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1

Knowledge Transfer among Projects Using a Learn-Forget Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of learning in a project-driven organization and demonstrate analytically how the learning, which takes place during the execution of successive projects, and the forgetting that takes place during the dormant time between the project executions, can impact performance and productivity in…

Tukel, Oya I.; Rom, Walter O.; Kremic, Tibor

2008-01-01

2

Challenges in Mentoring Software Development Projects in the High School: Analysis According to Shulman's Teacher Knowledge Base Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on challenges in mentoring software development projects in the high school and analyzes difficulties encountered by Computer Science teachers in the mentoring process according to Shulman's Teacher Knowledge Base Model. The main difficulties that emerged from the data analysis belong to the following knowledge sources of…

Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Hazzan, Orit

2009-01-01

3

Knowledge Practices Laboratory Integrated Project  

E-print Network

27490 KP-LAB Knowledge Practices Laboratory Integrated Project Information Society Technologies DII of the project (M37-M48). These are as follows: KPE: Shared Space Views and Common, Support and Optional Tools.03.2010 Start date of project: 1.2.2006 Duration: 60 Months Organisation name of the lead contractor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

Knowledge management in projects: insights from two perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article focuses on how managerial options in relation to development and sharing of knowledge in projects can be extended by analysing project management from two different, but complementary, knowledge management perspectives: an artefact-oriented and a process- oriented perspective. Further, the article examines how a similar project management model is used in two different organisations and how its role in

Karina Skovvang Christensen; Per Nikolaj Bukh

2009-01-01

5

High School Students' Modeling Knowledge High School Students' Modeling Knowledge  

E-print Network

High School Students' Modeling Knowledge High School Students' Modeling Knowledge David Fortus of the authors. #12;High School Students' Modeling Knowledge Abstract Modeling is a core scientific practice. This study probed the modeling knowledge of high school students who had not any explicit exposure

6

Enhancing Knowledge Integration: An Information System Capstone Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This database project focuses on learning through knowledge integration; i.e., sharing and applying specialized (database) knowledge within a group, and combining it with other business knowledge to create new knowledge. Specifically, the Tiny Tots, Inc. project described below requires students to design, build, and instantiate a database system…

Steiger, David M.

2009-01-01

7

Knowledge Interdependence with the Partner, Accuracy of Mutual Knowledge Model and Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is part of a project aiming at empirically investigating the process of modeling the partner's knowledge (Mutual Knowledge Modeling or MKM) in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) settings. In this study, a macro-collaborative script was used to produce knowledge interdependence (KI) among co-learners by providing…

Molinari, Gaelle; Sangin, Mirweis; Dillenbourg, Pierre; Nussli, Marc-Antoine

2009-01-01

8

The DARPA High-Performance Knowledge Bases Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We address the experiences of the DARPA High Performance Knowledge,Bases (HPKB) (Cohen et al., 1998) project in practical knowledge,representation. The purpose of the HPKB project was to develop new techniques for rapid development,of knowledge bases. The goal of this paper is to describe several technical issues that arose in creation of

Paul R. Cohen; Robert Schrag; Eric K. Jones; Adam Pease; Albert Lin; Barbara Starr; David Gunning; Murray Burke

1998-01-01

9

Agent-Based Knowledge Discovery for Modeling & Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes extending the automated discovery mechanism of the Knowledge Encapsulation Framework (KEF) through the use of agent technology. KEF is a suite of tools to enable the linking of knowledge inputs (relevant, domain-specific evidence) to modeling and simulation projects, as well as other domains that require an effective collaborative workspace for knowledge-based tasks. This framework can be used

Jereme N. Haack; Andrew J. Cowell; Eric J. Marshall; Keith Fligg; Michelle L. Gregory; Liam R. McGrath

2009-01-01

10

Knowledge Encapsulation Framework for Collaborative Social Modeling  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Knowledge Encapsulation Framework (KEF), a suite of tools to enable knowledge inputs (relevant, domain-specific facts) to modeling and simulation projects, as well as other domains that require effective collaborative workspaces for knowledge-based task. This framework can be used to capture evidence (e.g., trusted material such as journal articles and government reports), discover new evidence (covering both trusted and social media), enable discussions surrounding domain-specific topics and provide automatically generated semantic annotations for improved corpus investigation. The current KEF implementation is presented within a wiki environment, providing a simple but powerful collaborative space for team members to review, annotate, discuss and align evidence with their modeling frameworks. The novelty in this approach lies in the combination of automatically tagged and user-vetted resources, which increases user trust in the environment, leading to ease of adoption for the collaborative environment.

Cowell, Andrew J.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Marshall, Eric J.; McGrath, Liam R.

2009-03-24

11

Articulation and Sharing of Distributed Design Project and Process Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper reports on the work in the case study of the ACTIVE project on the use of the combination of knowledge process learning,\\u000a articulation and sharing technologies for increasing the performance and decreasing the ramp-up efforts in engineering design\\u000a projects. This knowledge is mined from distributed heterogeneous datasets, fused, and further used for visualizing design\\u000a project plan information in

Vadim Ermolayev; Frank Dengler; Eyck Jentzsch; Wolf-Ekkehard Matzke

12

Developing Soft Skills to Manage User Expectations in IT Projects: Knowledge Reuse among IT Project Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores information technology (IT) project managers' reuse of knowledge associated with soft skills when managing user expectations. Through interviews with IT project managers, several themes emerged: novelty of problems, conditions within the organization, types of available knowledge, and methods for reusing knowledge. Within this study, we discovered the need for additional research on how social norms and organizational

Stacie Petter; Adriane B. Randolph

2009-01-01

13

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 10: The NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge DIffusion Research Project in helping to maintain U.S. competitiveness is addressed. The phases of the project are examined in terms of the focus, emphasis, subjects, methods, and desired outcomes. The importance of the project to aerospace R&D is emphasized.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

1991-01-01

14

Reflection on Knowledge Sharing in F\\/OSS Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge sharing between software project participants simplifies a range of decision-making processes and helps improve\\u000a the way software is being developed, distributed, and supported. However, research in this area has traditionally been very\\u000a difficult because the source of knowledge, the code, has been a guarded secret and software developers and users inhabit different\\u000a worlds. F\\/OSS projects have changed the way

Sulayman K. Sowe; Ioannis Stamelos

2008-01-01

15

Modeling Research Project Risks with Fuzzy Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors propose a risks evaluation model for research projects. The model is based on fuzzy inference. The knowledge base for fuzzy process is built with a causal and cognitive map of risks. The map was especially developed for research projects, taken into account their typical lifecycle. The model was applied to an e-testing research…

Bodea, Constanta Nicoleta; Dascalu, Mariana Iuliana

2009-01-01

16

Upper Modeling: organizing knowledge for natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general, reusable computational resource has been de- veloped within the Penman text generation project for organizing domain knowledge appropriately for linguis- tic realization. This resource, called the upper model, provides a domain- and task-independent classification system' that supports sophisticated natural language processing while significantly simplifying the interface between domain-specific knowledge and general linguis- tic resources. This paper presents the

John A. Bateman

1990-01-01

17

VHBuild.com: A Web-Based System for Managing Knowledge in Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an intelligent Web-based construction project management system called VHBuild.com which integrates project management, knowledge management, and artificial intelligence technologies. Highlights include an information flow model; time-cost optimization based on genetic algorithms; rule-based drawing interpretation; and a case-based…

Li, Heng; Tang, Sandy; Man, K. F.; Love, Peter E. D.

2002-01-01

18

Ontological Modelling of Surgical Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Assisted Surgery seeks data from various sources related to surgical knowledge, which is mostly represented in the form of discrete databases. However, databases serve as data storage mechanism rather than knowledge representation system. As CAS is becoming more common for various types of surgical interventions, there is a need for representation, storage and processing of surgical knowledge in a

Raj Mudunuri; Oliver Burgert; Thomas Neumuth

2009-01-01

19

Modeling children's early grammatical knowledge.  

PubMed

Theories of grammatical development differ in how much abstract knowledge they attribute to young children. Here, we report a series of experiments using a computational model to evaluate the explanatory power of child grammars based not on abstract rules but on concrete words and phrases and some local abstractions associated with these words and phrases. We use a Bayesian procedure to extract such item-based grammars from transcriptions of 28+ h of each of two children's speech at 2 and 3 years of age. We then use these grammars to parse all of the unique multiword utterances from transcriptions of separate recordings of these same children at each of the two ages. We found that at 2 years of age such a model had good coverage and predictive fit, with the children showing radically limited productivity. Furthermore, adding expert-annotated parts of speech to the induction procedure had little effect on coverage, with the exception of the category of noun. At age 3, the children's productivity sharply increased and the addition of a verb and a noun category markedly improved the model's performance. PMID:19805057

Bannard, Colin; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2009-10-13

20

Technologies, Products, and Models Supporting Knowledge Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a taxonomy of knowledge management processes, provides a synopsis of technologies and vendors that support knowledge management. Proposes a model for classifying the various types of technologies related to knowledge management that are most often used in institutional research. (EV)

Luan, Jing; Serban, Andreea M.

2002-01-01

21

Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teachers' knowledge and application of model play an important role in students' development of modeling ability and scientific literacy. In this study, we investigated Chinese chemistry teachers' knowledge and application of models. Data were collected through test questionnaire and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The result indicated as follows: (1) Chemistry teachers' knowledge of some known chemistry models was limited; (2) Chemistry teachers preferred those models that were vivid when they chose models; (3) Teachers' modeling process was incomplete; (4) Teachers adopted a general pattern when applying models in chemistry teaching. The findings have implications for teacher education.

Wang, Zuhao; Chi, Shaohui; Hu, Kaiyan; Chen, Wenting

2014-04-01

22

Image-based 3D modeling for the knowledge and the representation of archaeological dig and pottery: Sant'Omobono and Sarno project's strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a "standard" method that is being developed by ARESlab of Rome's La Sapienza University for the documentation and the representation of the archaeological artifacts and structures through automatic photogrammetry software. The image-based 3D modeling technique was applied in two projects: in Sarno and in Rome. The first is a small city in Campania region along Via Popilia, known as the ancient way from Capua to Rhegion. The interest in this city is based on the recovery of over 2100 tombs from local necropolis that contained more than 100.000 artifacts collected in "Museo Nazionale Archeologico della Valle del Sarno". In Rome the project regards the archaeological area of Insula Volusiana placed in Forum Boarium close to Sant'Omobono sacred area. During the studies photographs were taken by Canon EOS 5D Mark II and Canon EOS 600D cameras. 3D model and meshes were created in Photoscan software. The TOF-CW Z+F IMAGER® 5006h laser scanner is used to dense data collection of archaeological area of Rome and to make a metric comparison between range-based and image-based techniques. In these projects the IBM as a low-cost technique proved to be a high accuracy improvement if planned correctly and it shown also how it helps to obtain a relief of complex strata and architectures compared to traditional manual documentation methods (e.g. two-dimensional drawings). The multidimensional recording can be used for future studies of the archaeological heritage, especially for the "destructive" character of an excavation. The presented methodology is suitable for the 3D registration and the accuracy of the methodology improved also the scientific value.

Gianolio, S.; Mermati, F.; Genovese, G.

2014-06-01

23

Project LINK: ``A Live and Interactive Network of Knowledge"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project LINK (A Live and Interactive Network of Knowledge), a collaboration among Eureka Scientific, Inc., the Exploratorium, and NASA/Ames Research Center will demonstrate video-conferencing capabilities from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) to the San Francisco Exploratorium in the context of science education outreach to K--12 teachers and students. The project is intended to pilot-test strategies for facilitating the live interface between scientists aboard the KAO and K-12 teachers and students through the resources and technical expertise available at science museums and private industry. The interface will be based on Internet/CuSeeMe videoconferencing capabilities which will allow teachers and students at the Exploratorium to collaborate in a live and interactive manner with teachers and scientists aboard the KAO. The teacher teams chosen for the on-board experiments represent rural and urban school districts in California. The teachers will interface with colleagues as part of the NASA-Funded Project FOSTER (Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment). Our project will serve to demonstrate live interface capabilities in preparation for the ``Live from the Stratosphere" Project. Teachers from Project LINK will participate on two flights aboard the KAO during the Summer of 1995. Lesson plans, classroom activities, project description and lessons learned will be disseminated through the World Wide Web. Project LINK is made possible by a grant from NASA to Eureka Scientific, Inc.

Hawkins, I.; Welsh, B.

1995-05-01

24

Model Docking Using Knowledge-Level Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an initial approach for exploring the docking of social models at the knowledge level. We have prototyped a simple blackboard environment allowing for model docking experimentation. There are research challenges in identifying which models are appropriate to dock and the concepts that they should exchange to build a richer multi-scale view of the world. Our early approach includes docking of societal system dynamics models with individual and organizational behaviors represented in agent-based models. Case-based models allow exploration of historical knowledge by other models. Our research presents initial efforts to attain opportunistic, asynchronous interactions among multi-scale models through investigation and experimentation of knowledge-level model docking. A docked system can supply a multi-scale modeling capability to support a user's what-if analysis through combinations of case-based modeling, system dynamics approaches and agent-based models working together. An example is provided for the domain of terrorist recruiting.

Trewhitt, Ethan; Whitaker, Elizabeth; Briscoe, Erica; Weiss, Lora

25

Protocol for a qualitative study of knowledge translation in a participatory research project  

PubMed Central

Introduction In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. The purpose of this article is to describe a methodological design for investigating how KTs come about in participatory research. Methods and analysis The article presents an ethnographic study which investigates meetings between participants in a participatory research project. The participants are researchers and primary healthcare clinicians. Data are collected through observation, interviews and document studies. The material is analysed using the analytical concepts of knowledge objects, knowledge forms and knowledge positions. These concepts represent an analytical framework enabling us to observe knowledge and how it is translated between participants. The main expected outcome of our study is to develop a typology of KT practices relevant to participatory research. Ethics and dissemination The project has been evaluated and approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Informed consent was obtained for all participants. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations. PMID:23959758

Lillehagen, Ida; Vøllestad, Nina; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

2013-01-01

26

Scientific knowledge and attitude change: The impact of a citizen science project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the evaluation of an informal science education project, The Birdhouse Network (TBN) of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. The Elaboration Likelihood Model and the theory of Experiential Education were used as frameworks to analyse the impact of TBN on participants' attitudes toward science and the environment, on their knowledge of bird biology, and on their understanding of

Dominique Brossard; Bruce Lewenstein; Rick Bonney

2005-01-01

27

Abstract--In the Structuring Nanotechnology Knowledge project, a material-independent platform for supporting  

E-print Network

Abstract--In the Structuring Nanotechnology Knowledge project, a material-independent platform management, nanotechnology, semantic web I. INTRODUCTION The research of nanotechnology is extended fertilization. In this background, the Structuring Nanotechnology Knowledge project, which is a NEDO (Japanese

Mizoguchi, Riichiro

28

Knowledge representation to support reasoning based on multiple models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model Based Reasoning is a powerful tool used to design and analyze systems, which are often composed of numerous interactive, interrelated subsystems. Models of the subsystems are written independently and may be used together while they are still under development. Thus the models are not static. They evolve as information becomes obsolete, as improved artifact descriptions are developed, and as system capabilities change. Researchers are using three methods to support knowledge/data base growth, to track the model evolution, and to handle knowledge from diverse domains. First, the representation methodology is based on having pools, or types, of knowledge from which each model is constructed. In addition information is explicit. This includes the interactions between components, the description of the artifact structure, and the constraints and limitations of the models. The third principle we have followed is the separation of the data and knowledge from the inferencing and equation solving mechanisms. This methodology is used in two distinct knowledge-based systems: one for the design of space systems and another for the synthesis of VLSI circuits. It has facilitated the growth and evolution of our models, made accountability of results explicit, and provided credibility for the user community. These capabilities have been implemented and are being used in actual design projects.

Gillam, April; Seidel, Jorge P.; Parker, Alice C.

1990-01-01

29

Modelling of Analytical Function in the Financial Knowledge Discovery Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective of this work is to explain the modelling concept of analytical function in the financial knowledge discovery model. This new simulation model of analytical function is devel- oped for a financial knowledge discovery process that is used for the Corporate Criminal Intelli- gence Analysis (CCIA, in short). Model was developed for the CCIA work of the whole analytical part

Vladimir Simovic; Zlatko Golubic; Savo Vojnovic

2001-01-01

30

The TOKEn project: knowledge synthesis for in silico science  

PubMed Central

Objective The conduct of investigational studies that involve large-scale data sets presents significant challenges related to the discovery and testing of novel hypotheses capable of supporting in silico discovery science. The use of what are known as Conceptual Knowledge Discovery in Databases (CKDD) methods provides a potential means of scaling hypothesis discovery and testing approaches for large data sets. Such methods enable the high-throughput generation and evaluation of knowledge-anchored relationships between complexes of variables found in targeted data sets. Methods The authors have conducted a multipart model formulation and validation process, focusing on the development of a methodological and technical approach to using CKDD to support hypothesis discovery for in silico science. The model the authors have developed is known as the Translational Ontology-anchored Knowledge Discovery Engine (TOKEn). This model utilizes a specific CKDD approach known as Constructive Induction to identify and prioritize potential hypotheses related to the meaningful semantic relationships between variables found in large-scale and heterogeneous biomedical data sets. Results The authors have verified and validated TOKEn in the context of a translational research data repository maintained by the NCI-funded Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research Consortium. Such studies have shown that TOKEn is: (1) computationally tractable; and (2) able to generate valid and potentially useful hypotheses concerning relationships between phenotypic and biomolecular variables in that data collection. Conclusions The TOKEn model represents a potentially useful and systematic approach to knowledge synthesis for in silico discovery science in the context of large-scale and multidimensional research data sets. PMID:21984589

Borlawsky, Tara B; Lele, Omkar; James, Stephen; Greaves, Andrew W

2011-01-01

31

Scientific knowledge and attitude change: The impact of a citizen science project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the evaluation of an informal science education project, The Birdhouse Network (TBN) of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. The Elaboration Likelihood Model and the theory of Experiential Education were used as frameworks to analyse the impact of TBN on participants’ attitudes toward science and the environment, on their knowledge of bird biology, and on their understanding of the scientific process. The project had an impact on participants’ knowledge of bird biology. No statistically significant change in participants’ attitudes toward science or the environment, or in participants’ understanding of the scientific process, could be detected. The results suggest that projects must make explicit to participants the issues that they are experiencing. In addition, the results suggest that more sensitive measures need to be designed to assess attitude change among environmentally aware citizens.

Brossard, Dominique; Lewenstein, Bruce; Bonney, Rick

2005-09-01

32

A multivalued knowledge-base model  

E-print Network

The basic aim of our study is to give a possible model for handling uncertain information. This model is worked out in the framework of DATALOG. At first the concept of fuzzy Datalog will be summarized, then its extensions for intuitionistic- and interval-valued fuzzy logic is given and the concept of bipolar fuzzy Datalog is introduced. Based on these ideas the concept of multivalued knowledge-base will be defined as a quadruple of any background knowledge; a deduction mechanism; a connecting algorithm, and a function set of the program, which help us to determine the uncertainty levels of the results. At last a possible evaluation strategy is given.

Achs, Agnes

2010-01-01

33

A knowledge model for software fault tolerance  

SciTech Connect

In this dissertation, a knowledge-based model is presented to deal with the software fault tolerance for a finite state machine (FSM) based system. The inference rules stored in the knowledge base are derived from the process requirements and specifications which are described by the Specification and Description Language (SDL), a CCITT recommendation standard. To supplement insufficient facts of the inference rules, a set of inference axioms is added into the knowledge base. The inference axiom is derived from heuristic and empirical knowledge of and expert. They are simple in nature and can be incrementally added by the experts to the knowledge base. In addition to the inference rules, the author also presents an effective fault recovery algorithm to recover the process from all possible software faults. Some theoretical support of the fault recovery scheme is presented too. Finally, to better understand the performance of the mode, the author implements an experimental system and perform a simulation on it. The performance of the model is measured by serviceability and recoverability. The serviceability shown from the result of the simulation is 60% improvement in average and the recoverability (67.2%) obtained from the simulation is comparable to that previously reported on another fault tolerant system. All of these have been shown to be quite satisfactory.

Hsueh, J.C.C.

1989-01-01

34

Prediction Markets Partition model of knowledge  

E-print Network

Prediction Markets Partition model of knowledge Distributed information markets Convergence time bounds Computational Aspects of Prediction Markets David M. Pennock and Rahul Sami December 5, 2012 Presented by: Rami Eitan David M. Pennock and Rahul Sami Computational Aspects of Prediction Markets #12

Fiat, Amos

35

A Knowledge Collaboration Network Model across Disciplines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a theoretical framework for the optimal collaboration among researchers in a knowledge network in which researchers are not limited to a single discipline and in which multiple modes of communication, including communication via the Internet, are available. We introduce a novel concept of distance to measure not only the communication distance but also the distance between disciplines. We formulate the knowledge network collaboration model as a variational inequality problem whose solution yields the optimal allocation of effort/time of the researchers as well as the associated opportunity costs.

Nagurney, Anna; Qiang, Qiang

36

LINKING HOME AND SCHOOL MATHEMATICS: THE HOME SCHOOL KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGE PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report some initial findings from the numeracy strand of the Home School Knowledge Exchange Project, which is part of the ESRC Teaching and Learning Research Programme. The overall aim of the project is to develop, implement and evaluate the impact of new methods of exchanging knowledge between home and school. The project has three strands, one

Jan Winter; Leida Salway; Wan Ching Yee; Martin Hughes

2004-01-01

37

Leveraging First Response Time into the Knowledge Tracing Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of educational data mining has been using the Knowledge Tracing model, which only look at the correctness of student first response, for tracking student knowledge. Recently, lots of other features are studied to extend the Knowledge Tracing model to better model student knowledge. The goal of this paper is to analyze whether or not the…

Wang, Yutao; Heffernan, Neil T.

2012-01-01

38

Knowledge Community: A Knowledge-Building System for Global Collaborative Project Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wave of a knowledge economy drives today's education to equip students with knowledge building abilities. While collaborative learning has been proven to be an effective constructivist pedagogy, it is difficult to elicit, coordinate, and capture the corresponding knowledge construction process. The situation becomes more challenging when learning is conducted in a distributed environment in which the participants are scattered

Christopher Tan; Yuen-Yan Chan

2008-01-01

39

World Knowledge in Computational Models of Discourse Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because higher level cognitive processes generally involve the use of world knowledge, computational models of these processes require the implementation of a knowledge base. This article identifies and discusses 4 strategies for dealing with world knowledge in computational models: disregarding world knowledge, "ad hoc" selection, extraction from…

Frank, Stefan L.; Koppen, Mathieu; Noordman, Leo G. M.; Vonk, Wietske

2008-01-01

40

Understanding knowledge sharing activities in free\\/open source software projects: An empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free\\/Open Source Software (F\\/OSS) projects are people-oriented and knowledge intensive software development environments. Many researchers focused on mailing lists to study coding activities of software developers. How expert software developers interact with each other and with non-developers in the use of community products have received little attention. This paper discusses the altruistic sharing of knowledge between knowledge providers and knowledge

Sulayman K. Sowe; Ioannis Stamelos; Lefteris Angelis

2008-01-01

41

Generalisation of language and knowledge models for corpus analysis  

E-print Network

This paper takes new look on language and knowledge modelling for corpus linguistics. Using ideas of Chaitin, a line of argument is made against language/knowledge separation in Natural Language Processing. A simplistic model, that generalises approaches to language and knowledge, is proposed. One of hypothetical consequences of this model is Strong AI.

Loss, Anton

2012-01-01

42

Applying knowledge compilation techniques to model-based reasoning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers in the area of knowledge compilation are developing general purpose techniques for improving the efficiency of knowledge-based systems. In this article, an attempt is made to define knowledge compilation, to characterize several classes of knowledge compilation techniques, and to illustrate how some of these techniques can be applied to improve the performance of model-based reasoning systems.

Keller, Richard M.

1991-01-01

43

Knowledge Visualization: A Comparative Study between Project Tube Maps and Gantt Charts  

E-print Network

Knowledge Visualization: A Comparative Study between Project Tube Maps and Gantt Charts Remo Aslak: This paper compares the effectiveness of the Project Tube Map and the Gantt Chart for interfunctional communication in large projects where different stakeholders are involved. Today, Gantt Charts are well known

Kent, University of

44

Velo: Riding the Knowledge Management Wave for Simulation and Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Modern scientific enterprises are inherently knowledge-intensive. In general, scientific studies in domains such as geosciences, climate, and biology require the acquisition and manipulation of large amounts of experimental and field data in order to create inputs for large-scale computational simulations. The results of these simulations must then be analyzed, leading to refinements of inputs and models and further simulations. Further, these results must be managed and archived to provide justifications for publications and regulatory decisions that are based on these models. In this paper we describe our Velo framework that is designed as a reusable, domain independent knowledge management infrastructure for modeling and simulation. Velo leverages, integrates, and extends open source collaborative and content management technologies to create a scalable and flexible core platform that can be tailored to specific scientific domains. In this paper we describe the architecture of Velo for managing and associating the various types of data that are used and created in modeling and simulation projects, as well as the framework for integrating domain-specific tools. To demonstrate a realization of Velo, we describe the Geologic Sequestration Software Suite (GS3) that has been developed to support geologic sequestration modeling. This provides a concrete example of the inherent extensibility and utility of our approach.

Gorton, Ian; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Black, Gary D.; White, Signe K.; Purohit, Sumit; Madison, Michael C.; Schuchardt, Karen L.

2011-05-28

45

Knowledge Collaboration and ProximityThe Spatial Organization of Biotech Innovation Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the role of proximity for knowledge collaboration between dedicated biotechnology firms (DBFs) and related actors. Innovation projects managed by a selection of eight Swedish DBFs are analysed in detail and classified with regard to their specific knowledge characteristics. Based on this classification, explanations to the relative importance of functional and relational proximity to collaborators are sought.The findings

Jerker Moodysson; Ola Jonsson

2007-01-01

46

Project Integration Method Based on Knowledge Set Theory in Science and Technology Project Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science and technology project management work is a management of scientific research activities with the form of project. In subjects continuously detailed and crossover fusion growing today, scientific research project extensive exchange and cooperation is an important driving force of the development of science and technology. Therefore, according to the similitude degree between science and technology projects to integrate projects

Haifeng Li

2011-01-01

47

A Compositional Knowledge Level Process Model of Requirements Engineering*  

E-print Network

1 A Compositional Knowledge Level Process Model of Requirements Engineering* Daniela E. Herlea 1,treur,niek}@cs.vu.nl Abstract. In current literature few detailed process models for Requirements Engineering are presented. In this paper the process of Requirements Engineering has been analyzed using knowledge-level modelling

Treur, Jan

48

Development of a Model for Maaging Organizational Knowledge  

SciTech Connect

We created three models to represent a comprehensive knowledge model: · Stages of Knowledge Management Model (Forrester) · Expanded Life-Cycle Information Management Model · Organizational Knowledge Management Model. In building a series of models, we started with an attempt to create a graphical model that illustrates the ideas outlined in the Forrester article (Leadership Strategies, Vol. 3, No. 2, November/December 1997). We then expanded and detailed a life-cycle model. Neither of these effectively reflected how to manage the complexities involved in weaving local, enterprise, and global information into an easily navigated resource for end users. We finally began to synthesize these ideas into an Organizational Knowledge Management Model. This model acknowledges the relevance of life-cycle management for different granularities of information collections and places it in the context of the integrating infrastructure needed to assist end users.

Ashdown, B.; Smith, K.

1999-05-05

49

[NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 7:] The NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: The DOD perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project will provide descriptive and analytical data regarding the flow of STI at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. It will examine both the channels used to communicate information and the social system of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Results of the project should provide useful information to R and D managers, information managers, and others concerned with improving access to and use of STI. Objectives include: (1) understanding the aerospace knowledge diffusion process at the individual, organizational, and national levels, placing particular emphasis on the diffusion of Federally funded aerospace STI; (2) understanding the international aerospace knowledge diffusion process at the individual and organizational levels, placing particular emphasis on the systems used to diffuse the results of Federally funded aerospace STI; (3) understanding the roles NASA/DoD technical report and aerospace librarians play in the transfer and use of knowledge derived from Federally funded aerospace R and D; (4) achieving recognition and acceptance within NASA, DoD and throughout the aerospace community that STI is a valuable strategic resource for innovation, problem solving, and productivity; and (5) providing results that can be used to optimize the effectiveness and efficiency of the Federal STI aerospace transfer system and exchange mechanism.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

1990-01-01

50

Structural Model of Metacognition and Knowledge of Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This structural equation modeling study aimed to investigate both direct and indirect relations between metacognition and geometrical knowledge. The model was tested using data from tenth grade secondary school students (N=923). It was used to estimate and test the hypothesized effects of two metacognitive constructs (knowledge of cognition and…

Aydin, Utkun; Ubuz, Behiye

2010-01-01

51

An Empirical Study on Quantitative Modeling of Adversary's Knowledge  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study on Quantitative Modeling of Adversary's Knowledge Kui Xua , Danfeng (Daphne of quantitatively modeling the threat of personal data leakage. We describe a systematic approach for computing and a new experimental framework for evaluation. Researchers have studied new knowledge an adversary may

Ryder, Barbara G.

52

Detailed Clinical Models: Representing Knowledge, Data and Semantics in Healthcare Information Technology  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper will present an overview of the developmental effort in harmonizing clinical knowledge modeling using the Detailed Clinical Models (DCMs), and will explain how it can contribute to the preservation of Electronic Health Records (EHR) data. Methods Clinical knowledge modeling is vital for the management and preservation of EHR and data. Such modeling provides common data elements and terminology binding with the intention of capturing and managing clinical information over time and location independent from technology. Any EHR data exchange without an agreed clinical knowledge modeling will potentially result in loss of information. Results Many attempts exist from the past to model clinical knowledge for the benefits of semantic interoperability using standardized data representation and common terminologies. The objective of each project is similar with respect to consistent representation of clinical data, using standardized terminologies, and an overall logical approach. However, the conceptual, logical, and the technical expressions are quite different in one clinical knowledge modeling approach versus another. There currently are synergies under the Clinical Information Modeling Initiative (CIMI) in order to create a harmonized reference model for clinical knowledge models. Conclusions The goal for the CIMI is to create a reference model and formalisms based on for instance the DCM (ISO/TS 13972), among other work. A global repository of DCMs may potentially be established in the future. PMID:25152829

2014-01-01

53

Applying Project Histories and Project Learning through Knowledge Management in an Australian Construction Company  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: With the advent of information and communication technologies (ICT), some organisations have endeavoured to develop and maintain systems commonly known as project histories. This paper aims to provide a framework to the construction organisations in order to improve the learning from projects through the development and use of project

Maqsood, Tayyab; Finegan, Andrew; Walker, Derek

2006-01-01

54

The PASS project architectural model  

SciTech Connect

The PASS project has as its goal the implementation of solutions to the foreseen data access problems of the next generation of scientific experiments. The architectural model results from an evaluation of the operational and technical requirements and is described in terms of an abstract reference model, an implementation model and a discussion of some design aspects. The abstract reference model describes a system that matches the requirements in terms of its components and the mechanisms by which they communicate, but does not discuss policy or design issues that would be necessary to match the model to an actual implementation. Some of these issues are discussed, but more detailed design and simulation work will be necessary before choices can be made.

Day, C.T.; Loken, S.; Macfarlane, J.F.; Quarrie, D.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Malon, D.; May, E.; Price, L.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Cormell, L. [and others

1994-12-31

55

A new intrusion prevention model using planning knowledge graph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intelligent plan is a very important research in artificial intelligence, which has applied in network security. This paper proposes a new intrusion prevention model base on planning knowledge graph and discuses the system architecture and characteristics of this model. The Intrusion Prevention based on plan knowledge graph is completed by plan recognition based on planning knowledge graph, and the Intrusion response strategies and actions are completed by the hierarchical task network (HTN) planner in this paper. Intrusion prevention system has the advantages of intelligent planning, which has the advantage of the knowledge-sharing, the response focused, learning autonomy and protective ability.

Cai, Zengyu; Feng, Yuan; Liu, Shuru; Gan, Yong

2013-03-01

56

Spiral model pilot project information model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was an evaluation of the Spiral Model (SM) development approach to allow NASA Marshall to develop an experience base of that software management methodology. A discussion is presented of the Information Model (IM) that was used as part of the SM methodology. A key concept of the SM is the establishment of an IM to be used by management to track the progress of a project. The IM is the set of metrics that is to be measured and reported throughout the life of the project. These metrics measure both the product and the process to ensure the quality of the final delivery item and to ensure the project met programmatic guidelines. The beauty of the SM, along with the IM, is the ability to measure not only the correctness of the specification and implementation of the requirements but to also obtain a measure of customer satisfaction.

1991-01-01

57

Model for an Employee Wellness Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot project designed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a health-related employee assistance program was implemented at the University of South Carolina. One hundred interested participants were randomly selected from university faculty and administrative staff. The project utilized the following methods: 1) psychophysical tests including health risk appraisals, health knowledge levels, physical activity assessments, psychological batteries of tests,

Marybeth Love; Linda Morphis; Patricia Page

1981-01-01

58

Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

59

Gaps in Mind: Problems in Environmental Knowledge-Behaviour Modelling Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores conceptual, epistemological, methodological, and practical 'gaps' that seem to reproduce themselves in successive instantiations of this quest. Aims to help build the critical perspective that comes with problematizing the very project of knowledge-behavior modeling by identifying the positivistic residues still present in the enterprise…

Courtenay-Hall, Pamela; Rogers, Larson

2002-01-01

60

The Effect of the Green Class Model on Environmental Knowledge and Its Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of an applied environmental education project carried out using the green-class model on students' environmental knowledge and its retention. 101 7th grade students attending Nazim Akcan Primary School in the Altindag Province of Ankara participated in the study. The study was carried out in…

Uzun, Naim

2009-01-01

61

Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL and USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single, common, intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. LMMP will provide such products as DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting maps and models, gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar education and public outreach (E/PO) community, and anyone else interested in accessing or utilizing lunar data.

Noble, Sarah K.; French, Raymond; Nall,Mark; Muery, Kimberly

2009-01-01

62

Facilitating Work Based Learning Projects: A Business Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2009). Facilitating Work Based Learning Projects: A Business Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach. Presented at the 'Open workshop of TENCompetence - Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty-event'. November, 19, 2009, Manchester, United Kingdom: TENCompetence.

Yongwu Miao; Peter Sloep; Rob Koper

2009-01-01

63

The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

2014-01-01

64

Space market model development project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the research program, Space Market Model Development Project, (Phase 1) were: (1) to study the need for business information in the commercial development of space; and (2) to propose a design for an information system to meet the identified needs. Three simultaneous research strategies were used in proceeding toward this goal: (1) to describe the space business information which currently exists; (2) to survey government and business representatives on the information they would like to have; and (3) to investigate the feasibility of generating new economical information about the space industry.

Bishop, Peter C.

1987-01-01

65

Transforming teacher knowledge: Modeling instruction in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I show that the Modeling physics curriculum is readily accommodated by most teachers in favor of traditional didactic pedagogies. This is so, at least in part, because Modeling focuses on a small set of connected models embedded in a self-consistent theoretical framework and thus is closely congruent with human cognition in this context which is to generate mental models of physical phenomena as both predictive and explanatory devices. Whether a teacher fully implements the Modeling pedagogy depends on the depth of the teacher's commitment to inquiry-based instruction, specifically Modeling instruction, as a means of promoting student understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Moreover, this commitment trumps all other characteristics: teacher educational background, content coverage issues, student achievement data, district or state learning standards, and district or state student assessments. Indeed, distinctive differences exist in how Modeling teachers deliver their curricula and some teachers are measurably more effective than others in their delivery, but they all share an unshakable belief in the efficacy of inquiry-based, constructivist-oriented instruction. The Modeling Workshops' pedagogy, duration, and social interactions impacts teachers' self-identification as members of a professional community. Finally, I discuss the consequences my research may have for the Modeling Instruction program designers and for designers of professional development programs generally.

Cabot, Lloyd H.

66

In Tracking Truth I undertook a broader project than is typical today toward questions about knowledge, evidence, and scientific realism. The range of knowledge phenomena is  

E-print Network

In Tracking Truth I undertook a broader project than is typical today toward questions about knowledge, evidence, and scientific realism. The range of knowledge phenomena is much wider than the kind, but the division of labor it requires has allowed such questions to fall through the gaps between discussions

67

Transforming Teacher Knowledge: Modeling Instruction in Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Modeling physics curriculum is readily accommodated by most teachers in favor of traditional didactic pedagogies. This is so, at least in part, because Modeling focuses on a small set of connected models embedded in a self-consistent theoretical framework and thus is closely congruent with human cognition in this context which is to generate mental models of physical phenomena as both predictive and explanatory devices. Whether a teacher fully implements the Modeling pedagogy depends on the depth of the teacherâs commitment to inquiry- based instruction, specifically Modeling instruction, as a means of promoting student understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Moreover, this commitment trumps all other characteristics: teacher educational background, content coverage issues, student achievement data, district or state learning standards, and district or state student assessments. Indeed, distinctive differences exist in how Modeling teachers deliver their curricula and some teachers are measurably more effective than others in their delivery, but they all share an unshakable belief in the efficacy of inquiry-based, constructivist-oriented instruction. The Modeling Workshopsâ pedagogy, duration, and social interactions impacts teachersâ self-identification as members of a professional community.

Cabot, Nick

2010-03-11

68

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 35: The US government technical report and aerospace knowledge diffusion: Results of an on-going investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded (U.S.) R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this paper, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from two surveys (one of five studies) of our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report and close with a brief overview of on-going research into the use of the U.S. government technical report as a rhetorical device for transferring federally funded aerospace R&D.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Khan, A. Rahman; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1993-01-01

69

Evaluating knowledge benefits of automotive lightweighting materials R&D projects.  

PubMed

This paper presents a set of metrics used to evaluate short-run knowledge benefits that accrued from research and development (R&D) projects funded in fiscal years 2000-2004 by automotive lightweighting materials (ALM) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Although DOE presents to Congress energy, environmental, and security benefits and costs of its R&D efforts under the Government Performance and Results Act, DOE has yet to include knowledge benefits in that report [U.S. Department of Energy. (2007). Projected benefits of federal energy efficiency and renewable energy programs: FY2008 budget request. NREL/TP-640-41347 (March). Washington, DC: National Renewable Energy Laboratory for DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Retrieved February 12, 2007 from http://www1.eere.energy.gov/ba/pba/2008_benefits.html]. ALM focuses on development and validation of advanced technologies that significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost [U.S. Department of Energy. (2005a). Automotive lightweighting materials 2004 annual progress report. Washington, DC: DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Retrieved March 30, 2005 from http://www.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/resources/fcvt_alm_fy04.shtml]. The ultimate goal of ALM to have lightweighter materials in vehicles hinges on many issues, including the (1) collaborative nature of ALMs R&D with the automobile industry and (2) manufacturing knowledge gained through the R&D effort. The ALM projects evaluated in this paper yielded numerous knowledge benefits in the short run. While these knowledge benefits are impressive, there remains uncertainty about whether the research will lead to incorporation of lightweight materials by the Big Three automakers into their manufacturing process and introduction of lightweight vehicles into the marketplace. The uncertainty illustrates a difference between (1) knowledge benefits and (2) energy, environmental, and security benefits emanating from R&D. PMID:19414194

Peretz, Jean H; Das, Sujit; Tonn, Bruce E

2009-08-01

70

Asian Library Partnerships: Applying the Knowledge Model for Library Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standard approach adopted in library networking or partnership models is neither developmental nor evolutionary, yet development and evolution are keys to robust, contextually responsive partnerships. Using a set of knowledge models first proposed by Owen and Wiercx, this paper argues for a new approach to the modeling of networks in which…

Gorman, G. E.; Cullen, Rowena

71

A multivalued knowledge-base model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic aim of our study is to give a possible model for handling uncertain\\u000ainformation. This model is worked out in the framework of DATALOG. At first the\\u000aconcept of fuzzy Datalog will be summarized, then its extensions for\\u000aintuitionistic- and interval-valued fuzzy logic is given and the concept of\\u000abipolar fuzzy Datalog is introduced. Based on these ideas

Agnes Achs

2010-01-01

72

A Practical Project To Help Bilingual Students To Develop Their Knowledge of Science and English Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a class project that included a literature search, observation of the Hale-Bopp comet, planning and building a model solar system, and presentation of the model in class. Finds that bilingual students in the class made significant progress in their learning of concepts and the acquisition of English as a result of completing the project.…

Fouzder, Nani B.; Markwick, Andrew J. W.

1999-01-01

73

W-320 Project thermal modeling  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of thermal analysis performed to provide a technical basis in support of Project W-320 to retrieve by sluicing the sludge in Tank 241-C-106 and to transfer into Tank 241-AY-102. Prior theraml evaluations in support of Project W-320 safety analysis assumed the availability of 2000 to 3000 CFM, as provided by Tank Farm Operations, for tank floor cooling channels from the secondary ventilation system. As this flow availability has no technical basis, a detailed Tank 241-AY-102 secondary ventilation and floor coating channel flow model was developed and analysis was performed. The results of the analysis show that only about 150 cfm flow is in floor cooLing channels. Tank 241-AY-102 thermal evaluation was performed to determine the necessary cooling flow for floor cooling channels using W-030 primary ventilation system for different quantities of Tank 241-C-106 sludge transfer into Tank 241-AY-102. These sludge transfers meet different options for the project along with minimum required modification of the ventilation system. Also the results of analysis for the amount of sludge transfer using the current system is presented. The effect of sludge fluffing factor, heat generation rate and its distribution between supernatant and sludge in Tank 241-AY-102 on the amount of sludge transfer from Tank 241-C-106 were evaluated and the results are discussed. Also transient thermal analysis was performed to estimate the time to reach the steady state. For a 2 feet sludge transfer, about 3 months time will be requirad to reach steady state. Therefore, for the purpose of process control, a detailed transient thermal analysis using GOTH Computer Code will be required to determine transient response of the sludge in Tank 241-AY-102. Process control considerations are also discussed to eliminate the potential for a steam bump during retrieval and storage in Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102 respectively.

Sathyanarayana, K., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-03-18

74

Sharks, Minnows, and Wheelbarrows: Calculus Modeling Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to present two very active applied modeling projects that were successfully implemented in a first semester calculus course at Hollins University. The first project uses a logistic equation to model the spread of a new disease such as swine flu. The second project is a human take on the popular article "Do Dogs Know…

Smith, Michael D.

2011-01-01

75

Research on the model of knowledge representation ontology based on framework in intelligent learning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge representation is the symbolization process of knowledge. In nature, knowledge representation adopts a technology model to map the knowledge required to solute problems into data structures to find a solution to these problems. The process of knowledge representation transforms the relevant knowledge into data structures. The goal of knowledge mapping in an intelligent learning system is to realize

Hua Wang

2011-01-01

76

Which Process Model Practices Support Project Success?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research the relevance of the guidance of software process models to industry was studied - more precisely, how relevant are the basic project management practices to the industry projects and to the success of these projects. The focus of the research is on project management and its related practices - the processes that support the achievement of capability levels 1 and 2 in CMMI and ISO/IEC 15504. These project management practices can also be viewed as best practices, the application of which can lead to project success. We aimed to discover whether the implementation of basic project management practices supports project success. There is evidence that higher process capability supports increased project performance. The question remains about the significance of basic project management practices to project performance.

Lepmets, Marion

77

Academy Sharing Knowledge (ASK). The NASA Source for Project Management Magazine, Volume 11, March 2003  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

APPL is a research-based organization that serves NASA program and project managers, as well as project teams, at every level of development. In 1997, APPL was created from an earlier program to underscore the importance that NASA places on project management and project teams through a wide variety of products and services, including knowledge sharing, classroom and online courses, career development guidance, performance support, university partnerships, and advanced technology tools. ASK Magazine grew out of APPL's Knowledge Sharing Initiative. The stories that appear in ASK are written by the 'best of the best' project managers, primarily from NASA, but also from other government agencies and industry. Contributors to this issue include: Teresa Bailey, a librarian at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Roy Malone, Deputy Director in the Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), W. Scott Cameron, Capital Systems Manager for the Food and Beverage Global Business Unit of Procter and Gamble, Ray Morgan, recent retiree as Vice President of AeroVironment, Inc., Marty Davis, Program Manager of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, Todd Post, editor of ASK Magazine, and works for EduTech Ltd. in Silver Spring, Maryland, Dr. Owen Gadeken, professor of Engineering Management at the Defense Acquisition University, Ken Schwer, currently the Project Manager of Solar Dynamics Observatory, Dr. Edward Hoffmwan, Director of the NASA Academy of Program and Project Leadership, Frank Snow, a member of the NASA Explorer Program at Goddard Space Flight Center since 1992, Dr. Alexander Laufer, Editor-in-Chief of ASK Magazine and a member of the Advisory Board of the NASA Academy of Program and Project Leadership, Judy Stokley, presently Air Force Program Executive Officer for Weapons in Washington, D.C. and Terry Little, Director of the Kinetic Energy Boost Office of the Missile Defense Agency.

2003-01-01

78

THE FICHTEAN IDEA OF THE SCIENCE OF KNOWLEDGE AND THE HUSSERLIAN PROJECT  

E-print Network

and Husserlian Phenomenology. The differences between the systems are too readily apparent. This is why, following the lead of Husserl in the Cartesian Meditations, we will attempt a Fichtean mediation; we will try to investigate the philosophical plan..., then, the sources of what is uncontestably shown as the being, as the non-I, in a consciousness of the transcendental self. The Fichtean project of a science of knowledge is therefore the project of a total reflection in the immanence of all the 79...

Hyppolite, Jean; Nemeth, Tom (translator)

79

State of Knowledge on Measurement and Modeling of Coastal Overwash  

Microsoft Academic Search

DONNELLY, C.; KRAUS, N., and LARSON, M. 2006. State of knowledge on measurement and modeling of coastal overwash. Journal of Coastal Research, 22(4), 965-991. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. A critical review is presented on the state of knowledge and calculation capability for coastal overwash. Overwash and overwash deposits (washover) accompanying hurricanes and severe storms can devastate coastal communities

Chantal Donnelly; Nicholas Kraus; Magnus Larson

2006-01-01

80

Relevant literature in support of knowledge-based simulation models  

SciTech Connect

This article describes and references the relevant literature related to knowledge-based simulation. There are essentially ten areas of literature that would likely contain relevant articles. They are the management science/operations research literature, the simulation (and modeling) literature, the production/operations management literature, the knowledge engineering and artificial intelligence literature, the systems science literature, the industrial engineering literature, the mechanical engineering literature, and the information science literature.

Morgeson, J.D.; Colston, E.; Burns, J.R.

1987-07-01

81

Knowledge epidemics and population dynamics models for describing idea diffusion  

E-print Network

The diffusion of ideas is often closely connected to the creation and diffusion of knowledge and to the technological evolution of society. Because of this, knowledge creation, exchange and its subsequent transformation into innovations for improved welfare and economic growth is briefly described from a historical point of view. Next, three approaches are discussed for modeling the diffusion of ideas in the areas of science and technology, through (i) deterministic, (ii) stochastic, and (iii) statistical approaches. These are illustrated through their corresponding population dynamics and epidemic models relative to the spreading of ideas, knowledge and innovations. The deterministic dynamical models are considered to be appropriate for analyzing the evolution of large and small societal, scientific and technological systems when the influence of fluctuations is insignificant. Stochastic models are appropriate when the system of interest is small but when the fluctuations become significant for its evolution...

Vitanov, Nikolay K

2012-01-01

82

An Evaluation of the CERES Model Project--Career Education Responsive to Every Student, Ceres, California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The CERES (Career Education Responsive to Every Student) Model Project for grades K-12 was evaluated by an outside party as well as internally by project staff (see CE 017 740). The external summative evaluation was limited to assessing project effectiveness based on pre- and posttests for the following objectives: (1) career education knowledge

Aslanian, Carol B.; Paul, Regina H.

83

Knowledge Modelling to Support Inquiry Learning Tasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe the SILVER toolkit, which is designed for tasks in which a user learns by analysing and interpreting a set of resources. The user categorises each resource according to the set of properties that they identify as being applicable to it. Due to the large amount of data generated by this type of task, the user may find it hard to identify patterns in their classification and tagging, to recognise their own inconsistencies or make comparisons between themselves and others. In the first SILVER task described, the ID3 decision tree algorithm is applied to the user's data to identify patterns and generate different types of feedback. Principles of spatial hypertext are used to produce an interactive visualization of the summarized data. As the user interacts with the resources, they can see their progress and changing perspective on the task. In the second SILVER task described, a conceptual model is used to provide explanations of the model underlying the user's classification of resources.

Wolff, Annika; Mulholland, Paul; Zdrahal, Zdenek; Blasko, Miroslav

84

Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The information provided through LMMP will assist CxP in: planning tasks in the areas of landing site evaluation and selection, design and placement of landers and other stationary assets, design of rovers and other mobile assets, developing terrain-relative navigation (TRN) capabilities, and assessment and planning of science traverses. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, and the USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. Two visualization systems are being developed, a web-based system called Lunar Mapper, and a desktop client, ILIADS, which will be downloadable from the LMMP portal. LMMP will provide such products as local and regional imagery and DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting and gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and to ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar commercial community, the lunar education and public outreach (E/PO) community, and anyone else interested in accessing or utilizing lunar data. A beta version of the portal and visualization systems is expected to be released in late 2009, with a version 1 release planned for early 2011.

Noble, Sarah K.; French, R. A.; Nall, M. E.; Muery, K. G.

2009-01-01

85

Cognitive Modeling: Knowledge, Reasoning and Planning for Intelligent Characters  

E-print Network

enabling our autonomous characters to generate action plans even in highly complex, dynamic virtual worlds to plan ac- tions. Cognitive models are applicable to directing the new breed of highly autonomous, quasiCognitive Modeling: Knowledge, Reasoning and Planning for Intelligent Characters John Funge Intel

Toronto, University of

86

Knowledge Management Model: Practical Application for Competency Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to present a knowledge management (KM) conceptual model for competency development and a case study in a law service firm, which implemented the KM model in a competencies development program. Design/methodology/approach: The case study method was applied according to Yin (2003) concepts, focusing a six-professional group…

Lustri, Denise; Miura, Irene; Takahashi, Sergio

2007-01-01

87

Mars Pathfinder Project: Planetary Constants and Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document provides a common set of astrodynamic constants and planetary models for use by the Mars Pathfinder Project. It attempts to collect in a single reference all the quantities and models in use across the project during development and for mission operations. These models are central to the navigation and mission design functions, but they are also used in other aspects of the project such as science observation planning and data reduction.

Vaughan, Robin

1995-01-01

88

e-University Project: Business Model. Consultation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the context and goals of the Higher Education Funding Council for England's e-University project to develop Internet-based higher education. It summarizes the proposed business model and outlines next steps in implementing the project. A February 2000 letter announced the project and invited higher education institutions…

Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

89

An Interactive Dynamic Model for Integrating Knowledge Management Methods and Knowledge Sharing Technology in a Traditional Classroom  

E-print Network

An Interactive Dynamic Model for Integrating Knowledge Management Methods and Knowledge Sharing Technology in a Traditional Classroom Vir V. Phoha Computer Science Louisiana Tech University Ruston, LA Management methods and Knowledge Sharing technology to integrate the acquisition of skills and relevant

Phoha, Vir V.

90

Human Expertise, Statistical Models, and Knowledge-Based Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this chapter is the provision of decision support modeled, at least in part, on human expertise. This chapter\\u000a is divided into sections, each concerned with some aspect of the relationship between human expertise, statistical modeling,\\u000a and knowledge-based systems, in particular expert systems. The first section provides a comparison of human expert judgment\\u000a with statistical models, particularly linear

Dominic A. Clark

91

Model Exchange and Training Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report provides descriptions of 65 projects in the states of Illinois, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin which were identified by a peer nomination process as representing unique and exemplary practices in special education. The one page description of each project includes program title; information on population served; a one…

Selznick, Harrie; And Others

92

Understanding the Codevelopment of Modeling Practice and Ecological Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a recent focus on engaging students in epistemic practices, there is relatively little research on how learning environments can support the simultaneous, coordinated development of both practice and the knowledge that emerges from and supports scientific activity. This study reports on the co-construction of modeling practice and…

Manz, Eve

2012-01-01

93

A Proposed Model of Jazz Theory Knowledge Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model that proposes a causal relationship between motivation and academic achievement on the acquisition of jazz theory knowledge. A reliability analysis of the latent variables ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. Confirmatory factor analyses of the motivation (standardized root mean square residual…

Ciorba, Charles R.; Russell, Brian E.

2014-01-01

94

An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…

An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen

2013-01-01

95

Cultivating Knowledge Sharing through the Relationship Management Maturity Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the development of the relationship management maturity model (RMMM), the output of an initiative aimed at bridging the gap between business units and the IT organisation. It does this through improving and assessing knowledge sharing between business and IT staff in Finco, a large financial…

Martin, Valerie A.; Hatzakis, Tally; Lycett, Mark; Macredie, Robert

2005-01-01

96

Concurrent Knowledge-Extraction in the Public-Key Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Knowledge extraction is a fundamental notion, modeling machine possession of values (wit- nesses) in a computational complexity sense and enabling one to argue about the internal state of a party in a protocol without probing its internal secret state. However, when transactions are concurrent (e.g., over the Internet) with players possessing public-keys (as is common in cryp- tography), assuring

Andrew Chi-chih Yao; Moti Yung; Yunlei Zhao

2009-01-01

97

Concurrent Knowledge Extraction in the Public-Key Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge extraction is a fundamental notion, modeling machine possession of values (wit- nesses) in a computational complexity sense and enabling one to argue about the internal state of a party in a protocol without probing its internal secret state. However, when transactions are concurrent (e.g., over the Internet) with players possessing public-keys (as is common in cryp- tography), assuring that

Andrew C. Yao; Moti Yungz Yunlei Zhao

98

Creating Metabolic Network Models using Text Mining and Expert Knowledge  

E-print Network

and comparison of large microarray, proteomics, and metabolomics data sets. The user can select parameters framework for assessing the large amounts of data captured by microarrays and other highCreating Metabolic Network Models using Text Mining and Expert Knowledge J.A. Dickerson1 , D

Berleant, Daniel

99

Modeling Semantic and Structural Knowledge in Web Navigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on cognitive modeling of information search and Web navigation emphasizes the importance of "information scent" (the relevance of semantic cues such as link labels and headings to a reader's goal; Pirolli & Card, 1999). This article shows that not only semantic but also structural knowledge is involved in navigating the Web (Juvina,…

Juvina, Ion; van Oostendorp, Herre

2008-01-01

100

KWM: Knowledge-based Workflow Model for Agile Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workflow management system (WFMS) in an agile organization should be highly adaptable to the frequent organizational changes. To increase the adaptability of contemporary WFMSs, a mechanism for managing changes within the organizational structure and changes in business rules needs to be reinforced. In this paper, a knowledge-based approach for workflow modeling is proposed, in which a workflow is defined

Ha Bin Lee; Jong Woo Kim; Sung Joo Park

1999-01-01

101

"Violent Intent Modeling: Incorporating Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process  

SciTech Connect

While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the incorporation of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to incorporate cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent modeling can benefit from understanding that process.

Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.

2007-08-24

102

MODELLING AND MANAGING KNOWLEDGE THROUGH DIALOGUE: A MODEL OF COMMUNICATION-BASED  

E-print Network

France Email: prince@lirmm.fr Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge sharing, Multi-agent systems, heterogeneous Agents. Abstract: In this paper, we describle a model that relies on the following assumption KNOWLEDGE Agents are considered heterogeneous when they dif- fer in nature or in a major attribute

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

103

World energy projection system: Model documentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Energy Project System (WEPS) is an accounting framework that incorporates projects from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product) and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by hydropower, geothermal, coal, and natural gas to produce projections of world energy consumption published annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the International Energy Outlook (IEO). Two independently documented models presented in Figure 1, the Oil Market Simulation (OMS) model and the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES), provide projections of oil and nuclear power consumption published in the IEO. Output from a third independently documented model, and the International Coal Trade Model (ICTM), is not published in the IEO but is used in WEPS as a supply check on projections of world coal consumption produced by WEPS and published in the IEO. A WEPS model of natural gas production documented in this report provides the same type of implicit supply check on the WEPS projections of world natural gas consumption published in the IEO. Two additional models are included in Figure 1, the OPEC Capacity model and the Non-OPEC Oil Production model. These WEPS models provide inputs to the OMS model and are documented in this report.

1992-06-01

104

Advanced microwave modeling framework exploiting automatic model generation, knowledge neural networks, and space mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an efficient knowledge-based automatic model generation (KAMG) technique aimed at generating microwave neural models of the highest possible accuracy using the fewest accurate data. The technique is comprehensively derived to integrate three distinct powerful concepts, namely, automatic model generation, knowledge neural networks, and space mapping. For the first time, we simultaneously utilize two types of

Vijay K. Devabhaktuni; Biswarup Chattaraj; Mustapha C. E. Yagoub; Qi-Jun Zhang

2003-01-01

105

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 5: Aerospace librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: A report of phase 2 activities of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project is to provide descriptive and analytical data regarding the flow of scientific and technical information (STI) at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels, placing emphasis on the systems used to diffuse the results of federally funded aerospace STI. An overview of project assumptions, objectives, and design is presented and preliminary results of the phase 2 aerospace library survey are summarized. Phase 2 addressed aerospace knowledge transfer and use within the larger social system and focused on the flow of aerospace STI in government and industry and the role of the information intermediary in knowledge transfer.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

1990-01-01

106

Predictive Modeling and Integrative Physiology: The Physiome Projects  

PubMed Central

The fundamental paradigm in physiological research is integration. Biological researchers are now ready to define for a species a mathematical construct, the Physiome, the all-encompassing quantitative model of an organism. The goal of the human Physiome project is improved health care, through deep understanding of the organism, all the way down to the genes, reconciling contradictions and clarifying cause and effect. The strategies for accomplishing this long term aim include the systematic gathering of old and new knowledge into shared databases, and integrating the information into self consistent, reproducible, mathematical models. Multiscale models, for practicality, cover only a few levels at a time. Beginning at the middle level, the cell, where the knowledge base is largest and most secure, and the elements well defined as functional biophysical/biochemical modules, the plan is to work up to the organism level and down to the gene level, in the end providing clear linkages between phenotype and the genome. PMID:22919435

Bassingthwaighte, James B.

2012-01-01

107

Spatial modeling of households' knowledge about arsenic pollution in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Arsenic in drinking water is an important public health issue in Bangladesh, which is affected by households' knowledge about arsenic threats from their drinking water. In this study, spatial statistical models were used to investigate the determinants and spatial dependence of households' knowledge about arsenic risk. The binary join matrix/binary contiguity matrix and inverse distance spatial weight matrix techniques are used to capture spatial dependence in the data. This analysis extends the spatial model by allowing spatial dependence to vary across divisions and regions. A positive spatial correlation was found in households' knowledge across neighboring districts at district, divisional and regional levels, but the strength of this spatial correlation varies considerably by spatial weight. Literacy rate, daily wage rate of agricultural labor, arsenic status, and percentage of red mark tube well usage in districts were found to contribute positively and significantly to households' knowledge. These findings have policy implications both at regional and national levels in mitigating the present arsenic crisis and to ensure arsenic-free water in Bangladesh. PMID:22385815

Sarker, M Mizanur Rahman

2012-04-01

108

Fuzzy finish time modeling for project scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims at developing a new fuzzy activity finish time estimation model for project scheduling management. With\\u000a the application of the fuzzy quality function deployment (FQFD) and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) methods, the degree\\u000a of fuzziness for every project activity is calculated in accordance with considerations of project uncertainties. These uncertainties\\u000a are measured by the risk level of

Yu-chuan Liu; Shih-ming Yang; Yu-te Lin

2010-01-01

109

NASA's Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within NASA's Aviation Safety Program, the Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project addresses the need to provide decision makers with the tools to identify and evaluate predisposing conditions that could lead to accidents. This Project is developing a set of automated tools to facilitate efficient, comprehensive, and accurate analyses of data collected in large, heterogeneous databases throughout the National

Irving C. Statler; David A. Maluf

2003-01-01

110

Starting the Conversation – A Childhood Obesity Knowledge Project Using an App  

PubMed Central

Purpose Starting the Conversation was a pilot project to test an intervention for childhood obesity, a major public health epidemic, using a free smartphone application (app). The primary aim was to assess students’ knowledge of nutritional indicators, physical exercise and use of screen time before and after the intervention. Methods The study was conducted in 2011–2012. The sample, recruited from seven high schools in Snohomish County, Washington, was 65.3% minority participants. Of the 118 participants in the sample (n=118), 79 handwrote their responses (n=78) and 36 responded via the app (n=39). We compared the frequency and types of physical exercise, frequency of screen time, and nutritional variables of high school students. Participants used the cell phone app or a handwritten log to record their daily entries for 20 days. Results Both males (n=43) and females (n=75) grades 9–12 used the app or handwritten entries. Participants who used the app ate less fast food and exercised more, as compared with those who recorded their entries by hand. Screen time usage decreased over the course of the study, based on a comparison of the post-survey level and the pre-survey level. Knowledge of recommended daily consumption of vegetables increased post-test in the app group and knowledge of water consumption increased significantly in both groups. There was no significant difference in BMI pre and post-test. Conclusions Patterns of nutritional intake, physical exercise and knowledge of these issues varied pre and post-test. It is critical to further examine factors associated with lack of physical activity and food intake patterns of youth using social media to further address the childhood obesity epidemic. Future research should focus on specific ethnic subgroups and an intervention at the school level aimed at the students with BMI ? 95th percentile. PMID:24678462

Appel, Hoa B.; Huang, Bu; Cole, Allison; James, Rosalina; Ai, Amy L.

2014-01-01

111

Project T.A.C.K.L.E. (Together, Addressing the Challenges of Knowledge and Literacy for Employees). Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project TACKLE (Together, Addressing the Challenge of Knowledge and Literacy for Employees) was a cooperative project, jointly developed to address employees with the inadequate basic skills necessary to operate modernized, technical equipment and maintain job security. Approximately 500 current employees of General Motors, Flint, Michigan, used…

General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI.

112

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 66: Emerging Trends in the Globalization of Knowledge: The Role of the Technical Report in Aerospace Research and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Economists, management theorists, business strategists, and governments alike recognize knowledge as the single most important resource in today's global economy. Because of its relationship to technological progress and economic growth, many governments have taken a keen interest in knowledge; specifically its production, transfer, and use. This paper focuses on the technical report as a product for disseminating the results of aerospace research and development (R&D) and its use and importance to aerospace engineers and scientists. The emergence of knowledge as an intellectual asset, its relationship to innovation, and its importance in a global economy provides the context for the paper. The relationships between government and knowledge and government and innovation are used to place knowledge within the context of publicly-funded R&D. Data, including the reader preferences of NASA technical reports, are derived from the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, a ten-year study of knowledge diffusion in the U.S. aerospace industry.

Pinelli,Thomas E.; Golich, Vicki L.

1997-01-01

113

Co-Occupation: Conceptualizing Models to Advance Thinking and Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to advance knowledge about co-occupation. We will present conceptual models that provide a way of thinking about co-occupation and define aspects of co-occupation including shared physicality, emotionality and intentionality. We will conclude with a discussion about how co-occupation is embedded in meaning and may be seen as process or as an outcome. Occupational scientists

Kris Pizur-Barnekow; Noralyn Jacques Davel

2006-01-01

114

Climate, Ocean, and Sea Ice Modeling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of the Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling Project (COSIM) and its mission to develop sea ice and ocean models which can be applied to coupled climate models. Research areas include polar processes, thermohaline circulation, ocean biogeochemistry, and eddy resolving ocean simulations. Available models include the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model, and eventually the hybrid vertical coordinate version of POP. In addition, COSIM researchers have provided substantial input and development to the Miami Isopycnal Coordinate Ocean Model and its hybrid vertical coordinate equivalent Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model. Links to these model pages contain model downloads, documentation and data.

Laboratory, Los A.

115

Scientific Knowledge and Attitude Change: The Impact of a Citizen Science Project. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the evaluation of an informal science education project, The Birdhouse Network (TBN) of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. The Elaboration Likelihood Model and the theory of Experiential Education were used as frameworks to analyse the impact of TBN on participants' attitudes toward science and the environment, on their…

Brossard, Dominique; Lewenstein, Bruce; Bonney, Rick

2005-01-01

116

Project Descriptions: Model Curricula for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Physician and Nurse Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions are presented of 12 model curriculum projects which are part of a program to develop and demonstrate effective models for integrating alcohol and other drug abuse teaching into the medical and nurse education curriculum. The models are based upon discipline-specific knowledge and skill objectives and address undergraduate,…

National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

117

An empirical model of the organization knowledge system in new product development firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural equation model of the knowledge system for new product development (NPD) is derived from a sample of 1200 engineers in 10 technology firms, and validated on a hold-out sample. Core to the model are knowledge work behaviors that: (1) expand knowledge relevant to NPD by focusing on the performance of the organization as a system; (2) increase knowledge

Susan Albers Mohrman; David Finegold; Allan M Mohrman

2003-01-01

118

The Knowledge Model of Protégé-2000: Combining Interoperability and Flexibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge-based systems have become ubiquitous in recent years. The World-Wide Web consortium is developing the Resource Description Framework (RDF)—a system for annotating even Web pages with knowledge elements. Knowledge-base developers need to be able to share and reuse knowledge bases that they build. Therefore, interoperability among different knowledge-representation systems is essential. The Open Knowledge-Base Connectivity protocol (OKBC) is a common

Natalya Fridman Noy; Ray W. Fergerson; Mark A. Musen

2000-01-01

119

Web2.0-based Enterprise Knowledge Management Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the knowledge economy, enterprise knowledge management has become one of the core competitiveness of enterprises. As an important business tool to upgrade and maintain knowledge management, knowledge management system is being more and more attention. In this paper, the characteristics of the Web2.0 were analyzed. For the existing problems in the current Knowledge management system, a Web2.0-based Knowledge Management

Sisi Hu; Liyong Wan; Rui Zeng

2010-01-01

120

Traceability between System Model, Project Model and Source Code  

E-print Network

the project model, which is used for planning and organization in software development projects development process relies on traceability information captured throughout the evolution of a software product and dependable results. In contrast to these approaches, we not only consider the system model, but also

Paech, Barbara

121

Modeling Success in FLOSS Project Groups  

SciTech Connect

A significant challenge in software engineering is accurately modeling projects in order to correctly forecast success or failure. The primary difficulty is that software development efforts are complex in terms of both the technical and social aspects of the engineering environment. This is compounded by the lack of real data that captures both the measures of success in performing a process, and the measures that reflect a group s social dynamics. This research focuses on the development of a model for predicting software project success that leverages the wealth of available open source project data in order to accurately model the behavior of those software engineering groups. Our model accounts for both the technical elements of software engineering as well as the social elements that drive the decisions of individual developers. We use agent-based simulations to represent the complexity of the group interactions, and base the behavior of the agents on the real software engineering data acquired. For four of the five project success measures, our results indicate that the developed model represents the underlying data well and provides accurate predictions of open source project success indicators.

Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; ST Charles, Jesse Lee [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

2009-01-01

122

Space market model development project, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a research project investigating information needs for space commercialization is described. The Space Market Model Development Project (SMMDP) was designed to help NASA identify the information needs of the business community and to explore means to meet those needs. The activity of the SMMDP is reviewed and a report of its operation via three sections is presented. The first part contains a brief historical review of the project since inception. The next part reports results of Phase 3, the most recent stage of activity. Finally, overall conclusions and observations based on the SMMDP research results are presented.

Bishop, Peter C.; Hamel, Gary P.

1989-01-01

123

Knowledge-Intensive Service Business Model Research from Innovative Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essence of knowledge-intensive service is a process of knowledge innovation in between service provider and clients with high levels of knowledge interaction. By far, domestic research on operational performance in knowledge-intensive service business is not yet perfect, most of the literature limited to some specific industries or simple introduction of services marketing, policy supporting. However, for industry, profitability is

Wang Yinghui

2009-01-01

124

World Energy Projection System model documentation  

SciTech Connect

The World Energy Projection System (WEPS) was developed by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting within the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent statistical and analytical agency of the US Department of Energy. WEPS is an integrated set of personal computer based spreadsheets containing data compilations, assumption specifications, descriptive analysis procedures, and projection models. The WEPS accounting framework incorporates projections from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product GDP), and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by natural gas, coal, and renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable resources). Projections produced by WEPS are published in the annual report, International Energy Outlook. This report documents the structure and procedures incorporated in the 1998 version of the WEPS model. It has been written to provide an overview of the structure of the system and technical details about the operation of each component of the model for persons who wish to know how WEPS projections are produced by EIA.

Hutzler, M.J.; Anderson, A.T.

1997-09-01

125

Designing m-learning for junior registrars--activation of a theoretical model of clinical knowledge.  

PubMed

The MINI-project aims at supporting junior registrars in the learning process of how to utilize their theoretical knowledge from Medical School in everyday clinical reasoning and practice. Due to the nature of the work--concurrent moving, learning and producing--we designed an m-learning application. This paper introduces the possibilities and challenges for design of the m-learning application based on a) analytical findings on learning and mobility as derived from the design case--an emergency medical ward b) theoretical perspectives on medical knowledge, and c) presentation of the design of an m-learning application. The design process was based on user-driven innovation and the paper discusses considerations on how to combine user-drive and generic models. PMID:17911938

Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Boye, Niels; Nøhr, Christian

2007-01-01

126

[Knowledge of laws by students with hearing impairment: results from the GINKO-project].  

PubMed

Legislation for people with disabilities has also changed due to other changes in the law, especially due to the recent ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. These laws, in particular the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, with its inclusion of the right to equitable and universal access to education for people with disabilities and their implementation, are of central importance for students who are impaired. As part of the GINKO (the legislative effect laws have on the professional integration of those who are hard of hearing, people who have gone deaf and those who are deaf through communication and organization; promotion: BMAS) project, the following questions were also brought up for discussion and were investigated: to what extent hearing-impaired students are aware of legislation that benefits them, whether these laws will be implemented, and what factors have an impact on this legal knowledge or its implementation. Overall, 4,825 handicapped individuals with hearing impairments - including n=166 students - took part in the survey. The results of the evaluation of the group of hearing-impaired students indicate that many of them are not informed about laws important to them. It was also found that the knowledge of a law cannot be equated with its implementation. This survey also resulted in a resolve for the future, to demand information about legal options be reinforced, and to adjust this information to fit the needs of specific target groups, e.g. this information could be disseminated through sign language films. On the other hand, these results also apply to higher education, for these institutions to create learning conditions where existing regulatory design options for students with disabilities are implemented, thereby affording students an equal opportunity to participate in higher education. PMID:23824568

Weber, A; Weber, U; Schlenker-Schulte, C; Schulte, K

2013-12-01

127

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 31: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SME mail survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with, not necessarily belonging to, the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME).

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

128

Using Bayesian Belief Networks to Model Software Project Management Antipatterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of numerous traditional and agile software project management models proposed, process and project modeling still remains an open issue. This paper proposes a Bayesian Network (BN) approach for modeling software project management antipatterns. This approach provides a framework for project managers, who would like to model the cause-effect relationships that underlie an antipattern, taking into account the inherent

Dimitrios Settas; Stamatia Bibi; Panagiotis Sfetsos; Ioannis Stamelos; Vassilis C. Gerogiannis

2006-01-01

129

Technology Projection Using Simple Compact Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent efforts to capture the device nonidealities for circuit-level technology projection for Si CMOS. We also give some examples of simple compact model development for assessing the circuit-level performance of exploratory devices such as III-V FET, carbon nanotube transistor, and nanoelectromechanical (NEM) transistors and relays.

H.-S. P. Wong; Lan Wei; S. Oh; A. Lin; Jie Deng; Soogine Chong; K. Akarvardar

2009-01-01

130

AMIP: The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is an international effort to determine the systematic climate errors of atmospheric models under realistic conditions, and calls for the simulation of the climate of the decade 1979--1988 using the observed monthly-averaged distributions of sea-surface temperature and sea ice as boundary conditions. Organized by the Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (WGNE) of the World

W. Lawrence Gates

1992-01-01

131

A Report on Local Knowledge Development: Initiatives, Themes and Approaches under the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act (YEDPA).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review was conducted to assess early initiatives by Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) prime sponsors in knowledge development under the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977. The review was based on two waves of site visits to a total of 19 prime sponsors, in May-June, 1979, and in November-January, 1979-80. From…

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

132

Jobs and Community Improvements--A Handbook for Enhanced Work Projects. Implementation Issues. Youth Knowledge Development Report 8.1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is one of the products of the knowledge development activities mounted in conjunction with research, evaluation, and development activities funded under the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977. Based on the Ventures in Community Improvement (VICI) "enhanced" job training/job placement approach, which used…

Corporation for Public/Private Ventures, Philadelphia, PA.

133

Aligning Business Process Models and Domain Knowledge: A Meta-Modeling Approach  

E-print Network

knowledge to improve the semantic quality of BP models. This approach relies on domain ontologies as a mean, Semantic quality, Business process modeling, Quality improvement. 1 Introduction . Business Process models: improving the process development improves the quality of products. we can mention [5] where the authors

Boyer, Edmond

134

Hands-On Solid Modeling Experiences in a Course Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper focuses on the hands-on experience of 3-D solid modeling technique and prototyping employed in product design and realization process. Engineering Graphics and CAD/CAM are two of the core courses in the Manufacturing Engineering program. Computer aided design and drafting, as well as solid modeling of parts, are strongly emphasized in the Engineering Graphics curriculum which is taught in the sophomore year. In continuation, both manual and computer aided CNC programming are covered in the CAD/CAM curriculum taught in the junior year. Computer Aided Reverse Engineering of cork opener, gear puller, cell phone case, and cell phone cover were the selected course projects taken by students in the CAD/CAM course. One of the main objectives of the curse project was for the students to extend their knowledge in design process and gain a hands-on experience in the field of solid modeling and product realization. A caliper and a micrometer were used to measure the main dimensions of the parts, and a solid modeling program was used for creating the parts model and assembly as well. This paper describes hands-on solid modeling and prototyping experiences of manufacturing engineering students regarding product realization process at our program.

Ansari, Jahangir

2010-07-29

135

NASA's Aviation Safety and Modeling Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aviation Safety Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project of NASA's Aviation Safety program is cultivating sources of data and developing automated computer hardware and software to facilitate efficient, comprehensive, and accurate analyses of the data collected from large, heterogeneous databases throughout the national aviation system. The ASMM addresses the need to provide means for increasing safety by enabling the identification and correcting of predisposing conditions that could lead to accidents or to incidents that pose aviation risks. A major component of the ASMM Project is the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS), which is developing the next generation of software tools for analyzing and interpreting flight data.

Chidester, Thomas R.; Statler, Irving C.

2006-01-01

136

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LMMP was initiated in 2007 to help in making the anticipated results of the LRO spacecraft useful and accessible to Constellation. The LMMP is managing and developing a suite of lunar mapping and modeling tools and products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities. In addition to the LRO Principal Investigators, relevant activities and expertise that had already been funded by NASA was identified at ARC, CRREL (Army Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory), GSFC, JPL, & USGS. LMMP is a cost capped, design-to-cost project (Project budget was established prior to obtaining Constellation needs)

Noble, Sarah; French, Raymond; Nall, Mark; Muery, Kimberly

2009-01-01

137

Enabling Integrated Decision Making for Electronic-Commerce by Modelling an Enterprise's Sharable Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An enterprise model, a computational model of knowledge about an enterprise, is a useful tool for integrated decision-making by e-commerce suppliers and customers. Sharable knowledge, once represented in an enterprise model, can be integrated by the modeled enterprise's e-commerce partners. Presents background on enterprise modeling, followed by…

Kim, Henry M.

2000-01-01

138

Preserved Tool Knowledge in the Context of Impaired Action Knowledge: Implications for Models of Semantic Memory  

PubMed Central

A number of studies have observed that the motor system is activated when processing the semantics of manipulable objects. Such phenomena have been taken as evidence that simulation over motor representations is a necessary and intermediary step in the process of conceptual understanding. Cognitive neuropsychological evaluations of patients with impairments for action knowledge permit a direct test of the necessity of motor simulation in conceptual processing. Here, we report the performance of a 47-year-old male individual (Case AA) and six age-matched control participants on a number of tests probing action and object knowledge. Case AA had a large left-hemisphere frontal-parietal lesion and hemiplegia affecting his right arm and leg. Case AA presented with impairments for object-associated action production, and his conceptual knowledge of actions was severely impaired. In contrast, his knowledge of objects such as tools and other manipulable objects was largely preserved. The dissociation between action and object knowledge is difficult to reconcile with strong forms of the embodied cognition hypothesis. We suggest that these, and other similar findings, point to the need to develop tractable hypotheses about the dynamics of information exchange among sensory, motor and conceptual processes. PMID:23641205

Garcea, Frank E.; Dombovy, Mary; Mahon, Bradford Z.

2013-01-01

139

Integrating realtime project progress input into a construction simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulation has been widely applied in modeling construction operation to gain insight into project performance. However, simulation models are rarely used after the project planning and design stage. One main constraint is the time and effort needed for collecting pertinent and correct information and processing it for input into the model. As projects progress and project circumstances change, simulation

Hua Xie; Siri Fernando; Simaan AbouRizk

2011-01-01

140

How Structure Shapes Dynamics: Knowledge Development in Wikipedia - A Network Multilevel Modeling Approach  

PubMed Central

Using a longitudinal network analysis approach, we investigate the structural development of the knowledge base of Wikipedia in order to explain the appearance of new knowledge. The data consists of the articles in two adjacent knowledge domains: psychology and education. We analyze the development of networks of knowledge consisting of interlinked articles at seven snapshots from 2006 to 2012 with an interval of one year between them. Longitudinal data on the topological position of each article in the networks is used to model the appearance of new knowledge over time. Thus, the structural dimension of knowledge is related to its dynamics. Using multilevel modeling as well as eigenvector and betweenness measures, we explain the significance of pivotal articles that are either central within one of the knowledge domains or boundary-crossing between the two domains at a given point in time for the future development of new knowledge in the knowledge base. PMID:25365319

Halatchliyski, Iassen; Cress, Ulrike

2014-01-01

141

Implementing a Technology-Supported Model for Cross-Organisational Learning and Knowledge Building for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposed using the elaborated learning and knowledge building model (LKB model) derived from Nonaka and Takeuchi's knowledge management model for supporting cross-organisational teacher development in the temporarily extended organisations composed of universities and schools. It investigated the main LKB model components in the context…

Tammets, Kairit; Pata, Kai; Laanpere, Mart

2012-01-01

142

A technique for estimating 4D-CBCT using prior knowledge and limited-angle projections  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a technique to estimate onboard 4D-CBCT using prior information and limited-angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy.Methods: Each phase of onboard 4D-CBCT is considered as a deformation from one selected phase (prior volume) of the planning 4D-CT. The deformation field maps (DFMs) are solved using a motion modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) technique. In the MM-FD technique, the DFMs are estimated using a motion model which is extracted from planning 4D-CT based on principal component analysis (PCA). The motion model parameters are optimized by matching the digitally reconstructed radiographs of the deformed volumes to the limited-angle onboard projections (data fidelity constraint). Afterward, the estimated DFMs are fine-tuned using a FD model based on data fidelity constraint and deformation energy minimization. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso phantom was used to evaluate the MM-FD technique. A lung patient with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respirational changes from planning 4D-CT to onboard volume, including changes of respiration amplitude, lesion size and lesion average-position, and phase shift between lesion and body respiratory cycle. The lesions were contoured in both the estimated and “ground-truth” onboard 4D-CBCT for comparison. 3D volume percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass shift (COMS) were calculated to evaluate the estimation accuracy of three techniques: MM-FD, MM-only, and FD-only. Different onboard projection acquisition scenarios and projection noise levels were simulated to investigate their effects on the estimation accuracy.Results: For all simulated patient and projection acquisition scenarios, the mean VPD (±S.D.)/COMS (±S.D.) between lesions in prior images and “ground-truth” onboard images were 136.11% (±42.76%)/15.5 mm (±3.9 mm). Using orthogonal-view 15°-each scan angle, the mean VPD/COMS between the lesion in estimated and “ground-truth” onboard images for MM-only, FD-only, and MM-FD techniques were 60.10% (±27.17%)/4.9 mm (±3.0 mm), 96.07% (±31.48%)/12.1 mm (±3.9 mm) and 11.45% (±9.37%)/1.3 mm (±1.3 mm), respectively. For orthogonal-view 30°-each scan angle, the corresponding results were 59.16% (±26.66%)/4.9 mm (±3.0 mm), 75.98% (±27.21%)/9.9 mm (±4.0 mm), and 5.22% (±2.12%)/0.5 mm (±0.4 mm). For single-view scan angles of 3°, 30°, and 60°, the results for MM-FD technique were 32.77% (±17.87%)/3.2 mm (±2.2 mm), 24.57% (±18.18%)/2.9 mm (±2.0 mm), and 10.48% (±9.50%)/1.1 mm (±1.3 mm), respectively. For projection angular-sampling-intervals of 0.6°, 1.2°, and 2.5° with the orthogonal-view 30°-each scan angle, the MM-FD technique generated similar VPD (maximum deviation 2.91%) and COMS (maximum deviation 0.6 mm), while sparser sampling yielded larger VPD/COMS. With equal number of projections, the estimation results using scattered 360° scan angle were slightly better than those using orthogonal-view 30°-each scan angle. The estimation accuracy of MM-FD technique declined as noise level increased.Conclusions: The MM-FD technique substantially improves the estimation accuracy for onboard 4D-CBCT using prior planning 4D-CT and limited-angle projections, compared to the MM-only and FD-only techniques. It can potentially be used for the inter/intrafractional 4D-localization verification.

Zhang, You [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)] [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)] [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Segars, W. Paul [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)] [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

2013-12-15

143

Airspace Systems Program: Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Airspace Systems Program (ASP) has identified a set of goals based on projections of annual passenger demands. The topics of discussion include: 1) Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation Project (VAMS) Project Description; 2) VAMS Project Management; 3) VAMS Project Schedule; and 4) Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM). This paper is in viewgraph form.

Jacobsen, Robert

2002-01-01

144

Model based systems engineering for astronomical projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is an emerging field of systems engineering for which the System Modeling Language (SysML) is a key enabler for descriptive, prescriptive and predictive models. This paper surveys some of the capabilities, expectations and peculiarities of tools-assisted MBSE experienced in real-life astronomical projects. The examples range in depth and scope across a wide spectrum of applications (for example documentation, requirements, analysis, trade studies) and purposes (addressing a particular development need, or accompanying a project throughout many - if not all - its lifecycle phases, fostering reuse and minimizing ambiguity). From the beginnings of the Active Phasing Experiment, through VLT instrumentation, VLTI infrastructure, Telescope Control System for the E-ELT, until Wavefront Control for the E-ELT, we show how stepwise refinements of tools, processes and methods have provided tangible benefits to customary system engineering activities like requirement flow-down, design trade studies, interfaces definition, and validation, by means of a variety of approaches (like Model Checking, Simulation, Model Transformation) and methodologies (like OOSEM, State Analysis)

Karban, R.; Andolfato, L.; Bristow, P.; Chiozzi, G.; Esselborn, M.; Schilling, M.; Schmid, C.; Sommer, H.; Zamparelli, M.

2014-08-01

145

Unfolding possibilities through a decolonizing project: Indigenous knowledges and rural Japanese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural Japanese women have been overlooked or misrepresented in the academic and nationalist discourses on Japanese women. Using an anti?colonial feminist framework, I advocate that centring discussions on Indigenous knowledges will help fill this gap based on the belief that Indigenous?knowledge framework is a tool to show the agency of the ‘colonized’. In this paper, I attempt to answer the

Kimine Mayuzumi

2009-01-01

146

The Impact of a Community Mobilization Project on Health-Related Knowledge and Practices in Cameroon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the impact of a reproductive health community mobilization initiative in Cameroon. Baseline and followup survey data indicated that at a rural site, the intervention positively influenced family planning knowledge and practices, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease knowledge and attitudes, and use of health services. At an urban…

Babalola, Stella; Sakolsky, Natasha; Vondrasek, Claudia; Mounlom, Damaris; Brown, Jane; Tchupo, Jean-Paul

2001-01-01

147

Collaborative Knowledge Production Model in the Field of Organizational Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper proposes a framework for collaborative knowledge production in order to enhance the amount and quality of knowledge in the field of organizational development (OD). We distinguish three types of actors that offer development services for work organizations: academic R&D units, training and educational institutes and management…

Ramstad, Elise

2008-01-01

148

Semantic model for knowledge representation in e-business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic knowledge representation is the key for the development of present intelligent systems. Furthermore, the Semantic Web provide a formal representation and knowledge-driven set of technologies to enable automation of business processes. Despite the new trends on business process automation based on semantic technologies and Web Services, a number of business processes still require human intervention. In this paper we

Ángel García-Crespo; Belén Ruíz-Mezcua; José Luis López Cuadrado; Israel Gonzalez-Carrasco

2011-01-01

149

Agent Based Model for Call Centers Using Knowledge Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A call center is an organizational unit where inbound calls are received or outbound calls placed for the purposes of sales, support, advice and other business transactions. By applying knowledge management solutions, we can meet call centerspsila challenges and gain benefits of reduced training costs, improved call handling and greater flexibility. This paper describes a solution to agent mediated knowledge

Farzad Peyravi; Amin Keshavarzi

2009-01-01

150

A Threshold Model of Content Knowledge Transfer for Socioscientific Argumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how individuals make use of scientific content knowledge for socioscientific argumentation. More specifically, this mixed-methods study investigates how learners apply genetics content knowledge as they justify claims relative to genetic engineering. Interviews are conducted with 45 participants, representing three distinct…

Sadler, Troy D.; Fowler, Samantha R.

2006-01-01

151

Clean and Green: Indigenous Knowledge and Cultural Models in a Philippine Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article demonstrates how the study of indigenous knowledge can be enhanced by paying attention to the forms in which this knowledge is organized and the way it is embedded in a wider cultural matrix. The empirical setting is a community of small-scale farmers on the Philippine island of Bohol, where much agricultural knowledge is organized in a cultural model

Axel Borchgrevink

2002-01-01

152

MindPixel: Digital Mind Modeling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital Mind Modeling Project by MindPixel invites Web users to contribute to the creation of the first statistical model of human thought. The Canadian scientist, Chris McKinstry, who founded the project "hopes to be able to teach a computer what it means to be human" by using an approach similar to seti@home "to extract the entire content of an average person's mind bit by literal bit from millions of different internet users." After about 10 years running, the final collection will be available for other artificial intelligence researchers. For now, visitors can register using an online form to access the Mindpixel News System, which offers the latest news pertaining to the mind and mind-related science. Internet users can also register and make their contribution to science by talking to the online system, which the author calls GAC, pronounced "Jack." Contributors earn voting rights "that will give them a say in every aspect of how the project is run, from data collection and use to the distribution of data and research funds."

153

The Chancellor's Model School Project (CMSP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What does it take to create and implement a 7th to 8th grade middle school program where the great majority of students achieve at high academic levels regardless of their previous elementary school backgrounds? This was the major question that guided the research and development of a 7-year long project effort entitled the Chancellor's Model School Project (CMSP) from September 1991 to August 1998. The CMSP effort conducted largely in two New York City public schools was aimed at creating and testing a prototype 7th and 8th grade model program that was organized and test-implemented in two distinct project phases: Phase I of the CMSP effort was conducted from 1991 to 1995 as a 7th to 8th grade extension of an existing K-6 elementary school, and Phase II was conducted from 1995 to 1998 as a 7th to 8th grade middle school program that became an integral part of a newly established 7-12th grade high school. In Phase I, the CMSP demonstrated that with a highly structured curriculum coupled with strong academic support and increased learning time, students participating in the CMSP were able to develop a strong foundation for rigorous high school coursework within the space of 2 years (at the 7th and 8th grades). Mathematics and Reading test score data during Phase I of the project, clearly indicated that significant academic gains were obtained by almost all students -- at both the high and low ends of the spectrum -- regardless of their previous academic performance in the K-6 elementary school experience. The CMSP effort expanded in Phase II to include a fully operating 7-12 high school model. Achievement gains at the 7th and 8th grade levels in Phase II were tempered by the fact that incoming 7th grade students' academic background at the CMSP High School was significantly lower than students participating in Phase 1. Student performance in Phase II was also affected by the broadening of the CMSP effort from a 7-8th grade program to a fully functioning 7-12 high school which as a consequence lessened the focus and structure available to the 7-8th grade students and teachers -- as compared to Phase I. Nevertheless, the CMSP does represent a unique curriculum model for 7th and 8th grade students in urban middle schools. Experience in both Phase I and Phase II of the project allowed the CMSP to be developed and tested along the broad range of parameters and characteristics that embody an operating public school in an urban environment.

Lopez, Gil

1999-01-01

154

Collaborative Group Learning and Knowledge Building to Address Information Systems Project Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately half of the information systems (IS) projects implemented each year are considered failures. These failed projects cost billions of dollars annually. Failures can be due to projects being delivered late, over-budget, abandoned after significant time and resource investment, or failing to achieve desired results. More often than not,…

Angelo, Raymond

2011-01-01

155

Student use of a Learning Management System for group projects: A case study investigating interaction, collaboration, and knowledge construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web-based Learning Management Systems (LMS) allow instructors and students to share instructional materials, make class announcements, submit and return course assignments, and communicate with each other online. Previous LMS-related research has focused on how these systems deliver and manage instructional content with little concern for how students' constructivist learning can be encouraged and facilitated. This study investigated how students use LMS to interact, collaborate, and construct knowledge within the context of a group project but without mediation by the instructor. The setting for this case study was students' use in one upper-level biology course of the local LMS within the context of a course-related group project, a mock National Institutes of Health grant proposal. Twenty-one groups (82 students) voluntarily elected to use the LMS, representing two-thirds of all students in the course. Students' peer-to-peer messages within the LMS, event logs, online surveys, focus group interviews, and instructor interviews were used in order to answer the study's overarching research question. The results indicate that students successfully used the LMS to interact and, to a significant extent, collaborate, but there was very little evidence of knowledge construction using the LMS technology. It is possible that the ease and availability of face-to-face meetings as well as problems and limitations with the technology were factors that influenced whether students' online basic interaction could be further distinguished as collaboration or knowledge construction. Despite these limitations, students found several tools and functions of the LMS useful for their online peer interaction and completion of their course project. Additionally, LMS designers and implementers are urged to consider previous literature on computer-supported collaborative learning environments in order to better facilitate independent group projects within these systems. Further research is needed to identify the best types of scaffolds and overall technological improvements in order to provide support for online collaboration and knowledge construction.

Lonn, Steven D.

156

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 68: Who is Managing Knowledge? The Implications for Knowledge Production and Management of Global Strategic Alliances in Knowledge Dependent Industries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge is the foundation upon which researchers build as they innovate. Innovation lies at the core of a state's or a firm's ability to survive in a competitive world. Indeed, some economic historians ever that technological innovation, not trade, is the engine to economic growth. Despite the centrality of knowledge to corporate success, analysts have only recently shown an interest in the "knowledge capital" or "intellectual capital" of the firm, often literally trying to assign a value to this resource.

Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas

1998-01-01

157

GCSS Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GCSS Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (WG2) is conducting a systematic comparison and evaluation of cirrus cloud models. This fundamental activity seeks to support the improvement of models used for climate simulation and numerical weather prediction through assessment and improvement of the "process" models underlying parametric treatments of cirrus cloud processes in large-scale models. The WG2 Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project is an initial comparison of cirrus cloud simulations by a variety of cloud models for a series of idealized situations with relatively simple initial conditions and forcing. The models (16) represent the state-of-the-art and include 3-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) models, two-dimensional cloud resolving models (CRMs), and single column model (SCM) versions of GCMs. The model microphysical components are similarly varied, ranging from single-moment bulk (relative humidity) schemes to fully size-resolved (bin) treatments where ice crystal growth is explicitly calculated. Radiative processes are included in the physics package of each model. The baseline simulations include "warm" and "cold" cirrus cases where cloud top initially occurs at about -47C and -66C, respectively. All simulations are for nighttime conditions (no solar radiation) where the cloud is generated in an ice supersaturated layer, about 1 km in depth, with an ice pseudoadiabatic thermal stratification (neutral). Continuing cloud formation is forced via an imposed diabatic cooling representing a 3 cm/s uplift over a 4-hour time span followed by a 2-hour dissipation stage with no cooling. Variations of these baseline cases include no-radiation and stable-thermal-stratification cases. Preliminary results indicated the great importance of ice crystal fallout in determining even the gross cloud characteristics, such as average vertically-integrated ice water path (IWP). Significant inter-model differences were found. Ice water fall speed is directly related to the shape of the particle size distribution and the habits of the ice crystal population, whether assumed or explicitly calculated. In order to isolate the fall speed effect from that of the associated ice crystal population, simulations were also performed where ice water fall speed was set to the same constant value everywhere in each model. Values of 20 and 60 cm/s were assumed. Current results of the project will be described and implications will be drawn. In particular, this exercise is found to strongly focus the definition of issues resulting in observed inter-model differences and to suggest possible strategies for observational validation of the models. The next step in this project is to perform similar comparisons for well observed case studies with sufficient high quality data to adequately define model initiation and forcing specifications and to support quantitative validation of the results.

Starr, David OC.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric; Khvorostyanov, Vitaly; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

158

Computational Customer Behavior Modeling for Knowledge Management with an Automatic Categorization Using Retail Service's Datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the retail service, knowledge management with point of sales (POS) data mining is integral to maintaining and improving productivity. The present paper describes a method of computational customer behavior modeling based on real datasets, and we demonstrate some knowledge extractions from the model. The model is constructed by Bayesian network based on a large-scale POS dataset that incorporates customer

Tsukasa Ishigaki; Takeshi Takenaka; Yoichi Motomura

2010-01-01

159

Model reductions using a projection formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new methodology for model reduction of MIMO systems exploits the notion of an oblique projection. A reduced model is uniquely defined by a projector whose range space and orthogonal to the null space are chosen among the ranges of generalized controllability and observability matrices. The reduced order models match various combinations (chosen by the designer) of four types of parameters of the full order system associated with (1) low frequency response, (2) high frequency response, (3) low frequency power spectral density, and (4) high frequency power spectral density. Thus, the proposed method is a computationally simple substitute for many existing methods, has an extreme flexibility to embrace combinations of existing methods and offers some new features.

De Villemagne, Christian; Skelton, Robert E.

1987-01-01

160

Interannual climate variability seen in the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following proxy observations of weakened temperature gradients along the Equator in the early Pliocene, there has been much speculation about Pliocene climate variability. A major advance for our knowledge about the later Pliocene has been the coordination of modelling efforts through the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). Here the changes in interannual modes of sea surface temperature variability will be presented across PlioMIP. Previously model ensembles have shown little consensus in the response of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to imposed forcings - either for the past or future. The PlioMIP ensemble, however, shows surprising agreement with eight models simulating reduced variability and only one model indicating no change. The Pliocene's robustly weaker ENSO also saw a shift to lower frequencies. Model ensembles focussed at a wide variety of forcing scenarios have not yet shown this level of coherency. Nonetheless the PlioMIP ensemble does not show a robust response of either ENSO flavour or sea surface temperature variability in the Tropical Indian and North Pacific Oceans. Existing suggestions of ENSO properties linked to changes in zonal temperature gradient, seasonal cycle and the elevation of the Andes Mountains are investigated, yet prove insufficient to explain the coherent response. The reason for this surprisingly coherent signal warrants further investigation.

Brierley, C. M.

2014-09-01

161

Building information models for astronomy projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Building Information Model is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a building. BIMs represent the geometrical characteristics of the Building, but also properties like bills of quantities, definition of COTS components, status of material in the different stages of the project, project economic data, etc. The BIM methodology, which is well established in the Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) domain for conventional buildings, has been brought one step forward in its application for Astronomical/Scientific facilities. In these facilities steel/concrete structures have high dynamic and seismic requirements, M&E installations are complex and there is a large amount of special equipment and mechanisms involved as a fundamental part of the facility. The detail design definition is typically implemented by different design teams in specialized design software packages. In order to allow the coordinated work of different engineering teams, the overall model, and its associated engineering database, is progressively integrated using a coordination and roaming software which can be used before starting construction phase for checking interferences, planning the construction sequence, studying maintenance operation, reporting to the project office, etc. This integrated design & construction approach will allow to efficiently plan construction sequence (4D). This is a powerful tool to study and analyze in detail alternative construction sequences and ideally coordinate the work of different construction teams. In addition engineering, construction and operational database can be linked to the virtual model (6D), what gives to the end users a invaluable tool for the lifecycle management, as all the facility information can be easily accessed, added or replaced. This paper presents the BIM methodology as implemented by IDOM with the E-ELT and ATST Enclosures as application examples.

Ariño, Javier; Murga, Gaizka; Campo, Ramón; Eletxigerra, Iñigo; Ampuero, Pedro

2012-09-01

162

Conceptual simulation model for strategic decision evaluation in project management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on a conceptual methodology for an integrated simulation model dubbed as dynamic simulation modelling system (DSMS) for proactive and optimal decision making within a project management framework. Due to the uncertainties in project environment, the technical and operational functionality of a facility needs to be assessed during development and operation phases of the project. The simulation model

Hemanta Doloi; Ali Jaafari

2002-01-01

163

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 24: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SAE mail survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

164

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 34: How early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists produce and use information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the production and use of information by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who had changed their American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) membership from student to professional in the past five years.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

165

The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI–MIP): Project framework  

PubMed Central

The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project offers a framework to compare climate impact projections in different sectors and at different scales. Consistent climate and socio-economic input data provide the basis for a cross-sectoral integration of impact projections. The project is designed to enable quantitative synthesis of climate change impacts at different levels of global warming. This report briefly outlines the objectives and framework of the first, fast-tracked phase of Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project, based on global impact models, and provides an overview of the participating models, input data, and scenario set-up. PMID:24344316

Warszawski, Lila; Frieler, Katja; Huber, Veronika; Piontek, Franziska; Serdeczny, Olivia; Schewe, Jacob

2014-01-01

166

GCSS Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project, a project of GCSS Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (WG2), involves the systematic comparison of current models of ice crystal nucleation and growth for specified, typical, cirrus cloud environments. The goal of this project is to document and understand the factors resulting in significant inter-model differences. The intent is to foment research leading to model improvement and validation. In Phase 1 of the project reported here, simulated cirrus cloud microphysical properties are compared for situations of "warm" (-40 C) and "cold" (-60 C) cirrus subject to updrafts of 4, 20 and 100 cm/s, respectively. Five models participated. These models employ explicit microphysical schemes wherein the size distribution of each class of particles (aerosols and ice crystals) is resolved into bins. Simulations are made including both homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. A single initial aerosol population of sulfuric acid particles is prescribed for all simulations. To isolate the treatment of the homogeneous freezing (of haze drops) nucleation process, the heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is disabled for a second parallel set of simulations. Qualitative agreement is found for the homogeneous-nucleation-only simulations, e.g., the number density of nucleated ice crystals increases with the strength of the prescribed updraft. However, non-negligible quantitative differences are found. Detailed analysis reveals that the homogeneous nucleation formulation, aerosol size, ice crystal growth rate (particularly the deposition coefficient), and water vapor uptake rate are critical components that lead to differences in predicted microphysics. Systematic bias exists between results based on a modified classical theory approach and models using an effective freezing temperature approach to the treatment of nucleation. Each approach is constrained by critical freezing data from laboratory studies, but each includes assumptions that can only be justified by further laboratory data. Consequently, it is not yet clear if the two approaches can be made consistent. Large haze particles may deviate considerably from equilibrium size in moderate to strong updrafts (20-100 cm/s) at -60 C when the commonly invoked equilibrium assumption is lifted. The resulting difference in particle-size-dependent solution concentration of haze particles may significantly affect the ice nucleation rate during the initial nucleation interval. The uptake rate for water vapor excess by ice crystals is another key component regulating the total number of nucleated ice crystals. This rate, the product of ice number concentration and ice crystal diffusional growth rate, which is sensitive to the deposition coefficient when ice particles are small, partially controls the peak nucleation rate achieved in an air parcel and the duration of the active nucleation time period. The effects of heterogeneous nucleation are most pronounced in weak updraft situations. Vapor competition by the nucleated (heterogeneous) ice crystals limits the achieved ice supersaturation and thus suppresses the contribution of homogeneous nucleation. Correspondingly, ice crystal number density is markedly reduced. Definitive laboratory and atmospheric benchmark data are needed for the heterogeneous nucleation process. Inter-model differences are correspondingly greater than in the case of the homogeneous nucleation process acting alone.

Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David OC.; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Jensen, Eric; Sassen, Kenneth; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

167

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The information provided through LMMP will assist CxP in: planning tasks in the areas of landing site evaluation and selection, design and placement of landers and other stationary assets, design of rovers and other mobile assets, developing terrain-relative navigation (TRN) capabilities, and assessment and planning of science traverses.

Noble, Sarah K.; French, R. A.; Nall, M. E.; Muery, K. G.

2009-01-01

168

Knowledge model-based heterogeneous multi-robot system implemented by a software platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to build a heterogeneous multi-robot system that can be regarded as a primitive prototype of a future symbiotic autonomous human-robot system, this paper presents a knowledge model-based heterogeneous multi-robot system implemented by a software platform. With using frame-based knowledge representation, a knowledge model is constructed to describe the features of heterogeneous robots as well as their behaviors according

Tao Zhang; Haruki Ueno

2007-01-01

169

Construction of heterogeneous multi-robot system based on knowledge model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposed a knowledge model-based method to construct a heterogeneous multi-robot system that can be regarded as a primitive prototype of a future symbiotic autonomous human-robot system. In this method, with using frame-based knowledge model, the features of heterogeneous robots as well as their behaviors according to human requests are described. The required knowledge for heterogeneous multi-robot system can

T. Zhang; V. Ampornaramveth; H. Ueno

2005-01-01

170

Building integral projection models: a user's guide  

PubMed Central

In order to understand how changes in individual performance (growth, survival or reproduction) influence population dynamics and evolution, ecologists are increasingly using parameterized mathematical models. For continuously structured populations, where some continuous measure of individual state influences growth, survival or reproduction, integral projection models (IPMs) are commonly used. We provide a detailed description of the steps involved in constructing an IPM, explaining how to: (i) translate your study system into an IPM; (ii) implement your IPM; and (iii) diagnose potential problems with your IPM. We emphasize how the study organism's life cycle, and the timing of censuses, together determine the structure of the IPM kernel and important aspects of the statistical analysis used to parameterize an IPM using data on marked individuals. An IPM based on population studies of Soay sheep is used to illustrate the complete process of constructing, implementing and evaluating an IPM fitted to sample data. We then look at very general approaches to parameterizing an IPM, using a wide range of statistical techniques (e.g. maximum likelihood methods, generalized additive models, nonparametric kernel density estimators). Methods for selecting models for parameterizing IPMs are briefly discussed. We conclude with key recommendations and a brief overview of applications that extend the basic model. The online Supporting Information provides commented R code for all our analyses. PMID:24219157

Rees, Mark; Childs, Dylan Z; Ellner, Stephen P; Coulson, Tim

2014-01-01

171

Sustainability and Local Knowledge: The Case of the Brazilian ESP Project 1980-2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the Brazilian ESP Project, this paper discusses why it has been able to sustain itself and develop over such a long period. The analysis focuses on two main areas of decision-making which led to this success: the structure of the project itself and the ESP methodology which was developed. Comparing the…

Holmes, John; Celani, Maria Antonieta A.

2006-01-01

172

Chapter 23 The Belize Ethnobotany Project: safeguarding medicinal plants and traditional knowledge in Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Belize Ethnobotany Project was initiated in 1988, through a collaborative effort of a number of individuals and institutions. This paper discusses some of the components of the project, and its accomplishments and challenges. A checklist of the flora has been produced and includes 3408 native and cultivated species found in Belize. The multiple-use curve is introduced as a way

Michael J Balick; Rosita Arvigo; Gregory Shropshire; Jay Walker; David Campbell; Leopoldo Romero

2002-01-01

173

The Importance and Weaknesses of the Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To view contemporary Science as an industry is a very apt and timely stance. Ghassib's (2010) historical analysis of knowledge production, which he terms "A Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production," is an interesting one. It is important, however, to observe that the outline of this model is based entirely on the production of…

Persson, Roland S.

2010-01-01

174

KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION AND UNCERTAINTY REASONING IN GIS BASED ON CLOUD MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cloud model and its extensions are desc ribed and used in knowledge representation and uncertainty reasoning in GIS. A series of uncertainty reasoning algorithms are proposed based on cloud models. The digital characteristics of clouds well integrate the fuzziness and randomness of linguistic terms in a unified way, which lays a foundation of knowledge representation. The new uncertainty reasoning

Deren Li; Kaichang Di; Deyi Li

175

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) is managing the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling tools and data products that support lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test, and operations associated with crewed and/or robotic operations on the lunar surface. In addition, LMMP should prove to be a convenient and useful tool for scientific analysis and for education and public outreach (E/PO) activities. LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Lunar Prospector, Clementine, Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, and Chandrayaan-1) as available and appropriate. LMMP will provide such products as image mosaics, DEMs, hazard assessment maps, temperature maps, lighting maps and models, gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and ensure the highest quality data products. A beta version of the LMMP software was released for limited distribution in December 2009, with the public release of version 1 expected in the Fall of 2010.

Noble, S.; French, R.; Nall, M.; Muery, K.

2010-01-01

176

Resilience and Risk Competence in Schools: Theory/Knowledge and International Application in Project REBOUND  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a 50-year interdisciplinary and longitudinal research legacy--showing that nearly 80% of young people considered most "at risk" thrive by midlife--only recently have practitioners/researchers engaged in the explicit, prospective facilitation of "resilience" in educational settings. Here, theory/knowledge distinguishing and extending risk…

Brown, Joel H.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane; Beck, Jerome

2010-01-01

177

Enlargement Futures Project: Expert Panel on Technology, Knowledge and Learning. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The next 10 years provide an opportunity for the European Union (EU) to renew the science and technology (S&T) base and build necessary knowledge-society capacities and capabilities in Pre-Accession Countries (PACs). Applied research has faced a major downsize; redressing the balance in the research and development systems is urgently needed.…

Gourova, Elissaveta; Ducatel, Ken; Gavigan, James; Scapolo, Fabiana; Di Pietrogiacomo, Paola

178

Indigenous Knowledge in the Sciences and a Practical Application in the Super Saturday Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews books and research papers concerned with Indigenous science knowledge and its integration into school curricula and describes current efforts to bridge Western and Native science. "A Yupiaq World View: Implications for Cultural, Educational and Technological Adaptation in a Contemporary World" (Angayuqaq Oscar Kawagley)…

Settee, Priscilla

179

Modelling Tacit Knowledge via Questionnaire Peter Busch and Debbie Richards  

E-print Network

inventory to IT practitioners; using Formal Concept Analysis #12;(FCA) (Ganter and Wille 1999, Wille 1982) work-place, we have developed a tacit knowledge inventory which forms part of a questionnaire given to experts and non-experts in three separate IT organisations. In psy- chology, descriptive statistics

Richards, Debbie

180

Knowledge Modeling for Adaptive Content Selection in Educational Hypermedia Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive content selection and sequencing is recognized as among the most interesting research questions in adaptive educational hypermedia systems. In this paper, we address the adaptive content selection problem in educational hypermedia systems proposing a concrete methodology for capturing expert's knowledge on selection of learning content following the philosophy and principles of techniques derived from computational intelligence. The result is

Pythagoras Karampiperis; Demetrios Sampson

2004-01-01

181

A Model of Equitable and Sustainable Redistribution of Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is one of the pillars in which a Welfare State is effectively based on in order to achieve an equitable distribution of wealth. In contemporary society, knowledge and education are among the most appreciated goods, and everyone should have the right to acquire them, without distinction of gender, race, age, health or religion. From our…

Garcia, Ana Maria Delgado; Cuello, Rafael Oliver

2010-01-01

182

Fuzzy Techniques for Modelling Uncertainty in Medical Data and Knowledge  

E-print Network

are then presented. Keywords: Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Inference, Umbilical Acid-Base Analysis, Breast Cancer 1. Definitions with such uncertain data and knowledge. In this paper, definitions are first provided for conventional type-1 fuzzy Definition 1 A type-1 fuzzy set A of the universe of discourse X is characterised by a membership function µ

Aickelin, Uwe

183

Knowledge Modeling at the Millennium (The Design and Evolution of Protégé-2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been 13 years since the first version of Protégé was run. The original tool was a small application, aimed mainly at building knowledge-acquisition tools for a few very specialized programs (it grew out of the ONCOCIN project and the subsequent attempts to build expert systems for protocol-based therapy planning). The most recent version, Protégé-2000, incorporates the Open Knowledge

William E. Grosso; Henrik Eriksson; Ray W. Fergerson; John H. Gennari; Samson W. Tu; Mark A. Musen

1999-01-01

184

Modelling in Evaluating a Working Life Project in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an evaluation method based on collaboration between the higher education, a care home and university, in a R&D project. The aim of the project was to elaborate modelling as a tool of developmental evaluation for innovation and competence in project cooperation. The approach was based on activity theory. Modelling enabled a…

Sarja, Anneli; Janhonen, Sirpa; Havukainen, Pirjo; Vesterinen, Anne

2012-01-01

185

Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1998 Habitat Conservation Projects.  

SciTech Connect

The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a few of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. 1998 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek.

Bartels, Duane G.

1999-12-01

186

Performance evaluation model for project managers using managerial practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many studies address the issues of finding the critical success factors of projects. In this study, we focus on the performance of the people who manage projects. A performance evaluation model for project managers is constructed on the basis of managerial practices. This model incorporates leadership behaviors that lead to managerial practices with some essential factors that may

Sheu Hua Chen; Hong Tau Lee

2007-01-01

187

A comparative study of projection models on China's food economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, China's food supply and demand has been a hot topic for both politicians and academics given China's rapid economic development and its sheer market size. Accordingly, researchers are trying to project the future development of China's food economy. This article reviews several influential projection models and compares their model structure, major assumptions and projection results.

Xiaoyong Zhang

2003-01-01

188

A clinical teaching project: examination of a clinical teaching model.  

PubMed

This project, started in 1985 by Dr Infante, is based on theory of the use of the clinical laboratory in nursing education. It fully recognizes the complementary roles of nursing education and nursing service by having practitioners participate as preceptors, role models, and mentors. Six clinical agencies participated in this innovative clinical teaching project with the goal of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of nursing education and nursing practice. It is hypothesized that the synchronization of clinical laboratory experiences with instruction in nursing theory and science and a closer collaboration among faculty, students, and nurse practitioners will give students an appropriate balance of academic and clinical practice perspectives and skills to prepare them effectively to meet the complex health care needs of patients. The subjects were 173 undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in an upper-division generic program. For the purpose of testing Infante's clinical model, the students were randomly assigned to a control or experimental group for two successive incoming classes of nursing students. Each student's academic and clinical progression was monitored. Data were gathered using grade point average, a standardized test for nursing knowledge (Mosby Assesstest; Mosby, St Louis), college laboratory practicum, and simulated testing for clinical application skills.2+ Data were analyzed using independent t tests. The findings indicate that the students in the experimental group, who used the experimental clinical model, achieved higher grade point averages, higher scores on the Mosby Assesstest, and higher college laboratory practicum scores than the students in the control group. The findings support the need for further investigation of innovative clinical teaching models. PMID:2732400

Infante, M S; Forbes, E J; Houldin, A D; Naylor, M D

1989-01-01

189

Modeling Collaboration, In-Depth Projects, and Cognitive Discourse: A Reggio Emilia and Project Approach Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses two early childhood professors' experience of teaching a week-long collaborative course on Reggio Emilia, the Project Approach, and documentation. Principles of adult learning were used as a foundation to structure and organize the course, in which the early childhood education students applied their knowledge and skills to…

Bullard, Julie; Bullock, Janis R.

2002-01-01

190

Projection Regression Models for Multivariate Imaging Phenotype  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a projection regression model (PRM) to assess the relationship between a multivariate phenotype and a set of covariates, such as a genetic marker, age and gender. In the existing literature, a standard statistical approach to this problem is to fit a multivariate linear model to the multivariate phenotype and then use Hotelling’s T2 to test hypotheses of interest. An alternative approach is to fit a simple linear model and test hypotheses for each individual phenotype and then correct for multiplicity. However, even when the dimension of the multivariate phenotype is relatively small, say 5, such standard approaches can suffer from the issue of low statistical power in detecting the association between the multivariate phenotype and the covariates. The PRM generalizes a statistical method based on the principal component of heritability for association analysis in genetic studies of complex multivariate phenotypes. The key components of the PRM include an estimation procedure for extracting several principal directions of multivariate phenotypes relating to covariates and a test procedure based on wild-bootstrap method for testing for the association between the weighted multivariate phenotype and explanatory variables. Simulation studies and an imaging genetic dataset are used to examine the finite sample performance of the PRM. PMID:22807230

Lin, Ja-an; Zhu, Hongtu; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Styner, Martin; Gilmore, John; Ibrahim, Joseph G.

2012-01-01

191

Academy Sharing Knowledge (ASK). The NASA Source for Project Management Magazine. Volume 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

How big is your project world? Is it big enough to contain other cultures, headquarters, hierarchies, and weird harpoon-like guns? Sure it is. The great American poet Walt Whitman said it best, 'I am large/I contain multitudes.' And so must you, Mr. and Ms. Project Manager. In this issue of ASK, we look outside the project box. See how several talented project managers have expanded their definition of project scope to include managing environments outside the systems and subsystems under their care. Here's a sampling of what we've put together for you this issue: In 'Three Screws Missing,' Mike Skidmore tells about his adventures at the Plesetek Cosmodrome in northern Russia. Ray Morgan in his story, 'Our Man in Kauai,' suggests we take a broader view of what's meant by 'the team.' Jenny Baer-Riedhart, the NASA program manager on the same Pathfinder solar-powered airplane, schools us in how to sell a program to Headquarters in 'Know Thyself--But Don't Forget to Learn About the Customer Too.' Scott Cameron of Proctor and Gamble talks about sharpening your hierarchical IQ in 'The Project Manager and the Hour Glass.' Mike Jansen in 'The Lawn Dart' describes how he and the 'voodoo crew' on the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor program borrowed a harpoon-like gun from the Coast Guard to catch particles inside of a plume. These are just some of the stories you'll find in ASK this issue. We hope they cause you to stop and reflect on your own project's relationship to the world outside. We are also launching a new section this issue, 'There are No Mistakes, Only Lessons.' No stranger to ASK readers, Terry Little inaugurates this new section with his article 'The Don Quixote Complex.'

Post, Todd (Editor)

2001-01-01

192

A knowledge based model of electric utility operations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of an appendix to provide a documentation and help capability for an analyst using the developed expert system of electric utility operations running in CLIPS. This capability is provided through a separate package running under the WINDOWS Operating System and keyed to provide displays of text, graphics and mixed text and graphics that explain and elaborate on the specific decisions being made within the knowledge based expert system.

NONE

1993-08-11

193

An Intelligent Knowledge-Based System for Product Cost Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent knowledge-based system for product cost modellingis presented in this paper. The developed system has the capability\\u000a of selecting a material, as well as machining processes and parameters based on a set of design and production parameters;\\u000a and of estimating the product cost throughout the entire product development cycle including assembly cost. The proposed system\\u000a is applied without the

E. Shehab; H. Abdalla

2002-01-01

194

Meta-Modeling: A Knowledge-Based Approach to Facilitating Model Construction and Reuse  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we introduce a new modeling approach called meta-modeling and illustrate its practical applicability to the construction of physically-based ecosystem process models. As a critical adjunct to modeling codes meta-modeling requires explicit specification of certain background information related to the construction and conceptual underpinnings of a model. This information formalizes the heretofore tacit relationship between the mathematical modeling code and the underlying real-world phenomena being investigated, and gives insight into the process by which the model was constructed. We show how the explicit availability of such information can make models more understandable and reusable and less subject to misinterpretation. In particular, background information enables potential users to better interpret an implemented ecosystem model without direct assistance from the model author. Additionally, we show how the discipline involved in specifying background information leads to improved management of model complexity and fewer implementation errors. We illustrate the meta-modeling approach in the context of the Scientists' Intelligent Graphical Modeling Assistant (SIGMA) a new model construction environment. As the user constructs a model using SIGMA the system adds appropriate background information that ties the executable model to the underlying physical phenomena under investigation. Not only does this information improve the understandability of the final model it also serves to reduce the overall time and programming expertise necessary to initially build and subsequently modify models. Furthermore, SIGMA's use of background knowledge helps eliminate coding errors resulting from scientific and dimensional inconsistencies that are otherwise difficult to avoid when building complex models. As a. demonstration of SIGMA's utility, the system was used to reimplement and extend a well-known forest ecosystem dynamics model: Forest-BGC.

Keller, Richard M.; Dungan, Jennifer L.

1997-01-01

195

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The information provided through LMMP will assist CxP in: planning tasks in the areas of landing site evaluation and selection, design and placement of landers and other stationary assets, design of rovers and other mobile assets, developing terrain-relative navigation (TRN) capabilities, and assessment and planning of science traverses. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL - US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, and the USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation’s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. Two visualization systems are being developed, a web-based system called Lunar Mapper, and a desktop client, ILIADS, which will be downloadable from the LMMP portal. LMMP will provide such products as local and regional imagery and DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting and gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and to ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar commercial community, the lunar education and public outreach (E/PO) community, and anyone else interested in accessing or utilizing lunar data. A beta version of the portal and visualization systems is expected to be released in late 2009, with a version 1 release planned for early 2011.

Noble, S. K.; Nall, M. E.; French, R. A.; Muery, K. G.

2009-12-01

196

Modeling new coal projects: supercritical or subcritical?  

SciTech Connect

Decisions made on new build coal-fired plants are driven by several factors - emissions, fuel logistics and electric transmission access all provide constraints. The crucial economic decision whether to build supercritical or subcritical units often depends on assumptions concerning the reliability/availability of each technology, the cost of on-fuel operations including maintenance, the generation efficiencies and the potential for emissions credits at some future value. Modeling the influence of these key factors requires analysis and documentation to assure the assets actually meet the projected financial performance. This article addresses some of the issue related to the trade-offs that have the potential to be driven by the supercritical/subcritical decision. Solomon Associates has been collecting cost, generation and reliability data on coal-fired power generation assets for approximately 10 years using a strict methodology and taxonomy to categorize and compare actual plant operations data. This database provides validated information not only on performance, but also on alternative performance scenarios, which can provide useful insights in the pro forma financial analysis and models of new plants. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Carrino, A.J.; Jones, R.B. [Solomon Associates, Dallas, TX (United States)

2006-11-15

197

Understanding Ecology Content Knowledge and Acquiring Science Process Skills through Project-Based Science Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity discusses a two-day unit on ecology implemented during the summer of 2004 using the project-based science instructional (PBSI) approach. Through collaborative fieldwork, group discussions, presentations, and reflections, students planned, implemented, and reported their own scientific investigations on the environmental health of…

Colley, Kabba E.

2006-01-01

198

Prime the Pipeline Project (P[cube]): Putting Knowledge to Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With funding from NSF, the Prime the Pipeline Project (P[cube]) is responding to the need to strengthen the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pipeline from high school to college by developing and evaluating the scientific village strategy and the culture it creates. The scientific village, a community of high school…

Greenes, Carole; Wolfe, Susan; Weight, Stephanie; Cavanagh, Mary; Zehring, Julie

2011-01-01

199

Integrating IS Curriculum Knowledge through a Cluster-Computing Project--A Successful Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MIS curricula in business schools are challenged to provide MIS courses that give students a strong practical understanding of the basic technologies, while also providing enough hands-on experience to solve real life problems. As an experimental capstone MIS course, the authors developed a cluster-computing project to expose business students to…

Kitchens, Fred L.; Sharma, Sushil K.; Harris, Thomas

2004-01-01

200

Modelling in Cross-Disciplinary Authentic Student Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Dutch secondary education system, students must carry out at the end of their school career a research or design project to demonstrate their ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills while pursuing a rather large research question or design goal in some depth. They are encouraged to choose the topic themselves and they are to some…

Heck, Andre

2010-01-01

201

Interrelationship of Knowledge, Interest, and Recall: Assessing a Model of Domain Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments involving 125 college and graduate students examined the interrelationship of subject-matter knowledge, interest, and recall in the field of human immunology and biology and assessed cross-domain performance in physics. Patterns of knowledge, interest, and performance fit well with the premises of the Model of Domain Learning. (SLD)

Alexander, Patricia A.; And Others

1995-01-01

202

Modeling the Evolution of Knowledge and Reasoning in Learning Abhishek Sharma and Kenneth D. Forbus  

E-print Network

Modeling the Evolution of Knowledge and Reasoning in Learning Systems Abhishek Sharma and Kenneth D}@northwestern.edu Abstract How do reasoning systems that learn evolve over time? Characterizing the evolution interact: Create a small knowledge base by ablation, and incrementally re-add facts, collecting snapshots

Forbus, Kenneth D.

203

A Conceptual Model for Teaching Critical Thinking in a Knowledge Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical thinking, viewed as rational and analytic thinking, is crucial for participation in a knowledge economy and society. This article provides a brief presentation of the importance of teaching critical thinking in a knowledge economy; suggests a conceptual model for teaching thinking; examines research on the historical role of teachers in…

Chadwick, Clifton

2011-01-01

204

Designing Cognitive Tools for Teaching: A Knowledge-Based Model Philippe Dessus  

E-print Network

-supported cognitive tools that aims at addressing these three issues. This model uses Popper's theory of knowledge: Instructional Design, Popper's Theory of Knowledge, Cognitive Tool, Teaching. hal-00331638,version1-17Oct2008" to Vygotsky (but see epigraph for an older reference to cognitive tools), for whom a tool is both social

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

Zhang, Dongbo

2012-01-01

206

From Implicit Skills to Explicit Knowledge: A Bottom-Up Model of Skill Learning  

E-print Network

procedural knowledge develops #12;rst and declarative knowledge develops later. Our model is formed by integrating connectionist, reinforcement, and symbolic learning methods to perform on-line reactive learning. It adopts a two-level dual-representation framework (Sun 1995), with a combination of local- ist

Varela, Carlos

207

Value Creation from Intellectual Capital: Convergence of Knowledge Management and Collaboration in the Intellectual Bandwidth Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current efforts in managing knowledge have concentrated on creating, sharing and storing knowledge while business problems require the combined use of these intellectual resources to enable organizations to provide innovative and customized services. The Intellectual Bandwidth model posits that an organization's potential to create value is determined by its intellectual assets and collaboration capabilities. While this is a potentially powerful

Sajda Qureshi; Robert O. Briggs; Vlatka Hlupic

2006-01-01

208

Developing computational models of discretion to build legal knowledge based systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few legal knowledge based systems have been constructed which provide numerical advice. None have been built in discretionary domains. Our research, directed towards the domains of sentencing and family law property division has lead to the development of three distinct forms of judicial discretion.To model these different discretionary domains we use diverse artificial intelligence tools including case-based reasoning and knowledge

Yaakov HaCohen Kerner; Uri J. Schild; John Zeleznikowl

1999-01-01

209

Duska Rosenberg & Keith Devlin -1 -1/11/07 Information-based Model for Knowledge Management  

E-print Network

analyzed using Situation Theory, a mathematical theory of information. The resulting conceptual framework, Organizational Learning, Shared Knowledge, Situation Theory. 1 School of Management, Royal Holloway UniversityDuska Rosenberg & Keith Devlin - 1 - 1/11/07 Information-based Model for Knowledge Management

Devlin, Keith

210

National Models for Continuing Professional Development: The Challenges of Twenty-First-Century Knowledge Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If teacher quality is the most critical factor in improving educational outcomes, then why is so little attention drawn to the knowledge and evidence base available to support teachers in improving the quality of their professional knowledge? This paper draws together findings from a range of sources to propose national models for continuing…

Leask, Marilyn; Younie, Sarah

2013-01-01

211

Collaborative Knowledge Production in China: Regional Evidence from a Gravity Model Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scherngell T. and Hu Y. Collaborative knowledge production in China: regional evidence from a gravity model approach, Regional Studies. This study investigates collaborative knowledge production in China from a regional perspective. The objective is to illustrate spatial patterns of research collaborations between thirty-one Chinese regions, and to estimate the impact of geographical, technological, and economic factors on the variation of

Thomas Scherngell; Yuanjia Hu

2011-01-01

212

Modeling Mental Spatial Knowledge Processing as Integrating Paradigm for Spatial Reasoning  

E-print Network

Modeling Mental Spatial Knowledge Processing as Integrating Paradigm for Spatial Reasoning Thomas@informatik.uni-bremen.de Mental Spatial Knowledge Processing Human reasoning about spatial environments or spatial configurations is often based on spatio-analogical mental representations (mental images). Due to restrictions in pro

Bremen, Universität

213

Toward a Model of Embodied Environmental Education: Perspectives from Theatre and Indigenous Knowledges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper suggests a model of embodied environmental education grounded in participant interviews, fieldwork, scholarly literature, and the author's own embodied relationship with the natural world. In this article, embodiment refers to a process that stems from Indigenous Knowledges and theatre. Although Indigenous Knowledges and theatre…

Lane, Julia

2012-01-01

214

How Can Clients Improve the Quality of Transport Infrastructure Projects? The Role of Knowledge Management and Incentives  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to argue for a number of statements about what is important for a client to do in order to improve quality in new infrastructure projects, with a focus on procurement and organizational issues. The paper synthesizes theoretical and empirical results concerning organizational performance, especially the role of the client for the quality of a project. The theoretical framework used is contract theory and transaction cost theory, where assumptions about rationality and self-interest are made and where incentive problems, asymmetric information, and moral hazard are central concepts. It is argued that choice of procurement type will not be a crucial factor. There is no procurement method that guarantees a better quality than another. We argue that given the right conditions all procurement methods can give good results, and given the wrong conditions, all of them can lead to low quality. What is crucial is how the client organization manages knowledge and the incentives for the members of the organization. This can be summarized as “organizational culture.” One way to improve knowledge and create incentives is to use independent second opinions in a systematic way. PMID:24250274

Warsame, Abukar; Borg, Lena; Lind, Hans

2013-01-01

215

How can clients improve the quality of transport infrastructure projects? The role of knowledge management and incentives.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to argue for a number of statements about what is important for a client to do in order to improve quality in new infrastructure projects, with a focus on procurement and organizational issues. The paper synthesizes theoretical and empirical results concerning organizational performance, especially the role of the client for the quality of a project. The theoretical framework used is contract theory and transaction cost theory, where assumptions about rationality and self-interest are made and where incentive problems, asymmetric information, and moral hazard are central concepts. It is argued that choice of procurement type will not be a crucial factor. There is no procurement method that guarantees a better quality than another. We argue that given the right conditions all procurement methods can give good results, and given the wrong conditions, all of them can lead to low quality. What is crucial is how the client organization manages knowledge and the incentives for the members of the organization. This can be summarized as "organizational culture." One way to improve knowledge and create incentives is to use independent second opinions in a systematic way. PMID:24250274

Warsame, Abukar; Borg, Lena; Lind, Hans

2013-01-01

216

NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXVII - Knowledge diffusion and U.S. government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Federal involvement in stimulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

1992-01-01

217

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 27: Knowledge diffusion and US government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Federal involvement in simulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

1992-01-01

218

2 + 3 MODEL: FRACTAL PROCESSES FOR KNOWLEDGE-BASED ENGINEERING DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel model, the 2 + 3 model, for the knowledge-based engineering design using fractal concepts is presented. In this model, a complex, large-scale engineering design problem is considered to be a fractal abject; the design process solving for this problem is considered to be a fractal process; the fractal process is organized by the basic 2 + 3 model

Q. CHEN

1993-01-01

219

Supporting project cost threshold decisions via a mathematical cost model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project cost threshold must be determined in a relatively short time by a project owner as a reference for evaluating competitive bids. In practice, such a decision is mainly based on subjective experience. This work presents a novel systematic procedure for assessing a reasonable project cost threshold. The proposed procedure involves a utility-based multi-criteria evaluation model and a cost

Wei-Chih Wang

2004-01-01

220

Workplace Literacy. Essays from the Model Literacy Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 20 essays in this collection are based on a project undertaken by the California Conservation Corps (CCC) and the Model Literacy Project in 1983-85. (The goal of the project was to institute changes within the CCC to enhance the literacy of corpsmembers.) Essays describe innovative approaches to literacy education, analyze bureaucratic…

Holzman, Michael, Ed.; Connolly, Olga, Ed.

221

A Knowledge-Based Representation Scheme for Environmental Science Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary methods available for studying environmental phenomena is the construction and analysis of computational models. We have been studying how artificial intelligence techniques can be applied to assist in the development and use of environmental science models within the context of NASA-sponsored activities. We have identified several high-utility areas as potential targets for research and development: model development; data visualization, analysis, and interpretation; model publishing and reuse, training and education; and framing, posing, and answering questions. Central to progress on any of the above areas is a representation for environmental models that contains a great deal more information than is present in a traditional software implementation. In particular, a traditional software implementation is devoid of any semantic information that connects the code with the environmental context that forms the background for the modeling activity. Before we can build AI systems to assist in model development and usage, we must develop a representation for environmental models that adequately describes a model's semantics and explicitly represents the relationship between the code and the modeling task at hand. We have developed one such representation in conjunction with our work on the SIGMA (Scientists' Intelligent Graphical Modeling Assistant) environment. The key feature of the representation is that it provides a semantic grounding for the symbols in a set of modeling equations by linking those symbols to an explicit representation of the underlying environmental scenario.

Keller, Richard M.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

222

CmapTools: A Software Environment for Knowledge Modeling and Sharing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an ongoing collaborative effort between a group of NASA Ames scientists and researchers at the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) of the University of West Florida, a new version of CmapTools has been developed that enable scientists to construct knowledge models of their domain of expertise, share them with other scientists, make them available to anybody on the Internet with access to a Web browser, and peer-review other scientists models. These software tools have been successfully used at NASA to build a large-scale multimedia on Mars and in knowledge model on Habitability Assessment. The new version of the software places emphasis on greater usability for experts constructing their own knowledge models, and support for the creation of large knowledge models with large number of supporting resources in the forms of images, videos, web pages, and other media. Additionally, the software currently allows scientists to cooperate with each other in the construction, sharing and criticizing of knowledge models. Scientists collaborating from remote distances, for example researchers at the Astrobiology Institute, can concurrently manipulate the knowledge models they are viewing without having to do this at a special videoconferencing facility.

Canas, Alberto J.

2004-01-01

223

Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: a latent change score modeling study.  

PubMed

The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, Mage  = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension to test for the presence of leading and lagging influences. Univariate models indicated growth in vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension was determined by two parts: constant yearly change and change proportional to the previous level of the variable. Bivariate models indicated previous levels of vocabulary knowledge acted as leading indicators of reading comprehension growth, but the reverse relation was not found. Implications for theories of developmental relations between vocabulary and reading comprehension are discussed. PMID:25201552

Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

2015-01-01

224

A Model for Student Learning in Knowledge Translation and Transfer in Ontario  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to create a model for student learning in knowledge translation and transfer in Ontario. The study was informed by two focus groups, each associated with a student research communications skill development program...

Roberts, Owen A.

2011-10-21

225

Mathematical learning models that depend on prior knowledge and instructional strategies  

E-print Network

We present mathematical learning models—predictions of student’s knowledge vs amount of instruction—that are based on assumptions motivated by various theories of learning: tabula rasa, constructivist, and tutoring. These ...

Pritchard, David E.; Lee, Young-Jin; Bao, Lei

2008-05-01

226

Fuzzy Present Value Analysis Model for Evaluating Information System Projects  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the economic evaluation of information system projects using present value is analyzed based on triangular fuzzy numbers. Information system projects usually have numerous uncertainties and several conditions of risk that make their economic evaluation a challenging task. Each year, several information system projects are cancelled before completion as a result of budget overruns at a cost of several billions of dollars to industry. Although engineering economic analysis offers tools and techniques for evaluating risky projects, the tools are not enough to place information system projects on a safe budget/selection track. There is a need for an integrative economic analysis model that will account for the uncertainties in estimating project costs, benefits, and useful lives of uncertain and risky projects. In this study, we propose an approximate method of computing project present value using the concept of fuzzy modeling with special reference to information system projects. This proposed model has the potential of enhancing the project selection process by capturing a better economic picture of the project alternatives. The proposed methodology can also be used for other real-life projects with high degree of uncertainty and risk.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Badiru, Adedeji B [ORNL

2007-01-01

227

A Team Building Model for Software Engineering Courses Term Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a new model for team building, which enables teachers to build coherent teams rapidly and fairly for the term projects of software engineering courses. Moreover, the model can also be used to build teams for any type of project, if the team member candidates are students, or if they are inexperienced on a certain subject. The…

Sahin, Yasar Guneri

2011-01-01

228

CERFACS: Scientific Report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Project  

E-print Network

are necessary before we can defend a prediction of the global warming of the next century, with a state­of­the art climate model. Based on these actual and potential achievements, the Global Change CERFACS projectCERFACS: Scientific Report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Project 1992 ­ 1993 October 25 th

229

Building Project Model Support for Automated Labor Monitoring  

E-print Network

prone. Consequently, an automated model for monitoring labor inputs, based on automated data collection of project performance indicators, such as cost, schedule, labor productivity, materials consumption or wasteBuilding Project Model Support for Automated Labor Monitoring R. Sacks1 ; R. Navon2 ; and E

Sacks, Rafael

230

UPPER AUGLAIZE WATERSHED AGNPS MODELING PROJECT FINAL REPORT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Upper Auglaize Watershed agricultural non-point source modeling project was an interagency effort to use a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based modeling approach for assessing and reducing pollution from agricultural runoff and other non-point sources. This project applied the U.S. Departm...

231

Departmental Enrollment Projection Model. AIR Forum 1979 Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Departmental Enrollment Projection Model (DEPM), which is based on the assumption that enrollments are essentially influenced by economic and social forces, is described. Under the model's approach, the department, rather than the institution as a whole, is seen as the focal point of both the enrollment projection and, by implication, the…

Toporovsky, R. H.

232

Improving Climate Projections Through the Assessment of Model Uncertainty and Bias in the Global Water Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implications of a changing climate have a profound impact on human life, society, and policy making. The need for accurate climate prediction becomes increasingly important as we better understand these implications. Currently, the most widely used climate prediction relies on the synthesis of climate model simulations organized by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP); these simulations are ensemble-averaged to construct projections for the 21st century climate. However, a significant degree of bias and variability in the model simulations for the 20th century climate is well-known at both global and regional scales. Based on that insight, this study provides an alternative approach for constructing climate projections that incorporates knowledge of model bias. This approach is demonstrated to be a viable alternative which can be easily implemented by water resource managers for potentially more accurate projections. Tests of the new approach are provided on a global scale with an emphasis on semiarid regional studies for their particular vulnerability to water resource changes, using both the former CMIP Phase 3 (CMIP3) and current Phase 5 (CMIP5) model archives. This investigation is accompanied by a detailed analysis of the dynamical processes and water budget to understand the behaviors and sources of model biases. Sensitivity studies of selected CMIP5 models are also performed with an atmospheric component model by testing the relationship between climate change forcings and model simulated response. The information derived from each study is used to determine the progressive quality of coupled climate models in simulating the global water cycle by rigorously investigating sources of model bias related to the moisture budget. As such, the conclusions of this project are highly relevant to model development and potentially may be used to further improve climate projections.

Baker, Noel C.

233

A design tool for reusing integration knowledge in simulation models  

E-print Network

In the academic field of computer-aided product development, the role of the design tool is to support engineering designers to develop and integrate simulation models. Used to save time and costs in product development ...

Han, Sangmok

2006-01-01

234

NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 31: The information-seeking behavior of engineers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers are an extraordinarily diverse group of professionals, but an attribute common to all engineers is their use of information. Engineering can be conceptualized as an information processing system that must deal with work-related uncertainty through patterns of technical communications. Throughout the process, data, information, and tacit knowledge are being acquired, produced, transferred, and utilized. While acknowledging that other models exist, we have chosen to view the information-seeking behavior of engineers within a conceptual framework of the engineer as an information processor. This article uses the chosen framework to discuss information-seeking behavior of engineers, reviewing selected literature and empirical studies from library and information science, management, communications, and sociology. The article concludes by proposing a research agenda designed to extend our current, limited knowledge of the way engineers process information.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Bishop, Ann P.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1993-01-01

235

Knowledge in formation: The machine-modeled frame of mind  

SciTech Connect

Artificial Intelligence researchers have used the digital computer as a model for the human mind in two different ways. Most obviously, the computer has been used as a tool on which simulations of thinking-as-programs are developed and tested. Less obvious, but of great significance, is the use of the computer as a conceptual model for the human mind. This essay traces the sources of this machine-modeled conception of cognition in a great variety of social institutions and everyday experienced treating them as {open_quotes}cultural models{close_quotes} which have contributed to the naturalness of The mine-as-machine paradigm for many Americans. The roots of these models antedate the actual development of modern computers, and take the form of a {open_quotes}modularity schema{close_quotes} that has shaped the cultural and cognitive landscape of modernity. The essay concludes with a consideration of some of the cognitive consequences of this extension of machine logic into modern life, and proposes an important distinction between information processing models of thought and meaning-making in how human cognition is conceptualized.

Shore, B.

1996-12-31

236

Integrated Medical Model Project - Overview and Summary of Historical Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project represents one aspect of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) to quantitatively assess medical risks to astronauts for existing operational missions as well as missions associated with future exploration and commercial space flight ventures. The IMM takes a probabilistic approach to assessing the likelihood and specific outcomes of one hundred medical conditions within the envelope of accepted space flight standards of care over a selectable range of mission capabilities. A specially developed Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) maintains evidence-based, organizational knowledge across a variety of data sources. Since becoming operational in 2011, version 3.0 of the IMM, the supporting iMED, and the expertise of the IMM project team have contributed to a wide range of decision and informational processes for the space medical and human research community. This presentation provides an overview of the IMM conceptual architecture and range of application through examples of actual space flight community questions posed to the IMM project. Methods: Figure 1 [see document] illustrates the IMM modeling system and scenario process. As illustrated, the IMM computational architecture is based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment techniques. Nineteen assumptions and limitations define the IMM application domain. Scenario definitions include crew medical attributes and mission specific details. The IMM forecasts probabilities of loss of crew life (LOCL), evacuation (EVAC), quality time lost during the mission, number of medical resources utilized and the number and type of medical events by combining scenario information with in-flight, analog, and terrestrial medical information stored in the iMED. In addition, the metrics provide the integrated information necessary to estimate optimized in-flight medical kit contents under constraints of mass and volume or acceptable level of mission risk. Results and Conclusions: Historically, IMM simulations support Science and Technology planning, Exploration mission planning, and ISS program operations by supplying simulation support, iMED data information, and subject matter expertise to Crew Health and Safety and the HRP. Upcoming release of IMM version 4.0 seeks to provide enhanced functionality to increase the quality of risk decisions made using the IMM through a more accurate representation of the real world system.

Myers, J.; Boley, L.; Butler, D.; Foy, M.; Goodenow, D.; Griffin, D.; Keenan, A.; Kerstman, E.; Melton, S.; McGuire, K.; Saile, L.; Shah, R.; Garcia, Y.; Sirmons, B.; Walton, M.

2015-01-01

237

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 7:Summary report to phase 2 respondents including frequency distributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phase 2 of the four phase NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project was undertaken to study the transfer of scientific and technical information (STI) from government to the aerospace industry and the role of librarians and technical information specialists in the transfer process. Data was collected through a self-administered mailback questionnaire. Libraries identified as holding substantial aerospace or aeronautical technical report collections were selected to receive the questionnaires. Within each library, the person responsible for the technical report was requested to answer the questionnaire. Questionnaires were returned from approx. 68 pct. of the libraries. The respondents indicated that scientists and engineer are not aware of the services available from libraries/technical information centers and that scientists and engineers also under-utilized their services. The respondents also indicated they should be more involved in the process.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

1991-01-01

238

Unified Resource Modelling: Integrating knowledge into business processes  

E-print Network

and is able to do. This is a base work to the development of a new tool for human resources management from the human resources management field. Coming from social sciences, the focus is on people, how systems specialists and human resources professionals. A generic framework for resource modelling is used

239

Creating Metabolic Network Models using Text Mining and Expert Knowledge  

E-print Network

, D. Berleant, Z. Cox, W. Qi, D. Ashlock, E. Wurtele and A.W. Fulmer 9.1 Introduction RNA profiling an interactive graph display module. The basic metabolic or regulatory flow in the network is modeled using fuzzy and Links The nodes in the metabolic network represent specific biochemicals such as proteins, RNA

Dickerson, Julie A.

240

Validation of HEDR models. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project has developed a set of computer models for estimating the possible radiation doses that individuals may have received from past Hanford Site operations. This document describes the validation of these models. In the HEDR Project, the model validation exercise consisted of comparing computational model estimates with limited historical field measurements and experimental measurements that are independent of those used to develop the models. The results of any one test do not mean that a model is valid. Rather, the collection of tests together provide a level of confidence that the HEDR models are valid.

Napier, B.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Eslinger, P.W.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Thiede, M.E.; Walters, W.H.

1994-05-01

241

NTHMP Project Narrative Project Name/Title: Modeling Tsunami Inundation and Assessing Tsunami Hazards  

E-print Network

1 NTHMP Project Narrative Project Name/Title: Modeling Tsunami Inundation and Assessing Tsunami In contrast to the long history of tsunami hazard assessment on the US West coast and Hawaii, tsunami hazard tsunami records and the uncertainty regarding the magnitude and return periods of potential large

Kirby, James T.

242

A model to capture and manage tacit knowledge using a multiagent system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a model to capture and register business tacit knowledge belonging to different sources, using an expert multiagent system which enables the entry of incidences and captures the tacit knowledge which could fix them. This knowledge and their sources are evaluated through the application of trustworthy algorithms that lead to the registration of the data base and the best of each of them. Through its intelligent software agents, this system interacts with the administrator, users, with the knowledge sources and with all the practice communities which might exist in the business world. The sources as well as the knowledge are constantly evaluated, before being registered and also after that, in order to decide the staying or modification of its original weighting. If there is the possibility of better, new knowledge are registered through the old ones. This is also part of an investigation being carried out which refers to knowledge management methodologies in order to manage tacit business knowledge so as to make the business competitiveness easier and leading to innovation learning.

Paolino, Lilyam; Paggi, Horacio; Alonso, Fernando; López, Genoveva

2014-10-01

243

Radiation exposure modeling and project schedule visualization  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses two applications using IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) to assist environmental remediation efforts at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. In the first application, IGRIP is used to calculate the estimated radiation exposure to workers conducting tasks in radiation environments. In the second, IGRIP is used as a configuration management tool to detect interferences between equipment and personnel work areas for multiple projects occurring simultaneously in one area. Both of these applications have the capability to reduce environmental remediation costs by reducing personnel radiation exposure and by providing a method to effectively manage multiple projects in a single facility.

Jaquish, W.R.; Enderlin, V.R. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-10-01

244

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 8: The role of the information intermediary in the diffusion of aerospace knowledge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States aerospace industry is experiencing profound changes created by a combination of domestic actions and circumstances such as airline deregulation. Other changes result from external trends such as emerging foreign competition. These circumstances intensify the need to understand the production, transfer, and utilization of knowledge as a precursor to the rapid diffusion of technology. Presented here is a conceptual framework for understanding the diffusion of technology. A conceptual framework is given for understanding the diffusion of aerospace knowledge. The framework focuses on the information channels and members of the social system associated with the aerospace knowledge diffusion process, placing particular emphasis on aerospace librarians as information intermediaries.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

1990-01-01

245

Technical Integration of Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Location Related Funded Projects into the DOE Knowledge Base  

SciTech Connect

This document directly reviews the current Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) PRDA contracts and describes how they can best be integrated with the DOE CTBT R&D Knowledge Base. Contract descriptions and numbers listed below are based on the DOE CTBT R&D Web Site - http://www.ctbt.rnd.doe.gov. More detailed information on the nature of each contract can be found through this web site. In general, the location related PRDA contracts provide products over a set of categories. These categories can be divided into five areas, namely: Contextual map information; Reference event data; Velocity models; Phase detection/picking algorithms; and Location techniques.

Schultz, C.A.; Bhattacharyya, J.; Flanaga, M.; Goldstein, P.; Myers, S.; Swenson, J.

2000-03-14

246

Low frequency variants, collapsed based on biological knowledge, uncover complexity of population stratification in 1000 genomes project data.  

PubMed

Analyses investigating low frequency variants have the potential for explaining additional genetic heritability of many complex human traits. However, the natural frequencies of rare variation between human populations strongly confound genetic analyses. We have applied a novel collapsing method to identify biological features with low frequency variant burden differences in thirteen populations sequenced by the 1000 Genomes Project. Our flexible collapsing tool utilizes expert biological knowledge from multiple publicly available database sources to direct feature selection. Variants were collapsed according to genetically driven features, such as evolutionary conserved regions, regulatory regions genes, and pathways. We have conducted an extensive comparison of low frequency variant burden differences (MAF<0.03) between populations from 1000 Genomes Project Phase I data. We found that on average 26.87% of gene bins, 35.47% of intergenic bins, 42.85% of pathway bins, 14.86% of ORegAnno regulatory bins, and 5.97% of evolutionary conserved regions show statistically significant differences in low frequency variant burden across populations from the 1000 Genomes Project. The proportion of bins with significant differences in low frequency burden depends on the ancestral similarity of the two populations compared and types of features tested. Even closely related populations had notable differences in low frequency burden, but fewer differences than populations from different continents. Furthermore, conserved or functionally relevant regions had fewer significant differences in low frequency burden than regions under less evolutionary constraint. This degree of low frequency variant differentiation across diverse populations and feature elements highlights the critical importance of considering population stratification in the new era of DNA sequencing and low frequency variant genomic analyses. PMID:24385916

Moore, Carrie B; Wallace, John R; Wolfe, Daniel J; Frase, Alex T; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Weiss, Kenneth M; Ritchie, Marylyn D

2013-01-01

247

Automation based on knowledge modeling theory and its applications in engine diagnostic systems using Space Shuttle Main Engine vibrational data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans can perform many complicated tasks without explicit rules. This inherent and advantageous capability becomes a hurdle when a task is to be automated. Modern computers and numerical calculations require explicit rules and discrete numerical values. In order to bridge the gap between human knowledge and automating tools, a knowledge model is proposed. Knowledge modeling techniques are discussed and utilized

Jonnathan H. Kim

1995-01-01

248

The Modelling of Knowledge-Intensive Processes Using Semantics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the "i2010 eGovernment Action Plan" it is stated that: "Member States have committed themselves to inclusive eGovernment objectives to ensure that by 2010 all citizens [...] become major beneficiaries of eGovernment, and European public administrations deliver public information and services that are more easily accessible and increasingly trusted by the public, through innovative use of ICT, increasing awareness of the benefits of eGovernment and improved skills and support for all users" (Commission of the European Communities 2006). For example, in the latest study on e-Government in Switzerland conducted by the University of St. Gallen, it was stated for the first time that measures for e-Government quality improvement are change (42% of the Swiss cantons, 19% of the Swiss municipalities) and benchmarking (business) activities/processes (41% of the Swiss cantons, 50% of the Swiss municipalities). But in the same study, design and IT-supported processes are considered a huge challenge (Schedler et al. 2007a, b). Thus, what Becker et al. already described still holds true: Although the benefit of having formal models of business processes is well known in public administrations, too few processes have been modelled and lesser still have been automated (Becker et al. 2003).

Feldkamp, Daniela; Hinkelmann, Knut; Thönssen, Barbara

249

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 59: Japanese Technological Innovation. Implications for Large Commercial Aircraft and Knowledge Diffusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper explores three factors-public policy, the Japanese (national) innovation system, and knowledge-that influence technological innovation in Japan. To establish a context for the paper, we examine Japanese culture and the U.S. and Japanese patent systems in the background section. A brief history of the Japanese aircraft industry as a source of knowledge and technology for other industries is presented. Japanese and U.S. alliances and linkages in three sectors-biotechnology, semiconductors, and large commercial aircraft (LCA)-and the importation, absorption, and diffusion of knowledge and technology are examined next. The paper closes with implications for diffusing knowledge and technology, U.S. public policy, and LCA.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kotler, Mindy L.

1997-01-01

250

Different Manhattan project: automatic statistical model generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the automatic generation of large geometric models. This is important in visualization for several reasons. First, many applications need access to large but interesting data models. Second, we often need such data sets with particular characteristics (e.g., urban models, park and recreation landscape). Thus we need the ability to generate models with different parameters. We propose a new

Chee Keng Yap; Henning Biermann; Aaron Hertzmann; Chen Li; Jon Meyer; Hsing-Kuo Pao; Salvatore Paxia

2002-01-01

251

Tailored-to-Fit Bayesian Network Modeling of Expert Diagnostic Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses issues in constructing a Bayesian network domain model for diagnostic purposes from expert knowledge.\\u000a Diagnostic systems rely on suitable models of the domain, which describe causal relationships between problem classes and\\u000a observed symptoms. Typically these models are obtained by analyzing process data or by interviewing domain experts. The domain\\u000a models are usually built in the forward direction,

Ruxandra Lupas Scheiterer; Dragan Obradovic; Volker Tresp

2007-01-01

252

Component model reduction via the projection and assembly method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of acquiring a simple but sufficiently accurate model of a dynamic system is made more difficult when the dynamic system of interest is a multibody system comprised of several components. A low order system model may be created by reducing the order of the component models and making use of various available multibody dynamics programs to assemble them into a system model. The difficulty is in choosing the reduced order component models to meet system level requirements. The projection and assembly method, proposed originally by Eke, solves this difficulty by forming the full order system model, performing model reduction at the the system level using system level requirements, and then projecting the desired modes onto the components for component level model reduction. The projection and assembly method is analyzed to show the conditions under which the desired modes are captured exactly; to the numerical precision of the algorithm.

Bernard, Douglas E.

1989-01-01

253

Automatic Detection of Student Mental Models during Prior Knowledge Activation in MetaTutor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents several methods to automatically detecting students' mental models in MetaTutor, an intelligent tutoring system that teaches students self-regulatory processes during learning of complex science topics. In particular, we focus on detecting students' mental models based on student-generated paragraphs during prior knowledge

Rus, Vasile; Lintean, Mihai; Azevedo, Roger

2009-01-01

254

Recording the design decisions of knowledge engineers to facilitate re-use of design models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we focus on the process of constructing reusable knowledge level models by augmenting an explicit process model of KBS design with a means of recording the argumentation about design decisions. Our method includes a set of design principles and an expressive design language for representing design components (such as tasks and roles) with an extension for decision

Arthur Stutt; Enrico Motta

1995-01-01

255

Tailored-to-fit Bayesian Network Modeling of Expert Diagnostic Knowledge  

E-print Network

Tailored-to-fit Bayesian Network Modeling of Expert Diagnostic Knowledge Ruxandra Lupas Scheiterer Abstract. This paper addresses issues in constructing a Bayesian net- work domain model for diagnostic, and this is still their most common use. Bayesian networks are well suited for the diagnostic examination of domains

Tresp, Volker

256

Artificial intelligence in process control: Knowledge base for the shuttle ECS model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general operation of KATE, an artificial intelligence controller, is outlined. A shuttle environmental control system (ECS) demonstration system for KATE is explained. The knowledge base model for this system is derived. An experimental test procedure is given to verify parameters in the model.

Stiffler, A. Kent

1989-01-01

257

A Short Commentary on "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's brief comment on Hisham B. Ghassib's "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?" Ghassib (2010) takes the reader through an interesting history of human innovation and processes and situates his theory within a productivist model. The deliberate attention to…

Gentry, Marcia

2010-01-01

258

Organizational Communication Research: An Exploratory Application of a Conceptual Model for an Organized Knowledge Base.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational communication research needs a conceptual model or taxonomy of variables for developing a knowledge base for past and future findings and information access and retrieval. The proposed Outcome-Determinant-Interface (ODI) model distinguishes three major groups of variables, each divided into classes and subclasses. The outcome…

Greenbaum, Howard H.; Falcione, Raymond L.

259

The Knowledge Building Paradigm: A Model of Learning for Net Generation Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article Donald Philip describes Knowledge Building, a pedagogy based on the way research organizations function. The global economy, Philip argues, is driving a shift from older, industrial models to the model of the business as a learning organization. The cognitive patterns of today's Net Generation students, formed by lifetime exposure…

Philip, Donald

2005-01-01

260

Infrastructure requirement of knowledge management system model of statistical learning tool (SLT) for education community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, teaching and learning (T&L) using technology as tool is becoming more important especially in the field of statistics as a part of the subject matter in higher education system environment. Eventhough, there are many types of technology of statistical learnig tool (SLT) which can be used to support and enhance T&L environment, however, there is lack of a common standard knowledge management as a knowledge portal for guidance especially in relation to infrastructure requirement of SLT in servicing the community of user (CoU) such as educators, students and other parties who are interested in performing this technology as a tool for their T&L. Therefore, there is a need of a common standard infrastructure requirement of knowledge portal in helping CoU for managing of statistical knowledge in acquiring, storing, desseminating and applying of the statistical knowedge for their specific purposes. Futhermore, by having this infrastructure requirement of knowledge portal model of SLT as a guidance in promoting knowledge of best practise among the CoU, it can also enhance the quality and productivity of their work towards excellence of statistical knowledge application in education system environment.

Abdullah, Rusli; Samah, Bahaman Abu; Bolong, Jusang; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Shaffril, Hayrol Azril Mohamed

2014-09-01

261

Project MODEL: Mobile Occupational Development Education Laboratories. Second Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report presents a record of the second year activities of Project MODEL (Mobile Occupational Development Education Laboratories). Included are a brief description of the project and an examination of the various operation activities; components, the development of nine objectives, their status, and their disposition; financial verification;…

Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston. Div. of Occupational Education.

262

Different Manhattan project: automatic statistical model generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the automatic generation of large geometric models. This is important in visualization for several reasons. First, many applications need access to large but interesting data models. Second, we often need such data sets with particular characteristics (e.g., urban models, park and recreation landscape). Thus we need the ability to generate models with different parameters. We propose a new approach for generating such models. It is based on a top-down propagation of statistical parameters. We illustrate the method in the generation of a statistical model of Manhattan. But the method is generally applicable in the generation of models of large geographical regions. Our work is related to the literature on generating complex natural scenes (smoke, forests, etc) based on procedural descriptions. The difference in our approach stems from three characteristics: modeling with statistical parameters, integration of ground truth (actual map data), and a library-based approach for texture mapping.

Yap, Chee Keng; Biermann, Henning; Hertzmann, Aaron; Li, Chen; Meyer, Jon; Pao, Hsing-Kuo; Paxia, Salvatore

2002-03-01

263

Global soil carbon projections are improved by modelling microbial processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Society relies on Earth system models (ESMs) to project future climate and carbon (C) cycle feedbacks. However, the soil C response to climate change is highly uncertain in these models and they omit key biogeochemical mechanisms. Specifically, the traditional approach in ESMs lacks direct microbial control over soil C dynamics. Thus, we tested a new model that explicitly represents microbial mechanisms of soil C cycling on the global scale. Compared with traditional models, the microbial model simulates soil C pools that more closely match contemporary observations. It also projects a much wider range of soil C responses to climate change over the twenty-first century. Global soils accumulate C if microbial growth efficiency declines with warming in the microbial model. If growth efficiency adapts to warming, the microbial model projects large soil C losses. By comparison, traditional models project modest soil C losses with global warming. Microbes also change the soil response to increased C inputs, as might occur with CO2 or nutrient fertilization. In the microbial model, microbes consume these additional inputs; whereas in traditional models, additional inputs lead to C storage. Our results indicate that ESMs should simulate microbial physiology to more accurately project climate change feedbacks.

Wieder, William R.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Allison, Steven D.

2013-10-01

264

Demographic models and IPCC climate projections predict the decline of an emperor penguin population  

PubMed Central

Studies have reported important effects of recent climate change on Antarctic species, but there has been to our knowledge no attempt to explicitly link those results to forecasted population responses to climate change. Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) is projected to shrink as concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase, and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are extremely sensitive to these changes because they use sea ice as a breeding, foraging and molting habitat. We project emperor penguin population responses to future sea ice changes, using a stochastic population model that combines a unique long-term demographic dataset (1962–2005) from a colony in Terre Adélie, Antarctica and projections of SIE from General Circulation Models (GCM) of Earth's climate included in the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report. We show that the increased frequency of warm events associated with projected decreases in SIE will reduce the population viability. The probability of quasi-extinction (a decline of 95% or more) is at least 36% by 2100. The median population size is projected to decline from ?6,000 to ?400 breeding pairs over this period. To avoid extinction, emperor penguins will have to adapt, migrate or change the timing of their growth stages. However, given the future projected increases in GHGs and its effect on Antarctic climate, evolution or migration seem unlikely for such long lived species at the remote southern end of the Earth. PMID:19171908

Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Caswell, Hal; Barbraud, Christophe; Holland, Marika; Strœve, Julienne; Weimerskirch, Henri

2009-01-01

265

Project Report (TD 695) Understanding, Analysing and Modelling Watershed  

E-print Network

Project Report (TD 695) On Understanding, Analysing and Modelling Watershed Interventions Submitted This is to certify that the seminar report titled "Understanding, Analysing and Modelling Watershed Interventions and Modelling Watershed Interventions" submitted by me, for the partial fulfilment of the degree of Master

Sohoni, Milind

266

Long-range energy prospects. [Projection by World Energy Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-range projections of world energy prospects, necessary because of the extended lead times for making and carrying out energy decisions, can be improved by using the World Energy Model. A demonstration of the model's potential for identifying and defining energy problems emphasizes its capacity to trace complicated interactions. The model considers endogenous factors to be supply, demand, and most prices,

H. S. Houthakker; M. Kennedy

2008-01-01

267

Filling gaps in biodiversity knowledge for macrofungi: contributions and assessment of an herbarium collection DNA barcode sequencing project.  

PubMed

Despite recent advances spearheaded by molecular approaches and novel technologies, species description and DNA sequence information are significantly lagging for fungi compared to many other groups of organisms. Large scale sequencing of vouchered herbarium material can aid in closing this gap. Here, we describe an effort to obtain broad ITS sequence coverage of the approximately 6000 macrofungal-species-rich herbarium of the Museum of Natural History in Venice, Italy. Our goals were to investigate issues related to large sequencing projects, develop heuristic methods for assessing the overall performance of such a project, and evaluate the prospects of such efforts to reduce the current gap in fungal biodiversity knowledge. The effort generated 1107 sequences submitted to GenBank, including 416 previously unrepresented taxa and 398 sequences exhibiting a best BLAST match to an unidentified environmental sequence. Specimen age and taxon affected sequencing success, and subsequent work on failed specimens showed that an ITS1 mini-barcode greatly increased sequencing success without greatly reducing the discriminating power of the barcode. Similarity comparisons and nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinations based on pairwise distance matrices proved to be useful heuristic tools for validating the overall accuracy of specimen identifications, flagging potential misidentifications, and identifying taxa in need of additional species-level revision. Comparison of within- and among-species nucleotide variation showed a strong increase in species discriminating power at 1-2% dissimilarity, and identified potential barcoding issues (same sequence for different species and vice-versa). All sequences are linked to a vouchered specimen, and results from this study have already prompted revisions of species-sequence assignments in several taxa. PMID:23638077

Osmundson, Todd W; Robert, Vincent A; Schoch, Conrad L; Baker, Lydia J; Smith, Amy; Robich, Giovanni; Mizzan, Luca; Garbelotto, Matteo M

2013-01-01

268

To ontologise or not to ontologise: An information model for a geospatial knowledge infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geospatial knowledge infrastructure consists of a set of interoperable components, including software, information, hardware, procedures and standards, that work together to support advanced discovery and creation of geoscientific resources, including publications, data sets and web services. The focus of the work presented is the development of such an infrastructure for resource discovery. Advanced resource discovery is intended to support scientists in finding resources that meet their needs, and focuses on representing the semantic details of the scientific resources, including the detailed aspects of the science that led to the resource being created. This paper describes an information model for a geospatial knowledge infrastructure that uses ontologies to represent these semantic details, including knowledge about domain concepts, the scientific elements of the resource (analysis methods, theories and scientific processes) and web services. This semantic information can be used to enable more intelligent search over scientific resources, and to support new ways to infer and visualise scientific knowledge. The work describes the requirements for semantic support of a knowledge infrastructure, and analyses the different options for information storage based on the twin goals of semantic richness and syntactic interoperability to allow communication between different infrastructures. Such interoperability is achieved by the use of open standards, and the architecture of the knowledge infrastructure adopts such standards, particularly from the geospatial community. The paper then describes an information model that uses a range of different types of ontologies, explaining those ontologies and their content. The information model was successfully implemented in a working geospatial knowledge infrastructure, but the evaluation identified some issues in creating the ontologies.

Stock, Kristin; Stojanovic, Tim; Reitsma, Femke; Ou, Yang; Bishr, Mohamed; Ortmann, Jens; Robertson, Anne

2012-08-01

269

Implementations of a Flexible Framework for Managing Geologic Sequestration Modeling Projects  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulation is a standard practice used to support designing, operating, and monitoring CO2 injection projects. Although a variety of computational tools have been developed that support the numerical simulation process, many are single-purpose or platform specific and have a prescribed workflow that may or may not be suitable for a particular project. We are developing an open-source, flexible framework named Velo that provides a knowledge management infrastructure and tools to support modeling and simulation for various types of projects in a number of scientific domains. The Geologic Sequestration Software Suite (GS3) is a version of this framework with features and tools specifically tailored for geologic sequestration studies. Because of its general nature, GS3 is being employed in a variety of ways on projects with differing goals. GS3 is being used to support the Sim-SEQ international model comparison study, by providing a collaborative framework for the modeling teams and providing tools for model comparison. Another customized deployment of GS3 has been made to support the permit application process. In this case, GS3 is being used to manage data in support of conceptual model development and provide documentation and provenance for numerical simulations. An additional customized deployment of GS3 is being created for use by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) to aid in the CO2 injection permit application review process in one of its regions. These use cases demonstrate GS3’s flexibility, utility, and broad applicability

White, Signe K.; Gosink, Luke J.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Black, Gary D.; Purohit, Sumit; Bacon, Diana H.; Hou, Zhangshuan; Lin, Guang; Gorton, Ian; Bonneville, Alain

2013-08-06

270

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 67: Maximizing the Results of Federally-Funded Research and Development Through Knowledge Management: A Strategic Imperative for Improving US Competitiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Federally-funded research and development (R&D) represents a significant annual investment (approximately $79 billion in fiscal year 1996) on the part of U.S. taxpayers. Based on the results of a 10-year study of knowledge diffusion in U.S. aerospace industry, the authors take the position that U.S. competitiveness will be enhanced if knowledge management strategies, employed within a capability-enhancing U.S. technology policy framework, are applied to diffusing the results of federally-funded R&D. In making their case, the authors stress the importance of knowledge as the source of competitive advantage in today's global economy. Next, they offer a practice-based definition of knowledge management and discuss three current approaches to knowledge management implementation-mechanistic, "the learning organization," and systemic. The authors then examine three weaknesses in existing U.S. public policy and policy implementation-the dominance of knowledge creation, the need for diffusion-oriented technology policy, and the prevalence of a dissemination model- that affect diffusion of the results of federally-funded R&D. To address these shortcomings, they propose the development of a knowledge management framework for diffusing the results of federally-funded R&D. The article closes with a discussion of some issues and challenges associated with implementing a knowledge management framework for diffusing the results of federally-funded R&D.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

1998-01-01

271

Diagnosis by integrating model-based reasoning with knowledge-based reasoning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our research investigates how observations can be categorized by integrating a qualitative physical model with experiential knowledge. Our domain is diagnosis of pathologic gait in humans, in which the observations are the gait motions, muscle activity during gait, and physical exam data, and the diagnostic hypotheses are the potential muscle weaknesses, muscle mistimings, and joint restrictions. Patients with underlying neurological disorders typically have several malfunctions. Among the problems that need to be faced are: the ambiguity of the observations, the ambiguity of the qualitative physical model, correspondence of the observations and hypotheses to the qualitative physical model, the inherent uncertainty of experiential knowledge, and the combinatorics involved in forming composite hypotheses. Our system divides the work so that the knowledge-based reasoning suggests which hypotheses appear more likely than others, the qualitative physical model is used to determine which hypotheses explain which observations, and another process combines these functionalities to construct a composite hypothesis based on explanatory power and plausibility. We speculate that the reasoning architecture of our system is generally applicable to complex domains in which a less-than-perfect physical model and less-than-perfect experiential knowledge need to be combined to perform diagnosis.

Bylander, Tom

1988-01-01

272

The Longitudinal Effects of Study Abroad Programs on Teachers' Content Knowledge and Perspectives: Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad in Botswana and Southeast Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to assess the longitudinal effectiveness and impact of study abroad programs on teachers' content knowledge and professional perspectives. The study focused on a recent Fulbright-Hays Group Project Abroad to Botswana (summer 2011) and compares results with an earlier Fulbright-Hays program to Singapore and Malaysia…

Biraimah, Karen L.; Jotia, Agreement Lathi

2013-01-01

273

The Effects of Project-Based Learning on Students' Academic Achievement, Attitude, and Retention of Knowledge: The Subject of "Electricity in Our Lives"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of project-based learning on students' academic achievement, attitude, and retention of knowledge in relation to the subject of "Electricity in Our Lives" in a fourth-grade science course. The study was conducted in a quasi-experimental design as a "pre-test, post-test with…

Karaçalli, Saide; Korur, Fikret

2014-01-01

274

Assessment Component of the California New Teacher Project: Framework of Knowledge, Skills and Abilities for Beginning Teachers in California. A Work in Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This framework defines a vision of the knowledge, skills, and abilities that should characterize California's beginning teachers in their initial years of service. Discussion and development of the framework are part of the California New Teacher Project, a pilot study of policy alternatives to enhance the success of novice teachers. Following a…

Stansbury, Kendyll; Long, Claudia

275

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 49: Becoming an aerospace engineer: A cross-gender comparison  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We conducted a mail (self-reported) survey of 4300 student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) during the spring of 1993 as a Phase 3 activity of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. The survey was designed to explore students' career goals and aspirations, communications skills training, and their use of information sources, products, and services. We received 1723 completed questionnaires for an adjusted response rate of 42%. In this article, we compare the responses of female and male aerospace engineering students in the context of two general aspects of their educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which women and men differ in regard to factors that lead to the choice to study aerospace engineering, their current level of satisfaction with that choice, and their career-related goals and aspirations. Second, we examine students' responses to questions about communications skills training and the helpfulness of that training, and their use of and the importance to them of selected information sources, products, and services. The cross-gender comparison revealed more similarities than differences. Female students appear to be more satisfied than their male counterparts with the decision to major in aerospace engineering. Both female and male student respondents consider communications skills important for professional success, but females place a higher value than males do on oral communications skills. Women students also place a higher value than men do on the roles of other students and faculty members in satisfying their needs for information.

Hecht, Laura M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

276

OCMIP: Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP) goal is "to develop an international collaboration to improve the predictive capacity and accelerate development of global-scale, three-dimensional, ocean carbon-cycle models through standardized model evaluation and model intercomparison." Visitors to the site can learn about the objectives, reports, and other details about the two finished phases, OCMIP-1 and OCMIP-2, as well as details about the new phase, OCMIP-3. The website offers detailed information about data visualization and analysis tools such as Ferret. While a few links are intended for OCMIP participants, users are able to obtain lots of information about the project.

277

Bivariate Normal Model: A Classroom Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by authors B.C. Lyon and M.W. Maxfield of Louisiana Tech University, describes a hands-on class activity for understanding the bivariate normal distribution by constructing a three-dimensional model. This construction not only teaches the statistical theory, but it also a fun activity for students. The authors begin with an introduction, then discuss the symmetry of the model, address the plane sections, slopes and deviations, and finally the base and mounting of the model. This is a unique activity for this mathematical technique.

Lyon, B.C.

278

ISI-MIP: The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) aims to synthesize the state-of-the-art knowledge of climate change impacts at different levels of global warming. The project's experimental design is formulated to distinguish the uncertainty introduced by the impact models themselves, from the inherent uncertainty in the climate projections and the variety of plausible socio-economic futures. The unique cross-sectoral scope of the project provides the opportunity to study cascading effects of impacts in interacting sectors and to identify regional 'hot spots' where multiple sectors experience extreme impacts. Another emphasis lies on the development of novel metrics to describe societal impacts of a warmer climate. We briefly outline the methodological framework, and then present selected results of the first, fast-tracked phase of ISI-MIP. The fast track brought together 35 global impact models internationally, spanning five sectors across human society and the natural world (agriculture, water, natural ecosystems, health and coastal infrastructure), and using the latest generation of global climate simulations (RCP projections from the CMIP5 archive) and socioeconomic drivers provided within the SSP process. We also introduce the second phase of the project, which will enlarge the scope of ISI-MIP by encompassing further impact sectors (e.g., forestry, fisheries, permafrost) and regional modeling approaches. The focus for the next round of simulations will be the validation and improvement of models based on historical observations and the analysis of variability and extreme events. Last but not least, we discuss the longer-term objective of ISI-MIP to initiate a coordinated, ongoing impact assessment process, driven by the entire impact community and in parallel with well-established climate model intercomparisons (CMIP).

Huber, V.; Dahlemann, S.; Frieler, K.; Piontek, F.; Schewe, J.; Serdeczny, O.; Warszawski, L.

2013-12-01

279

Educating the Community: A Watershed Model Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the construction and use of a schoolyard model of the Morrow Bay watershed in California. Describes the design and use of materials that include styrofoam insulation, crushed granite, cement, and stucco. (DDR)

Perryess, C. S.

2001-01-01

280

Understanding the Role of Representation in Interorganizational Knowledge Integration: A Case Study of an IT Outsourcing Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The current paper aims at contributing to the understanding of interorganizational knowledge integration by highlighting the role of individuals' understandings of the task and how they shape knowledge integrating behaviours. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a framework of knowledge integration as heedful interrelating.…

Werr, Andreas; Runsten, Philip

2013-01-01

281

Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory Across Generations. An emerging Multidisciplinary Work Area and an NEA Project - 12218  

SciTech Connect

Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference means for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, i.e. not dependent on human presence and intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. There is however no intention to forgo, at any time, knowledge and awareness either of the repository or of the waste that it contains. The preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) is seen as an integral part of radioactive waste management, supporting lengthy and complex socio-technical processes across pre-operational, operational and post-operational lifetimes. Long-term preservation of RK and M is an emerging multidisciplinary work area in which much learning is expected over the coming years. Novel methods are being sought that are least vulnerable to both natural degradation and to changes in socio-economic conditions. Progress has been made in individual countries, but there is a need to internationalise the thinking, compare approaches, investigate potential solutions and share decisions. This is the task of the NEA RK and M project. A major outcome of the project will be a 'menu-driven document' that will allow people to identify the main elements of a strategic action plan for RK and M preservation. In sum, the preservation of RK and M is a unprecedented task in which technical, scientific and social information is interwoven and needs to be developed and preserved across generations and across specialist boundaries. Important studies have been undertaken in the past decades to explore a variety of approaches to preserving RK and M across different timescales, including archives and markers. The work of the past in this area is useful, but innovative thinking is also needed. Seen from today's perspective, very little work is available on for example the contextualization of data for later use; on the systematic identification of mechanisms for RK and M transfer; on implementing a culture of RK and M-keeping in organisations; and on creating cultural links between the waste disposals and the siting communities. Moreover, international cooperation is recognised as being crucial in providing shared means and meanings for memory transmission over longer timescales. International cooperation has also been identified as a catalyst to ensure that a wide range of approaches and experiences is considered, thus potentially reducing uncertainty related to variations in approach. Overall, multiple approaches, requiring active and less active care, need to be considered from the start of the radioactive waste management programme and refined in the course of time. The RK and M project members want to further investigate and deliver support to fulfil this task. (authors)

Schroeder, Jantine [Belgian Nuclear Research Institute SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Pescatore, Claudio [OECD NEA, Paris (France)

2012-07-01

282

Using domain knowledge and domain-inspired discourse model for coreference resolution for clinical narratives  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper presents a coreference resolution system for clinical narratives. Coreference resolution aims at clustering all mentions in a single document to coherent entities. Materials and methods A knowledge-intensive approach for coreference resolution is employed. The domain knowledge used includes several domain-specific lists, a knowledge intensive mention parsing, and task informed discourse model. Mention parsing allows us to abstract over the surface form of the mention and represent each mention using a higher-level representation, which we call the mention's semantic representation (SR). SR reduces the mention to a standard form and hence provides better support for comparing and matching. Existing coreference resolution systems tend to ignore discourse aspects and rely heavily on lexical and structural cues in the text. The authors break from this tradition and present a discourse model for “person” type mentions in clinical narratives, which greatly simplifies the coreference resolution. Results This system was evaluated on four different datasets which were made available in the 2011 i2b2/VA coreference challenge. The unweighted average of F1 scores (over B-cubed, MUC and CEAF) varied from 84.2% to 88.1%. These experiments show that domain knowledge is effective for different mention types for all the datasets. Discussion Error analysis shows that most of the recall errors made by the system can be handled by further addition of domain knowledge. The precision errors, on the other hand, are more subtle and indicate the need to understand the relations in which mentions participate for building a robust coreference system. Conclusion This paper presents an approach that makes an extensive use of domain knowledge to significantly improve coreference resolution. The authors state that their system and the knowledge sources developed will be made publicly available. PMID:22781192

Roth, Dan

2013-01-01

283

A comprehensive model for executing knowledge management audits in organizations: a systematic review.  

PubMed

A knowledge management audit (KMA) is the first phase in knowledge management implementation. Incomplete or incomprehensive execution of the KMA has caused many knowledge management programs to fail. A study was undertaken to investigate how KMAs are performed systematically in organizations and present a comprehensive model for performing KMAs based on a systematic review. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases such as Emerald, LISA, and the Cochrane library and e-journals such as the Oxford Journal and hand searching of printed journals, theses, and books in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences digital library. The sources used in this study consisted of studies available through the digital library of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences that were published between 2000 and 2013, including both Persian- and English-language sources, as well as articles explaining the steps involved in performing a KMA. A comprehensive model for KMAs is presented in this study. To successfully execute a KMA, it is necessary to perform the appropriate preliminary activities in relation to the knowledge management infrastructure, determine the knowledge management situation, and analyze and use the available data on this situation. PMID:25627852

Shahmoradi, Leila; Ahmadi, Maryam; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Piri, Zakieh; Gohari, Mahmood Reza

2015-01-01

284

Knowledge-fused differential dependency network models for detecting significant rewiring in biological networks  

PubMed Central

Background Modeling biological networks serves as both a major goal and an effective tool of systems biology in studying mechanisms that orchestrate the activities of gene products in cells. Biological networks are context-specific and dynamic in nature. To systematically characterize the selectively activated regulatory components and mechanisms, modeling tools must be able to effectively distinguish significant rewiring from random background fluctuations. While differential networks cannot be constructed by existing knowledge alone, novel incorporation of prior knowledge into data-driven approaches can improve the robustness and biological relevance of network inference. However, the major unresolved roadblocks include: big solution space but a small sample size; highly complex networks; imperfect prior knowledge; missing significance assessment; and heuristic structural parameter learning. Results To address these challenges, we formulated the inference of differential dependency networks that incorporate both conditional data and prior knowledge as a convex optimization problem, and developed an efficient learning algorithm to jointly infer the conserved biological network and the significant rewiring across different conditions. We used a novel sampling scheme to estimate the expected error rate due to “random” knowledge. Based on that scheme, we developed a strategy that fully exploits the benefit of this data-knowledge integrated approach. We demonstrated and validated the principle and performance of our method using synthetic datasets. We then applied our method to yeast cell line and breast cancer microarray data and obtained biologically plausible results. The open-source R software package and the experimental data are freely available at http://www.cbil.ece.vt.edu/software.htm. Conclusions Experiments on both synthetic and real data demonstrate the effectiveness of the knowledge-fused differential dependency network in revealing the statistically significant rewiring in biological networks. The method efficiently leverages data-driven evidence and existing biological knowledge while remaining robust to the false positive edges in the prior knowledge. The identified network rewiring events are supported by previous studies in the literature and also provide new mechanistic insight into the biological systems. We expect the knowledge-fused differential dependency network analysis, together with the open-source R package, to be an important and useful bioinformatics tool in biological network analyses. PMID:25055984

2014-01-01

285

Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

286

Products Depend on Creative Potential: A Comment on the Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ghassib (2010) presents a provocative view of science as industry. He ties science specifically to a "productivist" industrial model and to knowledge production. If judged based on what is explicit in this article, his theory is useful and logical. There are, however, several concerns as well. Some of these are implied by the title of his article,…

Runco, Mark A.

2010-01-01

287

Silencing the Center: Local Knowledge and Imported Model in Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigates the interaction between local and imported knowledges in a specific case of transnational importation; the whole-sale importation of the American medical learning disabilities (LDs) model in Kuwait. A discourse analysis of the narratives of local educators at the only school for LDs in the country reveals a…

Bazna, Maysaa

2009-01-01

288

Neural Models and Extracted Rules for Knowledge Discovery in Predictive Toxicology  

E-print Network

1 Neural Models and Extracted Rules for Knowledge Discovery in Predictive Toxicology Dennis Bahler- plying these new tools to the field of predictive toxicology, a network is trained that is estimated Institute (NCI) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP). This data is described more fully in Section II

Bahler, Dennis R.

289

A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when…

Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2012-01-01

290

A Knowledge base model for complex forging die machining Bernardin Mawussi a,b  

E-print Network

the complexity and the finishing requirements of die shapes in order to limit machining operation (Doege1 A Knowledge base model for complex forging die machining Bernardin Mawussi a,b , Laurent Tapie a die. These evolutions, combined with High Speed Machining (HSM) process of forging die lead

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

291

Integrating Knowledge Management into Organisational Learning: A Review of Concepts and Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to review the concepts and constructs of some common models and frameworks advocated for knowledge management (KM) and organisational learning (OL) in literature. It sets forth a critical enquiry towards the integration of KM and OL practices and their relationship with the concepts of the learning organisation (LO) and…

Pun, Kit Fai; Nathai-Balkissoon, Marcia

2011-01-01

292

Development of a NASA Integrated Technical Workforce Career Development Model Entitled Requisite Occupation Competencies and Knowledge -- the ROCK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper shares the findings of NASA's Integrated Learning and Development Program (ILDP) in its effort to reinvigorate the HANDS-ON practice of space systems engineering and project/program management through focused coursework, training opportunities, on-the job learning and special assignments. Prior to March 2005, NASA responsibility for technical workforce development (the program/project manager, systems engineering, discipline engineering, discipline engineering and associated communities) was executed by two parallel organizations. In March 2005 these organizations merged. The resulting program-ILDP-was chartered to implement an integrated competency-based development model capable of enhancing NASA's technical workforce performance as they face the complex challenges of Earth science, space science, aeronautics and human spaceflight missions. Results developed in collaboration with NASA Field Centers are reported on. This work led to definition of the agency's first integrated technical workforce development model known as the Requisite Occupation Competence and Knowledge (the ROCK). Critical processes and products are presented including: 'validation' techniques to guide model development, the Design-A-CUrriculuM (DACUM) process, and creation of the agency's first systems engineering body-of-knowledge. Findings were validated via nine focus groups from industry and government, validated with over 17 space-related organizations, at an estimated cost exceeding $300,000 (US). Masters-level programs and training programs have evolved to address the needs of these practitioner communities based upon these results. The ROCK reintroduced rigor and depth to the practitioner's development in these critical disciplines enabling their ability to take mission concepts from imagination to reality.

Menrad, Robert J.; Larson, Wiley J.

2008-01-01

293

Sustainable Hydro Assessment and Groundwater Recharge Projects (SHARP) in Germany - Water Balance Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SHARP is a European INTERREG IVc Program. It focuses on the exchange of innovative technologies to protect groundwater resources for future generations by considering the climate change and the different geological and geographical conditions. Regions involved are Austria, United Kingdom, Poland, Italy, Macedonia, Malta, Greece and Germany. They will exchange practical know-how and also determine know-how demands concerning SHARP’s key contents: general groundwater management tools, artificial groundwater recharge technologies, groundwater monitoring systems, strategic use of groundwater resources for drinking water, irrigation and industry, techniques to save water quality and quantity, drinking water safety plans, risk management tools and water balance models. SHARP Outputs & results will influence the regional policy in the frame of sustainable groundwater management to save and improve the quality and quantity of groundwater reservoirs for future generations. The main focus of the Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Landscape in this project is the enhancement and purposive use of water balance models. Already since 1992 scientists compare different existing water balance models on different scales and coupled with groundwater models. For example in the KLIWEP (Assessment of Impacts of Climate Change Projections on Water and Matter Balance for the Catchment of River Parthe in Saxony) project the coupled model WaSiM-ETH - PCGEOFIM® has been used to study the impact of climate change on water balance and water supplies. The project KliWES (Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change Projections on Water and Matter Balance for Catchment Areas in Saxony) still running, comprises studies of fundamental effects of climate change on catchments in Saxony. Project objective is to assess Saxon catchments according to the vulnerability of their water resources towards climate change projections in order to derive region-specific recommendations for management actions. The model comparisons within reference areas showed significant differences in outcome. The values of water balance components calculated with different models partially fluctuate by a multiple of their value. The SHARP project was prepared in several previous projects that were testing suitable water balance models and is now able to assist the knowledge transfer.

Niemand, C.; Kuhn, K.; Schwarze, R.

2010-12-01

294

Spatial Modeling of Epidemics Project Summary  

E-print Network

the spatial and temporal dynamics of a multi-species eco-system, we partition its habitat into a grid of sites so small that each site is capable of supporting at most one host. Each site's state indicates the presence or absence of species involved in a simulation. A probabilistic model can then describe a site

Varela, Carlos

295

Fusion Simulation Project (Whole Tokamak Plasma Modeling)  

E-print Network

;PSACI June 7-8, 2007 PPPL FSP Objective and Motivation · Primary objective of Fusion Simulation is expected to cost about a million dollars · Whole device computer simulations needed to optimize discharge Integration Initiatives · Coupling pairs of components before moving to whole device modeling · OFES formed

296

Stretched-Grid Model Intercomparison Project  

E-print Network

GCMs · EFFICIENT REGIONAL DOWNSCALING AND CONSISTENT INTERACTIONS OF GLOBALAND REGIONAL SCALES SGMIP-2, phase-2): 1. Finite-volume (fv) SG-GCM (Fox-Rabinovitz et al. using the Lin-Rood dynamics) 2 with the models. Major SGMIP scientific and computational issues: · efficient downscaling to realistic mesoscales

Gruner, Daniel S.

297

SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

298

The Model Industrial Technology Systems Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials used in a model industrial technology program that introduced technology into the curricula of elementary, middle, and high schools in three sites in Ohio: the Central site (coordinated through Ohio State University); the Northeast site (coordinated through Kent State University); and the Northwest site…

Bowling Green State Univ., OH.

299

R&D INVESTMENTS AND KNOWLEDGE INPUT IN A TECHNOLOGY ORIENTED CGE MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovations and technological progress are one of the main drivers for economic development. R&D investments induce a more efficient use of natural and environmental resources. We use the GCE model NEWAGE-W for the quantitative analysis of the implications of R&D induced technological change. We explicitly implement endogenous technological change by modeling R&D investments and knowledge as a primary factor input

Marcel Zürn; Robert Küster; Ingo Ellersdorfer; Ulrich Fahl

300

MATH 360: Project 2, Improving the Trans-Siberian Railway Model This project is due Monday 13th October.  

E-print Network

October. Background: In the sample project we considered in class, we determined that the cost-mile shipping costs were the same everywhere on the railway. In this project, we will investigate what happensMATH 360: Project 2, Improving the Trans-Siberian Railway Model This project is due Monday 13th

Fletcher, Alastair

301

Knowledge, transparency, refutability, and consequences: Using models to evaluate geologic repositories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current knowledge of a geologic repository includes knowledge about data and their errors; knowledge about possible physical, chemical, and biological processes, and their interactions; knowledge about possible hydrologic and geologic frameworks; knowledge about past and future changes in system dynamics and characteristics; and knowledge about potential future development and use of the repository. Model development and analysis methods ideally integrate all of this knowledge, produce the transparency and refutability acknowledged as necessary to useful models of any environmental system; and provide clear understanding of consequences for the geologic repository, including quantification of uncertainty. Yet many model development and analysis methods fail to achieve this goal. For example, many methods fail to properly account for data error and spend many model runs exploring unrealistic error assumptions that are rarely clearly presented to modelers and model users. Many methods expend huge computer resources to address nearly pathologic model nonlinearities which are often programming and numerical artifacts that fail to represent the intended system behavior. Finally, many methods are unfamiliar to people using model results so that transparency and refutability is not achieved by those most in need of understanding likely consequences. This work suggests that ideas for including data error (including epistemic error) in model development and analysis, referred to as error-based weighting, and ideas about addressing nonlinearity, referred to as robust models, can be used to greatly improve model transparency and refutability, and achieve greater and more defensible long-term understanding of system dynamics and consequences for geologic repositories. This talk will discuss error-based weighting and robust models, and outline a model development and analysis approach that uses 10s to 100s of model runs instead of the 1,000s to 100,000s of runs required by many other methods. Results suggest that the more computationally frugal methods can capture about 70% of the insight for 2% of the model runs. This rapidly obtained insight can be used directly and, if practical, to design clearly focused computationally demanding numerical analyses. Also, when one conceptual model can be analyzed relatively quickly, consideration of more alternative conceptual models becomes possible. This produces a more defensible uncertainty evaluation of simulated consequences, such as predictions. Here, we highlight analyses related to predictions, including confidence intervals. Also included are the OPR (Observation-PRediction) and PPR (Parameter-PRediction) statistics, precursors to the Predunc and Predvar statistics in PEST. These statistics all use the model to identify new measurements of state variables and system characteristics most important to reducing prediction uncertainty. Methods for evaluating what might be several future climate or development scenarios are briefly discussed. The examples demonstrate that the proposed set of methods provide a rich environment for evaluating many questions commonly of interest when developing and evaluating geologic repositories. Consistent use of these methods, along with other methods as practical, would serve to achieve greater transparency and refutability in the simulation of geologic repositories.

Hill, M. C.; Kavetski, D.; Clark, M. P.; Ye, M.; Tiedeman, C. R.; Arabi, M.; Lu, D.

2012-04-01

302

Cacao Intensification in Sulawesi: A Green Prosperity Model Project  

SciTech Connect

NREL conducted eight model projects for Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) Compact with Indonesia. Green Prosperity, the largest project of the Compact, seeks to address critical constraints to economic growth while supporting the Government of Indonesia's commitment to a more sustainable, less carbon-intensive future. This study evaluates techniques to improve cacao farming in Sulawesi Indonesia with an emphasis on Farmer Field Schools and Cocoa Development Centers to educate farmers and for train the trainer programs. The study estimates the economic viability of cacao farming if smallholder implement techniques to increase yield as well as social and environmental impacts of the project.

Moriarty, K.; Elchinger, M.; Hill, G.; Katz, J.; Barnett, J.

2014-09-01

303

A model for semi-informal online learning communities: A case study of the NASA INSPIRE Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to develop a model of informal online learning communities based on theory, research and practice. Case study methodology was used to examine the NASA Interdisciplinary National Science Project Incorporating Research and Education Experience (INSPIRE) Project as an example of a successful informal online learning community. The case study examined how the INSPIRE project models informal online learning and how that model compares to current research in informal and online learning community education. Findings and Conclusions: This case study revealed that, while all aspects of informal learning and online education are present within the INSPIRE project, there were many factors that have led to the success of the project that do not fit into current informal or online learning community models. Many aspects of formal education are not only present, but necessary components to the success of the INSPIRE OLC where both knowledge development and community building are desired equally. A model for semi-informal online learning communities was developed based on the findings from the case study. A semi-informal online learning community uses informal, formal and online education characteristics to develop community and knowledge equally and concurrently. By including aspects of community building, a variety of activities and experiences, creating a userfriendly environment, and allowing the community to evolve over time, a successful semi-informal online learning community can be created and maintained using current research and successful real-world experiences.

Keesee, Amanda Glasgow

304

Building Models from the Bottom Up: The HOBBES Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water problems are often bigger than technical and data challenges associated in representing a water system using a model. Controversy and complexity is inherent when water is to be allocated among different uses making difficult to maintain coherent and productive discussions on addressing water problems. Quantification of a water supply system through models has proven to be helpful to improve understanding, explore and develop adaptable solutions to water problems. However, models often become too large and complex and become hostages of endless discussions of the assumptions, their algorithms and their limitations. Data management organization and documentation keep model flexible and useful over time. The UC Davis HOBBES project is a new approach, building models from the bottom up. Reversing the traditional model development, where data are arranged around a model algorithm, in Hobbes the data structure, organization and documentation are established first, followed by application of simulation or optimization modeling algorithms for a particular problem at hand. The HOBBES project establishes standards for storing, documenting and sharing datasets on California water system. This allows models to be developed and modified more easily and transparently, with greater comparability. Elements in the database have a spatial definition and can aggregate several infrastructural elements into detailed to coarse representations of the water system. Elements in the database represent reservoirs, groundwater basins, pumping stations, hydropower and water treatment facilities, demand areas and conveyance infrastructure statewide. These elements also host time series, economic and other information from hydrologic, economic, climate and other models. This presentation provides an overview of the project HOBBES project, its applications and prospects for California and elsewhere. The HOBBES Project

Medellin-Azuara, J.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Lund, J. R.; Chu, W.

2013-12-01

305

SIGMA: A Knowledge-Based Simulation Tool Applied to Ecosystem Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for better technology to facilitate building, sharing and reusing models is generally recognized within the ecosystem modeling community. The Scientists' Intelligent Graphical Modelling Assistant (SIGMA) creates an environment for model building, sharing and reuse which provides an alternative to more conventional approaches which too often yield poorly documented, awkwardly structured model code. The SIGMA interface presents the user a list of model quantities which can be selected for computation. Equations to calculate the model quantities may be chosen from an existing library of ecosystem modeling equations, or built using a specialized equation editor. Inputs for dim equations may be supplied by data or by calculation from other equations. Each variable and equation is expressed using ecological terminology and scientific units, and is documented with explanatory descriptions and optional literature citations. Automatic scientific unit conversion is supported and only physically-consistent equations are accepted by the system. The system uses knowledge-based semantic conditions to decide which equations in its library make sense to apply in a given situation, and supplies these to the user for selection. "Me equations and variables are graphically represented as a flow diagram which provides a complete summary of the model. Forest-BGC, a stand-level model that simulates photosynthesis and evapo-transpiration for conifer canopies, was originally implemented in Fortran and subsequenty re-implemented using SIGMA. The SIGMA version reproduces daily results and also provides a knowledge base which greatly facilitates inspection, modification and extension of Forest-BGC.

Dungan, Jennifer L.; Keller, Richard; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

306

Model Learning and Knowledge Sharing for a Multiagent System With Dyna-Q Learning.  

PubMed

In a multiagent system, if agents' experiences could be accessible and assessed between peers for environmental modeling, they can alleviate the burden of exploration for unvisited states or unseen situations so as to accelerate the learning process. Since how to build up an effective and accurate model within a limited time is an important issue, especially for complex environments, this paper introduces a model-based reinforcement learning method based on a tree structure to achieve efficient modeling and less memory consumption. The proposed algorithm tailored a Dyna-Q architecture to multiagent systems by means of a tree structure for modeling. The tree-model built from real experiences is used to generate virtual experiences such that the elapsed time in learning could be reduced. As well, this model is suitable for knowledge sharing. This paper is inspired by the concept of knowledge sharing methods in multiagent systems where an agent could construct a global model from scattered local models held by individual agents. Consequently, it can increase modeling accuracy so as to provide valid simulated experiences for indirect learning at the early stage of learning. To simplify the sharing process, the proposed method applies resampling techniques to grafting partial branches of trees containing required and useful experiences disseminated from experienced peers, instead of merging the whole trees. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed sharing method can achieve the objectives of sample efficiency and learning acceleration in multiagent cooperation applications. PMID:25122850

Hwang, Kao-Shing; Jiang, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Jen

2014-08-01

307

Semiclassical projection of hedgehog models with quarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple semiclassical method is presented for calculating physical observables in states with good angular momentum and isospin for models whose mean-field solutions are hedgehogs. The method is applicable for theories which have both quark and meson degrees of freedom. The basic approach is to find slowly rotating solutions to the time-dependent mean-field equations. A nontrivial set of differential equations must be solved to find the quark configuration for these rotating hedgehogs. The parameters which specify the rotating solutions are treated as the collective degrees of freedom. They are requantized by imposing a set of commutation relations which ensures the correct algebra for the SU(2)×SU(2) group of angular momentum and isospin. Collective wave functions can then be found and with these wave functions all matrix elements can be calculated. The method is applied to a simple version of the chiral quark-meson model. A number of physical quantities such as magnetic moments, charge distributions, gA, g?NN, N-? mass splitting, properties of the N-? transition, etc., are calculated.

Cohen, Thomas D.; Broniowski, Wojciech

1986-12-01

308

Semiclassical projection of hedgehog models with quarks  

SciTech Connect

A simple semiclassical method is presented for calculating physical observables in states with good angular momentum and isospin for models whose mean-field solutions are hedgehogs. The method is applicable for theories which have both quark and meson degrees of freedom. The basic approach is to find slowly rotating solutions to the time-dependent mean-field equations. A nontrivial set of differential equations must be solved to find the quark configuration for these rotating hedgehogs. The parameters which specify the rotating solutions are treated as the collective degrees of freedom. They are requantized by imposing a set of commutation relations which ensures the correct algebra for the SU(2) x SU(2) group of angular momentum and isospin. Collective wave functions can then be found and with these wave functions all matrix elements can be calculated. The method is applied to a simple version of the chiral quark-meson model. A number of physical quantities such as magnetic moments, charge distributions, g/sub A/, g/sub ..pi..//sub N//sub N/, N-..delta.. mass splitting, properties of the N-..delta.. transition, etc., are calculated.

Cohen, T.D.; Broniowski, W.

1986-12-01

309

Continuous quality improvement: a shared governance model that maximizes agent-specific knowledge.  

PubMed

Motivate, Innovate, Celebrate: an innovative shared governance model through the establishment of continuous quality improvement (CQI) councils was implemented across the London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC). The model leverages agent-specific knowledge at the point of care and provides a structure aimed at building human resources capacity and sustaining enhancements to quality and safe care delivery. Interprofessional and cross-functional teams work through the CQI councils to identify, formulate, execute and evaluate CQI initiatives. In addition to a structure that facilitates collaboration, accountability and ownership, a corporate CQI Steering Committee provides the forum for scaling up and spreading this model. Point-of-care staff, clinical management and educators were trained in LEAN methodology and patient experience-based design to ensure sufficient knowledge and resources to support the implementation. PMID:24860947

Burkoski, Vanessa; Yoon, Jennifer

2013-01-01

310

Mathematical learning models that depend on prior knowledge and instructional strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present mathematical learning models—predictions of student’s knowledge vs amount of instruction—that are based on assumptions motivated by various theories of learning: tabula rasa, constructivist, and tutoring. These models predict the improvement (on the post-test) as a function of the pretest score due to intervening instruction and also depend on the type of instruction. We introduce a connectedness model whose connectedness parameter measures the degree to which the rate of learning is proportional to prior knowledge. Over a wide range of pretest scores on standard tests of introductory physics concepts, it fits high-quality data nearly within error. We suggest that data from MIT have low connectedness (indicating memory-based learning) because the test used the same context and representation as the instruction and that more connected data from the University of Minnesota resulted from instruction in a different representation from the test.

Pritchard, David E.; Lee, Young-Jin; Bao, Lei

2008-06-01

311

Knowledgeable Neighbors:A Mobile Clinic Model for Disease Prevention and Screening in Underserved Communities  

PubMed Central

The Family Van mobile health clinic uses a “Knowledgeable Neighbor” model to deliver cost-effective screening and prevention activities in underserved neighborhoods in Boston, MA. We have described the Knowledgeable Neighbor model and used operational data collected from 2006 to 2009 to evaluate the service. The Family Van successfully reached mainly minority low-income men and women. Of the clients screened, 60% had previously undetected elevated blood pressure, 14% had previously undetected elevated blood glucose, and 38% had previously undetected elevated total cholesterol. This represents an important model for reaching underserved communities to deliver proven cost-effective prevention activities, both to help control health care costs and to reduce health disparities. PMID:22390503

Zurakowski, David; Bennet, Jennifer; Walker-White, Rainelle; Osman, Jamie L.; Quarles, Aaron; Oriol, Nancy

2012-01-01

312

Characterizing the Uncertainty of Climate Change Projections Using Hierarchical Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a suite of Bayesian hierarchical models that synthesize ensembles of climate model simulations, with the aim of reconciling different future projections of climate change, while characterizing their uncertainty in a rigorous fashion. Posterior distributions of future temperature and\\/or precipitation changes at regional scales are obtained, accounting for many peculiar data characteristics, like systematic biases, model-specific precisions, region-specific effects,

Claudia Tebaldi; Richard L. Smithy

313

Single Investigator or Group Projects? Which is the More Successful Model for a REU Site?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate research programs have become popular and effective mechanisms for developing future geoscientists and increasing participation of under-represented groups in the sciences. There are many models for implementing such programs that span different philosophies and goals. Our Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in the Bahamas is in the second of its three year award and has used two different models each year of its operation. In the first year, we used the individual student project model, where students pursued their own research much like an honors or masters thesis approach. Specifically, students did individual projects in four areas: paleobiology, geoarcheology, geobiology and limnogeology. In the second year, we used the team concept model, where students were divided into two teams, coring different lakes. The students combined efforts in both the field and lab, doing basic limnology of the basins, and then collecting and analyzing the cores that they took. While both pedagogy models were successful in teaching basic science skills in the field and lab, each one had different strengths and weaknesses. The single investigator model allowed students to have complete intellectual ownership of their projects, while the group model allowed students to work together in teams and produce a more comprehensive dataset that was higher quality and more likely to be published. In addition, while student knowledge gains were statistically the same for both years, the attitudes towards science scores were higher for the 'team model' year than for the single investigator. Since one of the goals of the REU program is to engage students and foster a desire to continue scientific inquiry or careers in science, the 'team model' could be regarded as more successful. It also allowed higher quality datasets to be produced and a more realistic view of how most science is done—in a collaborative, multidisciplinary way. Each student learned all of the field and lab techniques and helped one another as a cooperative group but was held individually responsible for various aspects of the data collection and analysis. Further, it can be argued that in the short amount of time allotted for REU projects (8-10 weeks), it is difficult for inexperienced students to design a publishable project; and one could question if this is the appropriate venue for having students initiate either projects that are too large to do in the timeframe of the REU or too specific or limited in data and methods to be significant scientific contributions. Thus, we will pursue the 'team model' in our third year of our REU project because it has yielded better scientific outcomes and more satisfying experiences for our students.

Boush, L. P.; Myrbo, A.; Berman, M. J.; Gnivecki, P.; Michelson, A.; Brady, K. L.

2012-12-01

314

Project TIES: Towards Inclusion in Early Settings Model Demonstration Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes the activities and outcomes of Project TIES (Towards Inclusion in Early Education), a federally funded demonstration model training program designed to enhance the abilities of child care providers and trainers to include young children, birth to five, with disabilities in developmentally appropriate child care…

Willis, Clarissa A.

315

A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when the levels of modeling skills were measured, for most skills there was a gradual increase across the spectrum from the novices to the advanced novices to the intermediates to the experts. The study found the experts used model-based reasoning, the intermediates and advanced novices used relation-based reasoning, and the novices used phenomena-based reasoning to anticipate conclusions. The experts and intermediates used more bi-variable relationships in experimental design and anticipated conclusions, but used more multiple-variable relationships in identifying relationships. By contrast, the advanced novices and novices mostly used bi-variable relationships in all modeling skills. Based on these findings, we suggest design principles for model-based teaching and learning such as designing learning activities to encourage model-based reasoning, scaffolding one's modeling with multiple representations, testing models in authentic situations, and nurturing domain-specific knowledge during modeling.

Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2012-10-01

316

Modeling the Relationships among Topical Knowledge, Anxiety, and Integrated Speaking Test Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thus far, few research studies have examined the practice of integrated speaking test tasks in the field of second/foreign language oral assessment. This dissertation utilized structural equation modeling (SEM) and qualitative techniques to explore the relationships among topical knowledge, anxiety, and integrated speaking test performance and to…

Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny

2010-01-01

317

M.S. ABDULLAH, I. BENEST, A. EVANS, and C. KIMBLE, Knowledge Modelling Techniques For Developing Knowledge Management Systems, 3rd European Conference on  

E-print Network

M.S. ABDULLAH, I. BENEST, A. EVANS, and C. KIMBLE, Knowledge Modelling Techniques For Developing Systems Mohd Syazwan Abdullah, Ian Benest, Andy Evans, Chris Kimble Department of Computer Science, University of York, Heslington, YORK YO10 5DD, UK Email: {syazwan, ian.benest, andy.evans, chris

Kimble, Chris

318

The Study on Stage Financing Model of IT Project Investment  

PubMed Central

Stage financing is the basic operation of venture capital investment. In investment, usually venture capitalists use different strategies to obtain the maximum returns. Due to its advantages to reduce the information asymmetry and agency cost, stage financing is widely used by venture capitalists. Although considerable attentions are devoted to stage financing, very little is known about the risk aversion strategies of IT projects. This paper mainly addresses the problem of risk aversion of venture capital investment in IT projects. Based on the analysis of characteristics of venture capital investment of IT projects, this paper introduces a real option pricing model to measure the value brought by the stage financing strategy and design a risk aversion model for IT projects. Because real option pricing method regards investment activity as contingent decision, it helps to make judgment on the management flexibility of IT projects and then make a more reasonable evaluation about the IT programs. Lastly by being applied to a real case, it further illustrates the effectiveness and feasibility of the model. PMID:25147845

Xu, Sheng-hua; Xiong, Neal N.

2014-01-01

319

The study on stage financing model of IT project investment.  

PubMed

Stage financing is the basic operation of venture capital investment. In investment, usually venture capitalists use different strategies to obtain the maximum returns. Due to its advantages to reduce the information asymmetry and agency cost, stage financing is widely used by venture capitalists. Although considerable attentions are devoted to stage financing, very little is known about the risk aversion strategies of IT projects. This paper mainly addresses the problem of risk aversion of venture capital investment in IT projects. Based on the analysis of characteristics of venture capital investment of IT projects, this paper introduces a real option pricing model to measure the value brought by the stage financing strategy and design a risk aversion model for IT projects. Because real option pricing method regards investment activity as contingent decision, it helps to make judgment on the management flexibility of IT projects and then make a more reasonable evaluation about the IT programs. Lastly by being applied to a real case, it further illustrates the effectiveness and feasibility of the model. PMID:25147845

Chen, Si-hua; Xu, Sheng-hua; Lee, Changhoon; Xiong, Neal N; He, Wei

2014-01-01

320

A synopsis of test results and knowledge gained from the Phase-0 CSI evolutionary model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Phase-0 CSI Evolutionary Model (CEM) is a testbed for the study of space platform global line-of-sight (LOS) pointing. Now that the tests have been completed, a summary of hardware and closed-loop test experiences is necessary to insure a timely dissemination of the knowledge gained. The testbed is described and modeling experiences are presented followed by a summary of the research performed by various investigators. Some early lessons on implementing the closed-loop controllers are described with particular emphasis on real-time computing requirements. A summary of closed-loop studies and a synopsis of test results are presented. Plans for evolving the CEM from phase 0 to phases 1 and 2 are also described. Subsequently, a summary of knowledge gained from the design and testing of the Phase-0 CEM is made.

Belvin, W. Keith; Elliott, Kenny B.; Horta, Lucas G.

1993-01-01

321

Mathematical learning models that depend on prior knowledge and instructional strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present mathematical learning modelsâpredictions of studentâs knowledge vs amount of instructionâthat are based on assumptions motivated by various theories of learning: tabula rasa, constructivist, and tutoring. These models predict the improvement (on the post-test) as a function of the pretest score due to intervening instruction and also depend on the type of instruction. We introduce a connectedness model whose connectedness parameter measures the degree to which the rate of learning is proportional to prior knowledge. Over a wide range of pretest scores on standard tests of introductory physics concepts, it fits high-quality data nearly within error. We suggest that data from MIT have low connectedness (indicating memory-based learning) because the test used the same context and representation as the instruction and that more connected data from the University of Minnesota resulted from instruction in a different representation from the test.

Pritchard, David E.; Lee, Young-Jin; Bao, Lei

2008-09-24

322

Synoptic climatology of rain from cutoff lows compared to other systems such as cold-frontal systems in fine-scale climate change model projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation and analysis of synoptic climatology is useful for quantifying the uncertainties in the simulation of rainfall processes by climate models, and then to determine the drivers behind projected changes to rainfall. The frequency of different rain-bearing system types was examined in fine-scale dynamically downscaled global climate model (GCM) simulations using software that automates expert knowledge of these phenomena. The

M. R. Grose; M. J. Pook; P. C. Macintosh; J. S. Risbey; S. Corney; J. Bennett; C. J. White; G. K. Holz; N. L. Bindoff

2010-01-01

323

Anatomical knowledge gain through a clay-modeling exercise compared to live and video observations.  

PubMed

Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments, the learning effects of clay modeling were compared to either live observations (Experiment I) or video observations (Experiment II) of the clay-modeling exercise. The effects of learning were measured with multiple choice questions, extended matching questions, and recognition of structures on illustrations of cross-sections. Analysis of covariance with pretest scores as the covariate was used to elaborate the results. Experiment I showed a significantly higher post-test score for the observers, whereas Experiment II showed a significantly higher post-test score for the clay modelers. This study shows that (1) students who perform clay-modeling exercises show less gain in anatomical knowledge than students who attentively observe the same exercise being carried out and (2) performing a clay-modeling exercise is better in anatomical knowledge gain compared to the study of a video of the recorded exercise. The most important learning effect seems to be the engagement in the exercise, focusing attention and stimulating time on task. PMID:24623632

Kooloos, Jan G M; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N; Bergman, Esther M; Donders, Rogier A R T; Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M

2014-01-01

324

Integrating knowledge management into organisational learning : A review of concepts and models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to review the concepts and constructs of some common models and frameworks advocated for knowledge management (KM) and organisational learning (OL) in literature. It sets forth a critical enquiry towards the integration of KM and OL practices and their relationship with the concepts of the learning organisation (LO) and chaordic organisation\\/enterprise (CO\\/CE). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A

Kit Fai Pun; Marcia Nathai-Balkissoon

2011-01-01

325

A Model of Collaborative Knowledge-Building Based on Web2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitous linking of computers in local and global networks makes possible the sharing of thoughts by people who are\\u000a separated spatially or temporally. Many efforts are made to increase opportunities for effective collaborative working, learning\\u000a and acting through innovative uses of computer technology, and one of these efforts is to build group knowledge collaboratively.\\u000a This paper presents a model

Rong Wang; Meiqi Fang; Yu Chen

2007-01-01

326

Kinematic Model For Asymmetry: Projected Hotspot/Lobe Advance Speed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a kinematic model for asymmetries in radio sources, which enabled an estimation of the projected hotspot/lobe advance speed for high-luminosity radio sources using the arm-length ratio (Q) and apparent flux ratio (R). We obtain a mean projected speed along the line of sight = 0.15±0.05 for all the sources in our sample, using the Q parameter and ˜0.12-0.32 for rho=2alpha+1 (where rho is the electron energy spectrum index) using the R parameter. Our results indicate that the adopted model of brightness evolution of plasma element affects the values of projected speed. Regression analyses indicate that the estimated speeds using the Q and R parameters show some correlation with distance (L) and luminosity (P), especially for quasars.

Onuchukwu, C. C.; Ubachukwu, A. A.; Odo, F. C.

2014-04-01

327

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 9: Summary report to phase 3 faculty and student respondents including frequency distributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project is designed to explore the diffusion of scientific and technical information (STI) throughout the aerospace industry. The increased international competition and cooperation in the industry promises to significantly affect the STI standards of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Therefore, it is important to understand the aerospace knowledge diffusion process itself and its implications at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. Examined here is the role of STI in the academic aerospace community.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

1991-01-01

328

Reconstruction of metabolic pathways by combining probabilistic graphical model-based and knowledge-based methods  

PubMed Central

Automatic reconstruction of metabolic pathways for an organism from genomics and transcriptomics data has been a challenging and important problem in bioinformatics. Traditionally, known reference pathways can be mapped into an organism-specific ones based on its genome annotation and protein homology. However, this simple knowledge-based mapping method might produce incomplete pathways and generally cannot predict unknown new relations and reactions. In contrast, ab initio metabolic network construction methods can predict novel reactions and interactions, but its accuracy tends to be low leading to a lot of false positives. Here we combine existing pathway knowledge and a new ab initio Bayesian probabilistic graphical model together in a novel fashion to improve automatic reconstruction of metabolic networks. Specifically, we built a knowledge database containing known, individual gene / protein interactions and metabolic reactions extracted from existing reference pathways. Known reactions and interactions were then used as constraints for Bayesian network learning methods to predict metabolic pathways. Using individual reactions and interactions extracted from different pathways of many organisms to guide pathway construction is new and improves both the coverage and accuracy of metabolic pathway construction. We applied this probabilistic knowledge-based approach to construct the metabolic networks from yeast gene expression data and compared its results with 62 known metabolic networks in the KEGG database. The experiment showed that the method improved the coverage of metabolic network construction over the traditional reference pathway mapping method and was more accurate than pure ab initio methods. PMID:25374614

2014-01-01

329

Epistemology of Modeling and Simulation: How can we gain Knowledge from Simulations?  

E-print Network

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that deals with gaining knowledge. It is closely related to ontology. The branch that deals with questions like "What is real?" and "What do we know?" as it provides these components. When using modeling and simulation, we usually imply that we are doing so to either apply knowledge, in particular when we are using them for training and teaching, or that we want to gain new knowledge, for example when doing analysis or conducting virtual experiments. This paper looks at the history of science to give a context to better cope with the question, how we can gain knowledge from simulation. It addresses aspects of computability and the general underlying mathematics, and applies the findings to validation and verification and development of federations. As simulations are understood as computable executable hypotheses, validation can be understood as hypothesis testing and theory building. The mathematical framework allows furthermore addressing some challenges when developing federations and the potential introduction of contradictions when composing different theories, as they are represented by the federated simulation systems.

Andreas Tolk; Saikou Y. Diallo; Jose J. Padilla; Ross Gore

2013-06-21

330

The WHISK (Women's Health: Increasing the Awareness of Science and Knowledge) Pilot Project: Recognizing Sex and Gender Differences in Women's Health and Wellness  

PubMed Central

Women's health encompasses a continuum of biological, psychological, and social challenges that di?er considerably from those of men. Despite the remarkable advances in science, women's health and sex di?erences research is slowly gaining recognition and acceptance. It is important that women's health gain attention as women are usually the gatekeepers of care for the family. Women's health and health outcomes are strongly influenced by sex and gender di?erences as well as geography. Around the world, the interplay of biology and culture brings about di?erences in men's and women's health, which have been largely overlooked. The Women's Health: Increasing the Awareness of Science and Knowledge (WHISK) Pilot Project was a multidisciplinary project aimed to increase the awareness of sex and gender di?erences in women's health and research among healthcare professionals. Theater expression and creative art were used to translate knowledge, enhance understanding, and increase the awareness of sex di?erences. Findings from this project clearly showed an apparent increase in knowledge and cultivation of new insights. PMID:24416695

Dennis, Sabriya; Weaks, Francesca

2013-01-01

331

Modeling natural gas regulation in the Project Independence Evaluation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Project Independence Evaluation System is used to forecast the state of the energy economy for selected future years and reflect the impacts of a range of potential Federal policies on the prices paid for energy commodities, on the level of demands for these commodities, and on the level of imports of oil. Models are constructed for the different components

F. H. Murphy; G. M. Lady; E. C. MacRae; C. R. Glassey

1978-01-01

332

OVERVIEW AND STATUS OF LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE MODELLING PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

With most of the data available from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project field program, the modeling efforts have begun in earnest. The tributary and atmospheric load estimates are or will be completed soon, so realistic simulations for calibration are beginning. A Quality Ass...

333

Predicting Flu Season Requirements: An Undergraduate Modeling Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project was designed to be used in a freshman calculus class whose students had already been introduced to logistic functions and basic data modeling techniques. It need not be limited to such an audience, however; it has also been implemented in a topics in mathematics class for college upperclassmen. Originally intended to be presented in…

Kramlich, Gary R., II; Braunstein Fierson, Janet L.; Wright, J. Adam

2010-01-01

334

Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At the hillslope profile and/or field scale, a simple Windows graphical user interface (GUI) is available to easily specify the slope, soil, and management inputs for application of the USDA Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Likewise, basic small watershed configurations of a few hillsl...

335

SECTION 103 WRDA 86, AS AMENDED MODEL PROJECT PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

or not to include a paragraph, sentence, or phrase depending on the specifics of your project. In many cases description of construction. However, to ensure consistency throughout this and models for all other purposes, the terms "construction" and "construct" are used throughout the agreement regardless of whether

US Army Corps of Engineers

336

SECTION 103 WRDA 86, AS AMENDED MODEL PROJECT PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

, sentence, or phrase depending on the specifics of your project. In many cases optional language to address, some of which do not fit the typical description of construction. However, to ensure consistency throughout this and models for all other purposes, the terms "construction" and "construct" are used

US Army Corps of Engineers

337

SECTION 103 WRDA 86, AS AMENDED MODEL PROJECT PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

whether or not to include a paragraph, sentence, or phrase depending on the specifics of your project description of construction. However, to ensure consistency throughout this and models for all other purposes, the terms "construction" and "construct" are used throughout the agreement regardless of whether

US Army Corps of Engineers

338

PART II TECHNIQUES PROJECT MODELLING OF THE CORROSION OF  

E-print Network

- 1 - PART II TECHNIQUES PROJECT MODELLING OF THE CORROSION OF BINARY ALLOYS R.A. Jones Produced and temperatures. In this work a neural network method was employed to study how the rate of corrosion of Fe accordance with the literature. 1. Introduction The atmosphere is the corrosive environment to which alloys

Cambridge, University of

339

Energy Demand Modelling Introduction to the PhD project  

E-print Network

Energy Demand Modelling Introduction to the PhD project Erika Zvingilaite Risø DTU System Analysis for optimization of energy systems Environmental effects Global externalities cost of CO2 Future scenarios for the Nordic energy systems 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050 (energy-production, consumption, emissions, net costs

340

Student Project Business Process Modeling Using ebXML  

E-print Network

XML?.............................................................................................. 13 2.2. Electronic Business Collaboration to Negotiate, Evaluate, and Execute Electronic Business Processes... 37 3.1. Four-Layer Electronic BusinessStudent Project Business Process Modeling Using ebXML: Case Study Aivaras Pigaga Matr. Nr.: 20726

341

Superordinate identities and intergroup conflict: The ingroup projection model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter summarises results from a research programme on the psychological basis of tolerance and discrimination in intergroup relations, with particular consideration of the role of superordinate identities. According to the ingroup projection model, a relevant superordinate group provides dimensions and norms for comparisons between ingroup and outgroup. Groups gain positive value or status when they are considered prototypical for

Michael Wenzel; Amélie Mummendey; Sven Waldzus

2007-01-01

342

Modelling project investment decisions under uncertainty using possibility theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing popularity of privately financed and operated construction projects, a systematic evaluation of investment options is needed, especially if they are competing for the same capital resource. Traditional evaluation methods incorporating risk analysis techniques require the input of relative frequencies which are not easily available in construction. This paper proposes a method capable of modelling the effects of

Sherif Mohamed; Alison K. McCowan

2001-01-01

343

Project W-320 thermal hydraulic model benchmarking and baselining  

SciTech Connect

Project W-320 will be retrieving waste from Tank 241-C-106 and transferring the waste to Tank 241-AY-102. Waste in both tanks must be maintained below applicable thermal limits during and following the waste transfer. Thermal hydraulic process control models will be used for process control of the thermal limits. This report documents the process control models and presents a benchmarking of the models with data from Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. Revision 1 of this report will provide a baselining of the models in preparation for the initiation of sluicing.

Sathyanarayana, K.

1998-09-28

344

The Community Climate System Model Project from an Interagency Perspective  

SciTech Connect

In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will publish its Fourth Assessment Report of the Scientific Basis of Climate Change (AR4). A significant portion of the AR4 will be the analysis of coupled general circulation model (GCM) simulations of the climate of the past century as well as scenarios of future climates under prescribed emission scenarios. Modeling groups worldwide have contributed to AR4, including three from the U.S., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) project, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Institute for Space Sciences, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). This collection of model results is providing a wealth of new information that will be used to examine the state of climate science, the potential impacts from climate changes, and the policy consequences that they imply. Our focus here is on the CCSM project. Although it is centered at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the CCSM version 3 (CCSM3) was designed, developed, and applied in a uniquely distributed fashion with participation by many institutions. This model has produced some of the most scientifically complete and highest resolution simulations of climate change to date, thanks to the teamwork of many scientists and software engineers. Their contributions will become obvious as a steady stream of peer-reviewed publications appears in the scientific literature. Less obvious, however, is the largely hidden, unprecedented level of interagency cooperation and multi-institutional coordination that provided the direction and resources necessary to make the CCSM project successful. Contrary to the widely-held opinion that the US climate research effort in general, and the climate modeling effort in particular, is fragmented and disorganized (NRC 1998, 2001), the success of the CCSM project demonstrates that a uniquely US approach to model development can produce a world-class model.

Bader, D C; Bamzai, A; Fein, J; Patrinos, A; Leinen, M

2005-06-16

345

Modeling of an electrostatic torsional micromirror for laser projection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Simulink model of a new 2D torsional scanning micromirror. This micro-opto-electro-mechanical-system\\u000a (MOEMS) is very important towards the integration into a system on a package of a complete laser projection system. Modeling\\u000a and simulation of the MOEMS is a key point for the development of the proper micromirror electronic conditioning interface\\u000a thus reducing time to market and

Eleonora Marchetti; Emilio Volpi; Francesco Battini; Luca Bacciarelli; Luca Fanucci; Ulrich Hofmann

2010-01-01

346

The simulation model of teleradiology in telemedicine project.  

PubMed

Telemedicine projects are aimed at offering medical services to people who do not have access to direct diagnosis and treatment services. As a powerful tool for analyzing the performance of complex systems and taking probable events into consideration, systemic simulation can facilitate the analysis of implementation processes of telemedicine projects in real-life-like situations. The aim of the present study was to propose a model for planning resource capacities and allocating human and operational resources to promote the efficiency of telemedicine project by investigating the process of teleradiology. In this article, after verification of the conceptual model by the experts of this field, the computerized simulation model is developed using simulation software Arena. After specifying the required data, different improvement scenarios are run using the computerized model by feeding the data into the software and validation and verification of the model. Fixing input data of the system such as the number of patients, their waiting time, and process time of each function, for example, magnetic resonance imaging or scan, has been compared with the current radiology process. Implementing the teleradiology model resulted in reduction of time of patients in the system (current: 1.84 ± 0.00, tele: 0.81 ± 0.00). Furthermore, through this process, they can allocate the lower resources to perform better functions of staff. The use of computerized simulation is essential for designing processes, optimal allocation of resources, planning, and making appropriate decisions for providing timely services to patients. PMID:25627857

Goodini, Azadeh; Torabi, Mashallah; Goodarzi, Maryam; Safdari, Reza; Darayi, Mohamad; Tavassoli, Mahdieh; Shabani, MohammadMehdi

2015-01-01

347

An approach to model and evaluate innovation and concurrent engineering projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling and analysis of a project are today mostly developed with the PERT\\/CPM techniques. Although these tools are well-suited to model simple projects, they are not powerful enough for complex project planning which are related to miscarriage, choice and competition, such as design projects and research projects. The goal of this paper is to propose a generalized approach for

O. Grunder; P. Baptiste; O. Barakat

1995-01-01

348

Towards the Development of a New Model for Best Practice and Knowledge Construction in Virtual Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the work of a European Commission DG Education and Culture co-financed project PBP-VC, Promoting Best Practice in Virtual Campuses, which is aimed at providing a deeper understanding of the key issues and critical success factors underlying the implementation of virtual campuses. The paper outlines a tentative model of issues…

Cartelli, Antonio; Stansfield, Mark; Connolly, Thomas; Jimoyiannis, Athanassios; Magalhaes, Hugo; Maillet, Katherine

2008-01-01

349

The smooth (tractor) operator: insights of knowledge engineering.  

PubMed

The design of and training for complex systems requires in-depth understanding of task demands imposed on users. In this project, we used the knowledge engineering approach (Bowles et al., 2004) to assess the task of mowing in a citrus grove. Knowledge engineering is divided into four phases: (1) Establish goals. We defined specific goals based on the stakeholders involved. The main goal was to identify operator demands to support improvement of the system. (2) Create a working model of the system. We reviewed product literature, analyzed the system, and conducted expert interviews. (3) Extract knowledge. We interviewed tractor operators to understand their knowledge base. (4) Structure knowledge. We analyzed and organized operator knowledge to inform project goals. We categorized the information and developed diagrams to display the knowledge effectively. This project illustrates the benefits of knowledge engineering as a qualitative research method to inform technology design and training. PMID:22591763

Cullen, Ralph H; Smarr, Cory-Ann; Serrano-Baquero, Daniel; McBride, Sara E; Beer, Jenay M; Rogers, Wendy A

2012-11-01

350

Robust automated knowledge capture.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

2011-10-01

351

Projective symmetry of partons in the Kitaev honeycomb model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-energy states of quantum spin liquids are thought to involve partons living in a gauge-field background. We study the spectrum of Majorana fermions of the Kitaev honeycomb model on spherical clusters. The gauge field endows the partons with half-integer orbital angular momenta. As a consequence, the multiplicities do not reflect the point-group symmetries of the cluster, but rather its projective symmetries, operations combining physical and gauge transformations. The projective symmetry group of the ground state is the double cover of the point group.

Mellado, Paula; Petrova, Olga; Tchernyshyov, Oleg

2015-01-01

352

Telep@b Project: Towards a Model for eParticipation and a Case Study in Participatory Budgeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

eParticipation concerns the use of ICT tools for facilitating the two-way communication between governments and citizens. Designing eParticipation activities is a complex task. Challenges include the need of interdisciplinary expertise and knowledge (for example, political, sociology, usability and technology domains) and the lack of widely accepted models and standards. This paper attempts to provide a model for eParticipation, aiming at providing guidelines for the design, implementation and management of eParticipation applications. This model has been put into practice for the design of an eParticipation portal in the framework of the Telep@b project. We also report on the experimental use of the portal services in a group of Tuscany municipalities for supporting participatory budget activities and future activities in a follow-on project (PAAS_Telep@b project).

Paganelli, Federica; Giuli, Dino

353

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report No. 36: The Technical Communications Practices of US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 NASA Langley Research Center Mail Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were assigned to the Research and Technology Group (RTG) at the NASA Langley Research Center in September 1995.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

354

NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Report 43: The Technical Communication Practices of U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 Mail Survey -- Manufacturing and Production Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communication practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were members of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1996-01-01

355

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 25: The technical communications practices of British aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 4 RAeS mail survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of British aerospace engineers and scientists.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

356

Process Consistency in Models: the Importance of System Signatures, Expert Knowledge and Process Complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological models are frequently characterized by what is often considered to be adequate calibration performances. In many cases, however, these models experience a substantial uncertainty and performance decrease in validation periods, thus resulting in poor predictive power. Besides the likely presence of data errors, this observation can point towards wrong or insufficient representations of the underlying processes and their heterogeneity. In other words, right results are generated for the wrong reasons. Thus ways are sought to increase model consistency and to thereby satisfy the contrasting priorities of the need a) to increase model complexity and b) to limit model equifinality. In this study a stepwise model development approach is chosen to test the value of an exhaustive and systematic combined use of hydrological signatures, expert knowledge and readily available, yet anecdotal and rarely exploited, hydrological information for increasing model consistency towards generating the right answer for the right reasons. A simple 3-box, 7 parameter, conceptual HBV-type model, constrained by 4 calibration objective functions was able to adequately reproduce the hydrograph with comparatively high values for the 4 objective functions in the 5-year calibration period. However, closer inspection of the results showed a dramatic decrease of model performance in the 5-year validation period. In addition, assessing the model's skill to reproduce a range of 20 hydrological signatures including, amongst others, the flow duration curve, the autocorrelation function and the rising limb density, showed that it could not adequately reproduce the vast majority of these signatures, indicating a lack of model consistency. Subsequently model complexity was increased in a stepwise way to allow for more process heterogeneity. To limit model equifinality, increase in complexity was counter-balanced by a stepwise application of "realism constraints", inferred from expert knowledge (e.g. unsaturated storage capacity of hillslopes should exceed the one of wetlands) and anecdotal hydrological information (e.g. long-term estimates of actual evaporation obtained from the Budyko framework and long-term estimates of baseflow contribution) to ensure that the model is well behaved with respect to the modeller's perception of the system. A total of 11 model set-ups with increased complexity and an increased number of realism constraints was tested. It could be shown that in spite of largely unchanged calibration performance, compared to the simplest set-up, the most complex model set-up (12 parameters, 8 constraints) exhibited significantly increased performance in the validation period while uncertainty did not increase. In addition, the most complex model was characterized by a substantially increased skill to reproduce all 20 signatures, indicating a more suitable representation of the system. The results suggest that a model, "well" constrained by 4 calibration objective functions may still be an inadequate representation of the system and that increasing model complexity, if counter-balanced by realism constraints, can indeed increase predictive performance of a model and its skill to reproduce a range of hydrological signatures, but that it does not necessarily result in increased uncertainty. The results also strongly illustrate the need to move away from automated model calibration towards a more general expert-knowledge driven strategy of constraining models if a certain level of model consistency is to be achieved.

Hrachowitz, Markus; Fovet, Ophelie; Ruiz, Laurent; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Savenije, Hubert

2014-05-01

357

Projection-based Model Reduction of Unconfined Groundwater Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater management is enhanced by the development and implementation of mathematical models to evaluate the effects on an aquifer system of various management actions. These evaluations often require a large number of simulations to conduct advanced analyses such as optimization of pumping schedules. Such analyses are intractable for complex, highly-discretized, or regional-scale models with large computational requirements. Therefore, reducing the computational burden associated with these models will provide opportunities for the application of optimization tools and other advanced analyses to a wider spectrum of groundwater management problems. Projection-based model reduction techniques have been shown to be very effective for reducing the computational burden of large-scale simulations. This type of model reduction involves construction of a projection matrix that is used to reduce the state dimensionality of a model by applying principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the components of the original model that have the largest impact on its output. It is also referred to as Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). The projection-based reduction technique preserves the underlying physics of the system and removes components that do not provide significant information to the simulation. Previous researchers have reduced the dimensionality of the confined groundwater equation by three orders of magnitude using POD. To date, POD has only been applied to linear models such as the confined groundwater equation. A novel approach is proposed in this paper that combines the Newton formulation of the unconfined groundwater equation with a projection-based model reduction technique similar to POD. The proposed methodology is applied to the Newton formulation of MODFLOW (MODFLOW-NWT). We first validate the proposed methodology on a 1-D, unconfined MODFLOW-NWT model that solves 100 equations per time step (100-node model) and produced equivalent results by solving 10 equations per time step. We then apply the methodology to a 3-D, unconfined MODFLOW-NWT model. The original full-scale model with 500,000 nodes is reduced to 100 nodes, with about 1% error.

Nishikawa, T.; Boyce, S. E.; Yeh, W.

2013-12-01

358

Short-term data collection projects: A means to increase teacher content knowledge and bring authentic research experiences into the classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term field research projects were embedded into a two-week, Mathematics and Science Partnership-funded, teacher institute devoted to increasing content knowledge about the physical basis of climate change. Teams of four teachers were encouraged to ask any research question related to weather or climate, and create a data collection method that they thought might help answer their question. They were provided with a range of measurement devices, from simple immersible thermometers to light sensors, probeware, and carbon dioxide concentration sensors. Teams were expected to design data collection sites in a middle-school setting, present site designs to their peers, collect data, present initial results, and participate in peer-review about site design and data collected. Teachers were encouraged to generate research questions that could be replicated with their students at their schools. Design complexity ranged widely with some teachers deliberately choosing to model sites their students might design and others making full use of more sophisticated technology. On the third day of the institute, each group presented their research question and setup for data collection in poster format. Large gaps in understanding about testable questions and effective data collection methods were apparent. Instead of addressing errors as groups presented, facilitators encouraged participants to explore each groups’ presentation and make comments using post-it notes. Participants were then encouraged to respond to the comments and consider modifying their questions, site designs, or data collection methods. Teams gathered data up to three times daily and were fully responsible for choosing means of data organization; by the second week most were using and becoming familiar with Microsoft Excel. Final presentations were in Microsoft PowerPoint. Teams were expected to graphically report data, present possible interpretations, and discuss any problems related to their initial questions or methods. All teams reported problems with their work and identified improvements for future research. Teachers reported that the field component was very helpful to their understanding of the process of science and to deepening their content knowledge about climate change research. Additionally they reported that they were much more likely to include short-term research projects in their own classrooms as a result of this experience. Short-term data collection experiences such as these can serve to: - Encourage teachers to provide students with the opportunity to develop their own questions, and design methods to answer those questions; - Expose teachers to common pitfalls in data collection methods so that teachers can later guide students as students encounter similar problems; - Familiarize teachers with widely available technology used to record and present data; - Refine teacher understanding of research and improve likelihood of success on longer research projects; - Enable teachers to look at data sets more critically and in more depth; - Better understand how to construct, read, and interpret data tables and graphs; and - Increase depth of understanding of science content.

Gaboardi, M.; Parker, W.; Rodriguez, D.

2010-12-01

359

Geomechanical/ Geochemical Modeling Studies onducted Within the International DECOVALEX Project  

SciTech Connect

The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperative project initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, with participation of about 10 international organizations. The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. One of the research tasks, initiated in 2004 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), addresses the long-term impact of geomechanical and geochemical processes on the flow conditions near waste emplacement tunnels. Within this task, four international research teams conduct predictive analysis of the coupled processes in two generic repositories, using multiple approaches and different computer codes. Below, we give an overview of the research task and report its current status.

J.T. Birkholzer; J. Rutqvist; E.L. Sonnenthal; D. Barr; M.Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; M. Xie; C. Zhang

2006-02-01

360

Models of Charity Donations and Project Funding in Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key fundaments of building a society is common interest or shared aims of the group members. This research work is a try to analyze web-based services oriented towards money collection for various social and charity projects. The phenomenon of social founding is worth a closer look at because its success strongly depends on the ability to build an ad-hoc or persistent groups of people sharing their believes and willing to support external institutions or individuals. The paper presents a review of money collection sites, various models of donation and money collection process as well as ways how the projects' results are reported to their founders. There is also a proposal of money collection service, where donators are not charged until total declared help overheads required resources to complete the project. The risk of missing real donations for declared payments, after the collection is closed, can be assessed and minimized by building a social network.

Wojciechowski, Adam

361

Human dimension in scientific models in high-mountain climate change and risk projects: Peruvian-Swiss experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models in a range of scientific disciplines are increasingly seen as indispensable for successful adaptation. Governments as well as international organizations and cooperations put their efforts in basing their adaptation projects on scientific results. Thereby, it is critical that scientific models are first put into the particular context in which they will be applied. This paper addresses the experience of the project 'Glaciers 513- Climate change adaptation and disaster risk management for glacier retreat in the Andes' conducted in the districts of Carhuaz (Ancash region) and Santa Teresa (Cusco region) in Peru. The Peruvian and the Swiss governments put their joint efforts in an adaptation project in the context of climate change and the retreat of the glaciers. The project is led by a consortium of Care Peru and the University of Zurich with additional Swiss partners and its principal aim is to improve the capacity for integral adaptation and reduce the risk of disasters from glaciers and high-mountain areas, and effects of climate change, particularly in the regions of Cusco and Ancash. The paper shows how the so called "human dimension" on the one hand, and models from a range of disciplines, including climatology, glaciology, and hydrology on the other hand, were conceptualized and perceived by the different actors involved in the project. Important aspects have been, among others, the role of local knowledge including ancestral knowledge, demographic information, socio-economic indicators as well as the social, political and cultural framework and the historical background. Here we analyze the role and context of local knowledge and the historical background. The analysis of the implications of the differences and similarities of the perceptions of a range of actors contributes to the discussion about how, and to what extent scientific models can be contextualized, what kind of information can be helpful for the contextualization and how it can be obtained. The results, thus, should contribute to more concerted, locally based and accepted risk and adaptation measures.

Vicuña, Luis; Jurt, Christine; Minan, Fiorella; Huggel, Christian

2014-05-01

362

The Development Model of Knowledge Management via Web-Based Learning to Enhance Pre-Service Teacher's Competency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explores that the model of knowledge management and web technology for teachers' professional development as well as its impact in the classroom on learning and teaching, especially in pre-service teacher's competency and practices that refer to knowledge creating, analyzing, nurturing, disseminating, and optimizing process as part…

Rampai, Nattaphon; Sopeerak, Saroch

2011-01-01

363

Elementary students' prior knowledge and the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) model in second-language reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study first examined the effects of prior knowledge of Chinese and the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) model on Chinese reading comprehension, listening comprehension, usage\\/grammar, and overall Chinese proficiency as assessed by the SAT II Chinese Subject Tests with Listening. The effects were studied in terms of high and low prior knowledge fluency in Chinese as a second-language

Yi-Fang Yeh

2007-01-01

364

Knowledge Transfer, Policymaking and Community Empowerment: A Consensus Model Approach for Providing Public Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important problem in creating new programs and polices is how to encourage the transfer of knowledge in non-hierarchical ways so that new, relevant and specific knowledge is co-created by all interested parties. In this paper, we suggest that a consensus model of policymaking is one response and identify four key structural elements thought necessary for creating such a consensus

Nahama Broner; Michael Franczak; Christina Dye; William McAllister

2001-01-01

365

UnCommon Knowledge: Projects That Help Middle-School-Age Youth Discover the Science and Mathematics in Everyday Life. Volume One: Hands-On Science Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains hands-on science activities to connect middle-school students to the traditional knowledge of their grandparents and elders. Because girls often lose interest in science at the middle-school level, and because women in some communities (especially in rural areas) are seldom involved in work with an obvious science basis, the…

Carter, Carolyn S.; Keyes, Marian; Kusimo, Patricia S.; Lunsford, Crystal

366

UnCommon Knowledge: Projects That Help Middle-School-Age Youth Discover the Science and Mathematics in Everyday Life. Volume Two: Hands-On Math Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains hands-on mathematics activities to connect middle-school students to the traditional knowledge of their grandparents and elders. Because girls often lose interest in math at the middle-school level, and because women in some communities (especially in rural areas) are seldom involved in work with an obvious math basis, the…

Carter, Carolyn S.; Cohen, Sara; Keyes, Marian; Kusimo, Patricia S.; Lunsford, Crystal

367

A Model of Multilevel Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation for Investment Risk of High and New Technology Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

High and new technology project (HNTP) as a carrier of economic development can transform scientific and technological knowledge into productive forces. HNTP is characterized by being knowledge intensive, high risk and high returns. But, it is quite often a bit difficult to evaluate the investment risk (IR) of HNTP in the traditional qualitative way. So the application of multilevel fuzzy

Yu-Hua Li; Yun-Quan Hu

2006-01-01

368

Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1999 Habitat Conservation Projects.  

SciTech Connect

The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a summary of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. Up until last year, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and was the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices are the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. However, the watershed stream evaluation team used in the watershed analysis determined that there were problems along the Pataha Creek that needed to be addressed that would add further protection to the banks and therefore a further reduction of sedimentation into the stream. 1999 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. In stream work was not addressed this year because of the costs associated with these projects and the low impact of the sediment issue concerning Pataha Creeks impact on Chinook Salmon in the Tucannon River.

Bartels, Duane G.

2000-10-01

369

Genomic analyses with biofilter 2.0: knowledge driven filtering, annotation, and model development  

PubMed Central

Background The ever-growing wealth of biological information available through multiple comprehensive database repositories can be leveraged for advanced analysis of data. We have now extensively revised and updated the multi-purpose software tool Biofilter that allows researchers to annotate and/or filter data as well as generate gene-gene interaction models based on existing biological knowledge. Biofilter now has the Library of Knowledge Integration (LOKI), for accessing and integrating existing comprehensive database information, including more flexibility for how ambiguity of gene identifiers are handled. We have also updated the way importance scores for interaction models are generated. In addition, Biofilter 2.0 now works with a range of types and formats of data, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identifiers, rare variant identifiers, base pair positions, gene symbols, genetic regions, and copy number variant (CNV) location information. Results Biofilter provides a convenient single interface for accessing multiple publicly available human genetic data sources that have been compiled in the supporting database of LOKI. Information within LOKI includes genomic locations of SNPs and genes, as well as known relationships among genes and proteins such as interaction pairs, pathways and ontological categories. Via Biofilter 2.0 researchers can: • Annotate genomic location or region based data, such as results from association studies, or CNV analyses, with relevant biological knowledge for deeper interpretation • Filter genomic location or region based data on biological criteria, such as filtering a series SNPs to retain only SNPs present in specific genes within specific pathways of interest • Generate Predictive Models for gene-gene, SNP-SNP, or CNV-CNV interactions based on biological information, with priority for models to be tested based on biological relevance, thus narrowing the search space and reducing multiple hypothesis-testing. Conclusions Biofilter is a software tool that provides a flexible way to use the ever-expanding expert biological knowledge that exists to direct filtering, annotation, and complex predictive model development for elucidating the etiology of complex phenotypic outcomes. PMID:24378202

2013-01-01

370

Research and Application of Collaborative Knowledge Building Model Based on Web2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative Knowledge Building (CKB) is a process involved in groups of participant to collect knowledge, communicate knowledge, share knowledge, and create knowledge together. While Web2.0 is characterized by being user-centered, two-ways communication and creating knowledge together in social network formation, thus Web2.0 concepts seems to be an ideal fit with CKB. However, how to integrate the undoubted significant factors into

Weibing Zheng; Chengling Zhao; Zhiying Liu; Feng Wang

2009-01-01

371

Knowledge Discovery Nuggets Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Knowledge Discovery Nuggets is both a web site and an associated newsletter. The newsletter focuses on the latest research, new applications, conference announcements, and news about data mining and knowledge discovery. The web site offers a large index of categorized pointers to data mining and knowledge discovery software, informative reference materials, related research projects, data sets, and much more. While somewhat difficult to navigate, Knowledge Discovery Nuggets offers an excellent place to start a data mining or knowledge discovery related search.

372

Model projections of atmospheric steering of Sandy-like superstorms.  

PubMed

Superstorm Sandy ravaged the eastern seaboard of the United States, costing a great number of lives and billions of dollars in damage. Whether events like Sandy will become more frequent as anthropogenic greenhouse gases continue to increase remains an open and complex question. Here we consider whether the persistent large-scale atmospheric patterns that steered Sandy onto the coast will become more frequent in the coming decades. Using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 multimodel ensemble, we demonstrate that climate models consistently project a decrease in the frequency and persistence of the westward flow that led to Sandy's unprecedented track, implying that future atmospheric conditions are less likely than at present to propel storms westward into the coast. PMID:24003129

Barnes, Elizabeth A; Polvani, Lorenzo M; Sobel, Adam H

2013-09-17

373

Model projections of atmospheric steering of Sandy-like superstorms  

PubMed Central

Superstorm Sandy ravaged the eastern seaboard of the United States, costing a great number of lives and billions of dollars in damage. Whether events like Sandy will become more frequent as anthropogenic greenhouse gases continue to increase remains an open and complex question. Here we consider whether the persistent large-scale atmospheric patterns that steered Sandy onto the coast will become more frequent in the coming decades. Using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 multimodel ensemble, we demonstrate that climate models consistently project a decrease in the frequency and persistence of the westward flow that led to Sandy’s unprecedented track, implying that future atmospheric conditions are less likely than at present to propel storms westward into the coast. PMID:24003129

Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.; Sobel, Adam H.

2013-01-01

374

Impact of imperfect rainfall knowledge on the efficiency and the parameters of watershed models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is crucial to analyze the sensitivity of watershed (rainfall-runoff) models to imperfect knowledge of rainfall input, in order to judge whether or not they are reliable and robust, especially if they are to be used for operational purposes. In this paper, a new approach to sensitivity analysis is proposed, based on a comparison between the efficiency ratings and parameter values of the models and the quality of rainfall input estimate (GORE and BALANCE indexes, assessing the quality of rainfall time distribution and the total depth respectively). Data from three watersheds of increasing size (71, 1120, and 10700 km 2), are used to test three watershed models of varying complexity (three-parameter GR3J model and six-parameter modified versions of TOPMODEL and IHACRES). These models are able to cope with imperfect rainfall input estimates, and react to improvements in rainfall input accuracy by better performance and reduced variability of efficiency. Two different types of model behavior were identified: the models either benefit from improved rainfall data by producing more consistent parameter values, or they are unable to take advantage of the improvements. Although the watershed size seems to be immaterial, the smaller watersheds appear to need more precise areal rainfall estimates (a higher concentration of raingages) to ensure good modeling results.

Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles; Michel, Claude; Usart-Sanchez, Iolanda; Lavabre, Jacques

2001-09-01

375

SMART (Shop floor Modeling, Analysis and Reporting Tool Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents summarizes the design and prototype of the Shop floor Modeling, Analysis, and Reporting Tool (S.M.A.R.T.) A detailed description of it is found on the full documentation given to the NASA liaison. This documentation is also found on the A.R.I.S.E. Center web site, under a projected directory. Only authorized users can gain access to this site.

Centeno, Martha A.; Garcia, Maretys L.; Mendoza, Alicia C.; Molina, Louis A.; Correa, Daisy; Wint, Steve; Doice, Gregorie; Reyes, M. Florencia

1999-01-01

376

Mechanistic Modeling Reveals the Critical Knowledge Gaps in Bile Acid-Mediated DILI.  

PubMed

Bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibition has been proposed to be an important mechanism for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Modeling can prioritize knowledge gaps concerning bile acid (BA) homeostasis and thus help guide experimentation. A submodel of BA homeostasis in rats and humans was constructed within DILIsym, a mechanistic model of DILI. In vivo experiments in rats with glibenclamide were conducted, and data from these experiments were used to validate the model. The behavior of DILIsym was analyzed in the presence of a simulated theoretical BSEP inhibitor. BSEP inhibition in humans is predicted to increase liver concentrations of conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and sulfate-conjugated lithocholic acid (LCA) while the concentration of other liver BAs remains constant or decreases. On the basis of a sensitivity analysis, the most important unknowns are the level of BSEP expression, the amount of intestinal synthesis of LCA, and the magnitude of farnesoid-X nuclear receptor (FXR)-mediated regulation. PMID:25006780

Woodhead, J L; Yang, K; Brouwer, K L R; Siler, S Q; Stahl, S H; Ambroso, J L; Baker, D; Watkins, P B; Howell, B A

2014-01-01

377

Mechanistic Modeling Reveals the Critical Knowledge Gaps in Bile Acid–Mediated DILI  

PubMed Central

Bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibition has been proposed to be an important mechanism for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Modeling can prioritize knowledge gaps concerning bile acid (BA) homeostasis and thus help guide experimentation. A submodel of BA homeostasis in rats and humans was constructed within DILIsym, a mechanistic model of DILI. In vivo experiments in rats with glibenclamide were conducted, and data from these experiments were used to validate the model. The behavior of DILIsym was analyzed in the presence of a simulated theoretical BSEP inhibitor. BSEP inhibition in humans is predicted to increase liver concentrations of conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and sulfate-conjugated lithocholic acid (LCA) while the concentration of other liver BAs remains constant or decreases. On the basis of a sensitivity analysis, the most important unknowns are the level of BSEP expression, the amount of intestinal synthesis of LCA, and the magnitude of farnesoid-X nuclear receptor (FXR)-mediated regulation. PMID:25006780

Woodhead, J L; Yang, K; Brouwer, K L R; Siler, S Q; Stahl, S H; Ambroso, J L; Baker, D; Watkins, P B; Howell, B A

2014-01-01

378

GS3: A Knowledge Management Architecture for Collaborative Geologic Sequestration Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Modern scientific enterprises are inherently knowledge-intensive. In general, scientific studies in domains such as groundwater, climate, and other environmental modeling as well as fundamental research in chemistry, physics, and biology require the acquisition and manipulation of large amounts of experimental and field data in order to create inputs for large-scale computational simulations. The results of these simulations must then be analyzed, leading to refinements of inputs and models and further simulations. In this paper we describe our efforts in creating a knowledge management platform to support collaborative, wide-scale studies in the area of geologic sequestration. The platform, known as GS3 (Geologic Sequestration Software Suite), exploits and integrates off-the-shelf software components including semantic wikis, content management systems and open source middleware to create the core architecture. We then extend the wiki environment to support the capture of provenance, the ability to incorporate various analysis tools, and the ability to launch simulations on supercomputers. The paper describes the key components of GS3 and demonstrates its use through illustrative examples. We conclude by assessing the suitability of our approach for geologic sequestration modeling and generalization to other scientific problem domains

Gorton, Ian; Black, Gary D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Wurstner, Signe K.; Hui, Peter SY

2010-01-10

379

An Evidence-based Project for Evaluating Strategies to Improve Knowledge Acquisition and Critical-Thinking Performance in Nursing Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nursing students (n=142) used either structured or unstructured formats for weekly assessments of health patterns in clinical practice. Groups showed no significant differences in knowledge acquisition or critical thinking. However, older students using the unstructured format had the greatest gains; younger students benefitted more from the…

Angel, Bonnie F.; Duffey, Margery; Belyea, Michael

2000-01-01

380

Lithospheric scale model of Merida Andes, Venezuela (GIAME Project)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Merida Andes (MA) is one of the most important orogenic belt in Venezuela and represents the northern culmination of South America Andes. During the last 60 years, several models have been proposed to explain the shallow and deep structure, using different geological, geophysical, seismological, geochemical and petrologic concepts; nevertheless, most of them have applied local observation windows, and do not represent the major structure of MA. Therefore, a multidisciplinary research group, coordinated by FUNVISIS, in close cooperation with UCV, ULA and PDVSA, is proposed in order to get the outlined goals in the project entitled GIAME ("Geociencia Integral de los Andes de MErida") was established, which aims to generate a lithospheric scale model and the development of a temporal dynamic model for the MA. As a base for lithospheric investigations of the Merida Andes, we are proposing three wide angle seismic profiles across the orogen on three representative sites, in order to determine the inner structure and its relation with the orogen's gravimetric root. To the date, there are no seismic studies at lithospheric scale which cross MA. The wide angle seismic will be complemented with the re-processing and re-interpretation of existing reflection seismic data, which will allow to establish a relationship between MA and its associated flexural basins (Maracaibo and Barinas-Apure basins). Depending on the results of the VENCORP Project (VENezuelan COntinental Reflection Profiling), which might show some reliable results about crustal features and Moho reflectors along three long seismic profiles at Caribbean Moutain system, a reflection seismic profile across the central portion of MA is proposed. Additional tasks, consisting in MA quaternary deformation studies, using research methods like neotectonics and paleoseismology, georadar, numerical modeling, cinematic GPS, SAR interferometry, thermocronology, detailed studies on regional geology, flexural modeling, gravity modeling, among others, will be carried out. We expect this project is going to help to solve many of the doubts regarding the origin, evolution and structural configuration of the Merida Andes.

Schmitz, M.; Orihuela, N. D.; Klarica, S.; Gil, E.; Levander, A.; Audemard, F. A.; Mazuera, F.; Avila, J.

2013-05-01

381

Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

Kolb, Mark A.

1990-01-01

382

HEDR modeling approach. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

This report details the conceptual approaches to be used in calculating radiation doses to individuals throughout the various periods of operations at the Hanford Site. The report considers the major environmental transport pathways--atmospheric, surface water, and ground water--and projects and appropriate modeling technique for each. The modeling sequence chosen for each pathway depends on the available data on doses, the degree of confidence justified by such existing data, and the level of sophistication deemed appropriate for the particular pathway and time period being considered.

Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

1992-07-01

383

Knowledge-based model of hydrogen-bonding propensity in organic crystals.  

PubMed

A new method is presented to predict which donors and acceptors form hydrogen bonds in a crystal structure, based on the statistical analysis of hydrogen bonds in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). The method is named the logit hydrogen-bonding propensity (LHP) model. The approach has a potential application in identifying both likely and unusual hydrogen bonding, which can help to rationalize stable and metastable crystalline forms, of relevance to drug development in the pharmaceutical industry. Whilst polymorph prediction techniques are widely used, the LHP model is knowledge-based and is not restricted by the computational issues of polymorph prediction, and as such may form a valuable precursor to polymorph screening. Model construction applies logistic regression, using training data obtained with a new survey method based on the CSD system. The survey categorizes the hydrogen bonds and extracts model parameter values using descriptive structural and chemical properties from three-dimensional organic crystal structures. LHP predictions from a fitted model are made using two-dimensional observables alone. In the initial cases analysed, the model is highly accurate, achieving approximately 90% correct classification of both observed hydrogen bonds and non-interacting donor-acceptor pairs. Extensive statistical validation shows the LHP model to be robust across a range of small-molecule organic crystal structures. PMID:17873446

Galek, Peter T A; Fábián, László; Motherwell, W D Samuel; Allen, Frank H; Feeder, Neil

2007-10-01

384

Organizational and collaborative knowledge management: a Virtual HRD model based on Web2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge development and utilization can be facilitated by human resource practices. At the organizational level, the competitive advantage depends upon the firm utilization of existing knowledge and its ability to generate new knowledge more efficiently. At the individual level, increased delegation of responsibility and freedom of creativity may better allow the discovery and utilization of local and dispersed knowledge in

Michele Grimaldi Musadaq Hanandi

2010-01-01

385

Automation based on knowledge modeling theory and its applications in engine diagnostic systems using Space Shuttle Main Engine vibrational data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans can perform many complicated tasks without explicit rules. This inherent and advantageous capability becomes a hurdle when a task is to be automated. Modern computers and numerical calculations require explicit rules and discrete numerical values. In order to bridge the gap between human knowledge and automating tools, a knowledge model is proposed. Knowledge modeling techniques are discussed and utilized to automate a labor and time intensive task of detecting anomalous bearing wear patterns in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP).

Kim, Jonnathan H.

1995-04-01

386

A knowledge based approach to matching human neurodegenerative disease and animal models.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative diseases present a wide and complex range of biological and clinical features. Animal models are key to translational research, yet typically only exhibit a subset of disease features rather than being precise replicas of the disease. Consequently, connecting animal to human conditions using direct data-mining strategies has proven challenging, particularly for diseases of the nervous system, with its complicated anatomy and physiology. To address this challenge we have explored the use of ontologies to create formal descriptions of structural phenotypes across scales that are machine processable and amenable to logical inference. As proof of concept, we built a Neurodegenerative Disease Phenotype Ontology (NDPO) and an associated Phenotype Knowledge Base (PKB) using an entity-quality model that incorporates descriptions for both human disease phenotypes and those of animal models. Entities are drawn from community ontologies made available through the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) and qualities are drawn from the Phenotype and Trait Ontology (PATO). We generated ~1200 structured phenotype statements describing structural alterations at the subcellular, cellular and gross anatomical levels observed in 11 human neurodegenerative conditions and associated animal models. PhenoSim, an open source tool for comparing phenotypes, was used to issue a series of competency questions to compare individual phenotypes among organisms and to determine which animal models recapitulate phenotypic aspects of the human disease in aggregate. Overall, the system was able to use relationships within the ontology to bridge phenotypes across scales, returning non-trivial matches based on common subsumers that were meaningful to a neuroscientist with an advanced knowledge of neuroanatomy. The system can be used both to compare individual phenotypes and also phenotypes in aggregate. This proof of concept suggests that expressing complex phenotypes using formal ontologies provides considerable benefit for comparing phenotypes across scales and species. PMID:23717278

Maynard, Sarah M; Mungall, Christopher J; Lewis, Suzanna E; Imam, Fahim T; Martone, Maryann E

2013-01-01

387

A knowledge based approach to matching human neurodegenerative disease and animal models  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases present a wide and complex range of biological and clinical features. Animal models are key to translational research, yet typically only exhibit a subset of disease features rather than being precise replicas of the disease. Consequently, connecting animal to human conditions using direct data-mining strategies has proven challenging, particularly for diseases of the nervous system, with its complicated anatomy and physiology. To address this challenge we have explored the use of ontologies to create formal descriptions of structural phenotypes across scales that are machine processable and amenable to logical inference. As proof of concept, we built a Neurodegenerative Disease Phenotype Ontology (NDPO) and an associated Phenotype Knowledge Base (PKB) using an entity-quality model that incorporates descriptions for both human disease phenotypes and those of animal models. Entities are drawn from community ontologies made available through the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) and qualities are drawn from the Phenotype and Trait Ontology (PATO). We generated ~1200 structured phenotype statements describing structural alterations at the subcellular, cellular and gross anatomical levels observed in 11 human neurodegenerative conditions and associated animal models. PhenoSim, an open source tool for comparing phenotypes, was used to issue a series of competency questions to compare individual phenotypes among organisms and to determine which animal models recapitulate phenotypic aspects of the human disease in aggregate. Overall, the system was able to use relationships within the ontology to bridge phenotypes across scales, returning non-trivial matches based on common subsumers that were meaningful to a neuroscientist with an advanced knowledge of neuroanatomy. The system can be used both to compare individual phenotypes and also phenotypes in aggregate. This proof of concept suggests that expressing complex phenotypes using formal ontologies provides considerable benefit for comparing phenotypes across scales and species. PMID:23717278

Maynard, Sarah M.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Imam, Fahim T.; Martone, Maryann E.

2013-01-01

388

The Radio Language Arts Project: adapting the radio mathematics model.  

PubMed

Kenya's Radio Language Arts Project, directed by the Academy for Educational Development in cooperation with the Kenya Institute of Education in 1980-85, sought to teach English to rural school children in grades 1-3 through use of an intensive, radio-based instructional system. Daily 1/2 hour lessons are broadcast throughout the school year and supported by teachers and print materials. The project further was aimed at testing the feasibility of adaptation of the successful Nicaraguan Radio Math Project to a new subject area. Difficulties were encountered in articulating a language curriculum with the precision required for a media-based instructional system. Also a challenge was defining the acceptable regional standard for pronunciation and grammar; British English was finally selected. An important modification of the Radio Math model concerned the role of the teacher. While Radio Math sought to reduce the teacher's responsibilities during the broadcast, Radio Language Arts teachers played an important instructional role during the English lesson broadcasts by providing translation and checks on work. Evaluations of the Radio language Arts Project suggest significant gains in speaking, listening, and reading skills as well as high levels of satisfaction on the part of parents and teachers. PMID:12341671

Christensen, P R

1985-01-01

389

A stochastic infection rate model for estimating and projecting national HIV prevalence rates  

E-print Network

A stochastic infection rate model for estimating and projecting national HIV prevalence rates Le/AIDS (UNAIDS) produces probabilistic estimates and projections of HIV prevalence rates for countries and projection package (EPP) model'. This has worked well for estimating and projecting prevalence in most

Raftery, Adrian

390

NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 29: The US government technical report and the transfer of federally funded aerospace R and D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article discusses the U.S. government technical report and the transfer of federally funded aerospace research and development in a conceptual framework of the federal government as a producer of scientific and technical information. The article summarizes current literature and research and discusses U.S. government technical report use and the importance of using data obtained from the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. The authors make a case for changing existing U.S. technology policy and present a research agenda for the U.S. government technical report.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1993-01-01

391

Integrating a modern knowledge-based system architecture with a legacy VA database: the ATHENA and EON projects at Stanford.  

PubMed Central

We present a methodology and database mediator tool for integrating modern knowledge-based systems, such as the Stanford EON architecture for automated guideline-based decision-support, with legacy databases, such as the Veterans Health Information Systems & Technology Architecture (VISTA) systems, which are used nation-wide. Specifically, we discuss designs for database integration in ATHENA, a system for hypertension care based on EON, at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System. We describe a new database mediator that affords the EON system both physical and logical data independence from the legacy VA database. We found that to achieve our design goals, the mediator requires two separate mapping levels and must itself involve a knowledge-based component. PMID:10566440

Advani, A.; Tu, S.; O'Connor, M.; Coleman, R.; Goldstein, M. K.; Musen, M.

1999-01-01

392

Towards A Knowledge Model Bridging Technologies And Applications In Cultural Heritage Documentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper documents the formulation of an international, interdisciplinary study, on a concerted European level, to prepare an innovative, reliable, independent and global knowledge base facilitating the use of today's and future optical measuring techniques for the documentation of cultural heritage. Cultural heritage professionals, color engineers and scientists share similar goals for the documentation, curation, long-term preservation and representation of cultural heritage artifacts. Their focus is on accuracy in the digital capture and remediation of artefacts through a range of temporal, spatial and technical constraints. A shared vocabulary to interrogate these shared concerns will transform mutual understanding and facilitate an agreed movement forward in cultural heritage documentation here proposed in the work of the COST Action Color and Space in Cultural Heritage (COSCH). The goal is a model that captures the shared concerns of professionals for a standards-based solution with an organic Linked Data model. The knowledge representation proposed here invokes a GUI interface for non-expert users of capture technologies, facilitates, and formulates their engagement with key questions for the field.

Boochs, F.; Trémeau, A.; Murphy, O.; Gerke, M.; Lerma, J. L.; Karmacharya, A.; Karaszewski, M.

2014-05-01

393

Commonality analysis as a knowledge acquisition problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commonality analysis is a systematic attempt to reduce costs in a large scale engineering project by discontinuing development of certain components during the design phase. Each discontinued component is replaced by another component that has sufficient functionality to be considered an appropriate substitute. The replacement strategy is driven by economic considerations. The System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) is based on an oversimplified model of the problem and incorporates no knowledge acquisition component. In fact, the process of arriving at a compromise between functionality and economy is quite complex, with many opportunities for the application of expert knowledge. Such knowledge is of two types: general knowledge expressible as heuristics or mathematical laws potentially applicable to any set of components, and specific knowledge about the way in which elements of a given set of components interrelate. Examples of both types of knowledge are presented, and a framework is proposed for integrating the knowledge into a more general and useable tool.

Yeager, Dorian P.

1987-01-01

394

Impact of an Online Medical Internet Site on Knowledge and Practice of Health Care Providers: A Mixed Methods Study of the Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence Project  

PubMed Central

Background It is not known whether ongoing access to a broad-based Internet knowledge resource can influence the practice of health care providers. We undertook a study to evaluate the impact of a Web-based knowledge resource on increasing access to evidence and facilitating best practice of health care providers. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate (1) the impact of the Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence (SCIRE) project on access to information for health care providers and researchers and (2) how SCIRE influenced health care providers' management of clients. Methods A 4-part mixed methods evaluation was undertaken: (1) monitoring website traffic and utilization using Google Analytics, (2) online survey of users who accessed the SCIRE website, (3) online survey of targeted end-users, that is, rehabilitation health care providers known to work with spinal cord injury (SCI) clients, as well as researchers, and (4) focus groups with health care providers who had previously accessed SCIRE. Results The online format allowed the content for a relatively specialized field to have far reach (eg, 26 countries and over 6500 users per month). The website survey and targeted end-user survey confirmed that health care providers, as well as researchers perceived that the website increased their access to SCI evidence. Access to SCIRE not only improved knowledge of SCI evidence but helped inform changes to the health providers’ clinical practice and improved their confidence in treating SCI clients. The SCIRE information directly influenced the health providers’ clinical decision making, in terms of choice of intervention, equipment needs, or assessment tool. Conclusions A Web-based knowledge resource may be a relatively inexpensive method to increase access to evidence-based information, increase knowledge of the evidence, inform changes to the health providers’ practice, and influence their clinical decision making. PMID:25537167

Noonan, Vanessa K; Townson, Andrea F; Higgins, Caroline E; Rogers, Jess; Wolfe, Dalton L

2014-01-01

395

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 33: Technical communications practices and the use of information technologies as reported by Dutch and US aerospace engineers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (The Netherlands), and NASA ARC (U.S.), and NASA LaRC (U.S.). This paper presents responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions concerning four of the seven project objectives: determining the importance of technical communications to aerospace engineering professionals, investigating the production of technical communications, examining the use and importance of computer and information technology, and exploring the use of electronic networks.

Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Tan, Axel S. T.; Kennedy, John M.

1993-01-01

396

A. Dias and P.G. Ioannou Company and Project Evaluation Model for Privately-Promoted Infrastructure Projects Page 1 of 16  

E-print Network

A. Dias and P.G. Ioannou Company and Project Evaluation Model for Privately-Promoted Infrastructure Projects Page 1 of 16 COMPANY AND PROJECT EVALUATION MODEL FOR PRIVATELY-PROMOTED INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS Attractiveness) that depend on the actual performance levels of a total of 23 company and project attributes

397

Use of multiple models and qualitative knowledge for on-line moving horizon disturbance estimation and fault diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated fault detection, fault isolation, and parameter estimation technique is presented in this paper. Process model parameters are treated as disturbances that dynamically affect the process outputs. A moving horizon estimation technique minimizes the error between process and model measurements over a finite horizon by calculating model parameter values across the estimation horizon. To implement qualitative process knowledge, this

Edward P. Gatzke; Francis J. Doyle III

2002-01-01

398

Investigating students' mental models and knowledge construction of microscopic friction. I. Implications for curriculum design and development  

E-print Network

Investigating students' mental models and knowledge construction of microscopic friction. I the investigation of the variations in students' mental models of microscopic friction. Clinical interviews were' explanations. Results show that students' mental models of friction at the atomic level are dominated

Zollman, Dean

399

Knowledge, People, and Risk  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's mandate is to take risks to got into space while applying its best knowledge. NASA's knowledge is the result of scientific insights from research, engineering wisdom from experience, project management skills, safety and team consciousness and institutional support and collaboration. This presentation highlights NASA's organizational knowledge, communication and growth efforts.

Rogers, Edward W.

2008-01-01

400

PERSONAL COMPUTER VERSION OF THE PROCESS MODEL PROJECTION TECHNIQUE (PROMPT) (VERSION 3.0). USER'S MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual describes the use of the Process Model Projection Technique (PROMPT), one of four stationary source emission and control cost forecasting models developed by the EPA for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). PROMPT projects air pollution emissions...

401

The Manpower-Economic Education Project to Improve Teachers' and Pupils' Occupational Employment Knowledge and Attitudes. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a possible solution to the problem of inaccurate perceptions and negative attitudes toward vocational-technical occupations among teachers and pupils, the project investigated the feasibility of training secondary school teachers in a range of disciplines to serve as agents of manpower-economic information dissemination and attitudinal change.…

Luker, William A.; Abernathy, Lewis M.

402

Exploratory Study on the Patterns of Online Interaction and Knowledge Co-Construction in Project-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to investigate the patterns and the quality of online interaction during project-based learning (PjBL) on both micro and macro levels. To achieve this purpose, PjBL was implemented with online group activities in an undergraduate course. Social network analysis (SNA) and content analysis were employed to analyze online interaction…

Heo, Heeok; Lim, Kyu Yon; Kim, Youngsoo

2010-01-01

403

Using ocean tracers to reduce uncertainties about ocean diapycnal mixing and model projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current projections of the oceanic response to anthropogenic climate forcings are uncertain. Two key sources of these uncertainties are (i) structural errors in current Earth system models and (ii) imperfect knowledge of model parameters. Ocean tracers observations have the potential to reduce these uncertainties. Previous studies typically consider each tracer separately, neglect potentially important statistical properties of the system, or use methods that impose rather daunting computational demands. Here we extend and improve upon a recently developed approach using horizontally averaged vertical profiles of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-11), radiocarbon (DC14), and temperature (T) observations to reduce model parametric and structural uncertainties. Our method estimates a joint probability density function, which considers cross-tracer correlations and spatial autocorrelations of the errors. We illustrate this method by estimating two model parameters related to the vertical diffusivity, the background vertical diffusivity and the upper Southern Ocean mixing. We show that enhancing the upper Southern Ocean mixing in the model improves the representations of ocean tracers, as well as improves hindcasts of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and Ocean Carbon uptake. The most probable value of the background vertical diffusivity in the pelagic pycnocline is between 0.1-0.2 cm2/s. According to the statistical method, observations of DC14 reduce the uncertainty about the background vertical diffusivity the most followed by CFC-11 and T. Using all three tracers jointly reduces the model uncertainty by 40%, more than each tracer individually. Given several important caveats, we illustrate how the reduced model parametric uncertainty improves probabilistic projections of the AMOC and Ocean Carbon uptake.

Goes, M. P.; Urban, N.; Keller, K.; Schmittner, A.; Tonkonojenkov, R.; Haran, M.

2010-12-01

404

Analysis of molecular expression patterns and integration with other knowledge bases using probabilistic Bayesian network models  

SciTech Connect

How can molecular expression experiments be interpreted with greater than ten to the fourth measurements per chip? How can one get the most quantitative information possible from the experimental data with good confidence? These are important questions whose solutions require an interdisciplinary combination of molecular and cellular biology, computer science, statistics, and complex systems analysis. The explosion of data from microarray techniques present the problem of interpreting the experiments. The availability of large-scale knowledge bases provide the opportunity to maximize the information extracted from these experiments. We have developed new methods of discovering biological function, metabolic pathways, and regulatory networks from these data and knowledge bases. These techniques are applicable to analyses for biomedical engineering, clinical, and fundamental cell and molecular biology studies. Our approach uses probabilistic, computational methods that give quantitative interpretations of data in a biological context. We have selected Bayesian statistical models with graphical network representations as a framework for our methods. As a first step, we use a nave Bayesian classifier to identify statistically significant patterns in gene expression data. We have developed methods which allow us to (a) characterize which genes or experiments distinguish each class from the others, (b) cross-index the resulting classes with other databases to assess biological meaning of the classes, and (c) display a gross overview of cellular dynamics. We have developed a number of visualization tools to convey the results. We report here our methods of classification and our first attempts at integrating the data and other knowledge bases together with new visualization tools. We demonstrate the utility of these methods and tools by analysis of a series of yeast cDNA microarray data and to a set of cancerous/normal sample data from colon cancer patients. We discuss extending our methods to inferring biological pathways and networks using more complex dynamic Bayesian networks.

Moler, Edward J.; Mian, I.S.

2000-03-01

405

Multimode model for projective photon-counting measurements  

SciTech Connect

We present a general model to account for the multimode nature of the quantum electromagnetic field in projective photon-counting measurements. We focus on photon-subtraction experiments, where non-Gaussian states are produced conditionally. These are useful states for continuous-variable quantum-information processing. We present a general method called mode reduction that reduces the multimode model to an effective two-mode problem. We apply this method to a multimode model describing broadband parametric down-conversion, thereby improving the analysis of existing experimental results. The main improvement is that spatial and frequency filters before the photon detector are taken into account explicitly. We find excellent agreement with previously published experimental results, using fewer free parameters than before, and discuss the implications of our analysis for the optimized production of states with negative Wigner functions.

Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurelien; Grangier, Philippe [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique, CNRS UMR 8501, Universite Paris Sud XI, 91127 Palaiseau (France); Wubs, Martijn [Niels Bohr International Academy, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); QUANTOP, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Soerensen, Anders S. [QUANTOP, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

2009-07-15

406

1 Peleg et al., Qualitative models in Functional Genomics Qualitative knowledge models in Functional Genomics  

E-print Network

models in Functional Genomics 1. Introduction Predicting pathological phenotypes based on genetic developed for modeling biological processes [1]. Ontologies provide consistent definitions for one amino acid and for a particular triplet of nucleotides in mRNA (codon) [4]. Several steps take

Peleg, Mor

407

Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

Not Available

1991-01-01

408

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 34: Users and uses of DOD technical reports: A report from the field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project attempts to understand the information environment in which U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists work, the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists, and the factors that influence the use of scientific and technical information (STI) (Pinelli, Barclay, and Kennedy, 1991). Such an understanding could (1) lead to the development of practical theory, (2) contribute to the design and development of aerospace information systems, and (3) have practical implications for transferring the results of federally funded aerospace research and development (R&D) to the U.S. aerospace community. This paper presents data from two information-seeking behavior studies involving U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that were undertaken as Phase 1 activities of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Responses from three groups of respondents - DoD, other government, and industry - are presented for two sets of selected questions. One set focuses on DoD technical reports: their use and importance, reasons for non-use, the factors affecting their use, the sources used to find out about them and the sources used to physically obtain them, and the quality of DoD technical reports. The second set focuses on information sources used in problem solving: the use of U.S. government technical reports in problem solving and the information sources used to find out about U.S. government technical reports.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1993-01-01

409

Potential bias of model projected greenhouse warming in irrigated regions  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) used to project climate responses to increased CO{sub 2} generally omit irrigation of agricultural land. Using the NCAR CAM3 GCM coupled to a slab-ocean model, we find that inclusion of an extreme irrigation scenario has a small effect on the simulated temperature and precipitation response to doubled CO{sub 2} in most regions, but reduced warming by as much as 1 C in some agricultural regions, such as Europe and India. This interaction between CO{sub 2} and irrigation occurs in cases where agriculture is a major fraction of the land surface and where, in the absence of irrigation, soil moisture declines are projected to provide a positive feedback to temperature change. The reduction of warming is less than 25% of the temperature increase modeled for doubled CO{sub 2} in most regions; thus greenhouse warming will still be dominant. However, the results indicate that land use interactions may be an important component of climate change uncertainty in some agricultural regions. While irrigated lands comprise only {approx}2% of the land surface, they contribute over 40% of global food production. Climate changes in these regions are therefore particularly important to society despite their relatively small contribution to average global climate.

Lobell, D; Bala, G; Bonfils, C; Duffy, P

2006-04-27

410

The combined decision model for selecting and prioritizing research and development projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a combined decision model for selecting and prioritizing research and development projects is proposed. The proposed model implements both the efficiency and feasibility analysis by using the qualitative and the quantitative information in the same model. In order to determine the efficient and feasible projects among the alternative R&D projects, recent mathematical methods such as data envelopment

T. Conka; S. Ercan

2005-01-01

411

An Adaptive Process Model to Support Product Development Project Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projects are temporary allocations of resources commissioned to achieve a desired result. Since each project is unique, the landscape between the current state (the start of the project) and the desired state (the successful end of the project) is often dynamic, uncertain, and ambiguous. Conventional project plans define a set of related activities (a work breakdown structure and activity network)

Viktor LÉvÁrdy; Tyson R. Browning

2009-01-01

412

The Bureau of Health Education's Elementary School Health Curriculum Project, Berkeley Model, and the American Lung Association - Bureau of Health Education's Primary Grades Health Curriculum Project, Seattle Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes two models for an early school health curriculum project. These two projects were initiated with the aim of increasing effective cooperation of public health personnel work with public schools in teaching health maintenance and prevention of disease. The Berkeley Project worked with students of grade three through grade…

Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

413

Overview of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP)  

SciTech Connect

The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is designed to allow study and intercomparison of multi-model simulations of present-day and future climate. The latter are represented by idealized forcing of compounded 1% per year CO2 increase to the time of CO2 doubling near year 70 in simulations with global coupled models that contain, typically, components representing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and land surface. Results from CMIP diagnostic subprojects were presented at the Second CMIP Workshop held at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany, in September, 2003. Significant progress in diagnosing and understanding results from global coupled models has been made since the First CMIP Workshop in Melbourne, Australia in 1998. For example, the issue of flux adjustment is slowly fading as more and more models obtain stable multi-century surface climates without them. El Nino variability, usually about half the observed amplitude in the previous generation of coupled models, is now more accurately simulated in the present generation of global coupled models, though there are still biases in simulating the patterns of maximum variability. Typical resolutions of atmospheric component models contained in coupled models is now usually around 2.5 degrees latitude-longitude, with the ocean components often having about twice the atmospheric model resolution, with even higher resolution in the equatorial tropics. Some new-generation coupled models have atmospheric model resolutions of around 1.5 degrees latitude-longitude. Modeling groups now routinely run the CMIP control and 1% CO2 simulations in addition to 20th and 21st century climate simulations with a variety of forcings (e.g. volcanoes, solar variability, anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, ozone, and greenhouse gases (GHGs), with the anthropogenic forcings for future climate as well). However, persistent systematic errors noted in previous generations of global coupled models still are present in the present generation (e.g. over-extensive equatorial Pacific cold tongue, double ITCZ). This points to the next challenge for the global coupled climate modeling community. Planning and imminent commencement of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) has prompted rapid coupled model development, which will lead to an expanded CMIP-like activity to collect and analyze results for the control, 1% CO2, 20th, 21st and 22nd century simulations performed for the AR4. The international climate community is encouraged to become involved in this analysis effort, and details are provided below in how to do so.

Meehl, G A; Covey, C; McAvaney, B; Latif, M; Stouffer, R J

2004-08-05

414

Projecting Grammatical Features in Nominals: Cognitive Theory and Computational Model  

E-print Network

A localist theory of the representation and projection of grammatical features in nominals is presented in which words and phrases functioning as specifiers and modifiers—in addition to heads—project grammatical features to encompassing nominals. Grammatical features may be redundantly encoded in words and phrases fulfilling different grammatical functions. At the level of the nominal, the projected grammatical features are collected into a set without duplicates. Redundantly encoded grammatical features may occasionally conflict or a grammatical feature may be unspecified—without the expression being ungrammatical— necessitating mechanisms for handling conflicts and accommodating unspecified features. An incremental, serial, pseudo-deterministic system for processing nominals which operates over an interactive (context-sensitive), parallel, probabilistic, constraint-based substrate is presented and motivated. Within this overall processing capability, non-monotonic mechanisms of blocking and overriding of grammatical features, without backtracking, are presented for handling conflicts. These non-monotonic mechanisms are part and parcel of normal processing and are not viewed as exceptional. Construal mechanisms for handling unspecified features are also needed. In the simplest case, the referent of the referring expression provides the (semantic) basis for construal of unspecified features. The processing of nominals within a computational cognitive model of language processing implemented in the ACT-R cognitive architecture is used to demonstrate and support various representational and processing claims.

Jerry T. Ball

415

New model framework and structure and the commonality evaluation model. [concerning unmanned spacecraft projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a framework and structure for shuttle era unmanned spacecraft projects and the development of a commonality evaluation model is documented. The methodology developed for model utilization in performing cost trades and comparative evaluations for commonality studies is discussed. The model framework consists of categories of activities associated with the spacecraft system's development process. The model structure describes the physical elements to be treated as separate identifiable entities. Cost estimating relationships for subsystem and program-level components were calculated.

1977-01-01

416

Accurate coronary modeling procedure using 2D calibrated projections based on 2D centerline points on a single projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, accurate quantitative analysis of the coronary arteries is important. In coronary angiography, a number of projections is acquired from which 3D models of the coronaries can be reconstructed. A signifcant limitation of the current 3D modeling procedures is the required user interaction for defining the centerlines of the vessel structures in the 2D projections. Currently, the 3D centerlines of the coronary tree structure are calculated based on the interactively determined centerlines in two projections. For every interactively selected centerline point in a first projection the corresponding point in a second projection has to be determined interactively by the user. The correspondence is obtained based on the epipolar-geometry. In this paper a method is proposed to retrieve all the information required for the modeling procedure, by the interactive determination of the 2D centerline-points in only one projection. For every determined 2D centerline-point the corresponding 3D centerline-point is calculated by the analysis of the 1D gray value functions of the corresponding epipolarlines in space for all available 2D projections. This information is then used to build a 3D representation of the coronary arteries using coronary modeling techniques. The approach is illustrated on the analysis of calibrated phantom and calibrated coronary projection data.

Movassaghi, Babak; Rasche, Volker; Viergever, Max A.; Niessen, Wiro J.

2004-05-01

417

Knowledge and Solidarity: The Norwegian Social-Democratic School Project in a Period of Change, 1945-2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between World War II and the end of the millennium two major educational reform periods are identified in Norway: reform period I in the 1950s and 1960s and reform period II in the 1990s. The Labour Party led both reforms. While the educational reforms in the 1950s and 1960s undoubtedly were part of an overall Nordic social-democratic project, the…

Volckmar, Nina

2008-01-01

418

Multi-Model Combination techniques for Hydrological Forecasting: Application to Distributed Model Intercomparison Project Results  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines several multi-model combination techniques: the Simple Multi-model Average (SMA), the Multi-Model Super Ensemble (MMSE), Modified Multi-Model Super Ensemble (M3SE) and the Weighted Average Method (WAM). These model combination techniques were evaluated using the results from the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP), an international project sponsored by the National Weather Service (NWS) Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). All of the multi-model combination results were obtained using uncalibrated DMIP model outputs and were compared against the best uncalibrated as well as the best calibrated individual model results. The purpose of this study is to understand how different combination techniques affect the skill levels of the multi-model predictions. This study revealed that the multi-model predictions obtained from uncalibrated single model predictions are generally better than any single member model predictions, even the best calibrated single model predictions. Furthermore, more sophisticated multi-model combination techniques that incorporated bias correction steps work better than simple multi-model average predictions or multi-model predictions without bias correction.

Ajami, N K; Duan, Q; Gao, X; Sorooshian, S

2005-04-11

419

Alaska's Secondary Science Teachers and Students Receive Earth Systems Science Knowledge, GIS Know How and University Technical Support for Pre- College Research Experiences: The EDGE Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alaska's secondary school teachers are increasingly required to provide Earth systems science (ESS) education that integrates student observations of local natural processes related to rapid climate change with geospatial datasets and satellite imagery using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. Such skills are also valued in various employment sectors of the state where job opportunities requiring Earth science and GIS training are increasing. University of Alaska's EDGE (Experiential Discoveries in Geoscience Education) program has provided training and classroom resources for 3 cohorts of inservice Alaska science and math teachers in GIS and Earth Systems Science (2005-2007). Summer workshops include geologic field experiences, GIS instruction, computer equipment and technical support for groups of Alaska high school (HS) and middle school (MS) science teachers each June and their students in August. Since 2005, EDGE has increased Alaska science and math teachers' Earth science content knowledge and developed their GIS and computer skills. In addition, EDGE has guided teachers using a follow-up, fall online course that provided more extensive ESS knowledge linked with classroom standards and provided course content that was directly transferable into their MS and HS science classrooms. EDGE teachers were mentored by University faculty and technical staff as they guided their own students through semester-scale, science fair style projects using geospatial data that was student- collected. EDGE program assessment indicates that all teachers have improved their ESS knowledge, GIS knowledge, and the use of technology in their classrooms. More than 230 middle school students have learned GIS, from EDGE teachers and 50 EDGE secondary students have conducted original research related to landscape change and its impacts on their own communities. Longer-term EDGE goals include improving student performance on the newly implemented (spring 2008) 10th grade, standards-based, High School Qualifying Exam, on recruiting first-generation college students, and on increasing the number of Earth science majors in the University of Alaska system.

Connor, C. L.; Prakash, A.

2007-12-01

420

Ontologies for Knowledge Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Within Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, the term ontologies was coined in the Knowledge Sharing and Reuse Effort, for efficient engineering of (distributed, cooperating) knowledge-based systems. It is not surprising that it soon entered\\u000a the Knowledge Management (KM) area: Sharing and reuse of personal, group, and organizational knowledge are among the central goals aimed at in most KM projects. In

Andreas Abecker; Ludger Van Elst

2004-01-01

421

Modelling Environmental & Economic Impacts of Aviation: Introducing the Aviation Integrated Modelling Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aviation Integrated Modelling project is developing a policy assessment capability to enable comprehensive analyses of aviation, environment and economic interactions at local and global levels. It contains a set of inter-linked modules of the key elements relevant to this goal. These include models for aircraft\\/engine technologies, air transport demand, airport activity and airspace operations, all coupled to global climate,

Tom G. Reynolds; Steven Barrett; Lynnette M. Dray; Antony D. Evans; Marcus O. Köhler; María Vera Morales; Andreas Schäfer; Zia Wadud; Rex Britter; Henry Hallam; Richard Hunsley

2007-01-01

422

Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project models  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project with estimates of sea ice thickness derived from pan-Arctic satellite freeboard measurements (2004 ice (shallow Siberian Seas with depths less than 25­30 m), the models generally overestimate both

Zhang, Jinlun

423

Effects of the First Line Diabetes Care (FiLDCare) self-management education and support project on knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, self-management practices and glycaemic control: a quasi-experimental study conducted in the Northern Philippines  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the effects of implementing a context-adapted diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) project based on chronic care models in the Philippines, on knowledge, attitudes, self-management practices, adiposity/obesity and glycaemia of people with diabetes. Design Prospective quasi-experimental before–after study. Participants 203 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus from two local government units in the Northern Philippines fulfilling set criteria. Outcome measures Context-adapted DSME/S was given to a cohort of people with diabetes by trained pre-existing local government healthcare personnel. Changes in knowledge, attitudes and self-management practices, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured 1?year after full project implementation. Non-parametric and parametric descriptive and inferential statistics including logistic regression analysis were done. Results Complete data were collected from 164 participants. Improvements in glycaemia, waist circumference, WHR, knowledge, some attitudes, adherence to medications and exercise, and an increase in fear of diabetes were significant. Reductions in HbA1c, regardless of level of control, were noted in 60.4%. Significant increase in knowledge (p<0.001), positive attitude (p=0.013), perceived ability to control blood glucose (p=0.004) and adherence to medications (p=0.001) were noted among those whose glycaemia improved. Significant differences between the subgroups whose HbA1c improved and those whose HbA1c deteriorated include male gender (p=0.042), shorter duration of diabetes (p=0.001) and increased perceived ability to control blood glucose (p=0.042). Significant correlates to improved glycaemia were male gender (OR=2.655; p=0.034), duration of diabetes >10?years (OR=0.214; p=0.003) and fear of diabetes (OR=0.490; p=0.048). Conclusions Context-adapted DSME/S introduced in resource-constrained settings and making use of established human resources for health may improve knowledge, attitudes, self-management practices and glycaemia of recipients. Further investigations on addressing fear of diabetes and tailoring DSME/S to females with diabetes and those who have had diabetes for a longer period of time may help improve glycaemia. PMID:25113555

Ku, Grace Marie V; Kegels, Guy

2014-01-01

424

Systemic Modeling of Biological Functions in Consideration of Physiome Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging of the physiome project provides various influences on the medical, biological and pharmaceutical development. In this paper, as an example of physiome research, neural network model analysis providing the conduction mechanisms of pain and tactile sensations was presented, and the functional relations between neural activities of the network cells and stimulus intensity applied on the peripheral receptive fields were described. The modeling presented here is based on the various assumptions made by the results of physiological and anatomical studies reported in the literature. The functional activities of spinothalamic and thalamocortical cells show a good agreement with the physiological and psychophysical functions of somatosensory system that are very instructive for covering the gap between physiologically and psychophysically aspects of pain and tactile sensation.

Minamitani, Haruyuki

425

Clinical knowledge-based inference model for early detection of acute lung injury.  

PubMed

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a devastating complication of acute illness and one of the leading causes of multiple organ failure and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). The detection of this syndrome is limited due to the complexity of the disease, insufficient understanding of its development and progression, and the large amount of risk factors and modifiers. In this preliminary study, we present a novel mathematical model for ALI detection. It is constructed based on clinical and research knowledge using three complementary techniques: rule-based fuzzy inference systems, Bayesian networks, and finite state machines. The model is developed in Matlab(®)'s Simulink environment and takes as input pre-ICU and ICU data feeds of critically ill patients. Results of the simulation model were validated against actual patient data from an epidemiologic study. By appropriately combining all three techniques the performance attained is in the range of 71.7-92.6% sensitivity and 60.3-78.4% specificity. PMID:22167531

Chbat, Nicolas W; Chu, Weiwei; Ghosh, Monisha; Li, Guangxi; Li, Man; Chiofolo, Caitlyn M; Vairavan, Srinivasan; Herasevich, Vitaly; Gajic, Ognjen

2012-05-01

426

A Model to Augment Critical Thinking and Create Knowledge through Writing in the Social Sciences of Agriculture  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to develop a model to augment critical thinking and create knowledge through writing in the social sciences of agriculture. Without a conceptual model or a blue-print of writing in the social sciences of agriculture...

Leggette, Holli RaNae

2013-06-04

427

Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects on Team Shared Mental Models and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Science Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared mental model (SMM) based intervention on student team mental model similarity and ultimately team performance in an undergraduate meteorology course. The team knowledge sharing (TKS) intervention was designed to promote team reflection, communication, and improvement planning.…

Sikorski, Eric G.; Johnson, Tristan E.; Ruscher, Paul H.

2012-01-01

428

Validation and Comparison of Carbon Sequestration Project Cost Models with Project Cost Data Obtained from the Southwest Partnership  

SciTech Connect

Obtaining formal quotes and engineering conceptual designs for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration sites and facilities is costly and time-consuming. Frequently, when looking at potential locations, managers, engineers and scientists are confronted with multiple options, but do not have the expertise or the information required to quickly obtain a general estimate of what the costs will be without employing an engineering firm. Several models for carbon compression, transport and/or injection have been published that are designed to aid in determining the cost of sequestration projects. A number of these models are used in this study, including models by J. Ogden, MIT's Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies Program Model, the Environmental Protection Agency and others. This report uses the information and data available from several projects either completed, in progress, or conceptualized by the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) to determine the best approach to estimate a project's cost. The data presented highlights calculated versus actual costs. This data is compared to the results obtained by applying several models for each of the individual projects with actual cost. It also offers methods to systematically apply the models to future projects of a similar scale. Last, the cost risks associated with a project of this scope are discussed, along with ways that have been and could be used to mitigate these risks.

Robert Lee; Reid Grigg; Brian McPherson

2011-04-15

429

Conceptual Model-Based Systems Biology: Mapping Knowledge and Discovering Gaps in the mRNA Transcription Cycle  

PubMed Central

We propose a Conceptual Model-based Systems Biology framework for qualitative modeling, executing, and eliciting knowledge gaps in molecular biology systems. The framework is an adaptation of Object-Process Methodology (OPM), a graphical and textual executable modeling language. OPM enables concurrent representation of the system's structure—the objects that comprise the system, and behavior—how processes transform objects over time. Applying a top-down approach of recursively zooming into processes, we model a case in point—the mRNA transcription cycle. Starting with this high level cell function, we model increasingly detailed processes along with participating objects. Our modeling approach is capable of modeling molecular processes such as complex formation, localization and trafficking, molecular binding, enzymatic stimulation, and environmental intervention. At the lowest level, similar to the Gene Ontology, all biological processes boil down to three basic molecular functions: catalysis, binding/dissociation, and transporting. During modeling and execution of the mRNA transcription model, we discovered knowledge gaps, which we present and classify into various types. We also show how model execution enhances a coherent model construction. Identification and pinpointing knowledge gaps is an important feature of the framework, as it suggests where research should focus and whether conjectures about uncertain mechanisms fit into the already verified model. PMID:23308089

Somekh, Judith; Choder, Mordechai; Dori, Dov

2012-01-01

430

Astrophysics Research Projects:Astrophysics Research Projects: massive star winds, x-ray emission, theoretical models,massive star winds, x-ray emission, theoretical models,  

E-print Network

Astrophysics Research Projects:Astrophysics Research Projects: massive star winds, x-ray emission, theoretical models,massive star winds, x-ray emission, theoretical models, spectroscopy, laboratory plasma-drivenhave powerful radiation-driven stellar windsstellar winds.. etaeta CarinaCarina #12;TheThe ChandraChandra X

Cohen, David

431

Dryout modeling in support of the organic tank safety project  

SciTech Connect

This work was performed for the Organic Tank Safety Project to evaluate the moisture condition of the waste surface organic-nitrate bearing tanks that are classified as being conditionally safe because sufficient water is present. This report describes the predictive modeling procedure used to predict the moisture content of waste in the future, after it has been subjected to dryout caused by water vapor loss through passive ventilation. This report describes a simplified procedure for modeling the drying out of tank waste. Dryout occurs as moisture evaporates from the waste into the headspace and then exits the tank through ventilation. The water vapor concentration within the waste of the headspace is determined by the vapor-liquid equilibrium, which depends on the waste`s moisture content and temperature. This equilibrium has been measured experimentally for a variety of waste samples and is described by a curve called the water vapor partial pressure isotherm. This curve describes the lowering of the partial pressure of water vapor in equilibrium with the waste relative to pure water due to the waste`s chemical composition and hygroscopic nature. Saltcake and sludge are described by two distinct calculations that emphasize the particular physical behavior or each. A simple, steady-state model is devised for each type to obtain the approximate drying behavior. The report shows the application of the model to Tanks AX-102, C-104, and U-105.

Simmons, C.S.

1998-08-01

432

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 9: Information intermediaries and the transfer of aerospace Scientific and Technical Information (STI): A report from the field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the NASA/DOD survey data, there can be no way of inferring what strategy for knowledge transfer is best; indeed, given the fact that the respondents were all presumably well qualified professionals, the data tend to call into serious question the idea that any one model might meet the needs of more than a distinct minority of possible users. The evidence to date appears to reinforce the concept that different information environments take many different shapes, and interact with each other and with formal data transmission sources in many different and equally valuable ways. Any overall strategy for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of scientific and technical information sharing must take this divergence into account, and work toward the creation of systems that reinforce true interactive knowledge utilization rather than simply disseminating data.

Eveland, J. D.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

1991-01-01

433

Pesticide risk perceptions and the differences between farmers and extensionists: Towards a knowledge-in-context model  

SciTech Connect

A growing body of literature analyzes farmer perceptions of pesticide risk, but much less attention has been given to differences in risk perception between farmers and technical experts. Furthermore, inconsistencies in knowledge have too easily been explained in terms of lack of knowledge rather than exploring the underlying reasons for particular forms of thinking about pesticide risks. By doing this, the division between expert and lay knowledge has been deepened rather than transcended. Objective: This study aims to understand differences and similarities among the perceptions of pesticide risks of farmers, farm workers, and technical experts such as extensionists, by applying a social science approach towards knowledge and risk attitudes. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and field observations were conducted to smallholders, farm workers, extensionists, health professionals and scientists involved in the use and handling of pesticides. Subsequently, a survey was carried out to quantify the farmers and extensionists' acceptance or rejection of typical assertions expressed previously in the semi-structured interviews. Results: Smallholders showed to gain knowledge from their own experiences and to adapt pesticides practices, which is a potential basis for transforming notions of pesticide safety and risk reduction strategies. Though extensionists have received formal education, they sometimes develop ideas deviating from the technical perspective. The risk perception of the studied actors appeared to vary according to their role in the agricultural labor process; they varied much less than expected according to their schooling level. Conclusions: Commitment to the technical perspective is not dramatically different for extensionists on the one hand and farmers as well as farm workers on the other hand. Ideas about a supposed lack of knowledge by farmers and the need of formal training are too much driven by a deficit model of knowledge. Further research on risk perceptions of pesticides and training of rural people will benefit from the development of a knowledge-in-context model. -- Highlights: • Researching perceptions of farmers' extensionists and other professionals. • Experts as well as farmers deviate from the technical perspective. • Blaming who is responsible for pesticide problems creates expert-lay division. • Qualitative and quantitative methods, not as complementary but integrated. • Knowledge-in-context model as an alternative to the knowledge-deficit model.

Ríos-González, Adriana, E-mail: adrianariosg@hotmail.com [Society, Culture and Health Academic Area, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, Barrio de María Auxiliadora cp. 29290 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas (Mexico) [Society, Culture and Health Academic Area, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, Barrio de María Auxiliadora cp. 29290 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas (Mexico); The Africa and Latin America Research Groups Network (GRAAL), Faculty of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit, Barcelona Autonomous University, Edificio M, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Jansen, Kees, E-mail: Kees.Jansen@wur.nl [Knowledge, Technology and Innovation Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands)] [Knowledge, Technology and Innovation Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); Javier Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor, E-mail: hsanchez@ecosur.mx [Society, Culture and Health Academic Area, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, Barrio de María Auxiliadora cp. 29290 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas (Mexico); The Africa and Latin America Research Groups Network (GRAAL), Faculty of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit, Barcelona Autonomous University, Edificio M, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

2013-07-15

434

The Stanford how things work project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We provide an overview of the Stanford How Things Work (HTW) project, an ongoing integrated collection of research activities in the Knowledge Systems Laboratory at Stanford University. The project is developing technology for representing knowledge about engineered devices in a form that enables the knowledge to be used in multiple systems for multiple reasoning tasks and reasoning methods that enable the represented knowledge to be effectively applied to the performance of the core engineering task of simulating and analyzing device behavior. The central new capabilities currently being developed in the project are automated assistance with model formulation and with verification that a design for an electro-mechanical device satisfies its functional specification.

Fikes, Richard; Gruber, Tom; Iwasaki, Yumi

1994-01-01

435

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 11: The Voice of the User: How US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists View DoD Technical Reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project examines how the results of NASA/DOD research diffuse into the aerospace R&D process, and empirically analyzes the implications of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Specific issues considered are the roles played by government technical reports, the recognition of the value of scientific and technical information (STI), and the optimization of the STI aerospace transfer system. Information-seeking habits are assessed for the U.S. aerospace community, the general community, the academic sector, and the international community. U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists use 65 percent of working time to communicate STI, and prefer 'internal' STI over 'external' STI. The isolation from 'external' information is found to be detrimental to U.S. aerospace R&D in general.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

1991-01-01

436

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 20: Engineers as information processors: A survey of US aerospace engineering faculty and students  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U.S. aerospace engineering faculty and students were surveyed as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Research Project. Faculty and students were viewed as information processors within a conceptual framework of information seeking behavior. Questionnaires were received from 275 faculty members and 640 students, which were used to determine: (1) use and importance of information sources; (2) use of specific print sources and electronic data bases; (3) use of information technology; and (4) the influence of instruction on the use of information sources and the products of faculty and students. Little evidence was found to support the belief that instruction in library or engineering information use has significant impact either on broadening the frequency or range of information products and sources used by U.S. aerospace engineering students.

Holland, Maurita Peterson; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1991-01-01

437

Towards Modeling the Social Layer of Emergent Knowledge Using Open Ontologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of open environments like Open Multiagent and Peer2Peer Systems, the Semantic Web and Communities of Practice, knowledge-based applications with self-interested, autonomous knowledge sources like information agents and humans have gained increased interest in recent times. For such environments, neither the consistency nor the reliability or the definiteness of the input knowledge can be ensured. Whereas there already

Tina Froehner; Matthias Nickles; Gerhard Weiss

2004-01-01

438

Building a Large-Scale Knowledge Base for Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge-based machine translation (KBMT) systems have achieved excellent results in con- strained domains, but have not yet scaled up to newspaper text. The reason is that knowledge re- sources (lexicons, grammar rules, world models) must be painstakingly handcrafted from scratch. One of the hypotheses being tested in the PAN- GLOSS machine translation project is whether or not these resources can

Kevin Knight; Steve K. Luk

1994-01-01

439

European Project to Improve Models of Geomagnetically Induced Currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) from solar storms pose a risk to the operation of power transmission grids in Europe and across the globe. The European Risk from Geomagnetically Induced Currents (EURISGIC) project, which began in March 2011 and is supported by the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union, seeks to mitigate this natural hazard by developing European capabilities for GIC forecasting and warning. Recent well-recognized GIC events were the province-wide blackout in Quebec, Canada, in March 1989 and the blackout in the city of Malmö, in southern Sweden, during the Halloween storm of October 2003. The progressive integration of interconnected and geographically wide power transmission grids is obviously increasing the GIC risk. Hence, there is a need for greater scientific understanding of phenomena in the solar-terrestrial environment that lead to GICs and for the development of systems that facilitate GIC modeling, forecasting, and mitigation.

Viljanen, Ari

2011-07-01

440

A large cross-sectional study of health attitudes, knowledge, behaviour and risks in the post-war Croatian population (the First Croatian Health Project).  

PubMed

As the liberation of occupied Croatian territories ended the war in the country in 1995, the Ministry of Health and Croatian Health Insurance Institute have agreed to create the new framework for developing a long-term strategy of public health planning, prevention and intervention. They provided financial resources to develop the First Croatian Health Project, the rest of the support coming from the World Bank loan and the National Institute of Public Health. A large cross-sectional study was designed aiming to assess health attitudes, knowledge, behaviour and risks in the post-war Croatian population. The large field study was carried out by the Institute for Anthropological Research with technical support from the National Institute of Public Health. The field study was completed between 1995-1997. It included about 10,000 adult volunteers from all 21 Croatian counties. The geographic distribution of the sample covered both coastal and continental areas of Croatia and included rural and urban environments. The specific measurements included antropometry (body mass index and blood pressure). From each examinee a blood sample was collected from which the levels of total plasma cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (High Density Lipoprotein), LDL-cholesterol (Low Density Lipoprotein), lipoprotein Lp(a), and haemostatic risk factor fibrinogen (F) were determined. The detailed data were collected on the general knowledge and attitudes on health issues, followed by specific investigation of smoking history, alcohol consumption, nutrition habits, physical activity, family history of chronic non-communicable diseases and occupational exposures. From the initial database a targeted sample of 5,840 persons of both sexes, aged 18-65, was created corresponding by age, sex and geographic distribution to the general Croatian population. This paper summarises and discusses the main findings of the project within this representative sample of Croatian population. PMID:11787568

Turek, S; Rudan, I; Smolej-Naranci?, N; Szirovicza, L; Cubrilo-Turek, M; Zerjavi?-Hrabak, V; Rak-Kai?, A; Vrhovski-Hebrang, D; Prebeg, Z; Ljubici?, M; Jani?ijevi?, B; Rudan, P

2001-06-01

441

Distinguishing Models of Professional Development: The Case of an Adaptive Model's Impact on Teachers' Knowledge, Instruction, and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We posit that professional development (PD) models fall on a continuum from highly adaptive to highly specified, and that these constructs provide a productive way to characterize and distinguish among models. The study reported here examines the impact of an adaptive mathematics PD model on teachers' knowledge and instructional practices as…

Koellner, Karen; Jacobs, Jennifer

2015-01-01

442

Using local knowledge, hydrological, and climate data to develop a driftwood harvest model in interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residents of rural Alaska usually harvest driftwood from the Yukon River during two distinct periods in the summer. Typically, driftwood accompanies high flows on the Yukon River associated with spring break-up. A few weeks later, a second pulse of driftwood associated with the "2nd Rise" typically flows during early June. This study examines the nature of the differential timing of high flow events in the Yukon River to develop a model of the driftwood harvest. Many communities in interior Alaska have grown to rely upon driftwood as an important source of wood, which is used in construction and as a source of fuel. Increasingly, villages in rural Alaska are trying to lessen their dependence upon high-cost fossil fuels and other non-renewable energy sources. A number of Alaskan villages have recently installed wood chip-fired boilers to generate heat and/or electricity and additional boilers are slated to be installed in rural Alaska in the near future. These boilers are largely fed by driftwood which can be harvested cheaply and processed easily. But if the driftwood harvest is dependent upon high flows in the Yukon, how will fluctuations in river hydrology affect the efficacy and reliability of driftwood harvest? We examined this question using information from local knowledge in conjunction with U.S. census, hydrological, and climate reanalysis data sets to model the magnitude of Yukon River driftwood harvest during summer. It appears that since 1995, high flow events have decreased magnitude, but increased in frequency, compared to the period between 1977 and 1994. Based upon this observation, the annual potential driftwood harvest in Tanana since 1995 was modeled to be greater compared to the average prior to 1994. This pattern was largely driven by a change in the frequency and duration of high flow events. Thus, the availability of driftwood as an energy resource is expected to be commensurate to the recurrence of high flow events on the Yukon River.

Jones, C.; Hinzman, L. D.; Kielland, K.

2011-12-01

443

Integrated AEC Information Services Using Object Methods and a Central Project Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new paradigm is presented in which design- ers, contractors, and suppliers process project informa- tion, which is stored in a central project model, by using application routines provided on-line as object-oriented methods instead of stand-alone applications. Commer- cial project management Web site companies can provide the service through application methods tightly coupled with a project model. The development and

Rafael Sacks

2002-01-01

444

Understanding Pliocene Climate: The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate and environments of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (~3 to 3.3 million years ago) have been extensively studied. The mPWP appears to have been a warmer and wetter world with a higher concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere compared to the pre-industrial era. The mPWP has a number of apparent similarities to model predictions of climate at the end of this Century. Whilst numerical models have shed light on the nature of climate at the time, uncertainties in their predictions have not been systematically examined. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) quantifies uncertainties in model outputs through a coordinated multi-model and multi-model/data intercomparison. Climate models appear able to reproduce many regional changes in temperature reconstructed from geological proxies, although they potentially underestimate polar amplification. The PlioMIP ensemble shows a diversity of behaviour with regard to the strength of the Thermohaline Circulation and Ocean Heat Transport, with little evidence of a causal link between the two. The majority of models show an intensification of the monsoon systems (i.e. the Asian Monsoon). Whilst commonalities in model outputs for the mPWP are evident, we show substantial variation in the sensitivity of models to the implementation of mPWP boundary conditions, particularly at the high latitudes. Energy balance calculations indicate that in the tropics simulated warming is dominated by greenhouse gas increases, with cloud albedo feedbacks enhancing the warming in most of the models, but by widely varying amounts. The responses to mPWP climate forcing in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes are substantially different between the climate models, with the only consistent response being a warming due to increased greenhouse gases. In the high latitudes all energy balance components become important, but the dominant warming influence comes from the clear sky albedo. This demonstrates the importance of specified ice sheet and high latitude vegetation boundary conditions and simulated sea ice and snow albedo feedbacks. The largest components in the overall uncertainty are associated with cloud albedo feedbacks in the tropics and polar clear sky albedo, particularly in sea ice regions. These simulations show that high latitude albedo feedbacks provide the most significant enhancements to Pliocene greenhouse warming. Estimates of longer-term sensitivity to CO2 (also known as Earth System Sensitivity; ESS) from PlioMIP, support previous work suggesting that ESS is greater than Climate Sensitivity (CS), and suggest that the ratio of ESS to CS is between 1 and 2, with a "best" estimate of 1.5. To assess climate model predictions of the mPWP with greater confidence, limitations in the time-averaged proxy data currently available must be addressed. Furthermore, sensitivity tests exploring the known unknowns in modelling Pliocene climate specifically relevant to the high latitudes are essential (e.g. palaeogeography, orbital forcing and trace gasses).

Haywood, A.; Dolan, A. M.; Dowsett, H. J.; Hill, D. J.; Salzmann, U.

2013-12-01

445

Overview of High-Fidelity Modeling Activities in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulations (NPSS) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-fidelity simulation of a commercial turbofan engine has been created as part of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Project. The high-fidelity computer simulation utilizes computer models that were developed at NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with turbofan engine manufacturers. The average-passage (APNASA) Navier-Stokes based viscous flow computer code is used to simulate the 3D flow in the compressors and turbines of the advanced commercial turbofan engine. The 3D National Combustion Code (NCC) is used to simulate the flow and chemistry in the advanced aircraft combustor. The APNASA turbomachinery code and the NCC combustor code exchange boundary conditions at the interface planes at the combustor inlet and exit. This computer simulation technique can evaluate engine performance at steady operating conditions. The 3D flow models provide detailed knowledge of the airflow within the fan and compressor, the high and low pressure turbines, and the flow and chemistry within the combustor. The models simulate the performance of the engine at operating conditions that include sea level takeoff and the altitude cruise condition.

Veres, Joseph P.

2002-01-01

446

Genetic Knowledge is a Civil Right. Towards a New Model of Health Contract as Social Contract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic knowledge is a civil right and a civil obligation. New genetic knowledge in individual health risk prediction and prevention and new pharmacogenetic opportunities for developing more efficacious individualized drugs broaden human and civil rights for better health and health care. Public health policy has yet to develop and provide programs in genetic information and consultation together with other health

Hans-Martin Sass

447

Improving Quality and Quantity of Contributions: Two Models for Promoting Knowledge Exchange with Shared Databases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shared databases are used for knowledge exchange in groups. Whether a person is willing to contribute knowledge to a shared database presents a social dilemma: Each group member saves time and energy by not contributing any information to the database and by using the database only to retrieve information which was contributed by others. But if…

Cress, U.; Barquero, B.; Schwan, S.; Hesse, F. W.

2007-01-01

448

Changing Employment Relations, New Organizational Models and the Capability To Use Idiosyncratic Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizations that rely heavily on a flexible work force will lose the ability to attract and retain skilled workers with idiosyncratic knowledge. There is an interdependent relationship between the quality of employee relations and the capacity to use the idiosyncratic knowledge of a work force. (Contains 61 references.) (SK)

Fuchs, Manfred

2002-01-01

449

Validating and Modelling Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework among Asian Preservice Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) framework has been adopted by many educational technologists and teacher educators for the research and development of knowledge about the pedagogical uses of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in classrooms. While the framework is potentially very important, efforts to survey…

Chai, Ching Shing; Ng, Eugenia M. W.; Li, Wenhao; Hong, Huang-Yao; Koh, Joyce H. L.

2013-01-01

450

Children's and Adults' Knowledge and Models of Reasoning about the Ozone Layer and Its Depletion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines children's and adults' knowledge of the ozone layer and its depletion, whether this knowledge increases with age, and how the ozone layer and ozone hole might be structured as scientific concepts. Uses a standardized set of questions to interview children and adults in Canada. Discusses implications of the results for health…

Leighton, Jacqueline P.; Bisanz, Gay L.

2003-01-01

451

An Alternative Expert Knowledge Transfer Model: A Case Study of an Indigenous Storytelling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing complexity of technical work, the demand for highly skilled workers, and the vital challenges facing the world at large have combined to create a need for better ways to transfer knowledge, especially expert knowledge. In this dissertation, I attempted to see if an approach to this process that is more holistic than is typical in…

Spaulding, Roderick Jay

2010-01-01

452

Box Canyon Model Watershed Project : Annual Report 1997/1998.  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) initiated the Box Canyon Watershed Project. This project will concentrate on watershed protection and enhancement from an upland perspective and will complement current instream restoration efforts implemented through the Kalispel Resident Fish Project. Primary focus of this project is the Cee Cee Ah Creek watershed due to its proximity to the Reservation, importance as a traditional fishery, and potential for bull trout and west-slope cutthroat trout recovery.

Kalispel Natural Resource Department

1998-01-01

453

Maths in the Kimberley Project: Evaluating the Pedagogical Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mathematics in the Kimberley Project is a three-year research and development project that focuses on mathematical pedagogy in remote Aboriginal community schools. The research team has regularly reported on the project at MERGA (Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia) conferences, and in this symposium the participants evaluate…

Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, 2010

2010-01-01

454

Recognition of risk situations based on endoscopic instrument tracking and knowledge based situation modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimally invasive surgery has gained significantly in importance over the last decade due to the numerous advantages on patient-side. The surgeon has to adapt special operation-techniques and deal with difficulties like the complex hand-eye coordination, limited field of view and restricted mobility. To alleviate these constraints we propose to enhance the surgeon's capabilities by providing a context-aware assistance using augmented reality (AR) techniques. In order to generate a context-aware assistance it is necessary to recognize the current state of the intervention using intraoperatively gained sensor data and a model of the surgical intervention. In this paper we present the recognition of risk situations, the system warns the surgeon if an instrument gets too close to a risk structure. The context-aware assistance system starts with an image-based analysis to retrieve information from the endoscopic images. This information is classified and a semantic description is generated. The description is used to recognize the current state and launch an appropriate AR visualization. In detail we present an automatic vision-based instrument tracking to obtain the positions of the instruments. Situation recognition is performed using a knowledge representation based on a description logic system. Two augmented reality visualization programs are realized to warn the surgeon if a risk situation occurs.

Speidel, Stefanie; Sudra, Gunther; Senemaud, Julien; Drentschew, Maximilian; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Gutt, Carsten; Dillmann, Rüdiger

2008-03-01

455

The knowledge instinct, cognitive algorithms, modeling of language and cultural evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The talk discusses mechanisms of the mind and their engineering applications. The past attempts at designing "intelligent systems" encountered mathematical difficulties related to algorithmic complexity. The culprit turned out to be logic, which in one way or another was used not only in logic rule systems, but also in statistical, neural, and fuzzy systems. Algorithmic complexity is related to Godel's theory, a most fundamental mathematical result. These difficulties were overcome by replacing logic with a dynamic process "from vague to crisp," dynamic logic. It leads to algorithms overcoming combinatorial complexity, and resulting in orders of magnitude improvement in classical problems of detection, tracking, fusion, and prediction in noise. I present engineering applications to pattern recognition, detection, tracking, fusion, financial predictions, and Internet search engines. Mathematical and engineering efficiency of dynamic logic can also be understood as cognitive algorithm, which describes fundamental property of the mind, the knowledge instinct responsible for all our higher cognitive functions: concepts, perception, cognition, instincts, imaginations, intuitions, emotions, including emotions of the beautiful. I present our latest results in modeling evolution of languages and cultures, their interactions in these processes, and role of music in cultural evolution. Experimental data is presented that support the theory. Future directions are outlined.

Perlovsky, Leonid I.

2008-04-01

456

GIS embedded hydrological modeling: the SID&GRID project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SID&GRID research project, started April 2010 and funded by Regione Toscana (Italy) under the POR FSE 2007-2013, aims to develop a Decision Support System (DSS) for water resource management and planning based on open source and public domain solutions. In order to quantitatively assess water availability in space and time and to support the planning decision processes, the SID&GRID solution consists of hydrological models (coupling 3D existing and newly developed surface- and ground-water and unsaturated zone modeling codes) embedded in a GIS interface, applications and library, where all the input and output data are managed by means of DataBase Management System (DBMS). A graphical user interface (GUI) to manage, analyze and run the SID&GRID hydrological models based on open source gvSIG GIS framework (Asociación gvSIG, 2011) and a Spatial Data Infrastructure to share and interoperate with distributed geographical data is being developed. Such a GUI is thought as a "master control panel" able to guide the user from pre-processing spatial and temporal data, running the hydrological models, and analyzing the outputs. To achieve the above-mentioned goals, the following codes have been selected and are being integrated: 1. Postgresql/PostGIS (PostGIS, 2011) for the Geo Data base Management System; 2. gvSIG with Sextante (Olaya, 2011) geo-algorithm library capabilities and Grass tools (GRASS Development Team, 2011) for the desktop GIS; 3. Geoserver and Geonetwork to share and discover spatial data on the web according to Open Geospatial Consortium; 4. new tools based on the Sextante GeoAlgorithm framework; 5. MODFLOW-2005 (Harbaugh, 2005) groundwater modeling code; 6. MODFLOW-LGR (Mehl and Hill 2005) for local grid refinement; 7. VSF (Thoms et al., 2006) for the variable saturated flow component; 8. new developed routines for overland flow; 9. new algorithms in Jython integrated in gvSIG to compute the net rainfall rate reaching the soil surface, as input for the unsaturated/saturated flow model. At this stage of the research (which will end April 2013), two primary components of the master control panel are being developed: i. a SID&GRID toolbar integrated into gvSIG map context; ii. a new Sextante set of geo-algorithm to pre- and post-process the spatial data to run the hydrological models. The groundwater part of the code has been fully integrated and tested and 3D visualization tools are being developed. The LGR capability has been extended to the 3D solution of the Richards' equation in order to solve in detail the unsaturated zone where required. To be updated about the project, please follow us at the website: http://ut11.isti.cnr.it/SIDGRID/

Borsi, I.; Rossetto, R.; Schifani, C.

2012-04-01

457

Evaluation and status report on HYDROCOIN at midway (HYDROCOIN: An international project for studying groundwater hydrology modelling strategies)  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is participating in the international hydrologic code intercomparison (HYDROCOIN) project organized by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) for the purpose of improving our knowledge about the influence of various strategies for ground-water flow modeling for the safety assessment of final repositories for nuclear waste. The HYDROCOIN project consists of three levels of effort: Level One is concerned with verifying the numerical accuracy of codes, Level Two is involved with validation of models using field experiments, and Level Three is concerned with sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The need for the HYDROCOIN project emerged from an earlier international study for the intercomparison of computer codes for radionuclide transport (INTRACOIN). The HYDROCOIN project began in May 1984 with a group of fourteen organizations from eleven countries participating; currently twenty organizations are involved. Five teams from DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) are participating in the HYDROCOIN project, and this document presents the results of a review o