Cloning and physical mapping of DNA sequences encompassing N-myc amplicons of a human neuroblastoma cell line were done. A number of lambda phage clones within this region were isolated using the probes prepared by the phenol emulsion reassociation technique. Based on the restriction mapping, they were integrated into 8 contigs with sizes of 25-60 kb which, in total, encompassed a 330 kb region. Several amplicons, 100, 420, 480 and 520 kb in size as a Notl fragment, were identified using hexagonal field gel electrophoresis, and the contigs were assigned in these Notl fragments. The region encompassed by the contigs was equivalent to some 60-80% of the amplicons identified as a Notl fragment. In order to compare the amplified regions flanking the N-myc gene among the cell lines, the phage clones to cover the whole contigs were used for hybridization as a probe. The results showed that the portions of the whole contigs ranging 18-45% were also amplified in the cell lines examined. These results allowed us to identified the 'rearranged sites' which were rather evenly distributed, one at every 40 kb, through the contigs. These observations lead to the idea that an amplified DNA domain is constructed after the multiple rearrangements and then increases in number, finally resulting in the formation of subsets of amplicons with sequence homogeneity. Images PMID:1762918

  14. Isolation and sequence of a cDNA clone for human tyrosinase that maps at the mouse c-albino locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, B.S.; Haq, A.K.; Pomerantz, S.H.; Halaban, R.

    1987-11-01

    Screening of a lambdagt11 human melanocyte cDNA library with antibodies against hamster tyrosinase resulted in the isolation of 16 clones. The cDNA inserts from 13 of the 16 clones cross-hybridized with each other, indicating that they were form related mRNA species. One of the cDNA clones, Pmel34, detected one mRNA species with an approximate length of 2.4 kilobases that was expressed preferentially in normal and malignant melanocytes but not in other cell types. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence showed that the putative human tyrosinase is composed of 548 amino acids with a molecular weight of 62,610. The deduced protein contains glycosylation sites and histidine-rich sites that could be used for copper binding. Southern blot analysis of DNA derived from newborn mice carrying lethal albino deletion mutations revealed that Pmel34 maps near or at the c-albino locus, the position of the structural gene for tyrosinase.

  15. Cloning of the trp gene cluster from a tryptophan-hyperproducing strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum: identification of a mutation in the trp leader sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Heery, D M; Dunican, L K

    1993-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21850 produces up to 5 g of extracellular L-tryptophan per liter in broth culture and displays resistance to several synthetic analogs of aromatic amino acids. Here we report the cloning of the tryptophan biosynthesis (trp) gene cluster of this strain on a 14.5-kb BamHI fragment. Subcloning and complementation of Escherichia coli trp auxotrophs revealed that as in Brevibacterium lactofermentum, the C. glutamicum trp genes are clustered in an operon in the order trpE, trpD, trpC, trpB, trpA. The cloned fragment also confers increased resistance to the analogs 5-methyltryptophan and 6-fluorotryptophan on E. coli. The sequence of the ATCC 21850 trpE gene revealed no significant changes when compared to the trpE sequence of a wild-type strain reported previously. However, analysis of the promoter-regulatory region revealed a nonsense (TGG-to-TGA) mutation in the third of three tandem Trp codons present within a trp leader gene. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of the corresponding region confirmed the absence of this mutation in the wild-type strain. RNA secondary-structure predictions and sequence similarities to the E. coli trp attenuator suggest that this mutation results in a constitutive antitermination response. PMID:7683184

  16. Molecular cloning of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) elongation factor 2 (EF-2): sequence analysis and its expression on the ovarian maturation stage.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lihua; Jiang, Shigui; Zhou, Falin; Zhang, Dianchang; Huang, Jianhua; Guo, Yihui

    2008-09-01

    The techniques of homology cloning and anchored PCR were used to clone the elongation factor 2 (EF-2) gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The full length cDNA of black tiger shrimp EF-2 (btsEF-2) contained a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 73 bp, an ORF of 2541 bp encoding a polypeptide of 846 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 95 kDa, and a 3( UTR of 112 bp. The searches for protein sequence similarities with BLAST analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of btsEF-2 was homological to the EF-2 of other species and even the mammalians. The conserved signature sequence of EF-2 gene family, GTPase effector domain and ADP-ribosylation domain were found in the btsEF-2 deduced amino acid sequence. The temporal expressions of gene in the different ovarian stages were measured by real time PCR. The mRNA expressions of the gene were constitutively expressed in ovary and different during the maturation stages. The result indicated that EF-2 gene was constitutively expressed and could play a critical role in the ovarian maturation stage. PMID:17629788

  17. Completion of Kunjin virus RNA sequence and recovery of an infectious RNA transcribed from stably cloned full-length cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Khromykh, A A; Westaway, E G

    1994-01-01

    Completion of the Kunjin virus (KUN) RNA sequence showed that it is the longest flavivirus sequence reported (11,022 bases), commencing with a 5' noncoding region of 96 bases. The 3' noncoding sequence of 624 nucleotides included a unique insertion sequence of 46 bases adjacent to the stop codon, but otherwise it had properties similar to those of RNAs of closely related flaviviruses. A full-length KUN cDNA clone which could be stably propagated in Escherichia coli DH5 alpha was constructed; SP6 polymerase RNA transcripts from amplified cDNA were infectious when transfected into BHK-21 cells. A mutational change abolishing the BamHI restriction site at position 4049, leading to a conservative amino acid change of Arg-175 to Lys in the NS2A protein, was introduced into the cDNA during construction and was retained in the recovered virus. Extra terminal nucleotides introduced during cloning of the cDNA were shown to be present in the in vitro RNA transcripts but absent in the RNA of recovered virus. Although recovered virus differed from the parental KUN by a smaller plaque phenotype and delayed growth rate in BHK-21 cells and mice, it was very similar as assessed by several other criteria, such as peak titer during growth in cells, infectivity titer in cells and in mice, rate of adsorption and penetration in cells, replication at 39 degrees C, and neurovirulence after intraperitoneal injection in mice. The KUN stably cloned cDNA will provide a useful basis for future studies in defining and characterizing functional roles of all the gene products. Images PMID:8207832

  18. Molecular cloning and expression of partial cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequence of a carboxyl-terminal fragment of human apolipoprotein B-100.

    PubMed Central

    Wei, C F; Chen, S H; Yang, C Y; Marcel, Y L; Milne, R W; Li, W H; Sparrow, J T; Gotto, A M; Chan, L

    1985-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 cDNAs were identified in a human liver cDNA library cloned in the expression vector lambda gt11. The beta-galactosidase-apoB-100 fusion protein was detected by two independently produced low density lipoprotein polyclonal antisera and by three apoB-100 monoclonal antibodies that crossreact with apoB-74. It was not recognized by two apoB-100 monoclonal antibodies that crossreact with apoB-26. The longest clone, lambda B8, was completely sequenced. It contains a 2.8-kilobase DNA fragment containing the codons for the carboxyl-terminal 836 amino acid residues of apo-B-100, as well as the 3' untranslated region of apoB-100 mRNA. We have thus mapped apoB-74 to the carboxyl-terminal portion of apoB-100. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cloned DNA matches the sequences of 14 apoB-100 peptides determined in our laboratory. Minor differences in amino acid sequence were noted in three of the peptides, suggesting polymorphism of apoB-100 at the protein and DNA levels. Secondary structure predictions reveal an unusual pattern for apolipoproteins, consisting of beta-structure (24%), alpha-helical content (33%), and random structure (30%). Ten amphipathic helical regions of 10-24 residues were identified. This carboxyl-terminal fragment of apoB-100 is considerably more hydrophobic than other apolipoproteins with known structure. Its lipid binding regions might include stretches of highly hydrophobic beta-sheets as well as amphipathic helices. Our findings on apoB structure might be important for understanding the role of apoB-100-containing lipoproteins in atherosclerosis. PMID:2932736

  19. Sequence and expression of an Eisenia-fetida-derived cDNA clone that encodes the 40-kDa fetidin antibacterial protein.

    PubMed

    Lassegues, M; Milochau, A; Doignon, F; Du Pasquier, L; Valembois, P

    1997-06-15

    Fetidins are 40-kDa and 45-kDa hemolytic and antibacterial glycoproteins present in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei. By screening a cDNA library with a polyclonal antifetidin serum, we have cloned a cDNA that encoded the 40-kDa fetidin. The clone contains an insert of 1.44 kb encoding a protein of 34 kDa, which corresponds to the size of deglycosylated fetidins. The recombinant protein inhibits Bacillus megaterium growth. Restriction fragment polymorphisms were observed on Southern blots and correspond to a known protein polymorphism. The sequence of the cDNA contains a peroxidase signature and fetidins from earthworm coelomic fluid have peroxidase activity. The 40-kDa and 45-kDa fetidins therefore represent two related polymorphic defence factors in invertebrates. PMID:9219536

  20. One-Step Recovery of scFv Clones from High-Throughput Sequencing-Based Screening of Phage Display Libraries Challenged to Cells Expressing Native Claudin-1

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Emanuele; Paciello, Rolando; D'Auria, Francesco; Riccio, Gennaro; Froechlich, Guendalina; Cortese, Riccardo; Nicosia, Alfredo; De Lorenzo, Claudia; Zambrano, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Expanding the availability of monoclonal antibodies interfering with hepatitis C virus infection of hepatocytes is an active field of investigation within medical biotechnologies, to prevent graft reinfection in patients subjected to liver transplantation and to overcome resistances elicited by novel antiviral drugs. In this paper, we describe a complete pipeline for screening of phage display libraries of human scFvs against native Claudin-1, a tight-junction protein involved in hepatitis C virus infection, expressed on the cell surface of human hepatocytes. To this aim, we implemented a high-throughput sequencing approach for library screening, followed by a simple and effective strategy to recover active binder clones from enriched sublibraries. The recovered clones were successfully converted to active immunoglobulins, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of the whole procedure. This novel approach can guarantee rapid and cheap isolation of antibodies for virtually any native antigen involved in human diseases, for therapeutic and/or diagnostic applications. PMID:26649313

  1. Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a novel extracellular neutral proteinase from Streptomyces sp. strain C5 and expression of the gene in Streptomyces lividans 1326.

    PubMed Central

    Lampel, J S; Aphale, J S; Lampel, K A; Strohl, W R

    1992-01-01

    The gene encoding a novel milk protein-hydrolyzing proteinase was cloned on a 6.56-kb SstI fragment from Streptomyces sp. strain C5 genomic DNA into Streptomyces lividans 1326 by using the plasmid vector pIJ702. The gene encoding the small neutral proteinase (snpA) was located within a 2.6-kb BamHI-SstI restriction fragment that was partially sequenced. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence of the mature protein was determined to be 15,740, which corresponds very closely with the relative molecular mass of the purified protein (15,500) determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified neutral proteinase was determined, and the DNA encoding this sequence was found to be located within the sequenced DNA. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a conserved zinc binding site, although secondary ligand binding and active sites typical of thermolysinlike metalloproteinases are absent. The combination of its small size, deduced amino acid sequence, and substrate and inhibition profile indicate that snpA encodes a novel neutral proteinase. Images PMID:1569011

  2. Cloning, sequencing, and use as a molecular probe of a gene encoding an aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase of broad substrate profile.

    PubMed Central

    Terán, F J; Suárez, J E; Mendoza, M C

    1991-01-01

    A gene coding for an aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase that was able to modify amikacin was cloned from a plasmid isolated from a clinical strain of Enterobacter cloacae. Sequencing of a 955-bp segment which mediates the modifying activity revealed a single open reading frame of 432 nucleotides that predicted a polypeptide of 144 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 16,021. Putative ribosomal binding sites and -10 and -35 sequences were located at the 5' end of the gene. The size of the polypeptide was confirmed through minicell analysis of the expression products of plasmids containing the sequence. The use of the gene as a molecular probe revealed its specificity toward strains harboring genes coding for related enzymes. This probe is therefore useful for epidemiological studies. Images PMID:2069376

  3. Pyruvatibacter mobilis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium from the culture broth of Picochlorum sp. 122.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Tang, Mingxing; Wu, Hualian; Dai, Shikun; Li, Tao; Chen, Chenghao; He, Hui; Fan, Jiewei; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated strain GYP-11T, was isolated from the culture broth of a marine microalga, Picochloruma sp. 122. Cells were dimorphic rods; free living cells were motile by means of a single polar flagellum, and star-shaped-aggregate-forming cells were attached with stalks and non-motile. Sodium pyruvate or Tween 20 was required for growth on marine agar 2216.16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this isolate shared 94.07 % similarity with its closest type strain, Parvibaculum hydrocarboniclasticum EPR92T. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that strain GYP-11T represents a distinct lineage in a robust clade consisting of strain GYP-11T, alphaproteobacterium GMD21A06 and Candidatus Phaeomarinobacter ectocarpi Ec32. This clade was close to the genera Parvibaculum and Tepidicaulis in the order Rhizobiales. Chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics, including cellular fatty acids and carbon source profiles, also readily distinguished strain GYP-11T from all established genera and species. Thus, it is concluded that strain GYP-11T represents a novel species of a new genus in the order Rhizobiales, for which the name Pyruvatibacter mobilis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pyruvatibacter mobilis is GYP-11T ( = CGMCC 1.15125T = KCTC 42509T). PMID:26476620

  4. Molecular cloning, sequencing and tissue expression of vasotocin and isotocin precursor genes from Ostariophysian catfishes: phylogeny and evolutionary considerations in teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Putul; Chaube, Radha; Joy, Keerikkattil P.

    2015-01-01

    Basic and neutral neurohypophyseal (NH) nonapeptides have evolved from vasotocin (VT) by a gene duplication at the base of the gnathostome lineage. In teleosts, VT and IT are the basic and neutral peptides, respectively. In the present study, VT and IT precursor genes of Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus (Siluriformes, Ostariophysi) were cloned and sequenced. The channel catfish Icatalurus punctatus NH precursor sequences were obtained from EST database. The catfish NH sequences were used along with the available Acanthopterygii and other vertebrate NH precursor sequences to draw phylogenetic inference on the evolutionary history of the teleost NH peptides. Synteny analysis of the NH gene loci in various teleost species was done to complement the phylogenetic analysis. In H. fossilis, the NH transcripts were also sequenced from the ovary. The cloned genes and the deduced precursor proteins showed conserved characteristics of the NH nonapeptide precursors. The genes are expressed in brain and ovary (follicular envelope) of H. fossilis with higher transcript abundance in the brain. The addition of the catfish sequences in the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the VT and IT precursors of the species-rich superorders of teleosts have a distinct phylogenetic history with the Acanthopterygii VT and IT precursors sharing a less evolutionary distance and the Ostariophysi VT and IT having a greater evolutionary distance. The genomic location of VT and IT precursors, and synteny analysis of the NH loci lend support to the phylogenetic inference and suggest a footprint of fish- specific whole genome duplication (3R) and subsequent diploidization in the NH loci. The VT and IT precursor genes are most likely lineage-specific paralogs resulting from differential losses of the 3R NH paralogs in the two superorders. The independent yet consistent retention of VT and IT in the two superorders might be directed by a stringent ligand-receptor selectivity. PMID:26029040

  5. Ultra-deep T cell receptor sequencing reveals the complexity and intratumour heterogeneity of T cell clones in renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Gerlinger, Marco; Quezada, Sergio A; Peggs, Karl S; Furness, Andrew J S; Fisher, Rosalie; Marafioti, Teresa; Shende, Vishvesh H; McGranahan, Nicholas; Rowan, Andrew J; Hazell, Steven; Hamm, David; Robins, Harlan S; Pickering, Lisa; Gore, Martin; Nicol, David L; Larkin, James; Swanton, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The recognition of cancer cells by T cells can impact upon prognosis and be exploited for immunotherapeutic approaches. This recognition depends on the specific interaction between antigens displayed on the surface of cancer cells and the T cell receptor (TCR), which is generated by somatic rearrangements of TCR α- and β-chains (TCRb). Our aim was to assess whether ultra-deep sequencing of the rearranged TCRb in DNA extracted from unfractionated clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) samples can provide insights into the clonality and heterogeneity of intratumoural T cells in ccRCCs, a tumour type that can display extensive genetic intratumour heterogeneity (ITH). For this purpose, DNA was extracted from two to four tumour regions from each of four primary ccRCCs and was analysed by ultra-deep TCR sequencing. In parallel, tumour infiltration by CD4, CD8 and Foxp3 regulatory T cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and correlated with TCR-sequencing data. A polyclonal T cell repertoire with 367-16 289 (median 2394) unique TCRb sequences was identified per tumour region. The frequencies of the 100 most abundant T cell clones/tumour were poorly correlated between most regions (Pearson correlation coefficient, -0.218 to 0.465). 3-93% of these T cell clones were not detectable across all regions. Thus, the clonal composition of T cell populations can be heterogeneous across different regions of the same ccRCC. T cell ITH was higher in tumours pretreated with an mTOR inhibitor, which could suggest that therapy can influence adaptive tumour immunity. These data show that ultra-deep TCR-sequencing technology can be applied directly to DNA extracted from unfractionated tumour samples, allowing novel insights into the clonality of T cell populations in cancers. These were polyclonal and displayed ITH in ccRCC. TCRb sequencing may shed light on mechanisms of cancer immunity and the efficacy of immunotherapy approaches. PMID:24122851

  6. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool.

    PubMed

    Henstock, Peter V; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow. PMID:27459605

  7. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Henstock, Peter V.; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow. PMID:27459605

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of satellite DNA sequences from constitutive heterochromatin of the habu snake (Protobothrops flavoviridis, Viperidae) and the Burmese python (Python bivittatus, Pythonidae).

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kazumi; Uno, Yoshinobu; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Seki, Risako; Nishida, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2015-12-01

    Highly repetitive DNA sequences of the centromeric heterochromatin provide valuable molecular cytogenetic markers for the investigation of genomic compartmentalization in the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes of sauropsids. Here, the relationship between centromeric heterochromatin and karyotype evolution was examined using cloned repetitive DNA sequences from two snake species, the habu snake (Protobothrops flavoviridis, Crotalinae, Viperidae) and Burmese python (Python bivittatus, Pythonidae). Three satellite DNA (stDNA) families were isolated from the heterochromatin of these snakes: 168-bp PFL-MspI from P. flavoviridis and 196-bp PBI-DdeI and 174-bp PBI-MspI from P. bivittatus. The PFL-MspI and PBI-DdeI sequences were localized to the centromeric regions of most chromosomes in the respective species, suggesting that the two sequences were the major components of the centromeric heterochromatin in these organisms. The PBI-MspI sequence was localized to the pericentromeric region of four chromosome pairs. The PFL-MspI and the PBI-DdeI sequences were conserved only in the genome of closely related species, Gloydius blomhoffii (Crotalinae) and Python molurus, respectively, although their locations on the chromosomes were slightly different. In contrast, the PBI-MspI sequence was also in the genomes of P. molurus and Boa constrictor (Boidae), and additionally localized to the centromeric regions of eight chromosome pairs in B. constrictor, suggesting that this sequence originated in the genome of a common ancestor of Pythonidae and Boidae, approximately 86 million years ago. The three stDNA sequences showed no genomic compartmentalization between the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes, suggesting that homogenization of the centromeric and/or pericentromeric stDNA sequences occurred in the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes of these snakes. PMID:26205503

  9. Amniote phylogenomics: testing evolutionary hypotheses with BAC library scanning and targeted clone analysis of large-scale DNA sequences from reptiles.

    PubMed

    Shedlock, Andrew M; Janes, Daniel E; Edwards, Scott V

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenomics research integrating established principles of systematic biology and taking advantage of the wealth of DNA sequences being generated by genome science holds promise for answering long-standing evolutionary questions with orders of magnitude more primary data than in the past. Although it is unrealistic to expect whole-genome initiatives to proceed rapidly for commercially unimportant species such as reptiles, practical approaches utilizing genomic libraries of large-insert clones pave the way for a phylogenomics of species that are nevertheless essential for testing evolutionary hypotheses within a phylogenetic framework. This chapter reviews the case for adopting genome-enabled approaches to evolutionary studies and outlines a program for using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries or plasmid libraries as a basis for completing "genome scans" of reptiles. We have used BACs to close a critical gap in the genome database for Reptilia, the sister group of mammals, and present the methodological approaches taken to achieve this as a guideline for designing similar comparative studies. In addition, we provide a detailed step-by-step protocol for BAC-library screening and shotgun sequencing of specific clones containing target genes of evolutionary interest. Taken together, the genome scanning and shotgun sequencing techniques offer complementary diagnostic potential and can substantially increase the scale and power of analyses aimed at testing evolutionary hypotheses for nonmodel species. PMID:18629663

  10. Cloning and sequence analysis of beta-4 cDNA: an integrin subunit that contains a unique 118 kd cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, F; Kuikman, I; von dem Borne, A E; Sonnenberg, A

    1990-01-01

    The alpha 6 beta 4 complex is a member of the integrin superfamily of adhesion receptors. A human keratinocyte lambda gt11 cDNA library was screened using a monoclonal antibody directed against the beta 4 subunit. Two cDNAs were selected and subsequently used to isolate a complete set of overlapping cDNA clones. The beta 4 subunit consists of 1778 amino acids with a 683 amino acid extracellular domain, a 23 amino acid transmembrane domain and an exceptionally long cytoplasmic domain of 1072 residues. The deduced amino-terminal sequence is in good agreement with the published amino-terminal sequence of purified beta 4. The extracellular domain contains five potential N-linked glycosylation sites and four cysteine-rich homologous repeat sequences. The extracellular part of the beta 4 subunit sequence shows 35% identify with other integrin beta subunits, but is the most different among this class of molecules. The transmembrane region is poorly conserved, whereas the cytoplasmic domain shows no substantial identity in any region to the cytoplasmic tails of the known beta sequences or to other protein sequences. The exceptionally long cytoplasmic domain suggests distinct interactions of the beta 4 subunit with cytoplasmic proteins. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2311578

  11. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of a novel 7 beta-(4-carboxybutanamido)cephalosporanic acid acylase gene of Bacillus laterosporus and its expression in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Aramori, I; Fukagawa, M; Tsumura, M; Iwami, M; Ono, H; Kojo, H; Kohsaka, M; Ueda, Y; Imanaka, H

    1991-12-01

    A strain of Bacillus species which produced an enzyme named glutaryl 7-ACA acylase which converts 7 beta-(4-carboxybutanamido)cephalosporanic acid (glutaryl 7-ACA) to 7-amino cephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) was isolated from soil. The gene for the glutaryl 7-ACA acylase was cloned with pHSG298 in Escherichia coli JM109, and the nucleotide sequence was determined by the M13 dideoxy chain termination method. The DNA sequence revealed only one large open reading frame composed of 1,902 bp corresponding to 634 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence contained a potential signal sequence in its amino-terminal region. Expression of the gene for glutaryl 7-ACA acylase was performed in both E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme preparations purified from either recombinant strain of E. coli or B. subtilis were shown to be identical with each other as regards the profile of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and were composed of a single peptide with the molecular size of 70 kDa. Determination of the amino-terminal sequence of the two enzyme preparations revealed that both amino-terminal sequences (the first nine amino acids) were identical and completely coincided with residues 28 to 36 of the open reading frame. Extracellular excretion of the enzyme was observed in a recombinant strain of B. subtilis. PMID:1744041

  12. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of expansins--a highly conserved, multigene family of proteins that mediate cell wall extension in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Shcherban, T Y; Shi, J; Durachko, D M; Guiltinan, M J; McQueen-Mason, S J; Shieh, M; Cosgrove, D J

    1995-01-01

    Expansins are unusual proteins discovered by virtue of their ability to mediate cell wall extension in plants. We identified cDNA clones for two cucumber expansins on the basis of peptide sequences of proteins purified from cucumber hypocotyls. The expansin cDNAs encode related proteins with signal peptides predicted to direct protein secretion to the cell wall. Northern blot analysis showed moderate transcript abundance in the growing region of the hypocotyl and no detectable transcripts in the nongrowing region. Rice and Arabidopsis expansin cDNAs were identified from collections of anonymous cDNAs (expressed sequence tags). Sequence comparisons indicate at least four distinct expansin cDNAs in rice and at least six in Arabidopsis. Expansins are highly conserved in size and sequence (60-87% amino acid sequence identity and 75-95% similarity between any pairwise comparison), and phylogenetic trees indicate that this multigene family formed before the evolutionary divergence of monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Sequence and motif analyses show no similarities to known functional domains that might account for expansin action on wall extension. A series of highly conserved tryptophans may function in expansin binding to cellulose or other glycans. The high conservation of this multigene family indicates that the mechanism by which expansins promote wall extensin tolerates little variation in protein structure. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7568110

  13. Revealing very small FLT3 ITD mutated clones by ultra-deep sequencing analysis has important clinical implications in AML patients

    PubMed Central

    Zuffa, Elisa; Franchini, Eugenia; Papayannidis, Cristina; Baldazzi, Carmen; Simonetti, Giorgia; Testoni, Nicoletta; Abbenante, Maria Chiara; Paolini, Stefania; Sartor, Chiara; Parisi, Sarah; Marconi, Giovanni; Cattina, Federica; Bochicchio, Maria Teresa; Venturi, Claudia; Ottaviani, Emanuela; Cavo, Michele; Martinelli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD), one of the most frequent mutations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), is reported to be an unstable marker, as it can evolve from FLT3 ITD- to ITD+ during the disease course. A single-gene sensitive mutational screening approach may be helpful for better clarifying the exact timing of mutation occurrence, especially when FLT3 ITD appears to occur late, at disease progression. We developed an amplicon-based ultra-deep-sequencing (UDS) approach for FLT3 mutational screening. We exploited this highly sensitive technology for the retrospective screening of diagnosis, relapse and follow-up samples of 5 out of 256 cytogenetically normal (CN-) AML who were FLT3 wild-type at presentation, but tested ITD+ at relapse or disease progression. Our study revealed that all patients carried a small ITD+ clone at diagnosis, which was undetectable by routine analysis (0,2–2% abundance). The dynamics of ITD+ clones from diagnosis to disease progression, assessed by UDS, reflected clonal evolution under treatment pressure. UDS appears as a valuable tool for FLT3 mutational screening and for the assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) during follow-up, by detecting small ITD+ clones that may survive chemotherapy, evolve over time and definitely worsen the prognosis of CN-AML patients. PMID:26384303

  14. Expression of an L-alanine dehydrogenase gene in Zymomonas mobilis and excretion of L-alanine

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlenbusch, I.; Sahm, H.; Sprenger, G.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Gene alaD for L-alanine dehydrogenase from Bacillus sphaericus was cloned and introduced into Z. mobilis. Under the control of the strong promoter of the pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) gene, the enzyme was expressed up to a specific activity of nearly 1 {mu}mol {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} {center dot} mg of protein{sup {minus}1} in recombinant cells. As a result of this high L-alanine dehydrogenase activity, growing cells excreted up to 10 mmol of alanine per 280 mmol of glucose utilized into a mineral salts medium. By the addition of 85 mM NH{sub 4}{sup +} to the medium, growth of the recombinant cells stopped, and up to 41 mmol of alanine was secreted. As alanine dehydrogenase competed with pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) for the same substrate (pyruvate), PDC activity was reduced by starvation for the essential PDC cofactor thiamine PP{sub i}. A thiamine auxotrophy mutant of Z. mobilis which carried the alaD gene was starved for 40 h in glucose-supplemented mineral salts medium and then shifted to mineral salts medium with 85 mM NH {sub 4}{sup +} and 280 mmol of glucose. The recombinants excreted up to 84 mmol of alanine over 25 h. Alanine excretion proceeded at an initial velocity of 238 nmol {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} {center dot} mg(dry weight){sup {minus}1}. Despite this high activity, the excretion rate seemed to be a limiting factor, as the intracellular concentration of alanine was as high as 260 mM at the beginning of the excretion phase and decreased to 80 to 90 mM over 24 h.

  15. Cloning and sequence of a cDNA coding for the human beta-migrating endothelial-cell-type plasminogen activator inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Ny, T; Sawdey, M; Lawrence, D; Millan, J L; Loskutoff, D J

    1986-01-01

    A lambda gt11 expression library containing cDNA inserts prepared from human placental mRNA was screened immunologically using an antibody probe developed against the beta-migrating plasminogen activator inhibitor (beta-PAI) purified from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. Thirty-four positive clones were isolated after screening 7 X 10(5) phages. Three clones (lambda 1.2, lambda 3, and lambda 9.2) were randomly picked and further characterized. These contained inserts 1.9, 3.0, and 1.9 kilobases (kb) long, respectively. Escherichia coli lysogenic for lambda 9.2, but not for lambda gt11, produced a fusion protein of 180 kDa that was recognized by affinity-purified antibodies against the bovine aortic endothelial cell beta-PAI and had beta-PAI activity when analyzed by reverse fibrin autography. The largest cDNA insert was sequenced and shown to be 2944 base pairs (bp) long. It has a large 3' untranslated region [1788 bp, excluding the poly(A) tail] and contains the entire coding region of the mature protein but lacks the initiation codon and part of the signal peptide coding region at the 5' terminus. The two clones carrying the 1.9-kb cDNA inserts were partially sequenced and shown to be identical to the 3.0-kb cDNA except that they were truncated, lacking much of the 3' untranslated region. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated RNA from the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT-1080 was performed using the 3.0-kb cDNA as hybridization probe. Two distinct transcripts, 2.2 and 3.0 kb, were detected, suggesting that the 1.9-kb cDNA may have been copied from the shorter RNA transcript. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA was aligned with the NH2-terminal sequence of the human beta-PAI. Based on this alignment, the mature human beta-PAI is 379 amino acids long and contains an NH2-terminal valine. The deduced amino acid sequence has extensive (30%) homology with alpha 1-antitrypsin and antithrombin III, indicating that the beta

  16. Cloning and genetic and sequence analyses of the bacteriocin 21 determinant encoded on the Enterococcus faecalis pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid pPD1.

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, H; Fujimoto, S; Tanimoto, K; Ike, Y

    1997-01-01

    The pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid pPD1 (59 kb) of Enterococcus faecalis encodes the bacteriocin 21 (bac21) determinant. Cloning, transposon insertion mutagenesis and sequence analysis of the bac21 determinant showed that an 8.5-kb fragment lying between kb 27.1 and 35.6 of the pPD1 map is required for complete expression of the bacteriocin. The 8.5-kb fragment contained nine open reading frames (ORFs), bacA to bac1, which were oriented in the same (upstream-to-downstream) direction. Transposon insertions into the bacA to bacE ORFs, which are located in the proximal half of bac21, resulted in defective bacteriocin expression. Insertions into the bacF to bac1 ORFs, which are located in the distal half of bac21, resulted in reduced bacteriocin expression. Deletion mutant analysis of the cloned 8.5-kb fragment revealed that the deletion of segments between kb 31.6 and 35.6 of the pPD1 map, which contained the distal region of the determinant encoding bacF to bac1, resulted in reduced bacteriocin expression. The smallest fragment (4.5 kb) retaining some degree of bacteriocin expression contained the bacA to bacE sequences located in the proximal half of the determinant. The cloned fragment encoding the 4.5-kb proximal region and a Tn916 insertion mutant into pPD1 bacB trans-complemented intracellularly to give complete expression of the bacteriocin. bacA encoded a 105-residue sequence with a molecular mass of 11.1 kDa. The deduced BacA protein showed 100% homology to the broad-spectrum antibiotic peptide AS-48, which is encoded on the E. faecalis conjugative plasmid pMB2 (58 kb). bacH encoded a 195-residue sequence with a molecular mass of 21.9 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed significant homology to the C-terminal region of HlyB (31.1% identical residues), a protein located in the Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin operon that is a representative bacterial ATP-binding cassette export protein. PMID:9401046

  17. Analysis of two cosmid clones from chromosome 4 of Drosophila melanogaster reveals two new genes amid an unusual arrangement of repeated sequences.

    PubMed

    Locke, J; Podemski, L; Roy, K; Pilgrim, D; Hodgetts, R

    1999-02-01

    Chromosome 4 from Drosophila melanogaster has several unusual features that distinguish it from the other chromosomes. These include a diffuse appearance in salivary gland polytene chromosomes, an absence of recombination, and the variegated expression of P-element transgenes. As part of a larger project to understand these properties, we are assembling a physical map of this chromosome. Here we report the sequence of two cosmids representing approximately 5% of the polytenized region. Both cosmid clones contain numerous repeated DNA sequences, as identified by cross hybridization with labeled genomic DNA, BLAST searches, and dot matrix analysis, which are positioned between and within the transcribed sequences. The repetitive sequences include three copies of the mobile element Hoppel, one copy of the mobile element HB, and 18 DINE repeats. DINE is a novel, short repeated sequence dispersed throughout both cosmid sequences. One cosmid includes the previously described cubitus interruptus (ci) gene and two new genes: that a gene with a predicted amino acid sequence similar to ribosomal protein S3a which is consistent with the Minute(4)101 locus thought to be in the region, and a novel member of the protein family that includes plexin and met-hepatocyte growth factor receptor. The other cosmid contains only the two short 5'-most exons from the zinc-finger-homolog-2 (zfh-2) gene. This is the first extensive sequence analysis of noncoding DNA from chromosome 4. The distribution of the various repeats suggests its organization is similar to the beta-heterochromatic regions near the base of the major chromosome arms. Such a pattern may account for the diffuse banding of the polytene chromosome 4 and the variegation of many P-element transgenes on the chromosome. PMID:10022978

  18. Cloning, sequence analysis and three-dimensional structure prediction of DNA pol I from thermophilic Geobacillus sp. MKK isolated from an Iranian hot spring.

    PubMed

    Khalaj-Kondori, Mohammad; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Khajeh, Khosro; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein; Ahadi, Ali Mohammad; Emamzadeh, Abdorahman

    2007-08-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of a novel thermophilic eubacterium isolated from an Iranian hot spring using 16S rDNA sequence showed that the new isolate belongs to genera Geobacillus. DNA pol I gene from this isolate was amplified, cloned, sequenced, and the three-dimensional (3D) structure of deduced amino acid sequence was predicted. Sequence analysis revealed the gene is 2,631 bp long, encodes a protein of 876 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 99 kDa, and belongs to family A DNA polymerases. Comparison of 3'-5'exonuclease domain of Klenow fragment (KF) with corresponding region of newly identified DNA pol I (MF), the large fragment of Bacillus stearothermophilus DNA pol I (BF) and Klentaq1, revealed not only deletions in three regions compared to KF, but that three of the four critical metal-binding residues in KF (Asp355, Glu357, Asp424, and Asp501) are altered in MF as well. Predicted 3D structure and sequence alignments between MF and BF showed that all critical residues in the polymerase active site are conserved. PMID:18025581

  19. Molecular profiling of microbial communities from contaminated sources: Use of subtractive cloning methods and rDNA spacer sequences. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, F.T.

    1998-06-01

    'The major objective of the research is to provide appropriate sequences and to assemble a high-density DNA array of oligonucleotides that can be used for rapid profiling of microbial populations from polluted areas. The sequences to be assigned to the DNA array are chosen from from cloned genomic DNA sequences (the ribosomal operon, described below) from groundwater at DOE sites containing organic solvents. The sites, Hanford Nuclear Plant and Lawrence Livermore Site 300, have well characterized pollutant histories, which have been provided by the collaborators. At this mid-point of the project, over 60 unique sequence classes of intergenic spacer region have been idedntified from the first sample site. The use of these sequences as hybridization probes, and their frequency of occurrence, allow a clear distinction between bacterial communities before and after remediation by acetate/nitrate pumping. The authors have developed the hybridization conditions for identifying PCR products in a 96 well format, a versatile alignment and visualization program (acronym: MALIGN) developed by Dr. Dennis Maeder, has been used to align the ISRs, which are variable in length and sometimes in position of the tRNAs. Finally, in collaboration with Dr. W. Chen and Dr. J. Zhou at ORNL, they have significant evidence that mass spectrometer analysis can be used to determine the lengths of PCR amplified intergenic spacer DNA.'

  20. New PCR-Based Open Reading Frame Typing Method for Easy, Rapid, and Reliable Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii International Epidemic Clones without Performing Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Hosoba, Eriko; Matsui, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance issues have become a global health concern. The rapid identification of multidrug-resistant microbes, which depends on microbial genomic information, is essential for overcoming growing antimicrobial resistance challenges. However, genotyping methods, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), for identifying international epidemic clones of Acinetobacter baumannii are not easily performed as routine tests in ordinary clinical laboratories. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel genotyping method that can be performed in ordinary microbiology laboratories. Several open reading frames (ORFs) specific to certain bacterial genetic lineages or species, together with their unique distribution patterns on the chromosomes showing a good correlation with the results of MLST, were selected in A. baumannii and other Acinetobacter spp. by comparing their genomic data. The distribution patterns of the ORFs were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis after multiplex PCR amplification and digitized. A. baumannii sequence types (STs) corresponding to international clones I and II were successfully discriminated from other STs and Acinetobacter species by detecting the distribution patterns of their ORFs using the multiplex PCR developed here. Since bacterial STs can be easily expressed as digitized numeric data with plus (+) expressed as 1 and minus (−) expressed as 0, the results of the method can be easily compared with those obtained by different tests or laboratories. This PCR-based ORF typing (POT) method can easily and rapidly identify international epidemic clones of A. baumannii and differentiate this microbe from other Acinetobacter spp. Since this POT method is easy enough to be performed even in ordinary clinical laboratories, it would also contribute to daily infection control measures and surveillance. PMID:24899031

  1. Cloning and sequence analysis of the coding sequence of β-actin cDNA from the Chinese alligator and suitable internal reference primers from the β-actin gene.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H N; Zhang, S Z; Zhou, Y K; Wang, C L; Wu, X B

    2015-01-01

    β-Actin is an essential component of the cytoskeleton and is stably expressed in various tissues of animals, thus, it is commonly used as an internal reference for gene expression studies. In this study, a 1731-bp fragment of β-actin cDNA from Alligator sinensis was obtained using the homology cloning technique. Sequence analysis showed that this fragment contained the complete coding sequence of the β-actin gene (1128 bp), encoding 375 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of β-actin is highly conserved and its nucleotide sequence is slightly variable. Multiple alignment analyses showed that the nucleotide sequence of the β-actin gene from A. sinensis is very similar to sequences from birds, with 94-95% identity. Ten pairs of primers with different product sizes and different annealing temperatures were screened by PCR amplification, agarose gel electrophoresis, and DNA sequencing, and could be used as internal reference primers in gene expression studies. This study expands our knowledge of β-actin gene phylogenetic evolution and provides a basis for quantitative gene expression studies in A. sinensis. PMID:26505364

  2. Purification and characterization of a malic enzyme from the ruminal bacterium Streptococcus bovis ATCC 15352 and cloning and sequencing of its gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, S; Suzuki, H; Yamamoto, K; Inui, M; Yukawa, H; Kumagai, H

    1996-01-01

    Malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.39), which catalyzes L-malate oxidative decarboxylation and pyruvate reductive carboxylation, was purified to homogeneity from Streptococcus bovis ATCC 15352, and properties of this enzyme were determined. The 2.9-kb fragment containing the malic enzyme gene was cloned, and the sequence was determined and analyzed. The enzymatic properties of the S. bovis malic enzyme were almost identical to those of other malic enzymes previously reported. However, we found that the S. bovis malic enzyme catalyzed unknown enzymatic reactions, including reduction of 2-oxoisovalerate, reduction of 2-oxoisocaproate, oxidation of D-2-hydroxyisovalerate, and oxidation of D-2-hydroxyisocaproate. The requirement for cations and the optimum pH of these unique activities were different from the requirement for cations and the optimum pH of the L-malate oxidative decarboxylating activity. A sequence analysis of the cloned fragment revealed the presence of two open reading frames that were 1,299 and 1,170 nucleotides long. The 389-amino-acid polypeptide deduced from the 1,170-nucleotide open reading frame was identified as the malic enzyme; this enzyme exhibited high levels of similarity to malic enzymes of Bacillus stearothermophilus and Haemophilus influenzae and was also similar to other malic enzymes and the malolactic enzyme of Lactococcus lactis. PMID:8702261

  3. Analysis of the Airway Microbiota of Healthy Individuals and Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by T-RFLP and Clone Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zakharkina, Tetyana; Heinzel, Elke; Koczulla, Rembert A.; Greulich, Timm; Rentz, Katharina; Pauling, Josch K.; Baumbach, Jan; Herrmann, Mathias; Grünewald, Christiane; Dienemann, Hendrik; von Müller, Lutz; Bals, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, inflammatory lung disease that affects a large number of patients and has significant impact. One hallmark of the disease is the presence of bacteria in the lower airways. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the detailed structure of microbial communities found in the lungs of healthy individuals and patients with COPD. Nine COPD patients as compared and 9 healthy individuals underwent flexible bronchoscopy and BAL was performed. Bacterial nucleic acids were subjected to terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism and clone library analysis. Overall, we identified 326 T-RFLP band, 159 in patients and 167 in healthy controls. The results of the TRF analysis correlated partly with the data obtained from clone sequencing. Although the results of the sequencing showed high diversity, the genera Prevotella, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Fusobacterium, Megasphaera, Veillonella, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus constituted the major part of the core microbiome found in both groups. A TRF band possibly representing Pseudomonas sp. monoinfection was associated with a reduction of the microbial diversity. Non-cultural methods reveal the complexity of the pulmonary microbiome in healthy individuals and in patients with COPD. Alterations of the microbiome in pulmonary diseases are correlated with disease. PMID:23874580

  4. FINAL REPORT. MOLECULAR PROFILING OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES FROM CONTAMINATED SOURCES: USE OF SUBTRACTIVE CLONING METHODS AND RDNA SPACER SEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major objective of the research was to provide appropriate sequences and to assemble a DNA arrays of oligonucleotides to be used for rapid profiling of microbial populations, from polluted areas and from areas of other interest. The sequences to be assigned to the DNA array a...

  5. Ruegeria mobilis sp. nov., a member of the Alphaproteobacteria isolated in Japan and Palau.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yuki; Uchino, Yoshihito; Kasai, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi

    2007-06-01

    The taxonomic positions of two bacterial strains, MBIC01146(T) and MBIC01099, isolated from marine environments of Japan and Palau, respectively, were determined by using a polyphasic approach. The bacteria were aerobic, motile, Gram-negative rods and formed star-shaped aggregations. The G+C content of the genomic DNA ranged from 58.5 to 58.7 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1)omega6c and C(18 : 1)omega7c. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses based on both neighbour-joining and maximum-parsimony methods revealed that strains MBIC01146(T) and MBIC01099 were positioned within the cluster comprising Ruegeria atlantica and Silicibacter lacuscaerulensis within subgroup alpha-3 of the Proteobacteria. The phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the novel strains were similar to those of Ruegeria atlantica; however, DNA-DNA hybridization tests showed that the isolates represented an independent species. The isolates could be differentiated from Ruegeria atlantica based on several characteristics. Therefore, strains MBIC01146(T) and MBIC01099 are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Ruegeria, for which the name Ruegeria mobilis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MBIC01146(T) (=NBRC 101030(T)=CIP 109181(T)). An emended description of Ruegeria atlantica Uchino et al. 1999 is also given. PMID:17551047

  6. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequences of the complementary DNAs to chicken skeletal muscle myosin two alkali light chain mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Nabeshima, Y; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y; Muramatsu, M; Ogata, K

    1982-01-01

    We report here the molecular cloning and sequence analysis of DNAs complementary to mRNAs for myosin alkali light chain of chicken embryo and adult leg skeletal muscle. pSMA2-1 contained an 818 base-pair insert that includes the entire coding region and 5' and 3' untranslated regions of A2 mRNA. pSMA1-1 contained a 848 base-pair insert that included the 3' untranslated region and almost all of the coding region except for the N-terminal 13 amino acid residues of the A1 light chain. The 741 nucleotide sequences of A1 and A2 mRNAs corresponding to C-terminal 141 amino acid residues and 3' untranslated regions were identical. The 5' terminal nucleotide sequences corresponding to N-terminal 35 amino acid residues of A1 chain were quite different from the sequences corresponding to N-terminal 8 amino acid residues and of the 5' untranslated region of A2 mRNA. These findings are discussed in relation to the structures of the genes for A1 and A2 mRNA. PMID:6128725

  7. Biosynthesis of riboflavin: cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene coding for 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, G; Volk, R; Krieger, C; Lahm, H W; Röthlisberger, U; Bacher, A

    1992-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate is biosynthesized from ribulose 5-phosphate and serves as the biosynthetic precursor for the xylene ring of riboflavin. The gene coding for 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase of Escherichia coli has been cloned and sequenced. The gene codes for a protein of 217 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 23,349.6 Da. The enzyme was purified to near homogeneity from a recombinant E. coli strain and had a specific activity of 1,700 nmol mg-1 h-1. The N-terminal amino acid sequence and the amino acid composition of the protein were in agreement with the deduced sequence. The molecular mass as determined by ion spray mass spectrometry was 23,351 +/- 2 Da, which is in agreement with the predicted mass. The previously reported loci htrP, "luxH-like," and ribB at 66 min of the E. coli chromosome are all identical to the gene coding for 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase, but their role had not been hitherto determined. Sequence homology indicates that gene luxH of Vibrio harveyi and the central open reading frame of the Bacillus subtilis riboflavin operon code for 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase. Images PMID:1597419

  8. Cloning and sequencing of the blood meal-induced late trypsin gene from the mosquito Aedes aegypti and characterization of the upstream regulatory region.

    PubMed

    Barillas-Mury, C; Wells, M A

    1993-01-01

    A 4.1 kb genomic clone of the late trypsin gene from the mosquito Aedes aegypti was isolated, mapped and subcloned. A 1.6 kb subclone, corresponding to 1.1 kb of upstream regulatory region and 0.5 kb of coding region, was sequenced. The gene has no introns within the coding region. The 5' end of the mature mRNA was mapped using primer extension analysis. A TATA box consensus sequence (TATAAA) was found at position -31 from the 5' end of the mature mRNA. A cluster of five repeat sequences homologous to the yeast GCN4 DNA binding site was found within 200 nucleotides upstream of the cap site. GCN4 is required for derepression mediated control of general amino acid biosynthesis in response to amino acid starvation in yeast. It activates the transcription of at least twenty different genes coding for enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. The presence of this cluster of consensus sequences suggests that a protein similar to GCN4 might regulate expression of the late trypsin gene in the mosquito. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA indicates that late trypsin is a single copy gene. PMID:9087537

  9. Cloning and partial DNA sequencing of two new human papillomavirus types associated with condylomas and low-grade cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Lörincz, A T; Quinn, A P; Goldsborough, M D; Schmidt, B J; Temple, G F

    1989-01-01

    Using low-stringency Southern blot analysis and cloning in lambda bacteriophage, two new human papillomavirus types (HPV-43 and HPV-44) were identified and their DNAs were cloned from vulvar tissues. The isolates were characterized by restriction endonuclease mapping and shown to be new HPV types on the basis of their minimal hybridization with all other known HPV types at high stringency. Both HPVs are most closely related to types 6, 11, and 13. HPV-43 did not exhibit any cross-reactivity with these HPV types at high stringency. HPV-44 showed minimal cross-reactivity to HPV-13, which was in the range of 20 to 25% according to liquid hybridization analysis. The deduced genomic organization of each of the two new HPVs was colinear with HPV-6b. Prevalence studies revealed that HPV-43 and HPV-44 together were found in 6 of 439 normal cervical tissues, in 8 of 195 cervical intraepithelial neoplasms, but in none of 56 cervical cancers tested thus far. Images PMID:2542593

  10. De novo sequencing and transcriptome analysis of a low temperature tolerant Saccharum spontaneum clone IND 00-1037.

    PubMed

    Dharshini, S; Chakravarthi, M; J, Ashwin Narayan; Manoj, V M; Naveenarani, M; Kumar, Ravinder; Meena, Minturam; Ram, Bakshi; Appunu, C

    2016-08-10

    Saccharum spontaneum L., a wild relative of sugarcane, is known for its adaptability to environmental stresses, particularly cold stress. In the present study, an attempt was made for transcriptome profiling of the low temperature (10°C) tolerant S. spontaneum clone IND 00-1037 collected from high altitude regions of Arunachal Pradesh, North Eastern India. The Illumina Nextseq500 platform yielded a total of 47.63 and 48.18 million reads corresponding to 4.7 and 4.8 gigabase pairs (Gb) of processed reads for control and cold stressed (10°C for 24h) samples, respectively. These reads were de novo assembled into 214,611 unigenes with an average length of 801bp. Further, all unigenes were aligned to GO, KEGG and COG databases in order to identify novel genes and pathways responsive upon low temperature conditions. The differential gene expression analysis revealed that about 2583 genes were upregulated and 3302 genes were down regulated during the stress. This is perhaps the comprehensive transcriptome data of a low temperature tolerant clone of S. spontaneum. This study would aid in identifying novel genes and also in future genomic studies pertaining to sugarcane and its wild relatives. PMID:27269250

  11. Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of a membrane-associated Prevotella ruminicola B(1)4 beta-glucosidase with cellodextrinase and cyanoglycosidase activities.

    PubMed Central

    Wulff-Strobel, C R; Wilson, D B

    1995-01-01

    Prevotella ruminicola B(1)4 is a gram-negative, anaerobic gastrointestinal bacterium. A 2.4-kbp chromosomal fragment from P. ruminicola encoding an 87-kDa aryl-glucosidase (CdxA) with cellodextrinase activity was cloned into Escherichia coli DH5 alpha and sequenced. CdxA activity was found predominantly in the membrane fraction of both P. ruminicola and E. coli, but P. ruminicola localized the protein extracellularly while E. coli did not. The hydrolase had the highest activity on cellodextrins (3.43 to 4.13 mumol of glucose released min-1 mg of protein-1) and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside (3.54 mumol min-1 mg of protein-1). Significant activity (70% of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside activity) was also detected on arbutin and prunasin. Less activity was obtained with cellobiose, amygdalin, or gentiobiose. CdxA attacks cellodextrins from the nonreducing end, releasing glucose units, and appears to be an exo-1,4-beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.74) which also is able to attack beta-1,6 linkages. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with other glycosyl-hydrolases suggests that this enzyme belongs to family 3 (B. Henrissat, Biochem. J. 280:309-316, 1991). On the basis of this sequence alignment, the catalytic residues are believed to be Asp-275 and Glu-265. This is the first report of a cloned ruminal bacterial enzyme which can cleave cyanogenic plant compounds and which may therefore contribute to cyanide toxicity in ruminants. PMID:7592339

  12. Cloning and DNA Sequence Analysis of an Immunogenic Glucose-Galactose MglB Lipoprotein Homologue from Brachyspira pilosicoli, the Agent of Colonic Spirochetosis†

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, P.; Cheng, X.; Duhamel, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    Colonic spirochetosis (CS) is a newly emerging infectious disease of humans and animals caused by the pathogenic spirochete Brachyspira (formerly Serpulina) pilosicoli. The purpose of this study was to characterize an antigen that was recognized by antibodies present in sera of challenge-exposed pigs. The gene encoding the antigen was identified by screening a plasmid library of human B. pilosicoli strain SP16 (ATCC 49776) genomic DNA with hyperimmune and convalescent swine sera. The predicted amino acid sequence encoded by the cloned B. pilosicoli gene had a high degree of similarity and identity to glucose-galactose MglB lipoprotein. Located 106 bp downstream of the putative mglB gene was a 3′-truncated open reading frame with 73.8% similarity and 66.3% identity to mglA of Escherichia coli, suggesting a gene arrangement within an operon which is similar to those of other bacteria. A single copy of the gene was present in B. pilosicoli, and homologous sequences were widely conserved among porcine intestinal spirochetes Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira murdochii, and the avian Brachyspira alvinipulli, but not in porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, human Brachyspira aalborgi, and porcine Treponema succinifaciens. The deduced molecular weight of the mature MglB lipoprotein was consistent with expression by the cloned gene of a polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000, as determined by Western blot analysis and [3H]palmitate labeling. Because mucin is the principal constituent of the colonic mucus gel and consists of glycoproteins that can serve as the substrate for growth and chemotaxis of B. pilosicoli in vitro, a role for MglB in mucosal localization of the spirochete appears consistent with the pathogenesis of CS. However, the presence of homologous sequences in closely related but nonpathogenic commensal spirochetes suggests that other virulence determinants may be required for pathogenesis. PMID:10899855

  13. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) genome project: analysis of sequenced clones from egg, instar, and adult (viruliferous and non-viruliferous) cDNA libraries

    PubMed Central

    Leshkowitz, Dena; Gazit, Shirley; Reuveni, Eli; Ghanim, Murad; Czosnek, Henryk; McKenzie, Cindy; Shatters, Robert L; Brown, Judith K

    2006-01-01

    Background The past three decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in interest in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, owing to its nature as a taxonomically cryptic species, the damage it causes to a large number of herbaceous plants because of its specialized feeding in the phloem, and to its ability to serve as a vector of plant viruses. Among the most important plant viruses to be transmitted by B. tabaci are those in the genus Begomovirus (family, Geminiviridae). Surprisingly, little is known about the genome of this whitefly. The haploid genome size for male B. tabaci has been estimated to be approximately one billion bp by flow cytometry analysis, about five times the size of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. The genes involved in whitefly development, in host range plasticity, and in begomovirus vector specificity and competency, are unknown. Results To address this general shortage of genomic sequence information, we have constructed three cDNA libraries from non-viruliferous whiteflies (eggs, immature instars, and adults) and two from adult insects that fed on tomato plants infected by two geminiviruses: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato mottle virus (ToMoV). In total, the sequence of 18,976 clones was determined. After quality control, and removal of 5,542 clones of mitochondrial origin 9,110 sequences remained which included 3,843 singletons and 1,017 contigs. Comparisons with public databases indicated that the libraries contained genes involved in cellular and developmental processes. In addition, approximately 1,000 bases aligned with the genome of the B. tabaci endosymbiotic bacterium Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum, originating primarily from the egg and instar libraries. Apart from the mitochondrial sequences, the longest and most abundant sequence encodes vitellogenin, which originated from whitefly adult libraries, indicating that much of the gene expression in this insect is directed toward the production of eggs. Conclusion This

  14. Ultra-deep T cell receptor sequencing reveals the complexity and intratumour heterogeneity of T cell clones in renal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Gerlinger, Marco; Quezada, Sergio A; Peggs, Karl S; Furness, Andrew JS; Fisher, Rosalie; Marafioti, Teresa; Shende, Vishvesh H; McGranahan, Nicholas; Rowan, Andrew J; Hazell, Steven; Hamm, David; Robins, Harlan S; Pickering, Lisa; Gore, Martin; Nicol, David L; Larkin, James; Swanton, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The recognition of cancer cells by T cells can impact upon prognosis and be exploited for immunotherapeutic approaches. This recognition depends on the specific interaction between antigens displayed on the surface of cancer cells and the T cell receptor (TCR), which is generated by somatic rearrangements of TCR α- and β-chains (TCRb). Our aim was to assess whether ultra-deep sequencing of the rearranged TCRb in DNA extracted from unfractionated clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) samples can provide insights into the clonality and heterogeneity of intratumoural T cells in ccRCCs, a tumour type that can display extensive genetic intratumour heterogeneity (ITH). For this purpose, DNA was extracted from two to four tumour regions from each of four primary ccRCCs and was analysed by ultra-deep TCR sequencing. In parallel, tumour infiltration by CD4, CD8 and Foxp3 regulatory T cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and correlated with TCR-sequencing data. A polyclonal T cell repertoire with 367–16 289 (median 2394) unique TCRb sequences was identified per tumour region. The frequencies of the 100 most abundant T cell clones/tumour were poorly correlated between most regions (Pearson correlation coefficient, –0.218 to 0.465). 3–93% of these T cell clones were not detectable across all regions. Thus, the clonal composition of T cell populations can be heterogeneous across different regions of the same ccRCC. T cell ITH was higher in tumours pretreated with an mTOR inhibitor, which could suggest that therapy can influence adaptive tumour immunity. These data show that ultra-deep TCR-sequencing technology can be applied directly to DNA extracted from unfractionated tumour samples, allowing novel insights into the clonality of T cell populations in cancers. These were polyclonal and displayed ITH in ccRCC. TCRb sequencing may shed light on mechanisms of cancer immunity and the efficacy of immunotherapy approaches. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of

  15. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of anaerobically induced porin protein E1 (OprE) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Y; Nishikawa, T; Komatsu, Y

    1993-05-01

    The porin oprE gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was isolated. Its nucleotide sequence indicated that the structural gene of 1383 nucleotide residues encodes a precursor consisting of 460 amino acid residues with a signal peptide of 29 amino acid residues, which was confirmed by the N-terminal 23-amino-acid sequence and the reaction with anti-OprE polyclonal antiserum. Anaerobiosis induced OprE production at the transcription level. The transcription start site was determined to be 40 nucleotides upstream from the ATG initiation codon. The control region contained an appropriately situated E sigma 54 recognition site and the putative second half of an ANR box. The amino acid sequence of OprE had some clusters of sequence homologous with that of OprD of P. aeruginosa, which might be responsible for the outer membrane permeability of imipenem and basic amino acids. PMID:8394980

  16. Improvement of ethanol production by electrochemical redox coupling of Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Bo Young; Park, Doo Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis was immobilized in a modified graphite felt cathode with neutral red (NR-graphite cathode) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated on a platinum plate anode to electrochemically activate ethanol fermentation. Electrochemical redox reaction was induced by 3 approximately 4 volt of electric potential charged to a cathode and an anode. Z. mobilis produced 1.3 approximately 1.5 M of ethanol in the cathode compartment and S. cerevisiae did 1.7 approximately 1.9 M in the anode compartment for 96 hr. The ethanol production by Z. mobilis immobilized in the NR-graphite cathode and S. cerevisiae cultivated on the platinum plate was 1.5 approximately 1.6 times higher than those cultivated in the conventional condition. The electrochemical oxidation potential greatly inhibited ethanol fermentation of Z. mobilis but did not S. cerevisiae. Total soluble protein pattern of Z. mobilis cultivated in the electrochemical oxidation condition was getting simplified in proportion to potential intensity based on SDS-PAGE pattern; however the SDS-PAGE pattern of protein extracted from S. cerevisiae cultivated in both oxidation and reduction condition was not changed. When Z. mobilis culture incubated in the cathode compartment for 24 hr was transferred to S. cerevisiae culture in the anode compartment, 0.8 approximately 0.9 M of ethanol was additionally produced by S. cerevisiae for another 24 hr. Conclusively, total 2.0 approximately 2.1 M of ethanol was produced by the electrochemical redox coupling of Z. mobilis and S. cerevisiae for 48 hr. PMID:20134239

  17. Cloning of the gene for the larvicidal toxin of Bacillus sphaericus 2362: evidence for a family of related sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, P; Baumann, L; Bowditch, R D; Broadwell, A H

    1987-01-01

    During sporulation, Bacillus sphaericus 2362 produces a parasporal crystalline protein which is toxic for the larvae of a number of mosquito species. Using the Escherichia coli cloning vector lambda gt11, in which gene products of the inserts may be fused to beta-galactosidase, we isolated 29 bacteriophages which produced peptides-reacting with antiserum to crystal protein. On the basis of restriction enzyme analyses of the recombinants and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion experiments with induced lysogens as a source of antigens, the recombinants were assigned to three groups, designated A, B, and C. Group A consisted of three clones which appeared to express all or part of the B. sphaericus toxin gene from their own promoters and one clone producing a beta-galactosidase-toxin fusion protein. The host cells of two induced recombinant lysogens of this group were toxic to larvae of Culex pipiens. A cell suspension containing 174 ng (dry weight) of the more toxic recombinant per ml killed 50% of the larvae. Both recombinants formed peptides with molecular sizes of 27, 43, and 63 kilodaltons (kDa). The antigenically related 27- and 43-kDa peptides were distinct from the 63-kDa peptide, which resembled crystals from sporulating cells of B. sphaericus in which antigenically distinct 43- and 63-kDa proteins are derived from a 125-kDa precursor. A 3.5-kilobase HindIII fragment from recombinants having toxic activity against larvae was subcloned into pGEM-3-blue. E. coli cells harboring this fragment were toxic to mosquito larvae and produced peptides of 27, 43, and 63 kDa. The distribution of the A gene among strains of B. sphaericus of different toxicities suggested that it is the sole or principal gene encoding the larvicidal crystal protein. The two recombinants of group B and the 23 of group C were all beta-galactosidase fusion proteins, suggesting that in E. coli these genes were not readily expressed from their own promoters. The distribution of these two genes in

  18. Cloning of the VASP (Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein) genes in human and mouse: Structure, sequence, and chromosomal localization

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.; Fischer, L.; Hauser, W.

    1996-09-01

    The genes encoding the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) in human and mouse were isolated, and major parts were sequenced. In both species the gene is composed of 13 exons with conserved exon-intron positions. The mouse VASP cDNA sequence was deduced from the genomic sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence is 89% identical to the human protein. The high nucleotide sequence homology extends not only over the coding regions but also into the 3{prime}-UTRs, indicating a possible function in mRNA targeting or regulation of translation. Prominent 5{prime} CpG islands including multiple SP1 sites indicate a housekeeping function of VASP. Using cosmid DNA as a probe for fluorescence in situ hybridization, the human VASP gene was assigned to chromosome 19q13.2-q13.3, an extended region with homology to mouse chromosome 7. A sequence overlap of the VASP 5{prime}-region with the telomeric end of a cosmid contig physically links the VASP gene with ERCC1. VASP is located about 92 kb distal to ERCC1 and about 300 kb proximal to the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase gene. 43 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Identification of genes expressed in human CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells by expressed sequence tags and efficient full-length cDNA cloning

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Mao; Fu, Gang; Wu, Ji-Sheng; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Zhou, Jun; Kan, Li-Xin; Huang, Qiu-Hua; He, Kai-Li; Gu, Bai-Wei; Han, Ze-Guang; Shen, Yu; Gu, Jian; Yu, Ya-Ping; Xu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ya-Xin; Chen, Sai-Juan; Chen, Zhu

    1998-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) possess the potentials of self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation toward different lineages of blood cells. These cells not only play a primordial role in hematopoietic development but also have important clinical application. Characterization of the gene expression profile in CD34+ HSPCs may lead to a better understanding of the regulation of normal and pathological hematopoiesis. In the present work, genes expressed in human umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells were catalogued by partially sequencing a large amount of cDNA clones [or expressed sequence tags (ESTs)] and analyzing these sequences with the tools of bioinformatics. Among 9,866 ESTs thus obtained, 4,697 (47.6%) showed identity to known genes in the GenBank database, 2,603 (26.4%) matched to the ESTs previously deposited in a public domain database, 1,415 (14.3%) were previously undescribed ESTs, and the remaining 1,151 (11.7%) were mitochondrial DNA, ribosomal RNA, or repetitive (Alu or L1) sequences. Integration of ESTs of known genes generated a profile including 855 genes that could be divided into different categories according to their functions. Some (8.2%) of the genes in this profile were considered related to early hematopoiesis. The possible function of ESTs corresponding to so far unknown genes were approached by means of homology and functional motif searches. Moreover, attempts were made to generate libraries enriched for full-length cDNAs, to better explore the genes in HSPCs. Nearly 60% of the cDNA clones of mRNA under 2 kb in our libraries had 5′ ends upstream of the first ATG codon of the ORF. With this satisfactory result, we have developed an efficient working system that allowed fast sequencing of 32 full-length cDNAs, 16 of them being mapped to the chromosomes with radiation hybrid panels. This work may lay a basis for the further research on the molecular network of hematopoietic regulation. PMID:9653160

  20. Cloning of nod gene regions from mesquite rhizobia and bradyrhizobia and nucleotide sequence of the nodD gene from mesquite rhizobia.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P M; Golly, K F; Virginia, R A; Zyskind, J W

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between bacteria and the tree legume mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) is important for the maintenance of many desert ecosystems. Genes essential for nodulation and for extending the host range to mesquite were isolated from cosmid libraries of Rhizobium (mesquite) sp. strain HW17b and Bradyrhizobium (mesquite) sp. strain HW10h and were shown to be closely linked. All of the cosmid clones of rhizobia that extended the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. strain NGR234CS to mesquite also supported nodulation of a Sym- mesquite strain. The cosmid clones of bradyrhizobia that extended the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. strain NGR234CS to mesquite were only able to confer nodulation ability in the Sym- mesquite strain if they also contained a nodD-hybridizing region. Subclones containing just the nodD genes of either genus did not extend the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. to mesquite, indicating that the nodD gene is insufficient for mesquite nodulation. The nodD gene region is conserved among mesquite-nodulating rhizobia regardless of the soil depth from which they were collected, indicating descent from a common ancestor. In a tree of distance relationships, the NodD amino acid sequence from mesquite rhizobia clusters with homologs from symbionts that can infect both herbaceous and tree legumes, including Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv; phaseoli, Rhizobium loti, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. PMID:7574650

  1. Cloning of nod gene regions from mesquite rhizobia and bradyrhizobia and nucleotide sequence of the nodD gene from mesquite rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P M; Golly, K F; Virginia, R A; Zyskind, J W

    1995-09-01

    Nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between bacteria and the tree legume mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) is important for the maintenance of many desert ecosystems. Genes essential for nodulation and for extending the host range to mesquite were isolated from cosmid libraries of Rhizobium (mesquite) sp. strain HW17b and Bradyrhizobium (mesquite) sp. strain HW10h and were shown to be closely linked. All of the cosmid clones of rhizobia that extended the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. strain NGR234CS to mesquite also supported nodulation of a Sym- mesquite strain. The cosmid clones of bradyrhizobia that extended the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. strain NGR234CS to mesquite were only able to confer nodulation ability in the Sym- mesquite strain if they also contained a nodD-hybridizing region. Subclones containing just the nodD genes of either genus did not extend the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. to mesquite, indicating that the nodD gene is insufficient for mesquite nodulation. The nodD gene region is conserved among mesquite-nodulating rhizobia regardless of the soil depth from which they were collected, indicating descent from a common ancestor. In a tree of distance relationships, the NodD amino acid sequence from mesquite rhizobia clusters with homologs from symbionts that can infect both herbaceous and tree legumes, including Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv; phaseoli, Rhizobium loti, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. PMID:7574650

  2. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and marker exchange mutagenesis of the exo-poly-alpha-D-galacturonosidase-encoding pehX gene of Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16.

    PubMed Central

    He, S Y; Collmer, A

    1990-01-01

    The pehX gene encoding extracellular exo-poly-alpha-D-galacturonosidase (exoPG; EC 3.2.1.82) was isolated from a genomic library of the pectate lyase-deficient Erwinia chrysanthemi mutant UM1005 (a Nalr Kanr delta pelABCE derivative of EC16) by immunoscreening 2,800 Escherichia coli HB101 transformants with an antibody against exoPG protein. The cloned pehX gene was expressed highly from its own promoter in E. coli, and most of the enzyme was localized in the periplasm. The nucleotide sequence of pehX revealed the presence of an amino-terminal signal peptide and an open reading frame encoding a preprotein of 64,608 daltons. The cloned pehX gene was insertionally inactivated with TnphoA and used to mutate the chromosomal pehX gene of E. chrysanthemi AC4150 (Nalr) and CUCPB5006 (Nalr Kans delta pelABCE) by marker exchange mutagenesis. Analysis of the resulting mutants, CUCPB5008 (Pel+ Peh-) and CUCPB5009 (Pel- Peh-), indicated that exoPG can contribute significantly to bacterial utilization of polygalacturonate and the induction of pectate lyase in the presence of extracellular pectic polymers. CUCPB5009 retained a slight ability to pit polygalacturonate semisolid agar and macerated chrysanthemum pith tissues when large numbers of bacteria were inoculated. Images PMID:2168372

  3. Cloning, characterization, and nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding Microbispora bispora BglB, a thermostable beta-glucosidase expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, R M; Yablonsky, M D; Shalita, Z P; Goyal, A K; Eveleigh, D E

    1992-01-01

    Genomic DNA fragments encoding beta-glucosidase activities of the thermophilic actinomycete Microbispora bispora were cloned into Escherichia coli. Transformants expressing beta-glucosidase activity were selected by their ability to hydrolyze the fluorogenic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucoside. Two genes encoding beta-glucosidase activity were isolated and distinguished by restriction analysis, Southern hybridization, and the substrate specificities of the encoded enzymes. One gene, bglB, encoded a beta-glucosidase that was expressed intracellularly in E. coli. It exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 52,000 Da by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and 51,280 Da by nondenaturing gradient PAGE, a pI of 4.6, and temperature and pH optima of 60 degrees C and 6.2, respectively. Cloned BglB showed greater activity against cellobiose than against aryl-beta-D-glucosides and was thermostable, retaining about 70% of its activity after 48 h at 60 degrees C. BglB activity is activated two- to threefold in the presence of 2 to 5% (0.1 to 0.3 M) glucose. The DNA sequence of the 2.2-kb insert carrying bglB has been determined. An open reading frame which codes for a protein of 473 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 52,227 Da showed significant homology (40 to 47% identity) with beta-glucosidases from glycosal hydrolase family 1. Images PMID:1482172

  4. Cloning of human transketolase cDNAs and comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the coding region in Wernicke-Korsakoff and non-Wernicke-Korsakoff individuals.

    PubMed

    McCool, B A; Plonk, S G; Martin, P R; Singleton, C K

    1993-01-15

    Variants of the enzyme transketolase which possess reduced affinity for its cofactor thiamine pyrophosphate (high apparent Km) have been described in chronic alcoholic patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Since the syndrome has been shown to be directly related to thiamine deficiency, it has been hypothesized that such transketolase variants may represent a genetic predisposition to the development of this syndrome. To test this hypothesis, human transketolase cDNA clones were isolated, and their nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence were determined. Transketolase was found to be a single copy gene which produces a single mRNA of approximately 2100 nucleotides. Additionally, the nucleotide sequence of the transketolase coding region in fibroblasts derived from two Wernicke-Korsakoff (WK) patients was compared to that of two nonalcoholic controls. Although nucleotide and predicted amino acid differences were detected between fibroblast cultures and the original cDNAs and among the cultures themselves, no specific nucleotide variations, which would encode a variant amino acid sequence, were associated exclusively with the coding region from WK patients. Thus, allelic variants of the transketolase gene cannot account for the biochemically distinct forms of the enzyme found in these patients nor be considered as a mechanism for genetic predisposition to the development of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Instead, the underlying mechanism must be extragenic and may be a result of differences in post-translational processing/modification of the transketolase polypeptide. PMID:8419340

  5. Cloning and DNA sequencing of bgaA, a gene encoding an endo-beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase, from an alkalophilic Bacillus strain (N137).

    PubMed Central

    Tabernero, C; Coll, P M; Fernández-Abalos, J M; Pérez, P; Santamaría, R I

    1994-01-01

    The gene bgaA encoding an alkaline endo-beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase (lichenase) from an alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain N137, isolated in our laboratory, was cloned and expressed from its own promoter in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of a 1,416-bp DNA fragment containing bgaA was determined and revealed an open reading frame of 828 nucleotides. The deduced protein sequence consists of 276 amino acids and has a 31-amino-acid putative signal peptide which is functional in E. coli, in which the BgaA protein is located mainly in the periplasmic space. The lichenase activity of BgaA is stable between pH 6 and 12, it shows optimal activity at a temperature between 60 and 70 degrees C, and it retains 65% of its activity after incubation at 70 degrees C for 1 h. This protein is similar to some other lichenases from Bacillus species such as B. amyloliquefaciens, B. brevis, B. licheniformis, B. macerans, B. polymyxa, and B. subtilis. However, it has a lysine-rich region at the carboxy terminus which is not found in any other published lichenase sequence and might be implicated in the unusual biochemical properties of this enzyme. The location of the mRNA 5' end was determined by primer extension and corresponds to nucleotide 235. A typical Bacillus sigma A promoter precedes the transcription start site. Images PMID:7517127

  6. Cloning, sequencing, and analysis of a gene cluster from Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600 encoding nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase and NADH:flavin mononucleotide oxidoreductase.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Y; Mortimer, M W; Fisher, T S; Kahn, M L; Brockman, F J; Xun, L

    1997-01-01

    Nitrilotriacetate (NTA) is an important chelating agent in detergents and has also been used extensively in processing radionuclides. In Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600, biodegradation of NTA is initiated by NTA monooxygenase that oxidizes NTA to iminodiacetate and glyoxylate. The NTA monooxygenase activity requires two component proteins, component A and component B, but the function of each component is unclear. We have cloned and sequenced a gene cluster encoding components A and B (nmoA and nmoB) and two additional open reading frames, nmoR and nmoT, downstream of nmoA. Based on sequence similarities, nmoR and nmoT probably encode a regulatory protein and a transposase, respectively. The NmoA sequence was similar to a monooxygenase that uses reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) as reductant; NmoB was similar to an NADH:flavin mononucleotide (FMN) oxidoreductase. On the basis of this information, we tested the function of each component. Purified component B was shown to be an NADH:FMN oxidoreductase, and its activity could be separated from that of component A. When the Photobacterium fischeri NADH:FMN oxidoreductase was substituted for component B in the complete reaction, NTA was oxidized, showing that the substrate specificity of the reaction resides in component A. Component A is therefore an NTA monooxygenase that uses FMNH2 and O2 to oxidize NTA, and component B is an NADH:FMN oxidoreductase that provides FMNH2 for NTA oxidation. PMID:9023192

  7. Molecular cloning of the goose ACSL3 and ACSL5 coding domain sequences and their expression characteristics during goose fatty liver development.

    PubMed

    He, H; Liu, H H; Wang, J W; Lv, J; Li, L; Pan, Z X

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that ACSL3 and ACSL5 play important roles in fat metabolism. To investigate the primary functions of ACSL3 and ACSL5 and to evaluate their expression levels during goose fatty liver development, we cloned the ACSL3 and ACSL5 coding domain sequences (CDSs) of geese using RT-PCR and analyzed their expression characteristics under different conditions using qRT-PCR. The results showed that the goose ACSL3 (JX511975) and ACSL5 (JX511976) sequences have high similarities with the chicken sequences both at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Both ACSL3 and ACSL5 have high expression levels in goose liver. The expression levels of ACSL3 and ACSL5 in goose liver and hepatocytes can be changed by overfeeding geese and by treatment with unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Together, these results indicate that ACSL3 and ACSL5 play important roles during fatty liver development. The different expression characteristics of goose ACSL3 and ACSL5 suggest that these two genes may be responsible for specific functions. PMID:24469710

  8. Cloning, nucleotide sequences, and overexpression in Escherichia coli of tandem copies of a tryptophanase gene in an obligately symbiotic thermophile, Symbiobacterium thermophilum.

    PubMed Central

    Hirahara, T; Suzuki, S; Horinouchi, S; Beppu, T

    1992-01-01

    Symbiobacterium thermophilum, a thermophilic bacterium, is a thermostable tryptophanase producer that can grow only in coculture with a specific Bacillus strain. Two thermostable tryptophanase genes, tna-1 and tna-2, that are located close to each other were cloned into Escherichia coli from S. thermophilum by the DNA-probing method. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences indicate that Tna1 and Tna2 share 92% identical amino acids in a total of 453 amino acids. By means of DNA manipulation with E. coli host-vector systems, Tna1 and Tna2 were produced in very large amounts in enzymatically active forms. Comparison of the NH2-terminal amino acid sequences and the enzymatic properties of the tryptophanases purified from the original S. thermophilum strain and these two tryptophanases from recombinant E. coli cells suggest that in S. thermophilum, only Tna2 is produced and tna-1 is silent. Notwithstanding the great similarity in amino acid sequence between Tna1 and Tna2, the two enzymes differ markedly in activation energy for catalysis and thermostability. Images PMID:1339259

  9. Discovery and molecular characterization of a new cryptovirus dsRNA genome from Japanese persimmon through conventional cloning and high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Morelli, M; Chiumenti, M; De Stradis, A; La Notte, P; Minafra, A

    2015-02-01

    Through the application of next generation sequencing, in synergy with conventional cloning of DOP-PCR fragments, two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules of about 1.5 kbp in size were isolated from leaf tissue of a Japanese persimmon (accession SSPI) from Apulia (southern Italy) showing veinlets necrosis. High-throughput sequencing allowed whole genome sequence assembly, yielding a 1,577 and a 1,491 bp contigs identified as dsRNA-1 and dsRNA-2 of a previously undescribed virus, provisionally named as Persimmon cryptic virus (PeCV). In silico analysis showed that both dsRNA fragments were monocistronic and comprised the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and the capsid protein (CP) genes, respectively. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed a close relationship of these dsRNAs with those of cryptoviruses described in woody and herbaceous hosts, recently gathered in genus Deltapartitivirus. Virus-specific primers for RT-PCR, designed in the CP cistron, detected viral RNAs also in symptomless persimmon trees sampled from the same geographical area of SSPI, thus proving that PeCV infection may be fairly common and presumably latent. PMID:25315633

  10. Sequence type 72 community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerged as a predominant clone of nasal colonization in newly admitted patients.

    PubMed

    Park, S Y; Chung, D R; Yoo, J R; Baek, J Y; Kim, S H; Ha, Y E; Kang, C-I; Peck, K R; Lee, N Y; Song, J-H

    2016-08-01

    Current knowledge of community-associated (CA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in hospitalized patients is incomplete. Genotypic characteristics of 637 nasal MRSA isolates from newly admitted patients in South Korea were investigated. Sequence type (ST) 72 accounted for 52.1%, 46.3%, and 52.8% of the isolates during the periods of 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2013-2014, respectively. Instead of classic MRSA clones responsible for healthcare-associated infections, including ST5 and ST239, MRSA with community genotype ST72 was the predominant strain in newly admitted patients regardless of age and home province of the patients. Active strategies are needed to prevent healthcare-associated infection by CA-MRSA. PMID:26874934

  11. Cloning and sequence analysis of a full-length cDNA of SmPP1cb encoding turbot protein phosphatase 1 beta catalytic subunit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Fei; Guo, Huarong; Wang, Jian

    2008-02-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation, catalyzed by protein kinases and phosphatases, is an important and versatile mechanism by which eukaryotic cells regulate almost all the signaling processes. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is the first and well-characterized member of the protein serine/threonine phosphatase family. In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding the beta isoform of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1(PP1cb), was for the first time isolated and sequenced from the skin tissue of flatfish turbot Scophthalmus maximus, designated SmPP1cb, by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The cDNA sequence of SmPP1cb we obtained contains a 984 bp open reading frame (ORF), flanked by a complete 39 bp 5' untranslated region and 462 bp 3' untranslated region. The ORF encodes a putative 327 amino acid protein, and the N-terminal section of this protein is highly acidic, Met-Ala-Glu-Gly-Glu-Leu-Asp-Val-Asp, a common feature for PP1 catalytic subunit but absent in protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B). And its calculated molecular mass is 37 193 Da and pI 5.8. Sequence analysis indicated that, SmPP1cb is extremely conserved in both amino acid and nucleotide acid levels compared with the PP1cb of other vertebrates and invertebrates, and its Kozak motif contained in the 5'UTR around ATG start codon is GXXAXXGXX ATGG, which is different from mammalian in two positions A-6 and G-3, indicating the possibility of different initiation of translation in turbot, and also the 3'UTR of SmPP1cb is highly diverse in the sequence similarity and length compared with other animals, especially zebrafish. The cloning and sequencing of SmPP1cb gene lays a good foundation for the future work on the biological functions of PP1 in the flatfish turbot.

  12. Cloning and sequence analysis of partial genomic DNA coding for HtrA-type serine protease of Wolbachia from human lymphatic filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti

    PubMed Central

    Dhamodharan, R; Hoti, SL; Sivapragasam, G; Das, MK

    2011-01-01

    Background: Periplasmic serine proteases of HtrA type of Wolbachia have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of filarial disease. Aims: This study was aimed to sequence Wb-HtrA serine protease and analyze its phylogenetic position by comparing with other filarial and non-filarial nematode homologs. Materials and Methods: Partial HtrA gene fragment was amplified from DNA isolated from periodic and sub-periodic Wuchereria bancrofti parasites collected from Pondicherry and Nicobar islands, respectively. The amplicons were sequenced, and sequence homology and phylogenetic relationship with other filarial and non-filarial nematodes were analyzed. Results: Partial orthologue of HtrA-type serine protease from Wolbachia of W. bancrofti was amplified, cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited 87%, 81% and 74% identity with the homologous Wolbachia proteases identified from Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. The Wb-HtrA has arthologues in several proteobacteria with very high homology and hence is highly conserved not only among Wolbachia of filarial parasites but also across proteobacteria. The phylogenetic tree constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showed two main clusters: cluster-I containing bacteria that dwell in diverse habitats such as soil, fresh and marine waters and plants and cluster-II comprising Anaplasma sp. and Erlichia, and Wolbachia endosymbionts of insects and nematodes, in distinct groups. Conclusions: HtrA-type serine protease from Wolbachia of W. bancrofti is highly conserved among filarial parasites. It will be of interest to know whether filarial Wolbachia HtrA type of serine protease might influence apoptosis and lymphatic epithelium, thereby playing a role in the filarial pathogenesis. Such information will be useful for identifying targets for the development of newer drugs for filariasis treatment, especially for preventing lymphatic pathology. PMID:23508470

  13. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization, and gene expression profiling of a novel water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) gene, AGPAT6.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Huo, J L; Li, D L; Yuan, Y Y; Yuan, F; Miao, Y W

    2013-01-01

    Several 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferases (AGPATs) can acylate lysophosphatidic acid to produce phosphatidic acid. Of the eight AGPAT isoforms, AGPAT6 is a crucial enzyme for glycerolipids and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in some mammalian tissues. We amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the water buffalo AGPAT6 gene by using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, based on the conversed sequence information of the cattle or expressed sequence tags of other Bovidae species. This novel gene was deposited in the NCBI database (accession No. JX518941). Sequence analysis revealed that the CDS of this AGPAT6 encodes a 456-amino acid enzyme (molecular mass = 52 kDa; pI = 9.34). Water buffalo AGPAT6 contains three hydrophobic transmembrane regions and a signal 37-amino acid peptide, localized in the cytoplasm. The deduced amino acid sequences share 99, 98, 98, 97, 98, 98, 97 and 95% identity with their homologous sequences from cattle, horse, human, mouse, orangutan, pig, rat, and chicken, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis based on the AGPAT6 CDS showed that water buffalo has a closer genetic relationship with cattle than with other species. Tissue expression profile analysis shows that this gene is highly expressed in the mammary gland, moderately expressed in the heart, muscle, liver, and brain; weakly expressed in the pituitary gland, spleen, and lung; and almost silently expressed in the small intestine, skin, kidney, and adipose tissues. Four predicted microRNA target sites are found in the water buffalo AGPAT6 CDS. These results will establish a foundation for further insights into this novel water buffalo gene. PMID:24114207

  14. Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a 21-kilodalton outer membrane protein from Bordetella avium and expression of the gene in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Gentry-Weeks, C R; Hultsch, A L; Kelly, S M; Keith, J M; Curtiss, R

    1992-12-01

    Three gene libraries of Bordetella avium 197 DNA were prepared in Escherichia coli LE392 by using the cosmid vectors pCP13 and pYA2329, a derivative of pCP13 specifying spectinomycin resistance. The cosmid libraries were screened with convalescent-phase anti-B. avium turkey sera and polyclonal rabbit antisera against B. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. One E. coli recombinant clone produced a 56-kDa protein which reacted with convalescent-phase serum from a turkey infected with B. avium 197. In addition, five E. coli recombinant clones were identified which produced B. avium outer membrane proteins with molecular masses of 21, 38, 40, 43, and 48 kDa. At least one of these E. coli clones, which encoded the 21-kDa protein, reacted with both convalescent-phase turkey sera and antibody against B. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. The gene for the 21-kDa outer membrane protein was localized by Tn5seq1 mutagenesis, and the nucleotide sequence was determined by dideoxy sequencing. DNA sequence analysis of the 21-kDa protein revealed an open reading frame of 582 bases that resulted in a predicted protein of 194 amino acids. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of the gene encoding the 21-kDa outer membrane protein with protein sequences in the National Biomedical Research Foundation protein sequence data base indicated significant homology to the OmpA proteins of Shigella dysenteriae, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, and Salmonella typhimurium and to Neisseria gonorrhoeae outer membrane protein III, Haemophilus influenzae protein P6, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa porin protein F. The gene (ompA) encoding the B. avium 21-kDa protein hybridized with 4.1-kb DNA fragments from EcoRI-digested, chromosomal DNA of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica and with 6.0- and 3.2-kb DNA fragments from EcoRI-digested, chromosomal DNA of B. avium and B. avium-like DNA, respectively. A 6.75-kb DNA fragment encoding the B. avium 21-kDa protein was subcloned into the

  15. Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a 21-kilodalton outer membrane protein from Bordetella avium and expression of the gene in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Gentry-Weeks, C R; Hultsch, A L; Kelly, S M; Keith, J M; Curtiss, R

    1992-01-01

    Three gene libraries of Bordetella avium 197 DNA were prepared in Escherichia coli LE392 by using the cosmid vectors pCP13 and pYA2329, a derivative of pCP13 specifying spectinomycin resistance. The cosmid libraries were screened with convalescent-phase anti-B. avium turkey sera and polyclonal rabbit antisera against B. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. One E. coli recombinant clone produced a 56-kDa protein which reacted with convalescent-phase serum from a turkey infected with B. avium 197. In addition, five E. coli recombinant clones were identified which produced B. avium outer membrane proteins with molecular masses of 21, 38, 40, 43, and 48 kDa. At least one of these E. coli clones, which encoded the 21-kDa protein, reacted with both convalescent-phase turkey sera and antibody against B. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. The gene for the 21-kDa outer membrane protein was localized by Tn5seq1 mutagenesis, and the nucleotide sequence was determined by dideoxy sequencing. DNA sequence analysis of the 21-kDa protein revealed an open reading frame of 582 bases that resulted in a predicted protein of 194 amino acids. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of the gene encoding the 21-kDa outer membrane protein with protein sequences in the National Biomedical Research Foundation protein sequence data base indicated significant homology to the OmpA proteins of Shigella dysenteriae, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, and Salmonella typhimurium and to Neisseria gonorrhoeae outer membrane protein III, Haemophilus influenzae protein P6, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa porin protein F. The gene (ompA) encoding the B. avium 21-kDa protein hybridized with 4.1-kb DNA fragments from EcoRI-digested, chromosomal DNA of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica and with 6.0- and 3.2-kb DNA fragments from EcoRI-digested, chromosomal DNA of B. avium and B. avium-like DNA, respectively. A 6.75-kb DNA fragment encoding the B. avium 21-kDa protein was subcloned into the

  16. Sequence-Independent Cloning and Post-Translational Modification of Repetitive Protein Polymers through Sortase and Sfp-Mediated Enzymatic Ligation.

    PubMed

    Ott, Wolfgang; Nicolaus, Thomas; Gaub, Hermann E; Nash, Michael A

    2016-04-11

    Repetitive protein-based polymers are important for many applications in biotechnology and biomaterials development. Here we describe the sequential additive ligation of highly repetitive DNA sequences, their assembly into genes encoding protein-polymers with precisely tunable lengths and compositions, and their end-specific post-translational modification with organic dyes and fluorescent protein domains. Our new Golden Gate-based cloning approach relies on incorporation of only type IIS BsaI restriction enzyme recognition sites using PCR, which allowed us to install ybbR-peptide tags, Sortase c-tags, and cysteine residues onto either end of the repetitive gene polymers without leaving residual cloning scars. The assembled genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using inverse transition cycling (ITC). Characterization by cloud point spectrophotometry, and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with fluorescence detection confirmed successful phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Sfp)-mediated post-translational N-terminal labeling of the protein-polymers with a coenzyme A-647 dye (CoA-647) and simultaneous sortase-mediated C-terminal labeling with a GFP domain containing an N-terminal GG-motif in a one-pot reaction. In a further demonstration, we installed an N-terminal cysteine residue into an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) that was subsequently conjugated to a single chain poly(ethylene glycol)-maleimide (PEG-maleimide) synthetic polymer, noticeably shifting the ELP cloud point. The ability to straightforwardly assemble repetitive DNA sequences encoding ELPs of precisely tunable length and to post-translationally modify them specifically at the N- and C- termini provides a versatile platform for the design and production of multifunctional smart protein-polymeric materials. PMID:26974874

  17. N2 gas is an effective fertilizer for bioethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Timothy A.; LaSarre, Breah; Posto, Amanda L.; McKinlay, James B.

    2015-01-01

    A nascent cellulosic ethanol industry is struggling to become cost-competitive against corn ethanol and gasoline. Millions of dollars are spent on nitrogen supplements to make up for the low nitrogen content of the cellulosic feedstock. Here we show for the first time to our knowledge that the ethanol-producing bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis, can use N2 gas in lieu of traditional nitrogen supplements. Despite being an electron-intensive process, N2 fixation by Z. mobilis did not divert electrons away from ethanol production, as the ethanol yield was greater than 97% of the theoretical maximum. In a defined medium, Z. mobilis produced ethanol 50% faster per cell and generated half the unwanted biomass when supplied N2 instead of ammonium. In a cellulosic feedstock-derived medium, Z. mobilis achieved a similar cell density and a slightly higher ethanol yield when supplied N2 instead of the industrial nitrogen supplement, corn steep liquor. We estimate that N2-utilizing Z. mobilis could save a cellulosic ethanol production facility more than $1 million/y. PMID:25646422

  18. The Zymomonas mobilis regulator hfq contributes to tolerance against multiple lignocellulosic pretreatment inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shihui; Pelletier, Dale A; Lu, Tse-Yuan; Brown, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis produces near theoretical yields of ethanol and recombinant strains are candidate industrial microorganisms. To date, few studies have examined its responses to various stresses at the gene level. Hfq is a conserved bacterial member of the Sm-like family of RNA-binding proteins, coordinating a broad array of responses including multiple stress responses. In a previous study, we observed Z. mobilis ZM4 gene ZMO0347 showed higher expression under anaerobic, stationary phase compared to that of aerobic, stationary conditions. We have shown the utility of the pKNOCK suicide plasmid for mutant construction in Z. mobilis, and constructed a Gateway compatible expression plasmid for use in Z. mobilis for the first time. We have also used genetics to show Z. mobilis Hfq and S. cerevisiae Lsm proteins play important roles in resisting multiple, important industrially relevant inhibitors. The conserved nature of this global regulator offers the potential to apply insights from these fundamental studies for further industrial strain development.

  19. Electrochemical and biochemical analysis of ethanol fermentation of zymomonas mobilis KCCM11336.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Bo Young; Hwang, Tae Sik; Park, Doo Hyun

    2009-07-01

    An electrochemical bioreactor (ECB) composed of a cathode compartment and an air anode was used in this study to characterize the ethanol fermentation of Zymomonas mobilis. The cathode and air anode were constructed of modified graphite felt with neutral red (NR) and a modified porous carbon plate with cellulose acetate and porous ceramic membrane, respectively. The air anode operates as a catalyst to generate protons and electrons from water. The growth and ethanol production of Z. mobilis were 50% higher in the ECB than were observed under anoxic nitrogen conditions. Ethanol production by growing cells and the crude enzyme of Z. mobilis were significantly lower under aerobic conditions than under other conditions. The growing cells and crude enzyme of Z. mobilis did not catalyze ethanol production from pyruvate and acetaldehyde. The membrane fraction of crude enzyme catalyzed ethanol production from glucose, but the soluble fraction did not. NADH was oxidized to NAD+ in association with H2O2 reduction, via the catalysis of crude enzyme. Our results suggested that NADH/NAD+ balance may be a critical factor for ethanol producton from glucose in the metabolism of Z. mobilis, and that the metabolic activity of both growing cells and crude enzyme for ethanol fermentation may be induced in the presence of glucose. PMID:19652513

  20. Comparative sequence analysis of a highly oncogenic but horizontal spread-deficient clone of Marek's disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a cell-associated alphaherpesvirus that induces T-cell lymphomas in poultry. MDV isolates vary greatly in pathogenicity. While some are non-pathogenic and are used as vaccines, others such as RB-1B are highly oncogenic. Comparison of the genome sequences of phenotypica...

  1. MOLECULAR PROFILING OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES FROM CONTAMINATED SOURCES: USE OF SUBTRACTIVE CLONING METHODS AND RDNA SPACER SEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research addresses the development and testing of molecular methods that will allow rapid characterization of microbial communities in perturbed or contaminated ecosystems. The major objective of the research is to provide appropriate sequences and to assemble a high-density...

  2. Analysis of bacterial DNA in synovial tissue of Tunisian patients with reactive and undifferentiated arthritis by broad-range PCR, cloning and sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Siala, Mariam; Jaulhac, Benoit; Gdoura, Radhouane; Sibilia, Jean; Fourati, Hela; Younes, Mohamed; Baklouti, Sofien; Bargaoui, Naceur; Sellami, Slaheddine; Znazen, Abir; Barthel, Cathy; Collin, Elody; Hammami, Adnane; Sghir, Abdelghani

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Bacteria and/or their antigens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of reactive arthritis (ReA). Several studies have reported the presence of bacterial antigens and nucleic acids of bacteria other than those specified by diagnostic criteria for ReA in joint specimens from patients with ReA and various arthritides. The present study was conducted to detect any bacterial DNA and identify bacterial species that are present in the synovial tissue of Tunisian patients with reactive arthritis and undifferentiated arthritis (UA) using PCR, cloning and sequencing. Methods We examined synovial tissue samples from 28 patients: six patients with ReA and nine with UA, and a control group consisting of seven patients with rheumatoid arthritis and six with osteoarthritis (OA). Using broad-range bacterial PCR producing a 1,400-base-pair fragment from the 16S rRNA gene, at least 24 clones were sequenced for each synovial tissue sample. To identify the corresponding bacteria, DNA sequences were compared with sequences from the EMBL (European Molecular Biology Laboratory) database. Results Bacterial DNA was detected in 75% of the 28 synovial tissue samples. DNA from 68 various bacterial species were found in ReA and UA samples, whereas DNA from 12 bacteria were detected in control group samples. Most of the bacterial DNAs detected were from skin or intestinal bacteria. DNA from bacteria known to trigger ReA, such as Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei, were detected in ReA and UA samples of synovial tissue and not in control samples. DNA from various bacterial species detected in this study have not previously been found in synovial samples. Conclusion This study is the first to use broad-range PCR targeting the full 16S rRNA gene for detection of bacterial DNA in synovial tissue. We detected DNA from a wide spectrum of bacterial species, including those known to be involved in ReA and others not previously associated with ReA or related arthritis. The pathogenic

  3. Methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase from Propionigenium modestum--cloning and sequencing of the structural genes and purification of the enzyme complex.

    PubMed

    Bott, M; Pfister, K; Burda, P; Kalbermatter, O; Woehlke, G; Dimroth, P

    1997-12-01

    Methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase catalyses the only energy-conserving step during succinate fermentation by Propionigenium modestum: the decarboxylation of (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA to propionyl-CoA is coupled to the vectorial transport of Na+ across the cytoplasmic membrane, thereby creating a sodium ion motive force that is used for ATP synthesis. By taking advantage of the sequence similarity between the beta-subunits of other Na+-transport decarboxylases, a portion of the P. modestum beta-subunit gene was amplified by PCR with degenerated primers. The cloned PCR product then served as homologous probe for cloning suitable fragments from genomic DNA. Sequence analysis of a 3.7-kb region identified four genes which probably form a transcriptional unit, mmdADCB. Remarkably, a mmdE gene which is present in the homologous mmdADECB cluster from Veillonella parvula and encodes the 6-kDa epsilon-subunit, is missing in P. modestum. By sequence comparisons, the following functions could be assigned to the P. modestum proteins: MmdA (56.1 kDa; alpha-subunit), carboxyltransferase; MmdB (41.2 kDa; beta-subunit), carboxybiotin-carrier-protein decarboxylase; MmdC (13.1 kDa; gamma-subunit), biotin carrier protein. MmdD (14.2 kDa; delta-subunit) presumably is essential for the assembly of the complex, as shown for the corresponding V. parvula protein. Methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase was solubilized from membranes of P. modestum with n-dodecylmaltoside and enriched 15-fold by affinity chromatography on monomeric avidin resin. The purified protein was composed of four subunits, three of which were identified by N-terminal sequence analysis as MmdA, MmdD, and MmdC. The purified enzyme exhibited a specific activity of up to 25 U/mg protein and an apparent Km value for (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA of approximately 12 microM. Compared to the five-subunit complex of V. parvula, the four-subunit enzyme of P. modestum appeared to be more labile, presumably a consequence of the lack of the epsilon

  4. Ethanolic fermentation in transgenic tobacco expressing Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, M; Brändle, R; Kuhlemeier, C

    1994-01-01

    During oxygen limitation in higher plants, energy metabolism switches from respiration to fermentation. As part of this anaerobic response the expression of genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is strongly induced. In addition there is ample evidence for post-translational regulation. In order to understand this multi-level regulation of the anaerobic response, we provided tobacco with the constitutive capacity of ethanolic fermentation by expressing a PDC gene derived from the obligate anaerobe Zymomonas mobilis. The protein accumulated to high levels and was active in an in vitro assay. During the first 2-4 h of anoxia, acetaldehyde accumulated to 10- to 35-fold and ethanol to 8- to 20-fold higher levels than in wild-type. Under normoxic conditions no accumulation of acetaldehyde and ethanol could be measured. Instead, the two products may be immediately re-metabolized in tobacco leaf tissue. We show that aerobic fermentation takes place when the respiratory system is inhibited. Although these conditions enhance ethanolic fermentation under normoxia, they fail to increase ADH transcript levels. These results indicate that anaerobic transcription is triggered not by the metabolic consequences of oxygen limitation, but directly through an oxygen-sensing system. Images PMID:8026460

  5. Molecular cloning and sequence of the thdF gene involved in the thiophene and furan oxidation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, K.Y.; Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since sulfur dioxide emission from burning high sulfur coals is a major contributor to acid rain, it is important to develop bacteria which are capable of efficiently removing the sulfur from coal before combustion. Inorganic sulfur can be removed from coal by certain strains of Thiobacillus or Sulfolobus; however the organic sulfur remains intransigent. Since high sulfur Illinois coals typically contain 60% to 70% of their sulfur in the form of the heterocyclic thiophene ring we have started to investigate the biodegradation of derivatives of thiophene and the corresponding oxygen heterocycle, furan. Our previous work resulted in the isolation of a triple mutant, NAR30, capable of oxidizing a range of furan and thiophene derivatives. However, NAR30 does not completely degrade thiophenes or furans and its oxidation of these compounds is slow and inefficient. We decided to clone the thd genes both in order to increase the efficiency of degradation and to investigate the nature of the reactions involved. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. [Cloning and function identification of gene 'admA' and up-stream regulatory sequence related to antagonistic activity of Enterobacter cloacae B8].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun-Li; Li, De-Bao; Yu, Xu-Ping

    2012-04-01

    To reveal the antagonistic mechanism of B8 strain to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, transposon tagging method and chromosome walking were deployed to clone antagonistic related fragments around Tn5 insertion site in the mutant strain B8B. The function of up-stream regulatory sequence of gene 'admA' involved in the antagonistic activity was further identified by gene knocking out technique. An antagonistic related left fragment of Tn5 insertion site, 2 608 bp in length, was obtained by tagging with Kan resistance gene of Tn5. A 2 354 bp right fragment of Tn5 insertion site was amplified with 2 rounds of chromosome walking. The length of the B contig around the Tn5 insertion site was 4 611 bp, containing 7 open reading frames (ORFs). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that these ORFs corresponded to the partial coding regions of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, two LysR family transcriptional regulators, hypothetical protein VSWAT3-20465 of Vibrionales and admA, admB, and partial sequence of admC gene of Pantoea agglomerans biosynthetic gene cluster, respectively. Tn5 was inserted in the up-stream of 200 bp or 894 bp of the sequence corresponding to anrP ORF or admA gene on B8B, respectively. The B-1 and B-2 mutants that lost antagonistic activity were selected by homeologuous recombination technology in association with knocking out plasmid pMB-BG. These results suggested that the transcription and expression of anrP gene might be disrupted as a result of the knocking out of up-stream regulatory sequence by Tn5 in B8B strain, further causing biosythesis regulation of the antagonistic related gene cluster. Thus, the antagonistic related genes in B8 strain is a gene family similar as andrimid biosynthetic gene cluster, and the upstream regulatory region appears to be critical for the antibiotics biosynthesis. PMID:22522167

  7. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA gyrase gyrA gene from strain PAO1 and quinolone-resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Kureishi, A; Diver, J M; Beckthold, B; Schollaardt, T; Bryan, L E

    1994-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA gyrase gyrA gene was cloned and sequenced from strain PAO1. An open reading frame of 2,769 bp was found; it coded for a protein of 923 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 103 kDa. The derived amino acid sequence shared 67% identity with Escherichia coli GyrA and 54% identity with Bacillus subtilis GyrA, although conserved regions were present throughout the sequences, particularly toward the N terminus. Complementation of an E. coli mutant with a temperature-sensitive gyrA gene with the PAO1 gyrA gene showed that the gene is expressed in E. coli and is able to functionally complement the E. coli DNA gyrase B subunit. Expression of PAO1 gyrA in E. coli or P. aeruginosa with mutationally altered gyrA genes caused a reversion to wild-type quinolone susceptibility, indicating that the intrinsic susceptibility of the PAO1 GyrA to quinolones is comparable to that of the E. coli enzyme. PCR was used to amplify 360 bp of P. aeruginosa gyrA encompassing the so-called quinolone resistance-determining region from ciprofloxacin-resistant clinical isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis. Mutations were found in three of nine isolates tested; these mutations caused the following alterations in the sequence of GyrA: Asp at position 87 (Asp-87) to Asn, Asp-87 to Tyr, and Thr-83 to Ile. The resistance mechanisms in the other six isolates are unknown. The results of the study suggested that mechanisms other than a mutational alteration in gyrA are the most common mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance in P. aeruginosa from the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. Images PMID:7811002

  8. Cloning and sequencing of the gene for alpha antigen from Mycobacterium avium and mapping of B-cell epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, N; Matsuo, K; Yamaguchi, R; Yamazaki, A; Tasaka, H; Yamada, T

    1993-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of alpha antigen secreted from Mycobacterium avium (A-alpha) was determined. The gene encodes 330 amino acids, including 40 amino acids for the signal peptide, followed by 290 amino acids for the mature protein with a molecular mass of 30,811 Da. This is the first sequence of A-alpha. Comparisons between A-alpha and alpha antigens of Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and Mycobacterium kansasii showed highly homologous regions which suggested a conserved functional domain and two less-homologous regions. Serological analysis of recombinant A-alpha, expressed by a series of deletion constructs, indicated the possibility that A-alpha carries at least six B-cell epitopes. The three antigenic determinants were common to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. kansasii, and M. avium. The results also suggested the possibility that there are three species-specific epitopes. Images PMID:7681039

  9. Molecular cloning, sequencing analysis, and chromosomal localization of the human protease inhibitor 4 (Kallistatin) gene (P14)

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, K.X.; Chao, J.; Chao, L.; Ward, D.C.

    1994-09-15

    The gene encoding human protease inhibitor 4 (kallistatin; gene symbol PI4), a novel serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin), has been isolated and completely sequenced. The kallistatin gene is 9618 bp in length and contains five exons and four introns. The structure and organization of the kallistatin gene are similar to those of the genes encoding {alpha}{sub 1}-antichymotrypsin. The kallistatin gene is also similar to the genes encoding rat and mouse kallikrein-binding proteins. The first exon of the kallistatin gene is a noncoding 89-bp fragment, as determined by primer extension. The fifth exon, which contains 308 bp of noncoding sequence, encodes the reactive center of kallistatin. In the 5`-flanking region of the kallistatin gene, 1125 bp have been sequenced and a consensus promoter segment with potential transcription regulatory sites, including CAAT and TATA boxes, an AP-2 binding site, a GC-rich region, a cAMP response element, and an AP-1 binding site, has been identified within this region. The kallistatin gene was localized by in situ hybridization to human chromosome 14q31-132.1, close to the serpin genes encoding {alpha}{sub 1}-antichymotrypsin, protein C inhibitor, {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin, and corticosteroid-binding globulin. In a genomic DNA Southern blot, kallistatin-related genes were identified in monkey, mouse, rat, bovine, dog, cat, and a ground mole. The patterns of hybridization revealed clues of human serpin evolution. 34 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Identification, cloning and sequencing of a novel stress inducible metallothionein gene from locally isolated Tetrahymena tropicalis lahorensis.

    PubMed

    Shuja, Rukhsana N; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

    2007-12-15

    A novel cadmium inducible metallothionein (TMCd1) gene has been identified and sequenced from the locally isolated ciliate, Tetrahymena tropicalis lahorensis from industrial effluents. The TMCd1 gene encodes 471 nucleotides, with TGA as the stop codon and TAA coding for glutamine. This new gene is quite different from the previously reported MT genes in Tetrahymena pyriformis and Tetrahymena pigmentosa. However, it shows 78% homology with four different Cd-MT genes reported from Tetrahymena thermophila. A TATA box is located in the 5' flanking region at nucleotide 34-38 upstream region of ATG. The TMCd1 gene is intronless like many other genes isolated from Tetrahymena species. The amino acids sequence of TMCd1 has a special feature of three CCCX(6)CCX(6)CCCX(6)CC and two CCX(6)CXCX(2)CXCC intragenic tandem repeats with a conserved structural pattern of cysteine. The translated protein of TMCd1 contains 30.12% cysteine residues, which is a characteristic of a typical Tetrahymena Cd inducible MT genes. On the basis of 78% homology of nucleotide sequence of genomic DNA and its cDNA, TMCd1 has been considered as a new gene being reported from Tetrahymena tropicalis from this part of the world. PMID:17949926

  11. Complementation cloning and sequence analysis of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hemL gene encoding glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminotransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Matters, G.L.; Beale, S.I. )

    1993-05-01

    Glutamate-1-semialdehyde amino-transferase (GSAT) catalyzes formation of the tetrapyrrole precursor, [delta]-aminolevulinic acid. GSAT is encoded by the hemL gene. A Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hemL cDNA was selected from a vegetative stage expression library by complementation of Escherichia coli hemL mutant GE 1377. In vitro GSAT activity was ten-fold higher in an extract of the complemented hemL cells than in an extract of uncomplemented mutant cells. The complementing cDNA is 2010 bp long and includes 591 bp of 3' noncoding DNA and an estimated 27 bp of 5' noncoding DNA. The coding region includes the sequence for a putative 30-amino acid chloroplast transit peptide and a 433-amino acid mature protein. The mature protein deduced from the Chlamydomonas cDNA sequence has a molecular weight of 45,880, compared to the value of 43,000 reported for purified Chlamydomonas GSAT (d. Jahn et al., 1991, J. Biol. Chem. 266:161-167). The deduced peptide is 74% identical to Synechococcus GSAT, 70% identical to barley GSAT and 66% identical to tobacco GSAT. The putative pyridoxal binding region has the sequence TTMGKVIGG, which differs somewhat from those reported for other aminotransferases. The deduced putative chloroplast transit peptide has recognizable similarity to barley GSAT transit peptide. Southern analysis of genomic DNA from Chlamydomonas strain CC124, using the cDNA as a probe, indicates that GSAT is probably encoded by a single gene.

  12. Why Clone?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How might cloning be used in medicine? Cloning animal models of disease Much of what researchers learn about human disease comes from studying animal models such as mice. Often, animal models are ...

  13. Cloning, sequencing, and polymorphism analysis of novel classical MHC class I alleles in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    PubMed

    Lian, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xi-He; Dai, Zheng-Xi; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-04-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been confirmed to be an independent species from the pig-tailed macaque group of Old World monkey. We have previously reported that the northern pig-tailed macaques were also susceptible to HIV-1. Here, to make this animal a potential HIV/AIDS model and to discover the mechanism of virus control, we attempted to assess the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted immune responses to HIV-1 infection, which was associated with viral replication and disease progression. As an initial step, we first cloned and characterized the classical MHC class I gene of northern pig-tailed macaques. In this study, we identified 39 MHC class I alleles including 17 MHC-A and 22 MHC-B alleles. Out of these identified alleles, 30 were novel and 9 were identical to alleles previously reported from other macaque species. The MHC-A and MHC-B loci were both duplicates as rhesus macaques and southern pig-tailed macaques. In addition, we also detected the patterns of positive selection in northern pig-tailed macaques and revealed the existence of balance selection with 20 positive selection sites in the peptide binding region. The analysis of B and F peptide binding pockets in northern and southern pig-tailed macaques and rhesus macaques suggested that they were likely to share a few common peptides to present. Thus, this study provides important MHC immunogenetics information and adds values to northern pig-tailed macaques as a promising HIV/AIDS model. PMID:26782049

  14. Sequence analysis of the cloned glossy8 gene of maize suggests that it may code for a beta-ketoacyl reductase required for the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X; Dietrich, C R; Delledonne, M; Xia, Y; Wen, T J; Robertson, D S; Nikolau, B J; Schnable, P S

    1997-01-01

    The gl8 locus of maize (Zea mays L.) was previously defined by a mutation that reduces the amount and alters the composition of seedling cuticular waxes. Sixty independently derived gl8 mutant alleles were isolated from stocks that carried the Mutator transposon system. A DNA fragment that contains a Mu8 transposon and that co-segregates with one of these alleles, gl8-Mu3142, was identified and cloned. DNA flanking the Mu8 transposon was shown via allelic cross-referencing experiments to represent the gl8 locus. The gl8 probe revealed a 1.4-kb transcript present in wild-type seedling leaves and, in lesser amounts, in other organs and at other developmental stages. The amino acid sequence deduced from an apparently full-length gl8 cDNA exhibits highly significant sequence similarity to a group of enzymes from plants, eubacteria, and mammals that catalyzes the reduction of ketones. This finding suggests that the GL8 protein probably functions as a reductase during fatty acid elongation in the cuticular wax biosynthetic pathway. PMID:9342868

  15. Cloning, nucleotide sequence and expression of a new L-N-carbamoylase gene from Arthrobacter aurescens DSM 3747 in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Wilms, B; Wiese, A; Syldatk, C; Mattes, R; Altenbuchner, J; Pietzsch, M

    1999-02-19

    An L-N-carbamoyl amino acid amidohydrolase (L-N-carbamoylase) from Arthrobacter aurescens DSM 3747 was cloned in E. coli and the nucleotide sequence was determined. After expression of the gene in E. coli the enzyme was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme was shown to be strictly L-specific and exhibited the highest activity in the hydrolysis of beta-aryl substituted N alpha-carbamoyl-alanines as e.g. N-carbamoyl-tryptophan. Carbamoyl derivatives of beta-alanine and charged aliphatic amino acids were not accepted as substrates. The N-carbamoylase of A. aurescens DSM 3747 differs from all known enzymes with respect to its substrate specificity although amino acid sequence identity scores of 35-38% to other N-carbamoylases have been detected. The enzyme consists of two subunits of 44,000 Da, and has an isoelectric point of 4.3. The optima of temperature and pH were determined to be 50 degrees C and pH 8.5 respectively. At 37 degrees C the enzyme was completely stable for several days. PMID:10194852

  16. Interferon-induced 56,000 Mr protein and its mRNA in human cells: molecular cloning and partial sequence of the cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Chebath, J; Merlin, G; Metz, R; Benech, P; Revel, M

    1983-01-01

    Treatment of responsive cells by interferons (IFNs) induces within a few hours a rise in the concentration of several proteins and mRNAs. In order to characterize these IFN-induced mRNA species, we have cloned in E. coli the cDNA made from a 17-18S poly(A)+ RNA of human fibroblastoid cells (SV80) treated with IFN-beta. We describe here a pBR322 recombinant plasmid (C56) which contains a 400 bp cDNA insert corresponding to a 18S mRNA species newly induced by IFN. The C56 mRNA codes for a 56,000 dalton protein easily detectable by hybridization-translation experiments. The sequence of 66 of the carboxy-terminal amino-acids of the protein can be deduced from the cDNA sequence. IFNs-alpha, beta or gamma are able to activate the expression of this gene in human fibroblasts as well as lymphoblastoid cells. The mRNA is not detectable without IFN; it reaches maximum levels (0.1% of the total poly(A)+ RNA) within 4-8 hrs and decreases after 16 hrs. Images PMID:6186990

  17. Clofibrate-induced cytochrome P450-lauric acid omega hydroxylase(P450LA omega):purification, cDNA cloning, sequence and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hardwick, J.P.; Song, B.J.; Gonzalez, F.J.

    1986-05-01

    A cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates lauric acid at the 12 position (P450LA omega) was isolated from liver microsomes of clofibrate treated rats. P450LA omega was immunologically distinct from P450s a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,j,PB1, and PCN1. Polyclonal antibody against P450LA omega was utilized to screen a gt11 cDNA library. A clone (pP450LA omega), was isolated and its sequence determined. The P450LA omega mRNA is a minimum 2387 nts in length and codes for a P450 of Mr.58,222 daltons. This protein shares less than 35% amino acid similarity with P450s b,c,d,e,f,PB1, and PCN1; however, it does contain a hydrophobic amino terminal peptide and a conserved sequence surrounding the Cys residue at position 456, which is similar to other microsomal P450s. P450LA omega is present at high levels in untreated rat kidney and is induced by clofibrate in both kidney and liver. This induction is the result of an accumulation of mRNA through a rapid transcriptional activation of the P450LA gene. Southern blotting data suggest the presence of 2 or 3 genes in the P450LA omega family. This P450 gene family may be associated with arachidonic acid and prostraglandin metabolism in kidney and other tissues.

  18. Molecular cloning, sequence identification and tissue expression profile of three novel sheep (Ovis aries) genes - BCKDHA, NAGA and HEXA.

    PubMed

    Liu, G Y; Gao, S Z

    2009-01-01

    The complete coding sequences of three sheep genes- BCKDHA, NAGA and HEXA were amplified using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), based on the conserved sequence information of the mouse or other mammals. The nucleotide sequences of these three genes revealed that the sheep BCKDHA gene encodes a protein of 313 amino acids which has high homology with the BCKDHA gene that encodes a protein of 447 amino acids that has high homology with the Branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase El, alpha polypeptide (BCKDHA) of five species chimpanzee (93%), human (96%), crab-eating macaque (93%), bovine (98%) and mouse (91%). The sheep NAGA gene encodes a protein of 411 amino acids that has high homology with the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NAGA) of five species human (85%), bovine (94%), mouse (91%), rat (83%) and chicken (74%). The sheep HEXA gene encodes a protein of 529 amino acids that has high homology with the hexosaminidase A(HEXA) of five species bovine (98%), human (84%), Bornean orangután (84%), rat (80%) and mouse (81%). Finally these three novel sheep genes were assigned to GenelDs: 100145857, 100145858 and 100145856. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the sheep BCKDHA, NAGA, and HEXA all have closer genetic relationships to the BCKDHA, NAGA, and HEXA of bovine. Tissue expression profile analysis was also carried out and results revealed that sheep BCKDHA, NAGA and HEXA genes were differentially expressed in tissues including muscle, heart, liver, fat, kidney, lung, small and large intestine. Our experiment is the first to establish the primary foundation for further research on these three sheep genes. PMID:19621134

  19. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization of a novel pepper gene NADP-ICDH and its effect on cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Deng, M H; Wen, J F; Huo, J L; Zhu, H S; Dai, X Z; Zhang, Z Q; Zhou, H; Zou, X X

    2012-01-01

    NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) is an important enzyme involved in energy metabolism. The complete coding sequence of the pepper (Capsicum annuum) NADP-ICDH gene was amplified using a reverse transcriptase PCR based on the conserved sequence information of the tomato and other Solanaceae plants and known highly homologous pepper ESTs. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the pepper NADP-ICDH gene encodes a protein of 415 amino acids that has high homology with the proteins of seven species, Solanum tuberosum (100%), Citrus limon (98%), Daucus carota (98%), Nicotiana tabacum (98%), Vitis vinifera (99%), Arabidopsis thaliana (97%), and Oryza sativa (98%). Tissue expression analysis demonstrated that the pepper NADP-ICDH gene is over expressed in flower, pericarp and seed, moderately in placenta, weakly in stem and leaf, hardly expressed in root. At the abortion stages, activities and expression levels of NADP-ICDH in anthers of a sterile line were strongly reduced, while those in an F(1) hybrid remained normal. Activities and expression levels of NADP-ICDH were too low to maintain balanced energy metabolism in the sterile line, which indicated that stable transcripts of NADP-ICDH are necessary to maintain energy metabolism at a normal level. When the restorer gene was transferred to the cytoplasmic male sterile line, activities and expression level of NADP-ICDH were regulated by the restorer gene and became stable. The restorer gene likely plays an important role in keeping the balance of the energy metabolism within normal levels during microspore development. PMID:22653649

  20. Cloning of insertion site flanking sequence and construction of transfer DNA insert mutant library in Stylosanthes colletotrichum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Helong; Hu, Caiping; Yi, Kexian; Huang, Guixiu; Gao, Jianming; Zhang, Shiqing; Zheng, Jinlong; Liu, Qiaolian; Xi, Jingen

    2014-01-01

    Stylosanthes sp. is the most important forage legume in tropical areas worldwide. Stylosanthes anthracnose, which is mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a globally severe disease in stylo production. Little progress has been made in anthracnose molecular pathogenesis research. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to transform Stylosanthes colletotrichum strain CH008. The major factors of the genetic transformation system of S. colletotrichum were optimized as follows: A. tumefaciens' AGL-1 concentration (OD(600)), 0.8; concentration of Colletotrichum conidium, 1 × 10(6) conidia/mL; acetosyringone concentration, 100 mmol/L; induction time, 6 h; co-culture temperature, 25 °C; and co-culture time, 3 d. Thus, the transformation efficiency was increased to 300-400 transformants per 106 conidia. Based on the optimized system, a mutant library containing 4616 mutants was constructed, from which some mutants were randomly selected for analysis. Results show that the mutants were single copies that could be stably inherited. The growth rate, spore amount, spore germination rate, and appressorium formation rate in some mutants were significantly different from those in the wild-type strain. We then selected the most appropriate method for the preliminary screening and re-screening of each mutant's pathogenic defects. We selected 1230 transformants, and obtained 23 strains with pathogenic defects, namely, 18 strains with reduced pathogenicity and five strains with lost pathogenicity. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR was used to identify the transfer DNA (T-DNA) integration site in the mutant that was coded 2430, and a sequence of 476 bp was obtained. The flanking sequence of T-DNA was compared with the Colletotrichum genome by BLAST, and a sequence of 401 bp was found in Contig464 of the Colletotrichum genome. By predicting the function of the flanking sequence, we discovered that T-DNA insertion in the promoter region

  1. Kinetics of batch fermentations for ethanol production with Zymomonas mobilis growing on Jerusalem artichoke juice

    SciTech Connect

    Favela-Torres, E.; Allais, J.J.; Baratti, J.

    1986-06-01

    A flocculent strain of Zymomonas mobilis was used for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke juice containing 113-245 g/l sugar in batch fermentation. The kinetic and yields parameters are calculated using a new method based on polynomial equations for the variation of biomass, ethanol, and sugar concentrations with time. The results show that Z. mobilis can convert rapidly and efficiently Jerusalem artichoke juice to ethanol. When a sugar concentraton of 248 g/l was used, 100g/l ethanol was formed with an ethanol yield based on sugar utilized of 0.47 g/g (92% of theoretical). 27 references.

  2. Cloning, sequence determination, and regulation of the ribonucleotide reductase subunits from Plasmodium falciparum: a target for antimalarial therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, H; Salem, J S; Li, L S; Yang, F D; Mama, S; Wang, Z M; Fisher, A; Hamann, C S; Cooperman, B S

    1993-01-01

    Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, accounting for more than one million deaths annually. We have focused on the reduction of ribonucleotides to 2'-deoxyribonucleotides, catalyzed by ribonucleotide reductase, which represents the rate-determining step in DNA replication as a target for antimalarial agents. We report the full-length DNA sequence corresponding to the large (PfR1) and small (PfR2) subunits of Plasmodium falciparum ribonucleotide reductase. The small subunit (PfR2) contains the major catalytic motif consisting of a tyrosyl radical and a dinuclear Fe site. Whereas PfR2 shares 59% amino acid identity with human R2, a striking sequence divergence between human R2 and PfR2 at the C terminus may provide a selective target for inhibition of the malarial enzyme. A synthetic oligopeptide corresponding to the C-terminal 7 residues of PfR2 inhibits mammalian ribonucleotide reductase at concentrations approximately 10-fold higher than that predicted to inhibit malarial R2. The gene encoding the large subunit (PfR1) contains a single intron. The cysteines thought to be involved in the reduction mechanism are conserved. In contrast to mammalian ribonucleotide reductase, the genes for PfR1 and PfR2 are located on the same chromosome and the accumulation of mRNAs for the two subunits follow different temporal patterns during the cell cycle. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8415692

  3. Cloning & sequence identification of Hsp27 gene and expression analysis of the protein on thermal stress in Lucilia cuprina.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manish K; Tiwari, Pramod K

    2016-08-01

    Hsp27, a highly conserved small molecular weight heat shock protein, is widely known to be developmentally regulated and heat inducible. Its role in thermotolerance is also implicated. This study is a sequel of our earlier studies to understand the molecular organization of heat shock genes/proteins and their role in development and thermal adaptation in a sheep pest, Lucilia cuprina (blowfly), which exhibits unusually high adaptability to a variety of environmental stresses, including heat and chemicals. In this report our aim was to understand the evolutionary relationship of Lucilia hsp27 gene/protein with those of other species and its role in thermal adaptation. We sequence characterized the Lchsp27 gene (coding region) and analyzed its expression in various larval and adult tissues under normal as well as heat shock conditions. The nucleotide sequence analysis of 678 bps long-coding region of Lchsp27 exhibited closest evolutionary proximity with Drosophila (90.09%), which belongs to the same order, Diptera. Heat shock caused significant enhancement in the expression of Lchsp27 gene in all the larval and adult tissues examined, however, in a tissue specific manner. Significantly, in Malpighian tubules, while the heat-induced level of hsp27 transcript (mRNA) appeared increased as compared to control, the protein level remained unaltered and nuclear localized. We infer that Lchsp27 may have significant role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, particularly, during summer months, when the fly remains exposed to high heat in its natural habitat. PMID:25755181

  4. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the Sta58 major antigen gene of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi: sequence homology and antigenic comparison of Sta58 to the 60-kilodalton family of stress proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Stover, C K; Marana, D P; Dasch, G A; Oaks, E V

    1990-01-01

    The scrub typhus 58-kilodalton (kDa) antigen (Sta58) of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi is a major protein antigen often recognized by humans infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae. A 2.9-kilobase HindIII fragment containing a complete sta58 gene was cloned in Escherichia coli and found to express the entire Sta58 antigen and a smaller protein with an apparent molecular mass of 11 kDa (Stp11). DNA sequence analysis of the 2.9-kilobase HindIII fragment revealed two adjacent open reading frames encoding proteins of 11 (Stp11) and 60 (Sta58) kDa. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences disclosed a high degree of homology between the R. tsutsugamushi proteins Stp11 and Sta58 and the E. coli proteins GroES and GroEL, respectively, and the family of primordial heat shock proteins designated Hsp10 Hsp60. Although the sequence homology between the Sta58 antigen and the Hsp60 protein family is striking, the Sta58 protein appeared to be antigenically distinct among a sample of other bacterial Hsp60 homologs, including the typhus group of rickettsiae. The antigenic uniqueness of the Sta58 antigen indicates that this protein may be a potentially protective antigen and a useful diagnostic reagent for scrub typhus fever. Images PMID:2108930

  5. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the plasmid-encoded genes for the two-component 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia 2CBS.

    PubMed

    Haak, B; Fetzner, S; Lingens, F

    1995-02-01

    The two-component nonheme iron dioxygenase system 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia 2CBS catalyzes the double hydroxylation of 2-halobenzoates with concomitant release of halogenide and carbon dioxide, yielding catechol. The gene cluster encoding this enzyme, cbdABC, was localized on a 70-kbp conjugative plasmid designated pBAH1. The nucleotide sequences of cbdABC and flanking regions were determined. In the deduced amino acid sequence of the large subunit of the terminal oxygenase component (CbdA), a conserved motif proposed to bind the Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster was identified. In the NADH:acceptor reductase component (CbdC), a putative binding site for a chloroplast-type [2Fe-2S] center and possible flavin adenine dinucleotide- and NAD-binding domains were identified. The cbdABC sequences show significant homology to benABC, which encode benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (52% identity at the deduced amino acid level), and to xylXYZ, which encode toluate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida mt-2 (51% amino acid identity). Recombinant pkT231 harboring cbdABC and flanking regions complemented a plasmid-free mutant of wild-type P. cepacia 2CBS for growth on 2-chlorobenzoate, and it also allowed recombinant P. putida KT2440 to metabolize 2-chlorobenzoate. Functional NADH:acceptor reductase and oxygenase components of 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase were enriched from recombinant Pseudomonas clones. PMID:7530709

  6. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the plasmid-encoded genes for the two-component 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia 2CBS.

    PubMed Central

    Haak, B; Fetzner, S; Lingens, F

    1995-01-01

    The two-component nonheme iron dioxygenase system 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia 2CBS catalyzes the double hydroxylation of 2-halobenzoates with concomitant release of halogenide and carbon dioxide, yielding catechol. The gene cluster encoding this enzyme, cbdABC, was localized on a 70-kbp conjugative plasmid designated pBAH1. The nucleotide sequences of cbdABC and flanking regions were determined. In the deduced amino acid sequence of the large subunit of the terminal oxygenase component (CbdA), a conserved motif proposed to bind the Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster was identified. In the NADH:acceptor reductase component (CbdC), a putative binding site for a chloroplast-type [2Fe-2S] center and possible flavin adenine dinucleotide- and NAD-binding domains were identified. The cbdABC sequences show significant homology to benABC, which encode benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (52% identity at the deduced amino acid level), and to xylXYZ, which encode toluate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida mt-2 (51% amino acid identity). Recombinant pkT231 harboring cbdABC and flanking regions complemented a plasmid-free mutant of wild-type P. cepacia 2CBS for growth on 2-chlorobenzoate, and it also allowed recombinant P. putida KT2440 to metabolize 2-chlorobenzoate. Functional NADH:acceptor reductase and oxygenase components of 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase were enriched from recombinant Pseudomonas clones. PMID:7530709

  7. Cosmeceutical properties of levan produced by Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Ho; Chung, Chan Bok; Kim, Young Heui; Kim, Ki Soo; Han, Chang Sung; Kim, Chul Ho

    2005-01-01

    Levan, a polysaccharide that can be produced by both plants and microorganisms, is a sugar polymer composed of fructose, with beta-2,6 linkages. Here, we have attempted to assess the possible use of levan produced by Zymomonas mobilis as a cosmeceutical ingredient. In service of this goal, we assessed a host of levan's properties, including its moisturizing effects, cell cytotoxicity, cell proliferation effects, and anti-inflammation effects. Levan exhibited a moisturizing effect that was almost exactly the same as that evidenced by hyaluronic acid, as well as a similar cell proliferation effect in human fibroblast and keratinocyte cell lines. Moreover, in our cell proliferation test, which was conducted using bio-artificial skin constructed via 3-dimensional (3-D) culture after the induction of primary skin inflammation with 0.05% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), cell viability in the presence of levan (0.01 mg/ml, 0.05 mg/ml) was determined to be higher than cell viability in the absence of levan. In our anti-inflammation test, which was also conducted using 3-D artificial skin, and which involved the measurement of a quantity of secreted interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), a pre-inflammatory mediator induced by SLS, we determined that the quantity of IL-1alpha in the 3-D artificial skin treated with 0.01 mg/ml and 0.05 mg/ml of levan was less than that registered in a skin sample that had been treated only with SLS. In this study, we determined that levan exerted an anti-inflammatory effect against inflammatory reactions to skin irritants, and also that levan exerted a cell-proliferative effect in bio-artificial skin, thereby indicating its potential applicability as a cosmeceutical agent. PMID:16538295

  8. First Report of cfr-Carrying Plasmids in the Pandemic Sequence Type 22 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Type IV Clone

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Anna C.; Lazaris, Alexandros; Kinnevey, Peter M.; Brennan, Orla M.; Brennan, Gráinne I.; O'Connell, Brian; Feßler, Andrea T.; Schwarz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Linezolid is often the drug of last resort for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Linezolid resistance is mediated by mutations in 23S rRNA and genes for ribosomal proteins; cfr, encoding phenicol, lincosamide, oxazolidinone, pleuromutilin, and streptogramin A (PhLOPSA) resistance; its homologue cfr(B); or optrA, conferring oxazolidinone and phenicol resistance. Linezolid resistance is rare in S. aureus, and cfr is even rarer. This study investigated the clonality and linezolid resistance mechanisms of two MRSA isolates from patients in separate Irish hospitals. Isolates were subjected to cfr PCR, PhLOPSA susceptibility testing, 23S rRNA PCR and sequencing, DNA microarray profiling, spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), plasmid curing, and conjugative transfer. Whole-genome sequencing was used for single-nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis, multilocus sequence typing, L protein mutation identification, cfr plasmid sequence analysis, and optrA and cfr(B) detection. Isolates M12/0145 and M13/0401 exhibited linezolid MICs of 64 and 16 mg/liter, respectively, and harbored identical 23S rRNA and L22 mutations, but M12/0145 exhibited the mutation in 2/6 23S rRNA alleles, compared to 1/5 in M13/0401. Both isolates were sequence type 22 MRSA staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV (ST22-MRSA-IV)/spa type t032 isolates, harbored cfr, exhibited the PhLOPSA phenotype, and lacked optrA and cfr(B). They differed by five PFGE bands and 603 SNVs. Isolate M12/0145 harbored cfr and fexA on a 41-kb conjugative pSCFS3-type plasmid, whereas M13/0401 harbored cfr and lsa(B) on a novel 27-kb plasmid. This is the first report of cfr in the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. Different cfr plasmids and mutations associated with linezolid resistance in genotypically distinct ST22-MRSA-IV isolates highlight that prudent management of linezolid use is essential. PMID:26953212

  9. Cloning and sequencing of a cellobiose phosphotransferase system operon from Bacillus stearothermophilus XL-65-6 and functional expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, X; Ingram, L O

    1993-01-01

    Cellulolytic strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus were isolated from nature and screened for the presence of activities associated with the degradation of plant cell walls. One isolate (strain XL-65-6) which exhibited strong activities with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (MUG) and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-cellobiopyranoside (MUC) was used to construct a gene library in Escherichia coli. Clones degrading these model substrates were found to encode the cellobiose-specific genes of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). Both MUG and MUC activities were present together, and both activities were lost concurrently during subcloning experiments. A functional E. coli ptsI gene was required for MUC and MUG activities (presumably a ptsH gene also). The DNA fragment from B. stearothermophilus contained four open reading frames which appear to form a cel operon. Intergenic stop codons for celA, celB, and celC overlapped the ribosomal binding sites of the respective downstream genes. Frameshift mutations or deletions in celA, celB, and celD were individually shown to result in a loss of MUC and MUG activities. On the basis of amino acid sequence homology and hydropathy plots of translated sequences, celA and celB were identified as encoding PTS enzyme II and celD was identified as encoding PTS enzyme III. These translated sequences were remarkably similar to their respective E. coli homologs for cellobiose transport. No reported sequences exhibited a high level of homology with the celC gene product. The predicted carboxy-terminal region for celC was similar to the corresponding region of E. coli celF, a phospho-beta-glucosidase. An incomplete regulatory gene (celR) and proposed promoter sequence were located 5' to the proposed cel operon. A stem-loop resembling a rho-independent terminator was present immediately downstream from celD. These results indicate that B. stearothermophilus XL-65-6 contains a cellobiose-specific PTS for

  10. Molecular characterization of the body site-specific human epidermal cytokeratin 9: cDNA cloning, amino acid sequence, and tissue specificity of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Langbein, L; Heid, H W; Moll, I; Franke, W W

    1993-12-01

    Differentiation of human plantar and palmar epidermis is characterized by the suprabasal synthesis of a major special intermediate-sized filament (IF) protein, the type I (acidic) cytokeratin 9 (CK 9). Using partial amino acid (aa) sequence information obtained by direct Edman sequencing of peptides resulting from proteolytic digestion of purified CK 9, we synthesized several redundant primers by 'back-translation'. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cDNAs obtained by reverse transcription of mRNAs from human foot sole epidermis, including 5'-primer extension, resulted in multiple overlapping cDNA clones, from which the complete cDNA (2353 bp) could be constructed. This cDNA encoded the CK 9 polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 61,987 and an isoelectric point at about pH 5.0. The aa sequence deduced from cDNA was verified in several parts by comparison with the peptide sequences and showed the typical structure of type I CKs, with a head (153 aa), and alpha-helical coiled-coil-forming rod (306 aa), and a tail (163 aa) domain. The protein displayed the highest homology to human CK 10, not only in the highly conserved rod domain but also in large parts of the head and the tail domains. On the other hand, the aa sequence revealed some remarkable differences from CK 10 and other CKs, even in the most conserved segments of the rod domain. The nuclease digestion pattern seen on Southern blot analysis of human genomic DNA indicated the existence of a unique CK 9 gene. Using CK 9-specific riboprobes for hybridization on Northern blots of RNAs from various epithelia, a mRNA of about 2.4 kb in length could be identified only in foot sole epidermis, and a weaker cross-hybridization signal was seen in RNA from bovine heel pad epidermis at about 2.0 kb. A large number of tissues and cell cultures were examined by PCR of mRNA-derived cDNAs, using CK 9-specific primers. But even with this very sensitive signal amplification, only palmar

  11. First Report of cfr-Carrying Plasmids in the Pandemic Sequence Type 22 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Type IV Clone.

    PubMed

    Shore, Anna C; Lazaris, Alexandros; Kinnevey, Peter M; Brennan, Orla M; Brennan, Gráinne I; O'Connell, Brian; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan; Coleman, David C

    2016-05-01

    Linezolid is often the drug of last resort for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Linezolid resistance is mediated by mutations in 23S rRNA and genes for ribosomal proteins; cfr, encoding phenicol, lincosamide, oxazolidinone, pleuromutilin, and streptogramin A (PhLOPSA) resistance; its homologue cfr(B); or optrA, conferring oxazolidinone and phenicol resistance. Linezolid resistance is rare in S. aureus, and cfr is even rarer. This study investigated the clonality and linezolid resistance mechanisms of two MRSA isolates from patients in separate Irish hospitals. Isolates were subjected to cfr PCR, PhLOPSA susceptibility testing, 23S rRNA PCR and sequencing, DNA microarray profiling, spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), plasmid curing, and conjugative transfer. Whole-genome sequencing was used for single-nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis, multilocus sequence typing, L protein mutation identification, cfr plasmid sequence analysis, and optrA and cfr(B) detection. Isolates M12/0145 and M13/0401 exhibited linezolid MICs of 64 and 16 mg/liter, respectively, and harbored identical 23S rRNA and L22 mutations, but M12/0145 exhibited the mutation in 2/6 23S rRNA alleles, compared to 1/5 in M13/0401. Both isolates were sequence type 22 MRSA staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV (ST22-MRSA-IV)/spa type t032 isolates, harbored cfr, exhibited the PhLOPSA phenotype, and lacked optrA and cfr(B). They differed by five PFGE bands and 603 SNVs. Isolate M12/0145 harbored cfr and fexA on a 41-kb conjugative pSCFS3-type plasmid, whereas M13/0401 harbored cfr and lsa(B) on a novel 27-kb plasmid. This is the first report of cfr in the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. Different cfr plasmids and mutations associated with linezolid resistance in genotypically distinct ST22-MRSA-IV isolates highlight that prudent management of linezolid use is essential. PMID:26953212

  12. Recombinational Cloning Using Gateway and In-Fusion Cloning Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Throop, Andrea L.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive study of protein structure and function, or proteomics, depends on the obtainability of full-length cDNAs in species-specific expression vectors and subsequent functional analysis of the expressed protein. Recombinational cloning is a universal cloning technique based on site-specific recombination that is independent of the insert DNA sequence of interest, which differentiates this method from the classical restriction enzyme-based cloning methods. Recombinational cloning enables rapid and efficient parallel transfer of DNA inserts into multiple expression systems. This unit summarizes strategies for generating expression-ready clones using the most popular recombinational cloning technologies, including the commercially available Gateway® (Life Technologies) and In-Fusion® (Clontech) cloning technologies. PMID:25827088

  13. Development of corn silk as a biocarrier for Zymomonas mobilis biofilms in ethanol production from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Todhanakasem, Tatsaporn; Tiwari, Rashmi; Thanonkeo, Pornthap

    2016-01-01

    Z. mobilis cell immobilization has been proposed as an effective means of improving ethanol production. In this work, polystyrene and corn silk were used as biofilm developmental matrices for Z. mobilis ethanol production with rice straw hydrolysate as a substrate. Rice straw was hydrolyzed by dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis. The final hydrolysate contained furfural (271.95 ± 76.30 ppm), 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (0.07 ± 0.00 ppm), vanillin (1.81 ± 0.00 ppm), syringaldehyde (5.07 ± 0.83 ppm), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HB) (2.39 ± 1.20 ppm) and acetic acid (0.26 ± 0.08%). Bacterial attachment or biofilm formation of Z. mobilis strain TISTR 551 on polystyrene and delignified corn silk carrier provided significant ethanol yields. Results showed up to 0.40 ± 0.15 g ethanol produced/g glucose consumed when Z. mobilis was immobilized on a polystyrene carrier and 0.51 ± 0.13 g ethanol produced/g glucose consumed when immobilized on delignified corn silk carrier under batch fermentation by Z. mobilis TISTR 551 biofilm. The higher ethanol yield from immobilized, rather than free living, Z. mobilis could possibly be explained by a higher cell density, better control of anaerobic conditions and higher toxic tolerance of Z. mobilis biofilms over free cells. PMID:27118074

  14. Ethanol production by recombinant Escherichia coli carrying genes from Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Lawford, H G; Rousseau, J D

    1991-01-01

    Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic feedstocks offers an opportunity to reduce the cost of producing fuel ethanol. The fermentation performance characteristics of recombinant Escherichia coli ATCC 11303 carrying the "PET plasmid" (pLOI297) with the lac operon controlling the expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adhB) genes cloned from Zymomonas mobilis CP4 (Alterthum & Ingram, 1989) were assessed in batch and continuous processes with sugar mixtures designed to mimic process streams from lignocellulosic hydrolysis systems. Growth was pseudoexponential at a rate (generation time) of 1.28 h at pH 6.8 and 1.61 h at pH 6.0. The molar growth yields for glucose and xylose were 17.28 and 7.65 g DW cell/mol, respectively (at pH 6.3 and 30 degrees C), suggesting that the net yield of ATP from xylose metabolism is only 50% compared to glucose. In pH-stat batch fermentations (Luria broth with 6% sugar, pH 6.3), glucose was converted to ethanol 4-6 times faster than xylose, but the glucose conversion rate was much less than can be achieved with comparable cell densities of Zymomonas. Sugar-to-ethanol conversion efficiencies in nutrient-rich, complex LB medium were near theoretical at 98 and 88% for glucose and xylose, respectively. The yield was 10-20% less in a defined-mineral-salts medium. Acetate at a concentration of 0.1M (present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates from thermochemical processing) inhibited glucose utilization (about 50%) much more than xylose, and caused a decrease in product yield of about 30% for both sugars. With phosphate-buffered media (pH 7), glucose was a preferred substrate in mixtures with a ratio of hexose to pentose of 2.3 to 1. Xylose was consumed after glucose, and the product yield was less (0.37 g/g). Under steady-state conditions of continuous culture, the specific productivity ranged from 0.76-1.24 g EtOH/g cell/h, and the maximum volumetric productivity, 2.5 g EtOH/L/h, was achieved with a rich

  15. Bacterial diversity analysis of Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus, using PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar Sagaram, U.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Trivedi, P.; Andersen, G.L.; Lu, S.-E.; Wang, N.

    2009-03-01

    The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized 1 from citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rDNA microarray and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition of symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria from 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs while 20 orders from phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs compared to asymptomatic midribs. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants, but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis was further verified by sequencing 16S rDNA clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of Las in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate Las as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. Citrus is the most important commercial fruit crop in Florida. In recent years, citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also called citrus greening, has severely affected Florida's citrus production and hence has drawn an enormous amount of attention. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (6,13), characterized by blotchy mottling with green islands on leaves, as well as stunting, fruit decline, and small, lopsided fruits with poor coloration. The disease tends to be associated with a phloem-limited fastidious {alpha}-proteobacterium given a provisional Candidatus status (Candidatus Liberobacter spp. later changed to Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) in nomenclature (18,25,34). Previous studies indicate that HLB infection causes disorder in the phloem and severely impairs the translocation of assimilates in host

  16. Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence Analyses of 11 Genome Segments of Two American and One British Equine Rotavirus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yongping; Wen, Xiaobo; Hoshino, Yasutaka; Yuan, L

    2015-01-01

    Group A equine rotavirus (ERV) is the main cause of diarrhea in foals and causes severe economic loss due to morbidity and mortality on stud farming worldwide. Molecular evolution of equine rotaviruses remains understudies. In this study, whole-genomic analysis of 2 group A ERV, FI-14 (G3P[12]), H-2 (G3P[12]) isolated from American, and FI23 (G14P[12]) from British was carried out and genotype constellations were determined as G3-P[12]-I6-R2-C2-M3-A10-N2-T3-E2-H7 for FI-14; G14-P[12]-I2-R2-C2-M3-A10-N2-T3-E2-H7 for FI23; and G3-P[12]-I6-R2-C2-M3-A10-N2-T3-E2-H7 for H-2, respectively. With the exception of the VP7 and VP6 gene, 2 G3P[12] strains (FI-14 and H-2) and one G14P[12] strain (FI23) were highly related genetically. Of note, the VP6 genotype of H-2 strain was previously reported to be I2, however, sequence and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that it was I6. Therefore, it showed that G3P[12] ERV strains and G14P[12] ERV strains bore a distinct VP6 genotype: I6 for G3P[12] strains and I2 for G14P[12] strains. Moreover, it demonstrated that T-cell epitope 299P-300P/Q residues (PP/Q) of VP6 may be considered as I2 ERV typical molecular marker, which facilitates the analysis of the molecular evolution of equine rotaviruses. PMID:25631250

  17. Cloning and nucleotide sequence analyses of 11 genome segments of two American and one British equine rotavirus strains.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongping; Wen, Xiaobo; Hoshino, Yasutaka; Yuan, L

    2015-03-23

    Group A equine rotavirus (ERV) is the main cause of diarrhea in foals and causes severe economic loss due to morbidity and mortality on stud farming worldwide. Molecular evolution of equine rotaviruses remains understudies. In this study, whole-genomic analysis of 2 group A ERV, FI-14 (G3P[12]), H-2 (G3P[12]) isolated from American, and FI23 (G14P[12]) from British was carried out and genotype constellations were determined as G3-P[12]-I6-R2-C2-M3-A10-N2-T3-E2-H7 for FI-14; G14-P[12]-I2-R2-C2-M3-A10-N2-T3-E2-H7 for FI23; and G3-P[12]-I6-R2-C2-M3-A10-N2-T3-E2-H7 for H-2, respectively. With the exception of the VP7 and VP6 gene, 2 G3P[12] strains (FI-14 and H-2) and one G14P[12] strain (FI23) were highly related genetically. Of note, the VP6 genotype of H-2 strain was previously reported to be I2, however, sequence and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that it was I6. Therefore, it showed that G3P[12] ERV strains and G14P[12] ERV strains bore a distinct VP6 genotype: I6 for G3P[12] strains and I2 for G14P[12] strains. Moreover, it demonstrated that T-cell epitope 299P-300P/Q residues (PP/Q) of VP6 may be considered as I2 ERV typical molecular marker, which facilitates the analysis of the molecular evolution of equine rotaviruses. PMID:25631250

  18. Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    SciTech Connect

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

    2013-10-29

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  19. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    SciTech Connect

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  20. Genetic variability analysis of Zymomonas mobilis strains from the UFPEDA microorganisms collection.

    PubMed

    Silva, L C N; Araújo, J M; Azevedo, J L; Padilha, R J S A; Yara, R

    2015-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is a Gram-negative bacterium that has drawn attention in the bioethanol industry. Besides bioethanol, this bacterium also produces other biotechnological products such as levans, which show antitumor activity. Molecular studies involving Z. mobilis have advanced to the point that allows us to characterize interspecies genetic diversity and understand their metabolism, and these data are essential for better utilization of this species. In this study, the genetic diversity of 24 strains from the Microorganisms Collection of Departamento de Antibióticos (UFPEDA) from Universidade Federal de Pernambuco were characterized. The methods used were amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and diversity analysis of the internally transcribed 16S-23S rDNA spacer region (ISR). These analyses revealed low genetic variability of the 16S rDNA gene. These data confirm that these isolates are, or are closely related to, Z. mobilis. Moreover, the analysis of the ISR confirmed the genetic variability of strains deposited in the UFPEDA collection of microorganisms and grouped these strains into ten ribotypes, which can be used in the future for breeding programs and for the preservation of biodiversity. Furthermore, this study characterized the genetic variability between the UFPEDA 205/ ZAP, UFPEDA 98/AG11, and ZAG strains, which were obtained by spheroplast fusion among them. The data also indicate that there is genetic variability among the UFPEDA 202/CP4 and UFPEDA 633/ ZM4 strains, demonstrating that these important Z. mobilis strains are distinct, as suggested in previous studies. PMID:25730020

  1. Very high gravity ethanol and fatty acid production of Zymomonas mobilis without amino acid and vitamin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoyong; Cao, Shangzhi; Wang, William Tianshuo; Wang, Kaven Tianyv; Jia, Xianhui

    2016-06-01

    Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is the mainstream technology in ethanol industry, which requires the strains be resistant to multiple stresses such as high glucose concentration, high ethanol concentration, high temperature and harsh acidic conditions. To our knowledge, it was not reported previously that any ethanol-producing microbe showed a high performance in VHG fermentations without amino acid and vitamin. Here we demonstrate the engineering of a xylose utilizing recombinant Zymomonas mobilis for VHG ethanol fermentations. The recombinant strain can produce ethanol up to 136 g/L without amino acid and vitamin with a theoretical yield of 90 %, which is significantly superior to that produced by all the reported ethanol-producing strains. The intracellular fatty acids of the bacterial were about 16 % of the bacterial dry biomass, with the ratio of ethanol:fatty acids was about 273:1 (g/g). The recombinant strain was achieved by a multivariate-modular strategy tackles with the multiple stresses which are closely linked to the ethanol productivity of Z. mobilis. The over-expression of metB/yfdZ operon enabled the growth of the recombinant Z. mobilis in a chemically defined medium without amino acid and vitamin; and the fatty acids overproduction significantly increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production. The coupled production of ethanol with fatty acids of the Z. mobilis without amino acid and vitamin under VHG fermentation conditions may permit a significant reduction of the production cost of ethanol and microbial fatty acids. PMID:27033536

  2. “Fish-in-Net”, a Novel Method for Cell Immobilization of Zymomonas mobilis

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xuedun; Wang, Zhi; Li, Yang; Zhao, Zijian; Liu, Jiayin; Jiang, Li; Xu, Haoran; Li, Zhengqiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Inorganic mesoporous materials exhibit good biocompatibility and hydrothermal stability for cell immobilization. However, it is difficult to encapsulate living cells under mild conditions, and new strategies for cell immobilization are needed. We designed a “fish-in-net” approach for encapsulation of enzymes in ordered mesoporous silica under mild conditions. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the potential of this approach in immobilization of living cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Zymomonas mobilis cells were encapsulated in mesoporous silica-based materials under mild conditions by using a “fish-in-net” approach. During the encapsulation process, polyethyleneglycol was used as an additive to improve the immobilization efficiency. After encapsulation, the pore size, morphology and other features were characterized by various methods, including scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Furthermore, the capacity of ethanol production by immobilized Zymomonas mobilis and free Zymomonas mobilis was compared. Conclusions/Significance In this study, Zymomonas mobilis cells were successfully encapsulated in mesoporous silica-based materials under mild conditions by the “fish-in-net” approach. Encapsulated cells could perform normal metabolism and exhibited excellent reusability. The results presented here illustrate the enormous potential of the “fish-in-net” approach for immobilization of living cells. PMID:24236145

  3. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding OmpL1, a transmembrane outer membrane protein of pathogenic Leptospira spp.

    PubMed Central

    Haake, D A; Champion, C I; Martinich, C; Shang, E S; Blanco, D R; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1993-01-01

    protein for which the structural gene has been cloned and sequenced. Images PMID:8320237

  4. Screening for and isolation and identification of malathion-degrading bacteria: cloning and sequencing a gene that potentially encodes the malathion-degrading enzyme, carboxylestrase in soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Goda, Sayed K; Elsayed, Iman E; Khodair, Taha A; El-Sayed, Walaa; Mohamed, Mervat E

    2010-11-01

    Five malathion-degrading bacterial strains were enriched and isolated from soil samples collected from different agricultural sites in Cairo, Egypt. Malathion was used as a sole source of carbon (50 mg/l) to enumerate malathion degraders, which were designated as IS1, IS2, IS3, IS4, and IS5. They were identified, based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics, as Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas putida, Micrococcus lylae, Pseudomonas aureofaciens, and Acetobacter liquefaciens, respectively. IS1 and IS2, which showed the highest degrading activity, were selected for further identification by partial sequence analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. The 16S rRNA gene of IS1 shared 99% similarity with that of Alphaprotoebacterium BAL284, while IS2 scored 100% similarity with that of Pseudomonas putida 32zhy. Malathion residues almost completely disappeared within 6 days of incubation in IS2 liquid cultures. LC/ESI-MS analysis confirmed the degradation of malathion to malathion monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids, which formed as a result of carboxylesterase activity. A carboxylesterase gene (CE) was amplified from the IS2 genome by using specifically designed PCR primers. The sequence analysis showed a significant similarity to a known CE gene in different Pseudomonas sp. We report here the isolation of a new malathion-degrading bacteria from soils in Egypt that may be very well adapted to the climatic and environmental conditions of the country. We also report the partial cloning of a new CE gene. Due to their high biodegradation activity, the bacteria isolated from this work merit further study as potential biological agents for the remediation of soil, water, or crops contaminated with the pesticide malathion. PMID:20401686

  5. Molecular cloning and sequencing of two phospho-beta-galactosidase I and II genes of Lactobacillus gasseri JCM1031 isolated from human intestine.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Suzuki, M; Konno, K; Kitazawa, H; Kawai, Y; Itoh, T; Kamio, Y

    1998-12-01

    Lactobacillus (Lb.) gasseri JCM1031, which is classified into the B1 subgroup of the Lb. acidophilus group of lactic acid bacteria, characteristically produces two different phospho-beta-galactosidases (P-beta-gal) I and II in the same cytosol as reported in our previous papers [Biosci. Biotech. Biochem., 60, 139-141, 708-710 (1996)]. To clarify the functional and genetic properties of the two enzymes, the structural genes of P-beta-gal I and II were cloned and sequenced. The structural gene of P-beta-gal I had 1,446 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 482 amino acid residues. The structural gene of P-beta-gal II had 1,473 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 491 amino acid residues. The deduced relative molecular masses of 55,188 and 56,243 agreed well with the previous value obtained from the purified P-beta-gal I and II protein, respectively. Multiple alignment of the protein sequence of P-beta-gal I and II with those of P-beta-gals from 5 microorganisms had 30-35% identity on the amino acid level, but those with phospho-beta-glucosidases from 5 microorganisms had the relatively high identity of about 50%. Considering that this strain grows on lactose medium and shows no beta-galactosidase activity, and that purified P-beta-gal I and II can obviously hydrolyze o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside 6-phosphate (substrate), and also the conservation of a cysteine residue in the molecule, the P-beta-gal I and II were each confirmed as a novel P-beta-gal enzyme. PMID:9972258

  6. Purification of 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase from Citrobacter freundii and cloning, sequencing, and overexpression of the corresponding gene in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, R; Boenigk, R; Gottschalk, G

    1995-01-01

    1,3-Propanediol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.202) was purified to homogeneity from Citrobacter freundii grown anaerobically on glycerol in continuous culture. The enzyme is an octamer of a polypeptide of 43,400 Da. When tested as a dehydrogenase, the enzyme was most active with substrates containing two primary alcohol groups separated by one or two carbon atoms. In the physiological direction, 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde was the preferred substrate. The apparent Km values of the enzyme for 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and NADH were 140 and 33 microM, respectively. The enzyme was inhibited by chelators of divalent cations but could be reactivated by the addition of Fe2+. The dhaT gene, encoding the 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase, was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence (1,164 bp) was determined. The deduced dhaT gene product (387 amino acids, 41,324 Da) showed a high level of similarity to a novel family (type III) of alcohol dehydrogenases. The dhaT gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli 274-fold by using the T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system. PMID:7721705

  7. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gyrA gene from Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus ATCC 27374 and characterization of ciprofloxacin-resistant laboratory and clinical isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D E; Chau, A S

    1997-01-01

    The gyrA gene of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, which encodes the A subunit of DNA gyrase, was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. An open reading frame of 2,586 nucleotides which encodes a polypeptide of 862 amino acids with an Mr of 96,782 was identified. C. fetus subsp. fetus GyrA is most closely related to Campylobacter jejuni GyrA, with 73% homology at the nucleotide level and 78% identity between polypeptides. The next most closely related GyrA was that from Helicobacter pylori, with both DNA homology and amino acid identity of 63%. The gyrA and gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes were located on the genomic map of C. fetus subsp. fetus ATCC 27374 and shown to be separate. A clinical isolate of C. fetus subsp. fetus and a laboratory-derived mutant of ATCC 27374, both resistant to ciprofloxacin, had identical mutations within the quinolone resistance determining region. In both mutants a G-->T transversion, corresponding to a substitution of Asp-91 to Tyr in GyrA, was linked to ciprofloxacin resistance, giving MICs of 8 to 16 micrograms/ml. PMID:9056011

  8. Cloning and sequencing of the kedarcidin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptoalloteichus sp. ATCC 53650 revealing new insights into biosynthesis of the enediyne family of antitumor antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Jeremy R; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Horsman, Geoffrey P; Dilfer, Paul E; Huang, Tingting; Chen, Yihua; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Shen, Ben

    2013-03-01

    Enediyne natural product biosynthesis is characterized by a convergence of multiple pathways, generating unique peripheral moieties that are appended onto the distinctive enediyne core. Kedarcidin (KED) possesses two unique peripheral moieties, a (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine and an iso-propoxy-bearing 2-naphthonate moiety, as well as two deoxysugars. The appendage pattern of these peripheral moieties to the enediyne core in KED differs from the other enediynes studied to date with respect to stereochemical configuration. To investigate the biosynthesis of these moieties and expand our understanding of enediyne core formation, the biosynthetic gene cluster for KED was cloned from Streptoalloteichus sp. ATCC 53650 and sequenced. Bioinformatics analysis of the ked cluster revealed the presence of the conserved genes encoding for enediyne core biosynthesis, type I and type II polyketide synthase loci likely responsible for 2-aza-l-tyrosine and 3,6,8-trihydroxy-2-naphthonate formation, and enzymes known for deoxysugar biosynthesis. Genes homologous to those responsible for the biosynthesis, activation, and coupling of the l-tyrosine-derived moieties from C-1027 and maduropeptin and of the naphthonate moiety from neocarzinostatin are present in the ked cluster, supporting 2-aza-l-tyrosine and 3,6,8-trihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid as precursors, respectively, for the (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine and the 2-naphthonate moieties in KED biosynthesis. PMID:23360970

  9. Cloning and sequencing of the kedarcidin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptoalloteichus sp. ATCC 53650 revealing new insights into biosynthesis of the enediyne family of antitumor antibiotics†

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Jeremy R.; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Horsman, Geoffrey P.; Dilfer, Paul E.; Huang, Tingting; Chen, Yihua; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Shen, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Enediyne natural product biosynthesis is characterized by a convergence of multiple pathways, generating unique peripheral moieties that are appended onto the distinctive enediyne core. Kedarcidin (KED) possesses two unique peripheral moieties, a (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine and an iso-propoxy-bearing 2-naphthonate moiety, as well as two deoxysugars. The appendage pattern of these peripheral moieties to the enediyne core in KED differs from the other enediynes studied to date with respect to stereochemical configuration. To investigate the biosynthesis of these moieties and expand our understanding of enediyne core formation, the biosynthetic gene cluster for KED was cloned from Streptoalloteichus sp. ATCC 53650 and sequenced. Bioinformatics analysis of the ked cluster revealed the presence of the conserved genes encoding for enediyne core biosynthesis, type I and type II polyketide synthase loci likely responsible for 2-aza-L-tyrosine and 3,6,8-trihydroxy-2-naphthonate formation, and enzymes known for deoxysugar biosynthesis. Genes homologous to those responsible for the biosynthesis, activation, and coupling of the L-tyrosine-derived moieties from C-1027 and maduropeptin and of the naphthonate moiety from neocarzinostatin are present in the ked cluster, supporting 2-aza-L-tyrosine and 3,6,8-trihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid as precursors, respectively, for the (R)-2-aza-3-chloro-β-tyrosine and the 2-naphthonate moieties in KED biosynthesis. PMID:23360970

  10. Cloning and sequencing of the Candida albicans homologue of SRB1/PSA1/VIG9, the essential gene encoding GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Warit, S; Walmsley, R M; Stateva, L I

    1998-09-01

    Two genomic fragments have been isolated from Candida albicans which strongly hybridize to SRB1/PSA1/VIG9, an essential gene which encodes GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A common 2.5 kb Xbal-Pstl fragment has been identified, which Southern analysis suggests is most likely unique in the C. albicans genome. The fragment contains an ORF, which is 82% identical and 90% homologous to the Srb1p/Psa1p/Vig9p from S. cerevisiae, contains one additional amino acid at position 254 and is able to functionally complement the major phenotypic characteristics of S. cerevisiae srb1 null and conditional mutations. The authors therefore conclude that they have cloned and sequenced from C. albicans the bona fide homologue of SRB1/PSA1/VIG9, named hereafter CaSRB1. Northern analysis data indicate that the gene is expressed in C. albicans under conditions of growth in the yeast and hyphal form and suggest that its expression might be regulated. PMID:9782489

  11. dcd (dCTP deaminase) gene of Escherichia coli: mapping, cloning, sequencing, and identification as a locus of suppressors of lethal dut (dUTPase) mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Weiss, B

    1992-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, most of the dUMP that is used as a substrate for thymidylate synthetase is generated from dCTP through the sequential action of dCTP deaminase and dUTPase. Some mutations of the dut (dUTPase) gene are lethal even when the cells are grown in the presence of thymidine, but their lethality can be suppressed by extragenic mutations that can be produced by transposon insertion. Six suppressor mutations were tested, and all were found to belong to the same complementation group. The affected gene was cloned, it was mapped by hybridization with a library of recombinant DNA, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene is at 2,149 kb on the physical map. Its product, a 21.2-kDa polypeptide, was overproduced 1,000-fold via an expression vector and identified as dCTP deaminase, the enzyme affected in previously described dcd mutants. Null mutations in dcd probably suppress the lethality of dut mutations by reducing the accumulation of dUTP, which would otherwise lead to the excessive incorporation of uracil into DNA. Images PMID:1324907

  12. Systems Biology Analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 Ethanol Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shihui; Pan, Chongle; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Engle, Nancy L.; Zhou, Wen; Dam, PhuongAn; Xu, Ying; Rodriguez, Miguel; Dice, Lezlee; Johnson, Courtney M.; Davison, Brian H.; Brown, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 is a capable ethanologenic bacterium with high ethanol productivity and ethanol tolerance. Previous studies indicated that several stress-related proteins and changes in the ZM4 membrane lipid composition may contribute to ethanol tolerance. However, the molecular mechanisms of its ethanol stress response have not been elucidated fully. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, ethanol stress responses were investigated using systems biology approaches. Medium supplementation with an initial 47 g/L (6% v/v) ethanol reduced Z. mobilis ZM4 glucose consumption, growth rate and ethanol productivity compared to that of untreated controls. A proteomic analysis of early exponential growth identified about one thousand proteins, or approximately 55% of the predicted ZM4 proteome. Proteins related to metabolism and stress response such as chaperones and key regulators were more abundant in the early ethanol stress condition. Transcriptomic studies indicated that the response of ZM4 to ethanol is dynamic, complex and involves many genes from all the different functional categories. Most down-regulated genes were related to translation and ribosome biogenesis, while the ethanol-upregulated genes were mostly related to cellular processes and metabolism. Transcriptomic data were used to update Z. mobilis ZM4 operon models. Furthermore, correlations among the transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic data were examined. Among significantly expressed genes or proteins, we observe higher correlation coefficients when fold-change values are higher. Conclusions Our study has provided insights into the responses of Z. mobilis to ethanol stress through an integrated “omics” approach for the first time. This systems biology study elucidated key Z. mobilis ZM4 metabolites, genes and proteins that form the foundation of its distinctive physiology and its multifaceted response to ethanol stress. PMID:23874800

  13. Inhibition of growth of Zymomonas mobilis by model compounds found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the pretreatment of biomass feedstocks and subsequent conditioning prior to saccharification, many toxic compounds are produced or introduced which inhibit microbial growth and in many cases, production of ethanol. An understanding of the toxic effects of compounds found in hydrolysate is critical to improving sugar utilization and ethanol yields in the fermentation process. In this study, we established a useful tool for surveying hydrolysate toxicity by measuring growth rates in the presence of toxic compounds, and examined the effects of selected model inhibitors of aldehydes, organic and inorganic acids (along with various cations), and alcohols on growth of Zymomonas mobilis 8b (a ZM4 derivative) using glucose or xylose as the carbon source. Results Toxicity strongly correlated to hydrophobicity in Z. mobilis, which has been observed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for aldehydes and with some exceptions, organic acids. We observed Z. mobilis 8b to be more tolerant to organic acids than previously reported, although the carbon source and growth conditions play a role in tolerance. Growth in xylose was profoundly inhibited by monocarboxylic organic acids compared to growth in glucose, whereas dicarboxylic acids demonstrated little or no effects on growth rate in either substrate. Furthermore, cations can be ranked in order of their toxicity, Ca++ > > Na+ > NH4+ > K+. HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural), furfural and acetate, which were observed to contribute to inhibition of Z. mobilis growth in dilute acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate, do not interact in a synergistic manner in combination. We provide further evidence that Z. mobilis 8b is capable of converting the aldehydes furfural, vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and to some extent syringaldehyde to their alcohol forms (furfuryl, vanillyl, 4-hydroxybenzyl and syringyl alcohol) during fermentation. Conclusions Several key findings in this report provide a

  14. Clone DB: an integrated NCBI resource for clone-associated data.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Valerie A; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Clausen, Cliff; Meric, Peter A; Zhou, Zhigang; Bouk, Nathan; Husain, Nora; Maglott, Donna R; Church, Deanna M

    2013-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Clone DB (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clone/) is an integrated resource providing information about and facilitating access to clones, which serve as valuable research reagents in many fields, including genome sequencing and variation analysis. Clone DB represents an expansion and replacement of the former NCBI Clone Registry and has records for genomic and cell-based libraries and clones representing more than 100 different eukaryotic taxa. Records provide details of library construction, associated sequences, map positions and information about resource distribution. Clone DB is indexed in the NCBI Entrez system and can be queried by fields that include organism, clone name, gene name and sequence identifier. Whenever possible, genomic clones are mapped to reference assemblies and their map positions provided in clone records. Clones mapping to specific genomic regions can also be searched for using the NCBI Clone Finder tool, which accepts queries based on sequence coordinates or features such as gene or transcript names. Clone DB makes reports of library, clone and placement data on its FTP site available for download. With Clone DB, users now have available to them a centralized resource that provides them with the tools they will need to make use of these important research reagents. PMID:23193260

  15. Analysis of Ultra-Deep Pyrosequencing and Cloning Based Sequencing of the Basic Core Promoter/Precore/Core Region of Hepatitis B Virus Using Newly Developed Bioinformatics Tools

    PubMed Central

    Yousif, Mukhlid; Bell, Trevor G.; Mudawi, Hatim; Glebe, Dieter; Kramvis, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were to develop bioinformatics tools to explore ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) data, to test these tools, and to use them to determine the optimum error threshold, and to compare results from UDPS and cloning based sequencing (CBS). Methods Four serum samples, infected with either genotype D or E, from HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients were randomly selected. UDPS and CBS were used to sequence the basic core promoter/precore region of HBV. Two online bioinformatics tools, the “Deep Threshold Tool” and the “Rosetta Tool” (http://hvdr.bioinf.wits.ac.za/tools/), were built to test and analyze the generated data. Results A total of 10952 reads were generated by UDPS on the 454 GS Junior platform. In the four samples, substitutions, detected at 0.5% threshold or above, were identified at 39 unique positions, 25 of which were non-synonymous mutations. Sample #2 (HBeAg-negative, genotype D) had substitutions in 26 positions, followed by sample #1 (HBeAg-negative, genotype E) in 12 positions, sample #3 (HBeAg-positive, genotype D) in 7 positions and sample #4 (HBeAg-positive, genotype E) in only four positions. The ratio of nucleotide substitutions between isolates from HBeAg-negative and HBeAg-positive patients was 3.5∶1. Compared to genotype E isolates, genotype D isolates showed greater variation in the X, basic core promoter/precore and core regions. Only 18 of the 39 positions identified by UDPS were detected by CBS, which detected 14 of the 25 non-synonymous mutations detected by UDPS. Conclusion UDPS data should be approached with caution. Appropriate curation of read data is required prior to analysis, in order to clean the data and eliminate artefacts. CBS detected fewer than 50% of the substitutions detected by UDPS. Furthermore it is important that the appropriate consensus (reference) sequence is used in order to identify variants correctly. PMID:24740330

  16. Clone-based comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from biodeteriorating brick buildings of the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp.

    PubMed

    Otlewska, Anna; Adamiak, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the bacterial communities in four samples of historical materials (plaster, brick, and wood) derived from buildings located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Brzezinka, Poland. For this purpose a molecular strategy based on the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries was used. In total, 138 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (∼600bp) were obtained and compared. The clones belonged to phyla Proteobacteria (classes: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The plaster samples predominantly contained clones closely related to Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, brick samples contained Gammaproteobacteria, while wood samples had Actinobacteria clones. Interestingly, the historic plaster and brick samples contained the following bacteria with known and described biodeterioration potential: chemoorganotrophic Streptomyces sp. and Pseudonocardia sp., halotolerant or halophilic Rubrobacter sp., Salinisphaera sp. and Halomonas sp. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that amongst the bacterial species detected and identified none occurred on all the tested historical materials. The 16S rRNA clone library construction method was successfully used for the detection and diversity determination of bacterial communities inhabiting brick barracks located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Brzezinka. PMID:25458608

  17. Academic Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally negative practice.…

  18. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from DNA extracts of 12 samples and compared to clone libraries previously generated using RNA extracts from the same samples. Phylogenetic analysis of 761 DNA-based ...

  19. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the pvdA gene encoding the pyoverdin biosynthetic enzyme L-ornithine N5-oxygenase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Visca, P; Ciervo, A; Orsi, N

    1994-01-01

    The enzyme L-ornithine N5-oxygenase catalyzes the hydroxylation of L-ornithine (L-Orn), which represents an early step in the biosynthesis of the peptidic moiety of the fluorescent siderophore pyoverdin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A gene bank of DNA from P. aeruginosa PAO1 (ATCC 15692) was constructed in the broad-host-range cosmid pLAFR3 and mobilized into the L-Orn N5-oxygenase-defective (pvdA) P. aeruginosa mutant PALS124. Screening for fluorescent transconjugants made it possible to identify the trans-complementing cosmid pPV4, which was able to restore pyoverdin synthesis and L-Orn N5-oxygenase activity in the pvdA mutant PALS124. The 17-kb PAO1 DNA insert of pPV4 contained at least two genetic determinants involved in pyoverdin synthesis, i.e., pvdA and pvdC4, as shown by complementation analysis of a set of mutants blocked in different steps of the pyoverdin biosynthetic pathway. Deletion analysis, subcloning, and transposon mutagenesis enabled us to locate the pvdA gene in a minimum DNA fragment of 1.7 kb flanked by two SphI restriction sites. Complementation of the pvdA mutation was under stringent iron control; both pyoverdin synthesis and L-Orn N5-oxygenase activity were undetectable in cells of the trans-complemented mutant which had been grown in the presence of 100 microM FeCl3. The entire nucleotide sequence of the pvdA gene, from which the primary structure of the encoded polypeptide was deduced, was determined. The pvdA structural gene is 1,278 bp; the cloned DNA fragment contains at the 5' end of the gene a putative ribosome-binding site but apparently lacks known promoterlike sequences. The P. aeruginosa L-Orn N5-oxygenase gene codes for a 426-amino-acid peptide with a predicted molecular mass of 47.7 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.1. The enzyme shows approximately 50% homology with functional analogs, i.e., L-lysine N6-hydroxylase of aerobactin-producing Escherichia coli and L-Orn N5-oxygenase of ferrichrome-producing Ustilago maydis. The pvd

  20. Genome Sequence of a Clinical Strain of Acinetobacter baumannii Belonging to the ST79/PFGE-HUI-1 Clone Lacking the AdeABC (Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division-Type) Efflux Pump.

    PubMed

    López, M; Álvarez-Fraga, L; Gato, E; Blasco, L; Poza, M; Fernández-García, L; Bou, G; Tomás, M

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression of chromosomal genes for resistance-nodulation-cell division-type efflux systems plays a major role in the multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii Little is known about the genetic characteristics of clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii lacking the AdeABC pump. In this study, we sequenced the genome of clinical strain Ab421 GEIH-2010 (belonging to clone ST79/PFGE-HUI-1 from the GEIH-REIPI Ab. 2010 project) which lacks this efflux pump. PMID:27609928

  1. A New Thermoactive Pullulanase from Desulfurococcus mucosus: Cloning, Sequencing, Purification, and Characterization of the Recombinant Enzyme after Expression in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Duffner, Fiona; Bertoldo, Costanzo; Andersen, Jens T.; Wagner, Karen; Antranikian, Garabed

    2000-01-01

    The gene encoding a thermoactive pullulanase from the hyperthermophilic anaerobic archaeon Desulfurococcus mucosus (apuA) was cloned in Escherichia coli and sequenced. apuA from D. mucosus showed 45.4% pairwise amino acid identity with the pullulanase from Thermococcus aggregans and contained the four regions conserved among all amylolytic enzymes. apuA encodes a protein of 686 amino acids with a 28-residue signal peptide and has a predicted mass of 74 kDa after signal cleavage. The apuA gene was then expressed in Bacillus subtilis and secreted into the culture fluid. This is one of the first reports on the successful expression and purification of an archaeal amylopullulanase in a Bacillus strain. The purified recombinant enzyme (rapuDm) is composed of two subunits, each having an estimated molecular mass of 66 kDa. Optimal activity was measured at 85°C within a broad pH range from 3.5 to 8.5, with an optimum at pH 5.0. Divalent cations have no influence on the stability or activity of the enzyme. RapuDm was stable at 80°C for 4 h and exhibited a half-life of 50 min at 85°C. By high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis it was observed that rapuDm hydrolyzed α-1,6 glycosidic linkages of pullulan, producing maltotriose, and also α-1,4 glycosidic linkages in starch, amylose, amylopectin, and cyclodextrins, with maltotriose and maltose as the main products. Since the thermoactive pullulanases known so far from Archaea are not active on cyclodextrins and are in fact inhibited by these cyclic oligosaccharides, the enzyme from D. mucosus should be considered an archaeal pullulanase type II with a wider substrate specificity. PMID:11053376

  2. Highly Stable l-Lysine 6-Dehydrogenase from the Thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus Isolated from a Japanese Hot Spring: Characterization, Gene Cloning and Sequencing, and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Mojgan; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Nunoura-Kominato, Naoki; Sakuraba, Haruhiko

    2004-01-01

    l-Lysine dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of l-lysine in the presence of NAD, was found in the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus UTB 1103 and then purified about 3,040-fold from a crude extract of the organism by using four successive column chromatography steps. This is the first report showing the presence of a thermophilic NAD-dependent lysine dehydrogenase. The product of the enzyme catalytic activity was determined to be Δ1-piperideine-6-carboxylate, indicating that the enzyme is l-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (LysDH) (EC 1.4.1.18). The molecular mass of the purified protein was about 260 kDa, and the molecule was determined to be a homohexamer with subunit molecular mass of about 43 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the catalytic activity of the enzyme were about 10.1 and 70°C, respectively. No activity was lost at temperatures up to 65°C in the presence of 5 mM l-lysine. The enzyme was relatively selective for l-lysine as the electron donor, and either NAD or NADP could serve as the electron acceptor (NADP exhibited about 22% of the activity of NAD). The Km values for l-lysine, NAD, and NADP at 50°C and pH 10.0 were 0.73, 0.088, and 0.48 mM, respectively. When the gene encoding this LysDH was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, a crude extract of the recombinant cells had about 800-fold-higher enzyme activity than the extract of G. stearothermophilus. The nucleotide sequence of the LysDH gene encoded a peptide containing 385 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 42,239 Da. PMID:14766574

  3. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of isopropylbenzene degradation genes from Pseudomonas sp. strain JR1: identification of isopropylbenzene dioxygenase that mediates trichloroethene oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pflugmacher, U; Averhoff, B; Gottschalk, G

    1996-11-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain JR1, recently isolated with isopropylbenzene (IPB) as the inducer substrate for trichloroethene (TCE) oxidation (B. Dabrock, J. Riedel, J. Bertram, and G. Gottschalk, Arch. Microbiol 158:9-13, 1992), is able to degrade IPB via the meta-cleavage pathway. The genes encoding the first three enzymes in the catabolism of isopropylbenzene were isolated from a genomic library with the broad-host-range cosmid vector pWE15. A 7.6-kb fragment from a 37.7-kb primary cosmid clone was subcloned and sequenced. It contained seven complete open reading frames, designated ipbA1A2orf3A3A4BC. ipbA codes for the three subunits of a multicomponent IPB dioxygenase, ipbB codes for 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxy-IPB dehydrogenase, and ipbC codes for 3-isopropylcatechol 2,3-dioxygenase. The deduced amino acid sequences of ipbA1A2A3A4BC exhibited the highest homologies with the corresponding proteins of biphenyl-degradative pathways in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The gene products of the ipb genes were identified by an in vitro transcription-translation system on the basis of their expected molecular masses. IPB dioxygenase and 3-isopropylcatechol 2,3-dioxygenase expressed in E. coli oxidized a wide range of alkyl aromatic compounds. Incubation of E. coli cells carrying ipbA1A2A3A4 with IPB and 10O2 yielded reaction products containing both atoms of molecular oxygen, which is in accordance with a dioxygenation reaction. E. coli recombinants harboring and expressing the IPB dioxygenase exhibited the ability to degrade TCE. The ipbA1A2A3A4-carrying E. coli strain required neither IPB nor isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside for induction; the rate of TCE degradation was comparable to that by fully induced Pseudomonas strain JR1. PMID:8899984

  4. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding LipL41, a surface-exposed lipoprotein of pathogenic Leptospira species.

    PubMed Central

    Shang, E S; Summers, T A; Haake, D A

    1996-01-01

    We report the cloning of the gene encoding a surface-exposed leptospiral lipoprotein, designated LipL41. In a previous study, a 41-kDa protein antigen was identified on the surface of Leptospira kirschneri (D. A. Haake, E. M. Walker, D. R. Blanco, C. A. Bolin, J. N. Miller, and M. A. Lovett, Infect. Immun. 59:1131-1140, 1991). We obtained the N-terminal amino acid sequence of a staphylococcal V8 proteolytic-digest fragment in order to design an oligonucleotide probe.A Lambda ZAP II library containing EcoRI fragments of L. kirschneri DNA was screened, and a 2.3-kb DNA fragment which contained the entire structural lipL41 gene was identified. The deduced amino acid sequence of LipL41 would encode a 355-amino-acid polypeptide with a 19-amino-acid signal peptide, followed by an L-X-Y-C lipoprotein signal peptidase cleavage site. A recombinant His6-LipL41 fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli in order to generate specific rabbit antiserum. LipL41 is solubilized by Triton X-114 extraction of L. kirschneri; phase separation results in partitioning of LipL41 exclusively into the detergent phase. At least eight proteins, including LipL41 and the other major Triton X-114 detergent phase proteins, are intrinsically labeled during incubation of L. kirschneri in media containing [3H] palmitate. Processing of LipL41 is inhibited by globomycin, a selective inhibitor of lipoprotein signal peptidase. Triton X-100 extracts of L. kirschneri contain immunoprecipitable OmpL1 (porin), LipL41, and another lipoprotein, LipL36. However, in contrast to LipL36, only LipL41 and OmpL1 were exposed on the surface of intact organisms. Immunoblot analysis of a panel of Leptospira species reveals that LipL41 expression is highly conserved among leptospiral pathogens. PMID:8675344

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) Isolates from Japan Reveals Emergence of CTX-M-14-Producing EAEC O25:H4 Clones Related to Sequence Type 131.

    PubMed

    Imuta, Naoko; Ooka, Tadasuke; Seto, Kazuko; Kawahara, Ryuji; Koriyama, Toyoyasu; Kojyo, Tsuyoshi; Iguchi, Atsushi; Tokuda, Koichi; Kawamura, Hideki; Yoshiie, Kiyotaka; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Nishi, Junichiro

    2016-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes acute or persistent diarrhea. The aggR gene is widely used as a marker for typical EAEC. The heterogeneity of EAEC is well known; however, there are few reports on the phylogenetic relationships of EAEC. Recently, CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing EAEC strains have been reported worldwide. To characterize EAEC strains in Japan, we investigated the population structure of EAEC. A total of 167 aggR-positive strains isolated from stool specimens from diarrheal patients in Kagoshima (139 strains) and Osaka (28 strains), Japan, between 1992 and 2010 were examined for the prevalence of EAEC virulence markers, the blaCTX-M gene, and the capacity to form biofilms. Multilocus sequence typing was also conducted. EAEC strains were widely distributed across four major E. coli phylogroups. Strains of O111:H21/clonal group 40 (CG40) (30 strains), O126:H27/CG200 (13 strains), and O86a:H27/CG3570 (11 strains) in phylogroup B1 are the historical EAEC clones in Japan, and they exhibited strong biofilm formation. Twenty-nine strains of EAEC O25:H4/CG131 were identified in phylogroup B2, 79% of which produced CTX-M-14. This clone has emerged since 2003. The clone harbored plasmid-encoded EAEC virulence genes but not chromosomal virulence genes and had lower biofilm-forming capacity than historical EAEC strains. This clone most likely emerged from a pandemic uropathogenic O25:H4/sequence type 131 clone by acquiring an EAEC virulence plasmid from canonical EAEC. Surveillance of the horizontal transfer of both virulence and ESBL genes among E. coli strains is important for preventing a worldwide increase in antimicrobial drug resistance. PMID:27252465

  6. Genetic engineering and improvement of a Zymomonas mobilis for arabinose utilization and its performance on pretreated corn stover hydrolyzate

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chou, Yat -Chen; Linger, Jeffrey; Yang, Shihui; Zhang, Min

    2015-04-28

    In this paper, a glucose, xylose and arabinose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis strain was constructed by incorporating arabinose catabolic pathway genes, araBAD encoding L-ribulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase and L-ribulose-5-phosphate- 4-epimerase in a glucose, xylose co-fermenting host, 8b, using a transposition integration approach. Further improvement on this arabinose-capable integrant, 33C was achieved by applying a second transposition to create a genomic knockout (KO) mutant library. Using arabinose as a sole carbon source and a selection pressure, the KO library was subjected to a growth-enrichment process involving continuous sub-culturing for over 120 generations. Strain 13-1-17, isolated from such process demonstrated significant improvement in metabolizingmore » arabinose in a dilute acid pretreated, saccharified corn stover slurry. Through Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis, integration sites of the transposons were identified. Furthermore, multiple additional point mutations (SNPs: Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) were discovered in 13-1-17, affecting genes araB and RpiB in the genome. Finally, we speculate that these mutations may have impacted the expression of the enzymes coded by these genes, ribulokinase and Ribose 5-P-isomerase, thus attributing to the improvement of the arabinose utilization.« less

  7. Discovery and characterization of a xylose reductase from Zymomonas mobilis ZM4.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Manoj; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2011-11-01

    Formation of xylitol, a byproduct from xylose fermentation, is a major limiting factor in ethanol production from xylose in engineered Zymomonas strains, yet the postulated xylose reductase remains elusive. We report here the discovery of xylose reductase in Zymomonas mobilis and, for the first time, to associate the enzyme function with its gene. Besides xylose and xylulose, the enzyme was active towards benzaldehyde, furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, and acetaldehyde, exhibiting nearly 150-times higher affinity with benzaldehyde than xylose. The discovery of xylose reductase paves the way for further improvement of xylose fermentation in Z. mobilis. The enzyme may also be used to mitigate toxicity of furfural and other inhibitors from plant biomass. PMID:21720846

  8. Fermentation of molasses by Zymomonas mobilis: effects of temperature and sugar concentration on ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Cazetta, M L; Celligoi, M A P C; Buzato, J B; Scarmino, I S

    2007-11-01

    Fermentations utilizing strains of Zymomonas mobilis, in place of the traditional yeasts, have been proposed due their ethanol yields being close to theoretical. Ethanol production from sugar cane molasses was analyzed under different culture conditions using Z. mobilis in batch fermentation. The total reducing sugars (TRS) concentrations in the molasses, temperature, agitation and culture time effects were studied simultaneously through factorial design. The best conditions for ethanol production were 200 g L(-1) of total reducing sugars in the molasses, temperature of 30 degrees C and static culture and time of fermentation of 48 h, achieving 55.8 g L(-1). The pH of the medium was kept constant during the experiments, showing that molasses presents a buffering effect. PMID:17420121

  9. Ethanol production from an industrial feedstock by immobilized Zymomonas mobilis in a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-05-01

    The utilization of a continuous system to ferment glucose to ethanol offers considerable advantages over the traditional batch technology. The combination of high cell loading and rapid flow rate allows the use of nonsterile feed because free contaminants will be washed out of the system. Operation of a columnar reactor filled with the biocatalyst beads as a fluidized - bed reactor will minimize mass transfer resistances and channeling and allow improved disengagement of the gas product, CO/sub 2/. Zymomonas mobilis has been sown to have a higher specific conversion rate and to be more efficient at ethanol fermentation than the conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The response of Z. mobilis to typical unrefined industrial feedstocks, particularly the supplemental nutrients, was unknown and might be a stumbling block to commercialization. Z. mobilix, immobilized in kappa-carrageenan beads has been shown in our laboratory to assimilate and to convert industrial feedstocks as well as the laboratory medium. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Neutral red-mediated microbial electrosynthesis by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Timothy D; Mohamed, Abdelrhman; Tran, Vi N; Biria, Saeid; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of electrosynthesis on different bacterial species. The effects of neutral red-mediated electrosynthesis on the metabolite profiles of three microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Zymomonas mobilis, were measured and compared and contrasted. A statistically comprehensive analysis of neutral red-mediated electrosynthesis is presented using the analysis of end-product profiles, current delivered, and changes in cellular protein expr