Science.gov

Sample records for modeling part ii

  1. The subthalamic nucleus part II: modelling and simulation of activity.

    PubMed

    Heida, Tjitske; Marani, Enrico; Usunoff, Kamen G

    2008-01-01

    Part I of The Subthalamic Nucleus (volume 198) (STN) accentuates the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections.The light and electron microscopical cytology focuses on the open nucleus concept and the neuronal types present in the STN. The cytochemistry encompasses enzymes, NO, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calcium binding proteins, and receptors (dopamine, cannabinoid, opioid, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, cholinergic, and calcium channels). The ontogeny of the subthalamic cell cord is also reviewed. The topography concerns the rat, cat, baboon and human STN. The descriptions of the connections are also given from a historical point of view. Recent tracer studies on the rat nigro-subthalamic connection revealed contralateral projections. This monograph (Part II of the two volumes) on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) starts with a systemic model of the basal ganglia to evaluate the position of the STN in the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathways. A summary of in vitro studies is given, describing STN spontaneous activity as well as responses to depolarizing and hyperpolarizing inputs and high-frequency stimulation. STN bursting activity and the underlying ionic mechanisms are investigated. Deep brain stimulation used for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease is discussed in terms of the elements that are influenced and its hypothesized mechanisms. This part of the monograph explores the pedunculopontine-subthalamic connections and summarizes attempts to mimic neurotransmitter actions of the pedunculopontine nucleus in cell cultures and high-frequency stimulation on cultured dissociated rat subthalamic neurons. STN cell models - single- and multi-compartment models and system-level models are discussed in relation to subthalamic function and dysfunction. Parts I and II are compared. PMID:18727495

  2. Branch Flow Model: Relaxations and Convexification-Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Farivar, M; Low, SH

    2013-08-01

    We propose a branch flow model for the analysis and optimization of mesh as well as radial networks. The model leads to a new approach to solving optimal power flow (OPF) that consists of two relaxation steps. The first step eliminates the voltage and current angles and the second step approximates the resulting problem by a conic program that can be solved efficiently. For radial networks, we prove that both relaxation steps are always exact, provided there are no upper bounds on loads. For mesh networks, the conic relaxation is always exact but the angle relaxation may not be exact, and we provide a simple way to determine if a relaxed solution is globally optimal. We propose convexification of mesh networks using phase shifters so that OPF for the convexified network can always be solved efficiently for an optimal solution. We prove that convexification requires phase shifters only outside a spanning tree of the network and their placement depends only on network topology, not on power flows, generation, loads, or operating constraints. Part I introduces our branch flow model, explains the two relaxation steps, and proves the conditions for exact relaxation. Part II describes convexification of mesh networks, and presents simulation results.

  3. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  4. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  5. Aluminum Deoxidation Equilibria in Liquid Iron: Part II. Thermodynamic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Min-Kyu; Pak, Jong-Jin; Kang, Youn-Bae

    2015-10-01

    Al deoxidation equilibria in liquid iron over the whole composition range from very low Al ([pct Al] = 0.0027) to almost pure liquid Al were thermodynamically modeled for the first time using the Modified Quasichemical Model in the pair approximation for the liquid phase. The present modeling is distinguished from previous approaches in many ways. First, very strong attractions between metallic components, Fe and Al, and non-metallic component, O, were taken into account explicitly in terms of Short-Range Ordering. Second, the present thermodynamic modeling does not distinguish solvent and solutes among metallic components, and the model calculation can be applied from pure liquid Fe to pure liquid Al. Therefore, this approach is thermodynamically self-consistent, contrary to the previous approaches using interaction parameter formalism. Third, the present thermodynamic modeling describes an integral Gibbs energy of the liquid alloy in the framework of CALPHAD; therefore, it can be further used to develop a multicomponent thermodynamic database for liquid steel. Fourth, only a small temperature-independent parameter for ternary liquid was enough to account for the Al deoxidation over wide concentration (0.0027 < [pct Al] < 100) and wide temperature range [1823 K to 2139 K (1550 °C to 1866 °C)]. Gibbs energies of Fe-O and Al-O binary liquid solutions at metal-rich region (up to oxide saturation) were modeled, and relevant model parameters were optimized. By merging these Gibbs energy descriptions with that of Fe-Al binary liquid modeled by the same modeling approach, the Gibbs energy of ternary Fe-Al-O solution at metal-rich region was obtained along with one small ternary parameter. It was shown that the present model successfully reproduced all available experimental data for the Al deoxidation equilibria. Limit of previously used interaction parameter formalism at high Al concentration is discussed.

  6. Conceptual Modeling in the Time of the Revolution: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylopoulos, John

    Conceptual Modeling was a marginal research topic at the very fringes of Computer Science in the 60s and 70s, when the discipline was dominated by topics focusing on programs, systems and hardware architectures. Over the years, however, the field has moved to centre stage and has come to claim a central role both in Computer Science research and practice in diverse areas, such as Software Engineering, Databases, Information Systems, the Semantic Web, Business Process Management, Service-Oriented Computing, Multi-Agent Systems, Knowledge Management, and more. The transformation was greatly aided by the adoption of standards in modeling languages (e.g., UML), and model-based methodologies (e.g., Model-Driven Architectures) by the Object Management Group (OMG) and other standards organizations. We briefly review the history of the field over the past 40 years, focusing on the evolution of key ideas. We then note some open challenges and report on-going research, covering topics such as the representation of variability in conceptual models, capturing model intentions, and models of laws.

  7. Modeling an electro-photographic printer, part II: color systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper will outline a simplified model for the development of toner dots on a reflective support in a color electro-photographic system. A model developed for a monochrome system will be adapted to a color imaging system where four pigments, each capable of scatting light, is used to form a digital halftone image. The combination of physical and optical dot gains, interlayer scattering, on-dot and off-dot digital halftones will be explored and the results demonstrated in terms color shifts due to layer order and dot gain due to halftone geometry.

  8. Demonstrations in Solute Transport Using Dyes: Part II. Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butters, Greg; Bandaranayake, Wije

    1993-01-01

    A solution of the convection-dispersion equation is used to describe the solute breakthrough curves generated in the demonstrations in the companion paper. Estimation of the best fit model parameters (solute velocity, dispersion, and retardation) is illustrated using the method of moments for an example data set. (Author/MDH)

  9. Unified Model of the rf Plasma Sheath, Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Merle

    1996-10-01

    By developing an approximation to the first integral of the Poisson equation, one can obtain solutions for the current-voltage characteristics of an rf plasma sheath that are valid over the whole range of inertial response of the ions to an imposed rf voltage or current. (M.E.Riley, 1995 GEC, abstract QA5, published in Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 40, 1587 (1995).) The theory has been shown to adequately reproduce current-voltage characteristics of two extreme cases (M.A. Lieberman, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 638 (1988). A. Metze, D.W. Ernie, and H.J.Oskam, J.Appl.Phys., 60, 3081 (1986).) of ion response. In this work I show the effect of different conventions for connecting the sheath model to the bulk plasma. Modifications of the Mach number and a finite electric field at the Bohm point are natural choices. The differences are examined for a sheath in a high density Ar plasma and are found to be insignificant. A theoretical argument favors the electric field modification. *Work performed at Sandia National Labs and supported by US DoE under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the American…

  11. Transient PVT measurements and model predictions for vessel heat transfer. Part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Winters, William S., Jr.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.

    2010-07-01

    Part I of this report focused on the acquisition and presentation of transient PVT data sets that can be used to validate gas transfer models. Here in Part II we focus primarily on describing models and validating these models using the data sets. Our models are intended to describe the high speed transport of compressible gases in arbitrary arrangements of vessels, tubing, valving and flow branches. Our models fall into three categories: (1) network flow models in which flow paths are modeled as one-dimensional flow and vessels are modeled as single control volumes, (2) CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) models in which flow in and between vessels is modeled in three dimensions and (3) coupled network/CFD models in which vessels are modeled using CFD and flows between vessels are modeled using a network flow code. In our work we utilized NETFLOW as our network flow code and FUEGO for our CFD code. Since network flow models lack three-dimensional resolution, correlations for heat transfer and tube frictional pressure drop are required to resolve important physics not being captured by the model. Here we describe how vessel heat transfer correlations were improved using the data and present direct model-data comparisons for all tests documented in Part I. Our results show that our network flow models have been substantially improved. The CFD modeling presented here describes the complex nature of vessel heat transfer and for the first time demonstrates that flow and heat transfer in vessels can be modeled directly without the need for correlations.

  12. Final Report for Dynamic Models for Causal Analysis of Panel Data. Models for Change in Quantitative Variables, Part II Scholastic Models. Part II, Chapter 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Michael T.

    This document is part of a series of chapters described in SO 011 759. Stochastic models for the sociological analysis of change and the change process in quantitative variables are presented. The author lays groundwork for the statistical treatment of simple stochastic differential equations (SDEs) and discusses some of the continuities of…

  13. HIERARCHICAL METHODOLOGY FOR MODELING HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS PART II: DETAILED MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, B; Donald L. Anton, D

    2008-12-22

    There is significant interest in hydrogen storage systems that employ a media which either adsorbs, absorbs or reacts with hydrogen in a nearly reversible manner. In any media based storage system the rate of hydrogen uptake and the system capacity is governed by a number of complex, coupled physical processes. To design and evaluate such storage systems, a comprehensive methodology was developed, consisting of a hierarchical sequence of models that range from scoping calculations to numerical models that couple reaction kinetics with heat and mass transfer for both the hydrogen charging and discharging phases. The scoping models were presented in Part I [1] of this two part series of papers. This paper describes a detailed numerical model that integrates the phenomena occurring when hydrogen is charged and discharged. A specific application of the methodology is made to a system using NaAlH{sub 4} as the storage media.

  14. Sorption modelling on illite. Part II: Actinide sorption and linear free energy relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, M. H.; Baeyens, B.

    2009-02-01

    Sorption edge data for Ni(II), Co(II), Eu(III) and Sn(IV) [Bradbury M. H. and Baeyens B. (2009) Sorption modelling on illite. Part I: titration measurements and sorption of Ni(II), Co(II), Eu(III) and Sn(IV), Part I] on purified Na-Illite du Puy are available from some previous work, and some new measurements for Am(III), Th(IV), Pa(V) and U(VI) are presented here. All of these sorption edge measurements have been modelled with a 2 site protolysis non-electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) sorption model for which the site types, site capacities and protolysis constants were fixed [Bradbury M. H. and Baeyens B. (2009), Part I]. In addition, two further data sets for the sorption of Am(III) and Np(V) on Illite du Puy, obtained from the literature, were also modelled in this work. Thus, surface complexation constants for the strong sites in the 2SPNE SC/CE sorption model for nine metals with valence states from II to VI have been obtained. A linear relationship between the logarithm of strong site metal binding constants, SK x-1, and the logarithm of the corresponding aqueous hydrolysis stability constant, OHK x, extending over nearly 35 orders of magnitude is established here for illite for these nine metals. Such correlations are often termed linear free energy relationships (LFER), and although they are quite common in aqueous phase chemistry, they are much less so in surface chemistry, especially over this large range. The LFER for illite could be described by the equation: logSK=7.9±0.4+(0.83±0.02)logOHKx where, " x" is an integer. A similar relationship has been previously obtained for montmorillonite, thus LFERs relating to the sorption on two of the most important clay minerals present in natural systems have been established. Such an LFER approach is an extremely useful tool for estimating surface complexation constants for metals in a chemically consistent manner. It provides a means of obtaining sorption values for

  15. Multiscale modeling, simulations, and experiments of coating growth on nanofibers. Part II. Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Buldum, A.; Clemons, C.B.; Dill, L.H.; Kreider, K.L.; Young, G.W.; Zheng, X.; Evans, E.A.; Zhang, G.; Hariharan, S.I.

    2005-08-15

    This work is Part II of an integrated experimental/modeling investigation of a procedure to coat nanofibers and core-clad nanostructures with thin-film materials using plasma-enhanced physical vapor deposition. In the experimental effort, electrospun polymer nanofibers are coated with aluminum materials under different operating conditions to observe changes in the coating morphology. This procedure begins with the sputtering of the coating material from a target. Part I [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 044303 (2005)] focused on the sputtering aspect and transport of the sputtered material through the reactor. That reactor level model determines the concentration field of the coating material. This field serves as input into the present species transport and deposition model for the region surrounding an individual nanofiber. The interrelationships among processing factors for the transport and deposition are investigated here from a detailed modeling approach that includes the salient physical and chemical phenomena. Solution strategies that couple continuum and atomistic models are used. At the continuum scale, transport dynamics near the nanofiber are described. At the atomic level, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the deposition and sputtering mechanisms at the coating surface. Ion kinetic energies and fluxes are passed from the continuum sheath model to the MD simulations. These simulations calculate sputtering and sticking probabilities that in turn are used to calculate parameters for the continuum transport model. The continuum transport model leads to the definition of an evolution equation for the coating-free surface. This equation is solved using boundary perturbation and level set methods to determine the coating morphology as a function of operating conditions.

  16. Towards multi-resolution global climate modeling with ECHAM6-FESOM. Part II: climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rackow, T.; Goessling, H. F.; Jung, T.; Sidorenko, D.; Semmler, T.; Barbi, D.; Handorf, D.

    2016-06-01

    This study forms part II of two papers describing ECHAM6-FESOM, a newly established global climate model with a unique multi-resolution sea ice-ocean component. While part I deals with the model description and the mean climate state, here we examine the internal climate variability of the model under constant present-day (1990) conditions. We (1) assess the internal variations in the model in terms of objective variability performance indices, (2) analyze variations in global mean surface temperature and put them in context to variations in the observed record, with particular emphasis on the recent warming slowdown, (3) analyze and validate the most common atmospheric and oceanic variability patterns, (4) diagnose the potential predictability of various climate indices, and (5) put the multi-resolution approach to the test by comparing two setups that differ only in oceanic resolution in the equatorial belt, where one ocean mesh keeps the coarse ~1° resolution applied in the adjacent open-ocean regions and the other mesh is gradually refined to ~0.25°. Objective variability performance indices show that, in the considered setups, ECHAM6-FESOM performs overall favourably compared to five well-established climate models. Internal variations of the global mean surface temperature in the model are consistent with observed fluctuations and suggest that the recent warming slowdown can be explained as a once-in-one-hundred-years event caused by internal climate variability; periods of strong cooling in the model (`hiatus' analogs) are mainly associated with ENSO-related variability and to a lesser degree also to PDO shifts, with the AMO playing a minor role. Common atmospheric and oceanic variability patterns are simulated largely consistent with their real counterparts. Typical deficits also found in other models at similar resolutions remain, in particular too weak non-seasonal variability of SSTs over large parts of the ocean and episodic periods of almost absent

  17. Modelling of Dynamic Responses of AN Automotive Fuel Rail System, Part II: Entire System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, S. F.; HU, Q.; STOTTLER, S.; RAGHUPATHI, R.

    2001-08-01

    The computer model developed for calculating pressure fluctuations inside an automotive fuel injector (Hu et al. Journal of Sound and Vibration (submitted)) is extended to the entire fuel rail system, which consists of six injectors, a pressure regulator, pressure damper, fuel pump, and torturous fuel supply and return lines. Since the pressure fluctuations generated inside any injector can propagate throughout the entire fuel rail system, the responses of all injectors are coupled. The presence of a pressure regulator may also affect the dynamic responses of the fuel rail system. In Part II of this paper, formulations for describing pressure fluctuations inside the injectors, pressure regulator, and fuel rails are derived and solved simultaneously. The effect of twists and turns of the fuel lines on the losses of fluid kinetic energy, and that of wave propagation throughout the fuel rail system are taken into account. The computer model thus developed is validated experimentally. Measurements are conducted on a test bench that simulates a real engine with injectors fired in a particular order. The calculated pressure fluctuations inside different injectors and fuel lines are compared with the measured data under various working conditions. Favorable agreements are obtained in all cases.

  18. Modeling of optical spectra of the light-harvesting CP29 antenna complex of photosystem II--part II.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ximao; Kell, Adam; Pieper, Jörg; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2013-06-01

    Until recently, it was believed that the CP29 protein from higher plant photosystem II (PSII) contains 8 chlorophylls (Chl's) per complex (Ahn et al. Science 2008, 320, 794-797; Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999, 96, 10056-10061) in contrast to the 13 Chl's revealed by the recent X-ray structure (Pan et al. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2011, 18, 309-315). This disagreement presents a constraint on the interpretation of the underlying electronic structure of this complex. To shed more light on the interpretation of various experimental optical spectra discussed in the accompanying paper (part I, DOI 10.1021/jp4004328 ), we report here calculated low-temperature (5 K) absorption, fluorescence, hole-burned (HB), and 300 K circular dichroism (CD) spectra for CP29 complexes with a different number of pigments. We focus on excitonic structure and the nature of the low-energy state using modeling based on the X-ray structure of CP29 and Redfield theory. We show that the lowest energy state is mostly contributed to by a612, a611, and a615 Chl's. We suggest that in the previously studied CP29 complexes from spinach (Pieper et al. Photochem. Photobiol.2000, 71, 574-589) two Chl's could have been lost during the preparation/purification procedure, but it is unlikely that the spinach CP29 protein contains only eight Chl's, as suggested by the sequence homology-based study (Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.1999, 96, 10056-10061). The likely Chl's missing in wild-type (WT) CP29 complexes studied previously (Pieper et al. Photochem. Photobiol. 2000, 71, 574-589) include a615 and b607. This is why the nonresonant HB spectra shown in that reference were ~1 nm blue-shifted with the low-energy state mostly localized on about one Chl a (i.e., a612) molecule. Pigment composition of CP29 is discussed in the context of light-harvesting and excitation energy transfer. PMID:23662835

  19. A wheat grazing model for simulating grain and beef production: Part II - model validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Model evaluation is a prerequisite to its adoption and successful application. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the ability of a newly developed wheat grazing model to predict fall-winter forage and grain yields of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as well as daily weight gains per steer...

  20. Mathematics in Marine Botany: Examples of the Modelling Process. Part II: Continuous Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Melvin A.; Brown, Murray T.

    1996-01-01

    Describes some continuous models for growth of the seaweed Macrocystis pyrifera. Uses observed growth rates over several months to derive first-order differential equations as models for growth rates of individual fronds. The nature of the solutions is analyzed and comparison between these theoretical results and documented characteristics of…

  1. Application of WRF/Chem over East Asia: Part II. Model improvement and sensitivity simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Qiang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    To address the problems and limitations identified through a comprehensive evaluation in Part I paper, several modifications are made in model inputs, treatments, and configurations and sensitivity simulations with improved model inputs and treatments are performed in this Part II paper. The use of reinitialization of meteorological variables reduces the biases and increases the spatial correlations in simulated temperature at 2-m (T2), specific humidity at 2-m (Q2), wind speed at 10-m (WS10), and precipitation (Precip). The use of a revised surface drag parameterization further reduces the biases in simulated WS10. The adjustment of only the magnitudes of anthropogenic emissions in the surface layer does not help improve overall model performance, whereas the adjustment of both the magnitudes and vertical distributions of anthropogenic emissions shows moderate to large improvement in simulated surface concentrations and column mass abundances of species in terms of domain mean performance statistics, hourly and monthly mean concentrations, and vertical profiles of concentrations at individual sites. The revised and more advanced dust emission schemes can help improve PM predictions. Using revised upper boundary conditions for O3 significantly improves the column O3 abundances. Using a simple SOA formation module further improves the predictions of organic carbon and PM2.5. The sensitivity simulation that combines all above model improvements greatly improves the overall model performance. For example, the sensitivity simulation gives the normalized mean biases (NMBs) of -6.1% to 23.8% for T2, 2.7-13.8% for Q2, 22.5-47.6% for WS10, and -9.1% to 15.6% for Precip, comparing to -9.8% to 75.6% for T2, 0.4-23.4% for Q2, 66.5-101.0% for WS10, and 11.4%-92.7% for Precip from the original simulation without those improvements. It also gives the NMBs for surface predictions of -68.2% to -3.7% for SO2, -73.8% to -20.6% for NO2, -8.8%-128.7% for O3, -61.4% to -26.5% for PM2

  2. Elastic and Piezoelectric Properties of Boron Nitride Nanotube Composites. Part II; Finite Element Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H. Alicia; Hardie, Robert; Yamakov, Vesselin; Park, Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a two-part series where the first part presents a molecular dynamics model of a single Boron Nitride Nanotube (BNNT) and this paper scales up to multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix. This paper presents finite element (FE) models to investigate the effective elastic and piezoelectric properties of (BNNT) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites studied in this paper are thin films of polymer matrix with aligned co-planar BNNTs. The FE modelling approach provides a computationally efficient way to gain an understanding of the material properties. We examine several FE models to identify the most suitable models and investigate the effective properties with respect to the BNNT volume fraction and the number of nanotube walls. The FE models are constructed to represent aligned and randomly distributed BNNTs in a matrix of resin using 2D and 3D hollow and 3D filled cylinders. The homogenisation approach is employed to determine the overall elastic and piezoelectric constants for a range of volume fractions. These models are compared with an analytical model based on Mori-Tanaka formulation suitable for finite length cylindrical inclusions. The model applies to primarily single-wall BNNTs but is also extended to multi-wall BNNTs, for which preliminary results will be presented. Results from the Part 1 of this series can help to establish a constitutive relationship for input into the finite element model to enable the modeling of multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix.

  3. Rockets -- Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    If two rockets are identical except that one engine burns in one-tenth the time of the other (total impulse and initial fuel mass of the two engines being the same), which rocket will rise higher? Why? The answer to this question (part 1 response in v20 n6, p410, Sep 1982) is provided. (Author/JN)

  4. Signal classification using global dynamical models, Part II: SONAR data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremliovsky, Michael; Kadtke, James

    1996-06-01

    In Part I of this paper, we described a numerical method for nonlinear signal detection and classification which made use of techniques borrowed from dynamical systems theory. Here in Part II of the paper, we will describe an example of data analysis using this method, for data consisting of open ocean acoustic (SONAR) recordings of marine mammal transients, supplied from NUWC sources. The purpose here is two-fold: first to give a more operational description of the technique and provide rules-of-thumb for parameter choices; and second to discuss some new issues raised by the analysis of non-ideal (real-world) data sets. The particular data set considered here is quite non-stationary, relatively noisy, is not clearly localized in the background, and as such provides a difficult challenge for most detection/classification schemes.

  5. Signal classification using global dynamical models, Part II: SONAR data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kremliovsky, M.; Kadtke, J.

    1996-06-01

    In Part I of this paper, we described a numerical method for nonlinear signal detection and classification which made use of techniques borrowed from dynamical systems theory. Here in Part II of the paper, we will describe an example of data analysis using this method, for data consisting of open ocean acoustic (SONAR) recordings of marine mammal transients, supplied from NUWC sources. The purpose here is two-fold: first to give a more operational description of the technique and provide rules-of-thumb for parameter choices; and second to discuss some new issues raised by the analysis of non-ideal (real-world) data sets. The particular data set considered here is quite non-stationary, relatively noisy, is not clearly localized in the background, and as such provides a difficult challenge for most detection/classification schemes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Mathematical modeling of cement paste microstructure by mosaic pattern. Part II. Application

    SciTech Connect

    Tennis, P.D.; Xi, Y.; Jennings, H.M.

    1997-07-01

    A model based on mosaic pattern analysis is shown to have the potential to describe the complex shapes and spatial distribution of phases in the microstructures of multiphase materials. Several characteristics of both micrographs of portland cement pastes and images generated using the few parameters of the model are determined and, for the most part, agreement is good. The advantage is that spatial features of the microstructures can be captured by a few parameters. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  7. Optical and radiometric models of the NOMAD instrument part II: the infrared channels - SO and LNO.

    PubMed

    Thomas, I R; Vandaele, A C; Robert, S; Neefs, E; Drummond, R; Daerden, F; Delanoye, S; Ristic, B; Berkenbosch, S; Clairquin, R; Maes, J; Bonnewijn, S; Depiesse, C; Mahieux, A; Trompet, L; Neary, L; Willame, Y; Wilque, V; Nevejans, D; Aballea, L; Moelans, W; De Vos, L; Lesschaeve, S; Van Vooren, N; Lopez-Moreno, J-J; Patel, M R; Bellucci, G

    2016-02-22

    NOMAD is a suite of three spectrometers that will be launched in 2016 as part of the joint ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission. The instrument contains three channels that cover the IR and UV spectral ranges and can perform solar occultation, nadir and limb observations, to detect and map a wide variety of Martian atmospheric gases and trace species. Part I of this work described the models of the UVIS channel; in this second part, we present the optical models representing the two IR channels, SO (Solar Occultation) and LNO (Limb, Nadir and Occultation), and use them to determine signal to noise ratios (SNRs) for many expected observational cases. In solar occultation mode, both the SO and LNO channel exhibit very high SNRs >5000. SNRs of around 100 were found for the LNO channel in nadir mode, depending on the atmospheric conditions, Martian surface properties, and observation geometry. PMID:27333621

  8. Dynamic regime marginal structural mean models for estimation of optimal dynamic treatment regimes, Part II: proofs of results.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Liliana; Rotnitzky, Andrea; Robins, James M

    2010-01-01

    In this companion article to "Dynamic Regime Marginal Structural Mean Models for Estimation of Optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes, Part I: Main Content" [Orellana, Rotnitzky and Robins (2010), IJB, Vol. 6, Iss. 2, Art. 7] we present (i) proofs of the claims in that paper, (ii) a proposal for the computation of a confidence set for the optimal index when this lies in a finite set, and (iii) an example to aid the interpretation of the positivity assumption. PMID:20405047

  9. Final Report for Dynamic Models for Causal Analysis of Panel Data. Models for Change in Quantitative Variables, Part I Deterministic Models. Part II, Chapter 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Michael T.

    This document is part of a series of chapters described in SO 011 759. Addressing the question of effective models to measure change and the change process, the author suggests that linear structural equation systems may be viewed as steady state outcomes of continuous-change models and have rich sociological grounding. Two interpretations of the…

  10. Modeling heart rate regulation--part II: parameter identification and analysis.

    PubMed

    Fowler, K R; Gray, G A; Olufsen, M S

    2008-06-01

    In part I of this study we introduced a 17-parameter model that can predict heart rate regulation during postural change from sitting to standing. In this subsequent study, we focus on the 17 model parameters needed to adequately represent the observed heart rate response. In part I and in previous work (Olufsen et al. 2006), we estimated the 17 model parameters by minimizing the least squares error between computed and measured values of the heart rate using the Nelder-Mead method (a simplex algorithm). In this study, we compare the Nelder-Mead optimization method to two sampling methods: the implicit filtering method and a genetic algorithm. We show that these off-the-shelf optimization methods can work in conjunction with the heart rate model and provide reasonable parameter estimates with little algorithm tuning. In addition, we make use of the thousands of points sampled by the optimizers in the course of the minimization to perform an overall analysis of the model itself. Our findings show that the resulting least-squares problem has multiple local minima and that the non-linear-least squares error can vary over two orders of magnitude due to the complex interaction between the model parameters, even when provided with reasonable bound constraints. PMID:18172764

  11. Knowledge representation and qualitative simulation of salmon redd functioning. Part II: qualitative model of redds.

    PubMed

    Guerrin, F; Dumas, J

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes a qualitative model of the functioning of salmon redds (spawning areas of salmon) and its impact on mortality rates of early stages. For this, we use Qsim, a qualitative simulator, which appeared adequate for representing available qualitative knowledge of freshwater ecology experts (see Part I of this paper). Since the number of relevant variables was relatively large, it appeared necessary to decompose the model into two parts, corresponding to processes occurring at separate time-scales. A qualitative clock allows us to submit the simulation of salmon developmental stages to the calculation of accumulated daily temperatures (degree-days), according to the clock ticks and a water temperature regime set by the user. Therefore, this introduces some way of real-time dating and duration in a purely qualitative model. Simulating both sub-models, either separately or by means of alternate transitions, allows us to generate the evolutions of variables of interest, such as the mortality rates according to two factors (flow of oxygenated water and plugging of gravel interstices near the bed surface), under various scenarios. PMID:11267738

  12. Nanoparticle mass transfer from lung airways to systemic regions--Part II: Multi-compartmental modeling.

    PubMed

    Kolanjiyil, Arun V; Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2013-12-01

    This is the second article of a two-part paper, combining high-resolution computer simulation results of inhaled nanoparticle deposition in a human airway model (Kolanjiyil and Kleinstreuer, 2013, "Nanoparticle Mass Transfer From Lung Airways to Systemic Regions--Part I: Whole-Lung Aerosol Dynamics," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 135(12), p. 121003) with a new multicompartmental model for insoluble nanoparticle barrier mass transfer into systemic regions. Specifically, it allows for the prediction of temporal nanoparticle accumulation in the blood and lymphatic systems and in organs. The multicompartmental model parameters were determined from experimental retention and clearance data in rat lungs and then the validated model was applied to humans based on pharmacokinetic cross-species extrapolation. This hybrid simulator is a computationally efficient tool to predict the nanoparticle kinetics in the human body. The study provides critical insight into nanomaterial deposition and distribution from the lungs to systemic regions. The quantitative results are useful in diverse fields such as toxicology for exposure-risk analysis of ubiquitous nanomaterial and pharmacology for nanodrug development and targeting. PMID:24008585

  13. Recent developments in modeling of hot rolling processes: Part II - Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, Gerhard; Bambach, Markus; Seuren, Simon; Henke, Thomas; Lohmar, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    This publication gives a short overview of current developments in modeling and simulation of hot rolling processes of metals at the Institute of Metal Forming of RWTH Aachen University. It is based on the fundamentals treated in Part I also contained in this conference issue. It features applications in the field of fast on-line models, where a fast multi-stage rolling model and an analytical approach for predicting the through-thickness shear distribution are presented. In addition, a new concept for sensitivity analysis by automatic differentiation is introduced and discussed. Finally, applications of rolling simulations in the field of integrated computational materials engineering are presented with a focus on TWIP and linepipe steels as well as aluminum.

  14. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part II: Inverse models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    A Bayesian network model has been developed to simulate a relatively simple problem of wave propagation in the surf zone (detailed in Part I). Here, we demonstrate that this Bayesian model can provide both inverse modeling and data-assimilation solutions for predicting offshore wave heights and depth estimates given limited wave-height and depth information from an onshore location. The inverse method is extended to allow data assimilation using observational inputs that are not compatible with deterministic solutions of the problem. These inputs include sand bar positions (instead of bathymetry) and estimates of the intensity of wave breaking (instead of wave-height observations). Our results indicate that wave breaking information is essential to reduce prediction errors. In many practical situations, this information could be provided from a shore-based observer or from remote-sensing systems. We show that various combinations of the assimilated inputs significantly reduce the uncertainty in the estimates of water depths and wave heights in the model domain. Application of the Bayesian network model to new field data demonstrated significant predictive skill (R2 = 0.7) for the inverse estimate of a month-long time series of offshore wave heights. The Bayesian inverse results include uncertainty estimates that were shown to be most accurate when given uncertainty in the inputs (e.g., depth and tuning parameters). Furthermore, the inverse modeling was extended to directly estimate tuning parameters associated with the underlying wave-process model. The inverse estimates of the model parameters not only showed an offshore wave height dependence consistent with results of previous studies but the uncertainty estimates of the tuning parameters also explain previously reported variations in the model parameters.

  15. The Rossby Centre Regional Atmospheric Climate Model part II: application to the Arctic climate.

    PubMed

    Jones, Colin G; Wyser, Klaus; Ullerstig, Anders; Willén, Ulrika

    2004-06-01

    The Rossby Centre regional climate model (RCA2) has been integrated over the Arctic Ocean as part of the international ARCMIP project. Results have been compared to observations derived from the SHEBA data set. The standard RCA2 model overpredicts cloud cover and downwelling longwave radiation, during the Arctic winter. This error was improved by introducing a new cloud parameterization, which significantly improves the annual cycle of cloud cover. Compensating biases between clear sky downwelling longwave radiation and longwave radiation emitted from cloud base were identified. Modifications have been introduced to the model radiation scheme that more accurately treat solar radiation interaction with ice crystals. This leads to a more realistic representation of cloud-solar radiation interaction. The clear sky portion of the model radiation code transmits too much solar radiation through the atmosphere, producing a positive bias at the top of the frequent boundary layer clouds. A realistic treatment of the temporally evolving albedo, of both sea-ice and snow, appears crucial for an accurate simulation of the net surface energy budget. Likewise, inclusion of a prognostic snow-surface temperature seems necessary, to accurately simulate near-surface thermodynamic processes in the Arctic. PMID:15264599

  16. A New Look at Stratospheric Sudden Warmings. Part II: Evaluation of Numerical Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Andrew J.; Polvani, Lorenza M.; Perlwitz, Judith; Sassi, Fabrizio; Manzini, Elisa; Shibata, Kiyotaka; Pawson, Steven; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rind, David

    2007-01-01

    The simulation of major midwinter stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) in six stratosphere-resolving general circulation models (GCMs) is examined. The GCMs are compared to a new climatology of SSWs, based on the dynamical characteristics of the events. First, the number, type, and temporal distribution of SSW events are evaluated. Most of the models show a lower frequency of SSW events than the climatology, which has a mean frequency of 6.0 SSWs per decade. Statistical tests show that three of the six models produce significantly fewer SSWs than the climatology, between 1.0 and 2.6 SSWs per decade. Second, four process-based diagnostics are calculated for all of the SSW events in each model. It is found that SSWs in the GCMs compare favorably with dynamical benchmarks for SSW established in the first part of the study. These results indicate that GCMs are capable of quite accurately simulating the dynamics required to produce SSWs, but with lower frequency than the climatology. Further dynamical diagnostics hint that, in at least one case, this is due to a lack of meridional heat flux in the lower stratosphere. Even though the SSWs simulated by most GCMs are dynamically realistic when compared to the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, the reasons for the relative paucity of SSWs in GCMs remains an important and open question.

  17. Impact of caramelization on the glass transition temperature of several caramelized sugars. Part II: Mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Liu, Yeting; Bhandari, Bhesh; Zhou, Weibiao

    2008-07-01

    Further to part I of this study, this paper discusses mathematical modeling of the relationship between caramelization of several sugars including fructose, glucose, and sucrose and their glass transition temperatures ( T g). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used for creating caramelized sugar samples and determining their glass transition temperatures ( T g). UV-vis absorbance measurement and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis were used for quantifying the extent of caramelization. Specifically, absorbances at 284 and 420 nm were obtained from UV-vis measurement, and the contents of sucrose, glucose, fructose, and 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF) in the caramelized sugars were obtained from HPLC measurements. Results from the UV and HPLC measurements were correlated with the Tg values measured by DSC. By using both linear and nonlinear regressions, two sets of mathematical models were developed for the prediction of Tg values of sugar caramels. The first set utilized information obtained from both UV-vis measurement and HPLC analysis, while the second set utilized only information from the UV-vis measurement, which is much easier to perform in practice. As a caramelization process is typically characterized by two stages, separate models were developed for each of the stages within a set. Furthermore, a third set of nonlinear equations were developed, serving as criteria to decide at which stage a caramelized sample is. The models were evaluated through a validation process. PMID:18553880

  18. Bulk Scattering Properties for the Remote Sensing of Ice Clouds. Part II: Narrowband Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Bryan A.; Yang, Ping; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Hu, Y.-X.; Bedka, Sarah T.

    2005-12-01

    This study examines the development of bulk single-scattering properties of ice clouds, including single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, and phase function, for a set of 1117 particle size distributions obtained from analysis of the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment (FIRE)-I, FIRE-II, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program intensive observation period, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX), and the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers (CRYSTAL) Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (FACE) data. The primary focus is to develop band-averaged models appropriate for use by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imager on the Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua platforms, specifically for bands located at wavelengths of 0.65, 1.64, 2.13, and 3.75 μm. The results indicate that there are substantial differences in the bulk scattering properties of ice clouds formed in areas of deep convection and those that exist in areas of much lower updraft velocities. Band-averaged bulk scattering property results obtained from a particle-size-dependent mixture of ice crystal habits are compared with those obtained assuming only solid hexagonal columns. The single-scattering albedo is lower for hexagonal columns than for a habit mixture for the 1.64-, 2.13-, and 3.75-μm bands, with the differences increasing with wavelength. In contrast, the asymmetry factors obtained from the habit mixture and only the solid hexagonal column are most different at 0.65 μm, with the differences decreasing as wavelength increases. At 3.75 μm, the asymmetry factor results from the two habit assumptions are almost indistinguishable. The asymmetry factor, single-scattering albedo, and scattering phase functions are also compared with the MODIS version-1 (V1) models. Differences between the current and V1 models can be traced to the microphysical models and specifically to the number of both

  19. Weighed scalar averaging in LTB dust models: part II. A formalism of exact perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Roberto A.

    2013-03-01

    We examine the exact perturbations that arise from the q-average formalism that was applied in the preceding article (part I) to Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models. By introducing an initial value parametrization, we show that all LTB scalars that take an FLRW ‘look-alike’ form (frequently used in the literature dealing with LTB models) follow as q-averages of covariant scalars that are common to FLRW models. These q-scalars determine for every averaging domain a unique FLRW background state through Darmois matching conditions at the domain boundary, though the definition of this background does not require an actual matching with an FLRW region (Swiss cheese-type models). Local perturbations describe the deviation from the FLRW background state through the local gradients of covariant scalars at the boundary of every comoving domain, while non-local perturbations do so in terms of the intuitive notion of a ‘contrast’ of local scalars with respect to FLRW reference values that emerge from q-averages assigned to the whole domain or the whole time slice in the asymptotic limit. We derive fluid flow evolution equations that completely determine the dynamics of the models in terms of the q-scalars and both types of perturbations. A rigorous formalism of exact spherical nonlinear perturbations is defined over the FLRW background state associated with the q-scalars, recovering the standard results of linear perturbation theory in the appropriate limit. We examine the notion of the amplitude and illustrate the differences between local and non-local perturbations by qualitative diagrams and through an example of a cosmic density void that follows from the numeric solution of the evolution equations.

  20. Rate of reduction of ore-carbon composites: Part II. Modeling of reduction in extended composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fortini, O.M.; Fruehan, R.J.

    2005-12-01

    A new process for ironmaking was proposed using a rotary hearth furnace and an iron bath smelter to produce iron employing wood charcoal as an energy source and reductant. This paper examines reactions in composite pellet samples with sizes close to sizes used in industrial practice (10 to 16 min in diameter). A model was constructed using the combined kinetic mechanism developed in Part I of this series of articles along with equations for the computation of pellet temperature and shrinkage during the reaction. The analysis of reaction rates measured for pellets with wood charcoal showed that heat transfer plays a significant role in their overall rate of reaction at elevated temperatures. The slower rates measured in pellets containing coal char show that the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation is more significant than heat transfer. Model calculations suggest that the rates are highly sensitive to the thermal conductivity of pellets containing wood charcoal and are less sensitive to the external conditions of heat transfer. It was seen that the changes in pellet surface area and diameter due to shrinkage introduce little change on reaction rates. The model developed provides an adequate description of pellets of wood charcoal up to circa 90% of reduction. Experimentally determined rates of reduction of iron oxide by wood charcoal were approximately 5 to 10 times faster than rates measured in pellets with coal char.

  1. The Macroscopic Entrainment Processes of Simulated Cumulus Ensemble. Part II: Testing the Entraining-Plume Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chichung; Arakawa, Akio

    1997-04-01

    According to Part I of this paper, it seems that ignoring the contribution from descendent cloud air in a cloud model for cumulus parameterization (CMCP), such as the spectral cumulus ensemble model in the Arakawa-Schubert parameterization, is an acceptable simplification for tropical deep convection. Since each subensemble in the spectral cumulus ensemble model is formally analogous to an entraining plume, the latter is examined using the simulated data from a cloud-resolving model (CRM). The authors first follow the analysis procedure of Warner. With the data from a nonprecipitating experiment, the authors show that the entraining-plume model cannot simultaneously predict the mean liquid water profile and cloud top height of the clouds simulated by the CRM. However, the mean properties of active elements of clouds, which are characterized by strong updrafts, can be described by an entraining plume of similar top height.With the data from a precipitating experiment, the authors examine the spectral cumulus ensemble model using the Paluch diagram. It is found that the spectral cumulus ensemble model appears adequate if different types of clouds in the spectrum are interpreted as subcloud elements with different entrainment characteristics. The resolved internal structure of clouds can thus be viewed as a manifestation of a cloud spectrum. To further investigate whether the fractional rate of entrainment is an appropriate parameter for characterizing cloud types in the spectral cumulus ensemble model, the authors stratify the simulated saturated updrafts (subcloud elements) into different types according to their eventual heights and calculate the cloud mass flux and mean moist static energy for each type. Entrainment characteristics are then inferred through the cloud mass flux and in-cloud moist static energy. It is found that different types of subcloud elements have distinguishable thermodynamic properties and entrainment characteristics. However, for each cloud

  2. Atmospheric mercury in the Canadian Arctic. Part II: insight from modeling.

    PubMed

    Dastoor, Ashu; Ryzhkov, Andrew; Durnford, Dorothy; Lehnherr, Igor; Steffen, Alexandra; Morrison, Heather

    2015-03-15

    A review of mercury in the Canadian Arctic with a focus on field measurements is presented in part I (see Steffen et al., this issue). Here we provide insights into the dynamics of mercury in the Canadian Arctic from new and published mercury modeling studies using Environment Canada's mercury model. The model simulations presented in this study use global anthropogenic emissions of mercury for the period 1995-2005. The most recent modeling estimate of the net gain of mercury from the atmosphere to the Arctic Ocean is 75 Mg year(-1) and the net gain to the terrestrial ecosystems north of 66.5° is 42 Mg year(-1). Model based annual export of riverine mercury from North American, Russian and all Arctic watersheds to the Arctic Ocean are in the range of 2.8-5.6, 12.7-25.4 and 15.5-31.0 Mg year(-1), respectively. Analysis of long-range transport events of Hg at Alert and Little Fox Lake monitoring sites indicates that Asia contributes the most ambient Hg to the Canadian Arctic followed by contributions from North America, Russia, and Europe. The largest anthropogenic Hg deposition to the Canadian Arctic is from East Asia followed by Europe (and Russia), North America, and South Asia. An examination of temporal trends of Hg using the model suggests that changes in meteorology and changes in anthropogenic emissions equally contribute to the decrease in surface air elemental mercury concentrations in the Canadian Arctic with an overall decline of ~12% from 1990 to 2005. A slow increase in net deposition of Hg is found in the Canadian Arctic in response to changes in meteorology. Changes in snowpack and sea-ice characteristics and increase in precipitation in the Arctic related with climate change are found to be primary causes for the meteorology-related changes in air concentrations and deposition of Hg in the region. The model estimates that under the emissions reduction scenario of worldwide implementation of the best emission control technologies by 2020, mercury

  3. AERMOD: A DISPERSION MODEL FOR INDUSTRIAL SOURCE APPLICATIONS PART II: MODEL PERFORMANCE AGAINST 17 FIELD STUDY DATABASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formulations of the AMS/EPA Regulatory Model Improvement Committee's applied air dispersion model (AERMOD) are described. This is the second in a series of three articles. Part I describes the model's methods for characterizing the atmospheric boundary layer and complex ter...

  4. Post-Messinian evolution of the Florence Rise area (Western Cyprus Arc) Part II: Experimental modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellier, N. C.; Vendeville, B. C.; Loncke, L.

    2013-04-01

    The Florence rise is located southwest of the island of Cyprus and belongs to the western part of the Cyprus arc. The Florence rise is an accretionary prism, with some amount of strike slip, where the thick layer of evaporitic Messinian decouples deformation in the post-Messinian cover from that in the pre-Messinian "basement." The basement structural highs, whether presently active or inactive, influence the deformation and displacement patterns of the salt and its overburden. Our first experiment focused on the presence, in nature, of normal faults located above basement thrusts. Deformation of the salt layer and its overburden was influenced by several processes. On one hand, the entire model was subjected to regional shortening, and basement thrusts formed. On the other hand, the local vertical rise associated with basement thrusts created local slopes down which the salt and overburden glided gravitationally, in some places leading to the formation of normal faults in an otherwise compressional regional setting. Our second experiment was designed to model the buttressing effect of the Florence rise and the Eratosthenes Seamount on thin-skinned displacement patterns during regional gravity spreading of the Nile cone. Results indicate that in the Northeastern distal region, buttressing by these two basement highs forced the salt and its overburden to flow northeastward, as a lateral escape toward the free boundary of the region.

  5. Kinetics of the zinc slag-Fuming Process: part II. mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, G. G.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1985-09-01

    A mathematical model of zinc slag fuming has been formulated based on the kinetic conception of the process developed in Part I of this paper. Each of the major reaction zones in the furnace — the slag bath where reduction of zinc oxide and ferric oxide takes place and the tuyere gas column where oxidation of coal and ferrous oxide occurs — have been characterized mathematically. The two zones and the water-jacketed furnace wall have been linked by overall heat and mass balances. Insufficient information is available, however, to characterize quantitatively two of the important kinetic processes occurring in the furnace: the division of coal between entrainment in the slag, combustion in the tuyere gas column and bypass; and oxygen utilization. To overcome this problem the model has been fitted to the data from eleven industrial fuming cycles. Consistent values have been obtained for these kinetic parameters over five different fuming operations indicating that the kinetic conception of the process is sound. The results indicate that about 33 pct of the injected coal is entrained in the slag, 55 pet combusts in the tuyere gas column, and 12 pct bypasses the bath completely. Oxygen utilization has been found to be high and can be correlated to bath depth.

  6. Aerosol dry deposition on vegetative canopies. Part II: A new modelling approach and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, Alexandre; Mailliat, Alain; Amielh, Muriel; Anselmet, Fabien

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the modelling of aerosol dry deposition on vegetation. It follows a companion article, in which a review of the current knowledge highlights the need for a better description of the aerosol behaviour within the canopy [Petroff, A., Mailliat, A., Amielh, M., Anselmet, F., 2008. Aerosol dry deposition on vegetative canopies. Part I: Review of present knowledge. Atmospheric Environment, in press, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.09.043]. Concepts from multi-phase flow studies are used for describing the canopy medium and deriving a time and space-averaged aerosol balance equation and the associated deposition terms. The closure of the deposition terms follows an up-scaling procedure based on the statistical distribution of the collecting elements. This aerosol transport model is then applied in a stationary and mono-dimensional configuration and takes into account the properties of the vegetation, the aerosol and the turbulent flow. Deposition mechanisms are Brownian diffusion, interception, inertial and turbulent impactions, and gravitational settling. For each of them, a parameterisation of the particle collection is derived and the quality of their predictions is assessed by comparison with wind-tunnel deposition measurements on coniferous twigs [Belot, Y., Gauthier, D., 1975. Transport of micronic particles from atmosphere to foliar surfaces. In: De Vries, D.A., Afgan, N.H. (Eds.), Heat and Mass Transfer in the Biosphere. Scripta Book, Washington, DC, pp. 583-591; Belot, Y., 1977. Etude de la captation des polluants atmosphériques par les végétaux. CEA, R-4786, Fontenay-aux-Roses; Belot, Y., Camus, H., Gauthier, D., Caput, C., 1994. Uptake of small particles by canopies. The Science of the Total Environment 157, 1-6]. Under a real canopy configuration, the predictions of the aerosol transport model compare reasonably well with detailed on-site deposition measurements of Aitken mode particles [Buzorius, G., Rannik, Ü., M

  7. Development of a livestock odor dispersion model: part II. Evaluation and validation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zimu; Guo, Huiqing; Laguë, Claude

    2011-03-01

    A livestock odor dispersion model (LODM) was developed to predict odor concentration and odor frequency using routine hourly meteorological data input. The odor concentrations predicted by the LODM were compared with the results obtained from other commercial models (Industrial Source Complex Short-Term model, version 3, CALPUFF) to evaluate its appropriateness. Two sets of field odor plume measurement data were used to validate the model. The model-predicted mean odor concentrations and odor frequencies were compared with those measured. Results show that this model has good performance for predicting odor concentrations and odor frequencies. PMID:21416754

  8. On the quasi-steady aerodynamics of normal hovering flight part II: model implementation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nabawy, Mostafa R A; Crowther, William J

    2014-05-01

    This paper introduces a generic, transparent and compact model for the evaluation of the aerodynamic performance of insect-like flapping wings in hovering flight. The model is generic in that it can be applied to wings of arbitrary morphology and kinematics without the use of experimental data, is transparent in that the aerodynamic components of the model are linked directly to morphology and kinematics via physical relationships and is compact in the sense that it can be efficiently evaluated for use within a design optimization environment. An important aspect of the model is the method by which translational force coefficients for the aerodynamic model are obtained from first principles; however important insights are also provided for the morphological and kinematic treatments that improve the clarity and efficiency of the overall model. A thorough analysis of the leading-edge suction analogy model is provided and comparison of the aerodynamic model with results from application of the leading-edge suction analogy shows good agreement. The full model is evaluated against experimental data for revolving wings and good agreement is obtained for lift and drag up to 90° incidence. Comparison of the model output with data from computational fluid dynamics studies on a range of different insect species also shows good agreement with predicted weight support ratio and specific power. The validated model is used to evaluate the relative impact of different contributors to the induced power factor for the hoverfly and fruitfly. It is shown that the assumption of an ideal induced power factor (k = 1) for a normal hovering hoverfly leads to a 23% overestimation of the generated force owing to flapping. PMID:24554578

  9. A REGIONAL ATMOSPHERIC FATE AND TRANSPORT MODEL FOR ATRAZINE PART II: EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system has been adapted to simulate the fate and transport of atrazine. The simulation spans April to mid-July 1995 for a domain encompassing the United States and southern Canada east of the Rocky Mountains. Model results ...

  10. A unifying neuro-fasciagenic model of somatic dysfunction - Underlying mechanisms and treatment - Part II.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    This paper offers an extensive review of the main fascia-mediated mechanisms underlying various therapeutic processes of clinical relevance for manual therapy. The concept of somatic dysfunction is revisited in light of the several fascial influences that may come into play during and after manual treatment. A change in perspective is thus proposed: from a nociceptive model that for decades has viewed somatic dysfunction as a neurologically-mediated phenomenon, to a unifying neuro-fascial model that integrates neural influences into a multifactorial and multidimensional interpretation of manual therapeutic effects as being partially, if not entirely, mediated by the fascia. By taking into consideration a wide spectrum of fascia-related factors - from cell-based mechanisms to cognitive and behavioural influences - a model emerges suggesting, amongst other results, a multidisciplinary-approach to the intervention of somatic dysfunction. Finally, it is proposed that a sixth osteopathic 'meta-model' - the connective tissue-fascial model - be added to the existing five models in osteopathic philosophy as the main interface between all body systems, thus providing a structural and functional framework for the body's homoeostatic potential and its inherent abilities to heal. PMID:26118526

  11. Experimental investigation and numerical modeling of carbonation process in reinforced concrete structures Part II. Practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saetta, Anna V.; Vitaliani, Renato V

    2005-05-01

    The mathematical-numerical method developed by the authors to predict the corrosion initiation time of reinforced concrete structures due to carbonation process, recalled in Part I of this work, is here applied to some real cases. The final aim is to develop and test a practical method for determining the durability characteristics of existing buildings liable to carbonation, as well as estimating the corrosion initiation time of a building at the design stage. Two industrial sheds with different ages and located in different areas have been analyzed performing both experimental tests and numerical analyses. Finally, a case of carbonation-induced failure in a prestressed r.c. beam is presented.

  12. A partitioner-centric model for SAMR partitioning trade-off optimization : Part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Steensland, Johan; Ray, Jaideep

    2004-03-01

    Optimal partitioning of structured adaptive mesh applications necessitates dynamically determining and optimizing for the most time-inhibiting factor, such as data migration and communication volume. However, a trivial monitoring of an application evaluates the current partitioning rather than the inherent properties of the grid hierarchy. We present a model that given a structured adaptive grid, determines ab initio to what extent the partitioner should focus on reducing the amount of data migration to reduce execution time. This model contributes to the meta-partitioner, our ultimate aim of being able to select and configure the optimal partitioner based on the dynamic properties of the grid hierarchy and the computer. We validate the predictions of this model by comparing them with actual measurements (via traces) from four different adaptive simulations. The results show that the proposed model generally captures the inherent optimization-need in SAMR applications. We conclude that our model is a useful contribution, since tracking and adapting to the dynamic behavior of such applications lead to potentially large decreases in execution times.

  13. A General Pressure Gradient Formulation for Ocean Models - Part II: Energy, Momentum, and Bottom Torque Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y.; Wright, D.

    1998-01-01

    A formulation of the pressure gradient force for use in models with topography-following coordinates is proposed and diagnostically analyzed by Song. We investigate numerical consistency with respect to global energy conservation, depth-integrated momentum changes, and the represent of the bottom pressure torque.

  14. QUANTIFYING SEASONAL SHIFTS IN NITROGEN SOURCES TO OREGON ESTUARIES: PART II: TRANSPORT MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying the sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in estuaries is complicated by the multiple sources, temporal variability in inputs, and variations in transport. We used a hydrodynamic model to simulate the transport and uptake of three sources of DIN (oceanic, riv...

  15. Evaluating risk communications: completing and correcting mental models of hazardous processes, Part II.

    PubMed

    Bostrom, A; Atman, C J; Fischhoff, B; Morgan, M G

    1994-10-01

    We propose a decision-analytic framework, called the mental models approach, for evaluating the impact of risk communications. It employs multiple evaluation methods, including think-aloud protocol analysis, problem solving, and a true-false test that allows respondents to express uncertainty about their answers. The approach is illustrated in empirical comparisons of three brochures about indoor radon. PMID:7800863

  16. Producing thin strips by twin-roll casting—part II: Process modeling and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ben Q.

    1995-08-01

    Extensive modeling work has appeared over the last decade and has contributed significantly to the fundamental understanding of the physical phenomena involved in twin-roll casting, such as fluid flow, heat transfer, and thermomechanical processing. The commitment of metals producers to the technology is strong, which is evidenced by numerous pilot-scale casters that have been constructed worldwide. Together with the process models, these casters have been instrumental in developing new process designs and in improving and optimizing the performance of existing twin-roll casters. Current R&D efforts are intensive in both the aluminum and the steel industries, with the former aiming to gain a higher productivity and the latter striving to scale up from pilot plants to commercial production.

  17. Development and validation of an evaporation duct model. Part II: Evaluation and improvement of stability functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Juli; Fei, Jianfang; Huang, Xiaogang; Cheng, Xiaoping; Hu, Xiaohua; Ji, Liang

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to validate and improve the universal evaporation duct (UED) model through a further analysis of the stability function ( ψ). A large number of hydrometeorological observations obtained from a tower platform near Xisha Island of the South China Sea are employed, together with the latest variations in ψ function. Applicability of different ψ functions for specific sea areas and stratification conditions is investigated based on three objective criteria. The results show that, under unstable conditions, ψ function of Fairall et al. (1996) (i.e., Fairall96, similar for abbreviations of other function names) in general offers the best performance. However, strictly speaking, this holds true only for the stability (represented by bulk Richardson number R iB) range -2.6 ⩽ R iB < -0.1; when conditions become weakly unstable (-0.1 ⩽ R iB < -0.01), Fairall96 offers the second best performance after Hu and Zhang (1992) (HYQ92). Conversely, for near-neutral but slightly unstable conditions (-0.01 ⩽ R iB < 0.0), the effects of Edson04, Fairall03, Grachev00, and Fairall96 are similar, with Edson04 being the best function but offering only a weak advantage. Under stable conditions, HYQ92 is the optimal and offers a pronounced advantage, followed by the newly introduced SHEBA07 (by Grachev et al., 2007) function. Accordingly, the most favorable functions, i.e., Fairall96 and HYQ92, are incorporated into the UED model to obtain an improved version of the model. With the new functions, the mean root-mean-square (rms) errors of the modified refractivity ( M), 0-5-m M slope, 5-40-m M slope, and the rms errors of evaporation duct height (EDH) are reduced by 21.65%, 9.12%, 38.79%, and 59.06%, respectively, compared to the classical Naval Postgraduate School model.

  18. 2D photochemical modeling of Saturn's stratosphere. Part II: Feedback between composition and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, V.; Greathouse, T. K.; Cavalié, T.; Dobrijevic, M.; Hersant, F.

    2016-03-01

    Saturn's axial tilt of 26.7° produces seasons in a similar way as on Earth. Both the stratospheric temperature and composition are affected by this latitudinally varying insolation along Saturn's orbital path. The atmospheric thermal structure is controlled and regulated by the amount of hydrocarbons in the stratosphere, which act as absorbers and coolants from the UV to the far-IR spectral range, and this structure has an influence on the amount of hydrocarbons. We study here the feedback between the chemical composition and the thermal structure by coupling a latitudinal and seasonal photochemical model with a radiative seasonal model. Our results show that the seasonal temperature peak in the higher stratosphere, associated with the seasonal increase of insolation, is shifted earlier than the maximum insolation peak. This shift is increased with increasing latitudes and is caused by the low amount of stratospheric coolants in the spring season. At 80° in both hemispheres, the temperature peak at 10-2 mbar is seen to occur half a season (3-4 Earth years) earlier than was previously predicted by radiative seasonal models that assumed spatially and temporally uniform distribution of coolants. This shift progressively decreases with increasing pressure, up to around the 0.5 mbar pressure level where it vanishes. On the opposite, the thermal field has a small feedback on the abundance distributions. Accounting for that feedback modifies the predicted equator-to-pole temperature gradient. The meridional gradients of temperature at the mbar pressure levels are better reproduced when this feedback is accounted for. At lower pressure levels, Saturn's stratospheric thermal structure seems to depart from pure radiative seasonal equilibrium as previously suggested by Guerlet et al. (2014). Although the agreement with the absolute value of the stratospheric temperature observed by Cassini is moderate, it is a mandatory step toward a fully coupled GCM-photochemical model.

  19. CO2-induced dissolution of low permeability carbonates. Part II: Numerical modeling of experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yue; Smith, Megan; Sholokhova, Yelena; Carroll, Susan

    2013-12-01

    We used the 3D continuum-scale reactive transport models to simulate eight core flood experiments for two different carbonate rocks. In these experiments the core samples were reacted with brines equilibrated with pCO2 = 3, 2, 1, 0.5 MPa (Smith et al., 2013 [27]). The carbonate rocks were from specific Marly dolostone and Vuggy limestone flow units at the IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project in south-eastern Saskatchewan, Canada. Initial model porosity, permeability, mineral, and surface area distributions were constructed from micro tomography and microscopy characterization data. We constrained model reaction kinetics and porosity-permeability equations with the experimental data. The experimental data included time-dependent solution chemistry and differential pressure measured across the core, and the initial and final pore space and mineral distribution. Calibration of the model with the experimental data allowed investigation of effects of carbonate reactivity, flow velocity, effective permeability, and time on the development and consequences of stable and unstable dissolution fronts. The continuum scale model captured the evolution of distinct dissolution fronts that developed as a consequence of carbonate mineral dissolution and pore scale transport properties. The results show that initial heterogeneity and porosity contrast control the development of the dissolution fronts in these highly reactive systems. This finding is consistent with linear stability analysis and the known positive feedback between mineral dissolution and fluid flow in carbonate formations. Differences in the carbonate kinetic drivers resulting from the range of pCO2 used in the experiments and the different proportions of more reactive calcite and less reactive dolomite contributed to the development of new pore space, but not to the type of dissolution fronts observed for the two different rock types. The development of the dissolution front was much more

  20. Standards in neurosonology. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). PMID:27104002

  1. Radiation effects in concrete for nuclear power plants, Part II:Perspective from micromechanical modeling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Le Pape, Yann; Field, Kevin G; Remec, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The need to understand and characterize the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete has become urgentbecause of the possible extension of service life of many nuclear power generating stations. Currentknowledge is primarily based on a collection of data obtained in test reactors. These data are inher-ently difficult to interpret because materials and testing conditions are inconsistent. A micromechanicalapproach based on the Hashin composite sphere model is presented to derive a first-order separationof the effects of radiation on cement paste and aggregate, and, also, on their interaction. Although thescarcity of available data limits the validation of the model, it appears that,more » without negating a possiblegamma-ray induced effect, the neutron-induced damage and swelling of aggregate plays a predominantrole on the overall concrete expansion and the damage of the cement paste. The radiation-induced volu-metric expansion (RIVE) effects can also be aided by temperature elevation and shrinkage in the cementpaste.« less

  2. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture -- part II: development of gas transfer models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The basic mass transfer equation for gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide can be derived from integration of the driving force equation. Because of the physical characteristics of the gas transfer processes, slightly different models are used for aerators tested under the non steady-state procedures, than for packed columns, or weirs. It is suggested that the standard condition for carbon dioxide should be 20 °C, 1 atm, CCO2=20 mg/kg, and XCO2=0.000285. The selection of the standard condition for carbon dioxide based on a fixed mole fraction ensures that standardized carbon dioxide transfer rates will be comparable even though the value of C*CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing with time. The computation of mass transfer for carbon dioxide is complicated by the impact of water depth and gas phase enrichment on the saturation concentration within the unit, although the importance of either factor depends strongly on the specific type of aerator. For some types of aerators, the most accurate gas phase model remains to be determined for carbon dioxide. The assumption that carbon dioxide can be treated as a non-reactive gas in packed columns may apply for cold acidic waters but not for warm alkaline waters.

  3. MODELING OF NI-CR-MO BASED ALLOYS: PART II - KINETICS

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P A; Kaufman, L; Liu, Z

    2006-07-07

    The CALPHAD approach is applied to kinetic studies of phase transformations and aging of prototypes of Ni-Cr-Mo-based alloys selected for waste disposal canisters in the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Based on a previous study on alloy stability for several candidate alloys, the thermodynamic driving forces together with a newly developed mobility database have been used to analyze diffusion-controlled transformations in these Ni-based alloys. Results on precipitation of the Ni{sub 2}Cr-ordered phase in Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Mo alloys, and of the complex P- and {delta}-phases in a surrogate of Alloy 22 are presented, and the output from the modeling are compared with experimental data on aging.

  4. Robust detection of gearbox deterioration using compromised autoregressive modeling and Kolmogorov Smirnov test statistic. Part II: Experiment and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yimin; Mechefske, Chris K.

    2007-07-01

    Optimal maintenance decision analysis is heavily dependent on the accuracy of condition indicators. A condition indicator that is subject to such varying operating conditions as load is unable to provide precise condition information of the monitored object for making optimal operational maintenance decisions even if the maintenance program is established within a rigorous theoretical framework. For this reason, the performance of condition monitoring techniques applied to rotating machinery under varying load conditions has been a long-term concern and has attracted intensive research interest. Part I of this study proposed a novel technique based on adaptive autoregressive modeling and hypothesis tests. The method is able to automatically search for the optimal time-series model order and establish a compromised autoregressive model fitting based on the healthy gear motion residual signals under varying load conditions. The condition of the monitored gearbox is numerically represented by a modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic. Part II of this study is devoted to applications of the proposed technique to entire lifetime condition detection of three gearboxes with distinct physical specifications, distinct load conditions, and distinct failure modes. A comprehensive and thorough comparative study is conducted between the proposed technique and several counterparts. The detection technique is further enhanced by a proposed method to automatically identify and generate fault alerts with the aid of the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and thus requires no supervision from maintenance personnel. Experimental analysis demonstrated that the proposed technique applied to automatic identification and generation of fault alerts also features two highly desirable properties, i.e. few false alerts and early alert for incipient faults. Furthermore, it is found that the proposed technique is able to identify two types of abnormalities, i.e. strong ghost components abruptly

  5. A quantitative phase field model for hydride precipitation in zirconium alloys: Part II. Modeling of temperature dependent hydride precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhihua; Hao, Mingjun; Guo, Xianghua; Tang, Guoyi; Shi, San-Qiang

    2015-04-01

    A quantitative free energy functional developed in Part I (Shi and Xiao, 2014 [1]) was applied to model temperature dependent δ-hydride precipitation in zirconium in real time and real length scale. At first, the effect of external tensile load on reorientation of δ-hydrides was calibrated against experimental observations, which provides a modification factor for the strain energy in free energy formulation. Then, two types of temperature-related problems were investigated. In the first type, the effect of temperature transient was studied by cooling the Zr-H system at different cooling rates from high temperature while an external tensile stress was maintained. At the end of temperature transients, the average hydride size as a function of cooling rate was compared to experimental data. In the second type, the effect of temperature gradients was studied in a one or two dimensional temperature field. Different boundary conditions were applied. The results show that the hydride precipitation concentrated in low temperature regions and that it eventually led to the formation of hydride blisters in zirconium. A brief discussion on how to implement the hysteresis of hydrogen solid solubility on hydride precipitation and dissolution in the developed phase field scheme is also presented.

  6. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  7. AERMOD: A Dispersion Model for Industrial Source Applications. Part II: Model Performance against 17 Field Study Databases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Steven G.; Cimorelli, Alan J.; Paine, Robert J.; Brode, Roger W.; Weil, Jeffrey C.; Venkatram, Akula; Wilson, Robert B.; Lee, Russell F.; Peters, Warren D.

    2005-05-01

    The performance of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regulatory Model (AERMOD) Improvement Committee's applied air dispersion model against 17 field study databases is described. AERMOD is a steady-state plume model with significant improvements over commonly applied regulatory models. The databases are characterized, and the performance measures are described. Emphasis is placed on statistics that demonstrate the model's abilities to reproduce the upper end of the concentration distribution. This is most important for applied regulatory modeling. The field measurements are characterized by flat and complex terrain, urban and rural conditions, and elevated and surface releases with and without building wake effects. As is indicated by comparisons of modeled and observed concentration distributions, with few exceptions AERMOD's performance is superior to that of the other applied models tested. This is the second of two articles, with the first describing the model formulations.

  8. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF AIR QUALITY MODELS USING ADVANCED METHODS WITH SPECIALIZED OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED AMBIENT SPECIES -PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is Part 2 of "Diagnostic Evaluation of Air Quality Models Using Advanced Methods with Specialized Observations of Selected Ambient Species". A limited field campaign to make specialized observations of selected ambient species using advanced and innovative instrumentation f...

  9. Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part II. Model validation and sensitivity analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A predictive mathematical model was developed to simulate heat transfer in a tomato undergoing double sided infrared (IR) heating in a dry-peeling process. The aims of this study were to validate the developed model using experimental data and to investigate different engineering parameters that mos...

  10. X-pinch. Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.

    2015-06-01

    Results of experimental studies of the X-pinch since its invention and implementation in 1982 at the Lebedev Physical Institute are presented. The review consists of two parts. The first part briefly outlines the history of creation and studies of X-pinches, describes the diagnostic techniques and devices developed during these studies, and presents the main results obtained in studying the physical processes occurring in the X-pinch. The second part is devoted to the results of detailed studies of the spatial, temporal, and spectral characteristics of the X-pinch hot spot—the region where the highest plasma parameters are achieved and which is a source of X-ray emission with extreme parameters. Some results of X-pinch simulations are also presented.

  11. X-pinch. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Pikuz, S. A. Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.

    2015-06-15

    Results of experimental studies of the X-pinch since its invention and implementation in 1982 at the Lebedev Physical Institute are presented. The review consists of two parts. The first part briefly outlines the history of creation and studies of X-pinches, describes the diagnostic techniques and devices developed during these studies, and presents the main results obtained in studying the physical processes occurring in the X-pinch. The second part is devoted to the results of detailed studies of the spatial, temporal, and spectral characteristics of the X-pinch hot spot—the region where the highest plasma parameters are achieved and which is a source of X-ray emission with extreme parameters. Some results of X-pinch simulations are also presented.

  12. Modeling of the AISI Two-Zone Smelter, Part II: Physical Modeling and the AISI Pilot Plant Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Joseph George; Zhang, X.; Fuehan, R. J.; Vassilicos, A.; Sarma, B.

    2001-06-01

    Physical modeling experiments were conducted for the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) two-zone smelter process. The effects of geometrical and operating parameters on backmixing flow rates were investigated. It was found that the driving force for a backmixing flow in the AISI smelter comes from gas stirring in a liquid bath. The backmixing flow rate in the AISI smelter is proportional to a bath depth and an opening area of a barrier. Based on the results of the physical modeling experiments, a dimensional analysis was performed to extrapolate the water modeling results to the operating conditions in the AISI pilot plant. Copper tracer trials were conducted at the AISI pilot plant to investigate the backmixing flow of the AISI two-zone smelter process. The results obtained from the pilot plant trials and the water modeling experiments were compared.

  13. Roots/Routes: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  14. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  15. Playing It Safe: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Kenneth A.; Niccolai, Frances R.

    1985-01-01

    Explains how to prevent outdoor sports injuries; discusses related litigation and specific cases involving playing field turf, tennis, skiing, and pools; and sets out facility design and maintenance considerations and recommendations. A sidebar provides information about injury insurance available to NCAA schools. Part I of this article appeared…

  16. California Emerging Technology Forum Part II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the California Emerging Technology Forum Part II is to foster the removal of barriers for the development and use of clean technologies through the development of collaborative technology research projects on promising technologies. The collaborative technology resear...

  17. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  18. A Multiscale Approach to Blast Neurotrauma Modeling: Part II: Methodology for Inducing Blast Injury to in vitro Models.

    PubMed

    Effgen, Gwen B; Hue, Christopher D; Vogel, Edward; Panzer, Matthew B; Meaney, David F; Bass, Cameron R; Morrison, Barclay

    2012-01-01

    Due to the prominent role of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in wounding patterns of U.S. war-fighters in Iraq and Afghanistan, blast injury has risen to a new level of importance and is recognized to be a major cause of injuries to the brain. However, an injury risk-function for microscopic, macroscopic, behavioral, and neurological deficits has yet to be defined. While operational blast injuries can be very complex and thus difficult to analyze, a simplified blast injury model would facilitate studies correlating biological outcomes with blast biomechanics to define tolerance criteria. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) results from the translation of a shock wave in-air, such as that produced by an IED, into a pressure wave within the skull-brain complex. Our blast injury methodology recapitulates this phenomenon in vitro, allowing for control of the injury biomechanics via a compressed-gas shock tube used in conjunction with a custom-designed, fluid-filled receiver that contains the living culture. The receiver converts the air shock wave into a fast-rising pressure transient with minimal reflections, mimicking the intracranial pressure history in blast. We have developed an organotypic hippocampal slice culture model that exhibits cell death when exposed to a 530 ± 17.7-kPa peak overpressure with a 1.026 ± 0.017-ms duration and 190 ± 10.7 kPa-ms impulse in-air. We have also injured a simplified in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier, which exhibits disrupted integrity immediately following exposure to 581 ± 10.0 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.067 ± 0.006-ms duration and 222 ± 6.9 kPa-ms impulse in-air. To better prevent and treat bTBI, both the initiating biomechanics and the ensuing pathobiology must be understood in greater detail. A well-characterized, in vitro model of bTBI, in conjunction with animal models, will be a powerful tool for developing strategies to mitigate the risks of bTBI. PMID:22375134

  19. Understanding Radiation Thermometry. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2015-01-01

    This document is a two-part course on the theory and practice of radiation thermometry. Radiation thermometry is the technique for determining the temperature of a surface or a volume by measuring the electromagnetic radiation it emits. This course covers the theory and practice of radiative thermometry and emphasizes the modern application of the field using commercially available electronic detectors and optical components. The course covers the historical development of the field, the fundamental physics of radiative surfaces, along with modern measurement methods and equipment.

  20. An Instructional Model for Preparing Accounting/Computing Clerks in Michigan Secondary School Office Education Programs, Part I and Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovis, L. Michael; McKitrick, Max O.

    Outlined in this two-part document is a model for the implementation of a business-industry oriented program designed to provide high school seniors with updated training in the skills and concepts necessary for developing competencies in entry-level and second-level accounting jobs that involve accounts receivable, accounts payable, and payroll…

  1. Macrotransport-solidification kinetics modeling of equiaxed dendritic growth: Part II. Computation problems and validation on INCONEL 718 superalloy castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastac, L.; Stefanescu, D. M.

    1996-12-01

    In Part I of the article, a new analytical model that describes solidification of equiaxed dendrites was presented. In this part of the article, the model is used to simulate the solidification of INCONEL 718 superalloy castings. The model was incorporated into a commercial finite-element code, PROCAST. A special procedure called microlatent heat method (MLHM) was used for coupling between macroscopic heat flow and microscopic growth kinetics. A criterion for time-stepping selection in microscopic modeling has been derived in conjunction with MLHM. Reductions in computational (CPU) time up to 90 pct over the classic latent heat method were found by adopting this coupling. Validation of the model was performed against experimental data for an INCONEL 718 superalloy casting. In the present calculations, the model for globulitic dendrite was used. The evolution of fraction of solid calculated with the present model was compared with Scheil’s model and experiments. An important feature in solidification of INCONEL 718 is the detrimental Laves phase. Laves phase content is directly related to the intensity of microsegregation of niobium, which is very sensitive to the evolution of the fraction of solid. It was found that there is a critical cooling rate at which the amount of Laves phase is maximum. The critical cooling rate is not a function of material parameters (diffusivity, partition coefficient, etc.). It depends only on the grain size and solidification time. The predictions generated with the present model are shown to agree very well with experiments.

  2. Soldier and family wellness across the life course: a developmental model of successful aging, spirituality, and health promotion, Part II.

    PubMed

    Parker, M W; Fuller, G F; Koenig, H G; Bellis, J M; Vaitkus, M A; Barko, W F; Eitzen, J

    2001-07-01

    As an alternative to the current Department of Defense approach to health promotion and related research, which is critiqued in Part I of this article, the authors present a new, integrative health promotion and wellness model. This age-graded model incorporates successful aging, targeted health promotion, and spirituality in the context of the developmental perspective provided by life course constructs. By using an age-graded, multidisciplinary system of assessment, intervention, and follow-up in the context of preparing military personnel and families for the next season of life, this model advocates the prevention of disease and disability, active engagement with life, the maximization of high cognitive and physical functioning, and positive spirituality. Preliminary, selected illustrations from a variation of this model at the U.S. Army War College are provided. Progressive extrapolation of the model to other military leadership schools is proposed as a more efficacious health promotion strategy for the Department of Defense. PMID:11469025

  3. Numerical investigation of dynamic microorgan devices as drug screening platforms. Part II: Microscale modeling approach and validation.

    PubMed

    Tourlomousis, Filippos; Chang, Robert C

    2016-03-01

    The authors have previously reported a rigorous macroscale modeling approach for an in vitro 3D dynamic microorgan device (DMD). This paper represents the second of a two-part model-based investigation where the effect of microscale (single liver cell-level) shear-mediated mechanotransduction on drug biotransformation is deconstructed. Herein, each cell is explicitly incorporated into the geometric model as single compartmentalized metabolic structures. Each cell's metabolic activity is coupled with the microscale hydrodynamic Wall Shear Stress (WSS) simulated around the cell boundary through a semi-empirical polynomial function as an additional reaction term in the mass transfer equations. Guided by the macroscale model-based hydrodynamics, only 9 cells in 3 representative DMD domains are explicitly modeled. Dynamic and reaction similarity rules based on non-dimensionalization are invoked to correlate the numerical and empirical models, accounting for the substrate time scales. The proposed modeling approach addresses the key challenge of computational cost towards modeling complex large-scale DMD-type system with prohibitively high cell densities. Transient simulations are implemented to extract the drug metabolite profile with the microscale modeling approach validated with an experimental drug flow study. The results from the author's study demonstrate the preferred implementation of the microscale modeling approach over that of its macroscale counterpart. PMID:26333066

  4. Airlift column photobioreactors for Porphyridium sp. culturing: Part II. verification of dynamic growth rate model for reactor performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hu-Ping; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H

    2012-04-01

    Dynamic growth rate model has been developed to quantify the impact of hydrodynamics on the growth of photosynthetic microorganisms and to predict the photobioreactor performance. Rigorous verification of such reactor models, however, is rare in the literature. In this part of work, verification of a dynamic growth rate model developed in Luo and Al-Dahhan (2004) [Biotech Bioeng 85(4): 382-393] was attempted using the experimental results reported in Part I of this work and results from literature. The irradiance distribution inside the studied reactor was also measured at different optical densities and successfully correlated by the Lambert-Beer Law. When reliable hydrodynamic data were used, the dynamic growth rate model successfully predicted the algae's growth rate obtained in the experiments in both low and high irradiance regime indicating the robustness of this model. The simulation results also indicate the hydrodynamics is significantly different between the real algae culturing system and an air-water system that signifies the importance in using reliable data input for the growth rate model. PMID:22068388

  5. Estimation of energetic efficiency of heat supply in front of the aircraft at supersonic accelerated flight. Part II. Mathematical model of the trajectory boost part and computational results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latypov, A. F.

    2009-03-01

    The fuel economy was estimated at boost trajectory of aerospace plane during energy supply to the free stream. Initial and final velocities of the flight were given. A model of planning flight above cold air in infinite isobaric thermal wake was used. The comparison of fuel consumption was done at optimal trajectories. The calculations were done using a combined power plant consisting of ramjet and liquid-propellant engine. An exergy model was constructed in the first part of the paper for estimating the ramjet thrust and specific impulse. To estimate the aerodynamic drag of aircraft a quadratic dependence on aerodynamic lift is used. The energy for flow heating is obtained at the sacrifice of an equivalent decrease of exergy of combustion products. The dependencies are obtained for increasing the range coefficient of cruise flight at different Mach numbers. In the second part of the paper, a mathematical model is presented for the boost part of the flight trajectory of the flying vehicle and computational results for reducing the fuel expenses at the boost trajectory at a given value of the energy supplied in front of the aircraft.

  6. Model-Predictive Cascade Mitigation in Electric Power Systems With Storage and Renewables-Part II: Case-Study

    SciTech Connect

    Almassalkhi, MR; Hiskens, IA

    2015-01-01

    The novel cascade-mitigation scheme developed in Part I of this paper is implemented within a receding-horizon model predictive control (MPC) scheme with a linear controller model. This present paper illustrates the MPC strategy with a case-study that is based on the IEEE RTS-96 network, though with energy storage and renewable generation added. It is shown that the MPC strategy alleviates temperature overloads on transmission lines by rescheduling generation, energy storage, and other network elements, while taking into account ramp-rate limits and network limitations. Resilient performance is achieved despite the use of a simplified linear controller model. The MPC scheme is compared against a base-case that seeks to emulate human operator behavior.

  7. Epilepsy Care in Developing Countries: Part II of II

    PubMed Central

    Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2010-01-01

    Although 80% of people with epilepsy reside in resource poor, developing countries, epilepsy care in these regions remains limited and the majority of epilepsy patients go untreated. Cost-effective, sustainable epilepsy care services, delivering first-line antiepileptic drugs through established primary health care facilities, are needed to decrease these treatment gaps. Neurologists with local experience and knowledge of the culture, who are willing to serve as educators, policy advisors, and advocates, can make a difference. This is Part II of a two-part article. Part I reviewed the burden of epilepsy and the current state of resources for treatment in developing countries, while Part II will now discuss various aspects of care in these countries. PMID:20944819

  8. A brief historical and theoretical perspective on patient autonomy and medical decision making: Part II: The autonomy model.

    PubMed

    Will, Jonathan F

    2011-06-01

    As part of a larger series addressing the intersection of law and medicine, this essay is the second of two introductory pieces. Beginning with the Hippocratic tradition and lasting for the next 2,400 years, the physician-patient relationship remained relatively unchanged under the beneficence model, a paternalistic framework characterized by the authoritative physician being afforded maximum discretion by the trusting, obedient patient. Over the last 100 years or so, in response to certain changes taking place in both research and clinical practice, the bioethics movement ushered in the autonomy model, and with it, a profoundly different way of approaching decision making in medicine. The shift from the beneficence model to the autonomy model is governed legally by the informed consent doctrine, which emphasizes disclosure to patients of information sufficient to permit them to make intelligent choices regarding treatment alternatives. As this legal doctrine became established, philosophers identified an inherent value in respecting patients as autonomous agents, even where patient choice seems to conflict with the physician's duty to act in the patient's best interests. Whereas the beneficence model presumed that the physician knew what was in the patient's best interests, the autonomy model starts from the premise that the patient knows what treatment decision is in line with his or her true sense of well-being, even where that decision is the refusal of treatment and the result is the patient's death. PMID:21652559

  9. Formative evaluation of a telemedicine model for delivering clinical neurophysiology services part II: The referring clinician and patient perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Feedback from service users will provide insight into opportunities for improvement so that performance can be optimised. In the context of a formative evaluation referring clinician and patient satisfaction with a teleneurophysiology service was examined during a 20 week pilot period. Methods Questionnaire surveys of referring clinicians and patients were conducted. Results Fifteen (58%) clinicians responded to the first part of a postal survey which examined their satisfaction with traditional clinical neurophysiology services. Nine (35%) responded to a second part which assessed their experience with the teleneurophysiology service. Teleneurophysiology improved satisfaction with waiting times, availability of results and impact on patient management. There was unanimous support from the clinicians for the permanent development of a teleneurophysiology service, although 2 cautioned this could delay establishing a neurology service in their region. Eighty-two percent (116/142) of patients responded to a survey of their satisfaction with teleneurophysiology. This was compared to a previous report of 322 patients' experience with traditional CN services in Ireland. Waiting times for appointment were shorter for the former group who supported the telemedicine model recognising that it reduced the travel burden and need for overnight journeys. The two groups were equally anxious about the investigation although the teleneurophysiology patients received more prior information. Conclusion This study illustrates that teleneurophysiology is an acceptable model of service delivery for its primary customers. Their feedback is important in informing appropriate design and governance of such innovative models of health service provision. PMID:20843310

  10. Numerical Modeling of Free Surface Dynamics of Melt in an Alternate Electromagnetic Field. Part II: Conventional Electromagnetic Levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitans, Sergejs; Baake, Egbert; Nacke, Bernard; Jakovics, Andris

    2016-02-01

    By means of external coupling between electromagnetic (EM) problem in ANSYS and hydrodynamic problem in FLUENT, a numerical model for the liquid metal free surface flow in an alternate EM field has been developed and verified in the first part of the article. Volume of Fluid ( VOF) algorithm has been used for tracking of free surface. In this work, improved performance of the model is presented. General validation of the VOF algorithm is performed by comparison of the calculated free oscillations of the liquid column to its analytical solution. The 3D/ VOF calculation of coupled EM field and free surface flow with Large Eddy Simulation turbulence description for the first time is applied for modeling of conventional EM levitation. Calculation results are compared with 2D/ VOF and 3D/ VOF models that use less precise k- ɛ and k- ω SST turbulence formulations. Obtained time-averaged droplet shapes are used for single-phase flow calculations with different turbulence models and free-slip/no-slip velocity conditions at the fixed free surface for validation of the flow. Meanwhile, series of levitation melting experiments are performed for verification of the simulated droplet shapes. In conclusion, parameter impact on the fully developed flow and the levitated droplet shape is discussed.

  11. The Greening of the McGill Paleoclimate Model. Part II: Simulation of Holocene Millennial-Scale Natural Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysak, L. A.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Brovkin, V.

    2003-12-01

    Multiple proxy data reveal that the middle Holocene (6 kyr BP) was warmer than the early Holocene (8 kyr BP) as well as the preindustrial period (1700 AD) in most regions of the Northern Hemisphere. This warmth is somewhat counterintuitive because the summer insolation was decreasing during this time. Cooling in the late Holocene (after 6 kyr BP) is hypothesized to be due mainly to the astronomical forcing. This cooling was also accompanied by significant changes in vegetation cover (i.e., treeline retreat from northern high latitudes; the desertification of the Sahara/Sahel region) and a small but gradual increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration (from 260 ppm to 280 ppm). The early-to-middle Holocene warming, on the other hand, is hypothesized to be due in part to ice-albedo feedback in Northern America, associated with decreases in the Laurentide ice sheet, which completely disappeared by 6 kyr BP. The snow-vegetation-albedo feedback is also hypothesized to have played a role in this early warming event. To test the above hypotheses, the earlier geophysical McGill Paleoclimate Model has been coupled to the vegetation model known as VECODE (VEgetation COntinuous DEscription, one of the simpler dynamic global vegetation models), and a number of sensitivity experiments have been performed. The model results illustrate the role that Northern Hemisphere land cover changes played in explaining the natural millennial-scale climate variability from the early Holocene (8 kyr BP) to the preindustrial period (1700 AD).

  12. A Multi-Model Assessment for the 2006 and 2010 Simulations under the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 2 over North America: Part II. Evaluation of Column Variable Predictions Using Satellite Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the context of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative phase 2 (AQMEII2) project, this part II paper performs a multi-model assessment of major column abundances of gases, radiation, aerosol, and cloud variables for 2006 and 2010 simulations with three on...

  13. Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Gregory M.; Zhu, Changfang; Breslin, Tara M.; Xu, Fushen; Gilchrist, Kennedy W.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2006-02-01

    The Monte Carlo-based inverse model of diffuse reflectance described in part I of this pair of companion papers was applied to the diffuse reflectance spectra of a set of 17 malignant and 24 normal-benign ex vivo human breast tissue samples. This model allows extraction of physically meaningful tissue parameters, which include the concentration of absorbers and the size and density of scatterers present in tissue. It was assumed that intrinsic absorption could be attributed to oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and beta-carotene, that scattering could be modeled by spheres of a uniform size distribution, and that the refractive indices of the spheres and the surrounding medium are known. The tissue diffuse reflectance spectra were evaluated over a wavelength range of 400-600 nm. The extracted parameters that showed the statistically most significant differences between malignant and nonmalignant breast tissues were hemoglobin saturation and the mean reduced scattering coefficient. Malignant tissues showed decreased hemoglobin saturation and an increased mean reduced scattering coefficient compared with nonmalignant tissues. A support vector machine classification algorithm was then used to classify a sample as malignant or nonmalignant based on these two extracted parameters and produced a cross-validated sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 92%, respectively.

  14. A model for emergency department end-of-life communications after acute devastating events--part II: moving from resuscitative to end-of-life or palliative treatment.

    PubMed

    Limehouse, Walter E; Feeser, V Ramana; Bookman, Kelly J; Derse, Arthur

    2012-11-01

    The model for emergency department (ED) end-of-life communications after acute devastating events addresses decision-making capacity, surrogates, and advance directives, including legal definitions and application of these steps. Part II concerns communications moving from resuscitative to palliative and end-of-life treatments. After completing the steps involved in determining decision-making, emergency physicians (EPs) should consider starting palliative measures versus continuing resuscitative treatment. As communications related to these end-of-life decisions increasingly fall within the scope of emergency medicine (EM) practice, we need to become educated about and comfortable with them. PMID:23167864

  15. EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL VERSION 4.5: UNCERTAINTIES AND SENSITIVITIES IMPACTING MODEL PERFORMANCE: PART II - PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of the CMAQ v4.5 model performance for particulate matter and its chemical components for the simulated year 2001. This is part two is two part series of papers that examines the model performance of CMAQ v4.5.

  16. Improving Representation of Convective Transport for Scale-Aware Parameterization, Part II: Analysis of Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi-Chin; Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Guang J.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Ghan, Steven J.

    2015-04-27

    Following Part I, in which 3-D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of a squall line and mesoscale convective complex in the mid-latitude continental and the tropical regions are conducted and evaluated, we examine the scale-dependence of eddy transport of water vapor, evaluate different eddy transport formulations, and improve the representation of convective transport across all scales by proposing a new formulation that more accurately represents the CRM-calculated eddy flux. CRM results show that there are strong grid-spacing dependencies of updraft and downdraft fractions regardless of altitudes, cloud life stage, and geographical location. As for the eddy transport of water vapor, updraft eddy flux is a major contributor to total eddy flux in the lower and middle troposphere. However, downdraft eddy transport can be as large as updraft eddy transport in the lower atmosphere especially at the mature stage of 38 mid-latitude continental convection. We show that the single updraft approach significantly underestimates updraft eddy transport of water vapor because it fails to account for the large internal variability of updrafts, while a single downdraft represents the downdraft eddy transport of water vapor well. We find that using as few as 3 updrafts can account for the internal variability of updrafts well. Based on evaluation with the CRM simulated data, we recommend a simplified eddy transport formulation that considers three updrafts and one downdraft. Such formulation is similar to the conventional one but much more accurately represents CRM-simulated eddy flux across all grid scales.

  17. A Three-Attribute Transfer Skills Framework--Part II: Applying and Assessing the Model in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Irit; Dori, Yehudit Judy

    2015-01-01

    In an era in which information is rapidly growing and changing, it is very important to teach with the goal of students' engagement in life-long learning in mind. This can partially be achieved by developing transferable thinking skills. In our previous paper--Part I, we conducted a review of the transfer literature and suggested a…

  18. Entangled Cross-Linked Fibres for an Application as Core Material for Sandwich Structures - Part II: Analytical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezeix, L.; Poquillon, D.; Bouvet, C.

    2016-02-01

    Entangled cross-linked carbon, aramid and glass fibres were recently produced by epoxy spraying for an application as core material for sandwich panel. The Young's moduli in compression and tension have been previously measured and briefly summarized in this paper. To optimize the core structure, modelling of these properties has been achieved in the present paper. The cross-link fibres have a random orientation and the stiffness of the epoxy joint is modelled by a torsion spring. A parallel model is chosen for homogenisation. It was found that the experimentally estimated stiffness of these materials fits fairly well with the modelled ones.

  19. Assimilation of spatially distributed water levels into a shallow-water flood model. Part II: Use of a remote sensing image of Mosel River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostache, Renaud; Lai, Xijun; Monnier, Jérôme; Puech, Christian

    2010-09-01

    SummaryWith rapid flood extent mapping capabilities, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of river inundation prove to be very relevant to operational flood management. In this context, a recently developed method provides distributed water levels from SAR images. Furthermore, in view of improving numerical flood prediction, a variational data assimilation method (4D-var) using such distributed water level has been developed in Part I of this study. This method combines an optimal sense remote sensing data (distributed water levels extracted from spatial images) and a 2D shallow water model. In the present article (Part II of the study), we also derive water levels with a ±40 cm average vertical uncertainty from a RADARSAT-1 image of a Mosel River flood event (1997, France). Assimilated in a 2D shallow water hydraulic model using the 4D-var developed method, these SAR derived spatially distributed water levels prove to be capable of enhancing model calibration. Indeed, the assimilation process can identify optimal Manning friction coefficients, at least in the river channel. Moreover, used as a guide for sensitivity analysis, remote sensing water levels allow also identifying some areas in the floodplain and the channel where Manning friction coefficients are homogeneous. This allows basing the spatial segmentation of roughness coefficient on floodplain hydraulic functioning.

  20. Education as Experimentation: A Planned Variation Model. Volume IV-D. Part I: A Longitudinal Study of Follow Through. Part II: A Study of Academic Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferb, Thomas E.; And Others

    This segment of the national evaluation study of the Follow Through Planned Variation Model presents an analysis of the longitudinal effects of Follow Through program models and a study of Follow Through children who were identified as being at academic risk. The longitudinal analysis examines three dimensions of program effects: (1) differences…

  1. Subfilter-Scale Fluxes over a Surface Roughness Transition. Part II: A priori Study of Large-Eddy Simulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carper, Matthew A.; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2008-04-01

    The ability of subfilter-scale (SFS) models to reproduce the statistical properties of SFS stresses and energy transfers over heterogeneous surface roughness is key to improving the accuracy of large-eddy simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer. In this study, several SFS models are evaluated a priori using experimental data acquired downwind of a rough-to-smooth transition in a wind tunnel. The SFS models studied include the eddy-viscosity, similarity, non-linear and a mixed model consisting of a combination of the eddy-viscosity and non-linear models. The dynamic eddy-viscosity model is also evaluated. The experimental data consist of vertical and horizontal planes of high-spatial-resolution velocity fields measured using particle image velocimetry. These velocity fields are spatially filtered and used to calculate SFS stresses and SFS transfer rates of resolved kinetic energy. Coefficients for each SFS model are calculated by matching the measured and modelled SFS energy transfer rates. For the eddy-viscosity model, the Smagorinsky coefficient is also evaluated using a dynamic procedure. The model coefficients are found to be scale dependent when the filter scales are larger than the vertical measurement height and fall into the production subrange of the turbulence where the flow scales are anisotropic. Near the surface, the Smagorinsky coefficient is also found to decrease with distance downwind from the transition, in response to the increase in mean shear as the flow adjusts to the smooth surface. In a priori tests, the ability of each model to reproduce statistical properties of the SFS stress is assessed. While the eddy-viscosity model has low spatial correlation with the measured stress, it predicts mean stresses with the same accuracy as the other models. However, the deficiency of the eddy-viscosity model is apparent in the underestimation of the standard deviation of the SFS stresses and the inability to predict transfers of kinetic energy from

  2. “Transference Ratios” to Predict Total Oxidized Sulfur and Nitrogen Deposition – Part II, Modeling Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current study examines predictions of transference ratios and related modeled parameters for oxidized sulfur and oxidized nitrogen using five years (2002-2006) of 12-km grid cell-specific annual estimates from EPA’s Community Air Quality Model (CMAQ) for five selected sub-re...

  3. Before the Roof Caves in: A Predictive Model for Physical Plant Renewal--Part II. APPA Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, Robert E.; Biedenweg, Frederick M.

    1982-01-01

    Examples of the use of a mathematical model to evaluate the future renewal and replacement, or maintenance requirements, of the college physical plant are provided. The model, which was developed at Stanford University, simulates actual conditions at a specific location and allows resource allocation to be based on a definable quantitative base.…

  4. Application of the human needs conceptual model of dental hygiene to the role of the clinician : part II.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M M; Darby, M

    1993-01-01

    In summary, the theories of Maslow and of Yura and Walsh have been highlighted as background for understanding the human needs conceptual model of dental hygiene. In addition, 11 human needs have been identified and defined as being especially related to dental hygiene care, and a sample evaluation tool for their clinical assessment and a dental hygiene care plan have been presented. The four concepts of client, environment, health/oral health, and dental hygiene actions explained in terms of human need theory, and the 11 human needs related to dental hygiene care constitute the human needs conceptual model of dental hygiene. Within the framework of the human needs conceptual model of dental hygiene, the dental hygiene process is a systematic approach to dental hygiene care that involves assessment of the 11 human needs related to dental hygiene care; analysis of deficits in these needs; determination of the dental hygiene care plan based on identified deficits; implementation of dental hygiene interventions stated in the care plan; and evaluation of the effectiveness of dental hygiene interventions in achieving specific goals, including subsequent reassessment and revision of the dental hygiene care plan. This human needs conceptual model for dental hygiene provides a guide for comprehensive and humanistic client care. This model allows the dental hygienist to view each client (whether an individual or a group) holistically to prevent oral disease and to promote health and wellness. Dental hygiene theorists are encouraged to expand this model or to develop additional conceptual models based on dental hygiene's paradigm. PMID:17233167

  5. Zonal rate model for stacked membrane chromatography part II: characterizing ion-exchange membrane chromatography under protein retention conditions.

    PubMed

    Francis, Patrick; von Lieres, Eric; Haynes, Charles

    2012-03-01

    The Zonal Rate Model (ZRM) has previously been shown to accurately account for contributions to elution band broadening, including external flow nonidealities and radial concentration gradients, in ion-exchange membrane (IEXM) chromatography systems operated under nonbinding conditions. Here, we extend the ZRM to analyze and model the behavior of retained proteins by introducing terms for intra-column mass transfer resistances and intrinsic binding kinetics. Breakthrough curve (BTC) data from a scaled-down anion-exchange membrane chromatography module using ovalbumin as a model protein were collected at flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 20 mL min(-1). Through its careful accounting of transport nonidealities within and external to the membrane stack, the ZRM is shown to provide a useful framework for characterizing putative protein binding mechanisms and models, for predicting BTCs and complex elution behavior, including the common observation that the dynamic binding capacity can increase with linear velocity in IEXM systems, and for simulating and scaling separations using IEXM chromatography. Global fitting of model parameters is used to evaluate the performance of the Langmuir, bi-Langmuir, steric mass action (SMA), and spreading-type protein binding models in either correlating or fundamentally describing BTC data. When combined with the ZRM, the bi-Langmuir, and SMA models match the chromatography data, but require physically unrealistic regressed model parameters to do so. In contrast, for this system a spreading-type model is shown to accurately predict column performance while also providing a realistic fundamental explanation for observed trends, including an observed increase in dynamic binding capacity with flow rate. PMID:22012741

  6. A General Pressure Gradient Formulation for Ocean Models, Part 1: Scheme Design and Diagnostic Analysis, Part II: Energy, Momentum, and Bottom Torque Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y. T.

    1998-01-01

    A Jacobian formulation of the pressure gradient force for use in models with topography following coordinates is proposed. It can be used in conjunction with any vertical coordinate system and is easily implemented.

  7. Numerical forecasting of radiation fog. Part II: A comparison of model simulation with several observed fog events

    SciTech Connect

    Guedalia, D.; Bergot, T. )

    1994-06-01

    A 1D model adapted for forecasting the formation and development of fog, and forced with mesoscale parameters derived from a 3D limited-area model, was used to simulate three fog event observations made during the Lille 88 campaign. The model simulation correctly reproduced the time of fog formation and its vertical development when forcing terms derived from observations were used. It determined the influence of different physical processes and in particular that of dew deposition. The initial conditions deduced from the 3D model proved to be correct in two of the three events. On the other hand, the prediction of advection terms necessary for forecasting the vertical growth of fog was a more delicate matter. 15 refs., 21 figs.

  8. Global modeling of land water and energy balances. Part II: Land-characteristic contributions to spatial variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Shmakin, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Land water and energy balances vary around the globe because of variations in amount and temporal distribution of water and energy supplies and because of variations in land characteristics. The former control (water and energy supplies) explains much more variance in water and energy balances than the latter (land characteristics). A largely untested hypothesis underlying most global models of land water and energy balance is the assumption that parameter values based on estimated geographic distributions of soil and vegetation characteristics improve the performance of the models relative to the use of globally constant land parameters. This hypothesis is tested here through an evaluation of the improvement in performance of one land model associated with the introduction of geographic information on land characteristics. The capability of the model to reproduce annual runoff ratios of large river basins, with and without information on the global distribution of albedo, rooting depth, and stomatal resistance, is assessed. To allow a fair comparison, the model is calibrated in both cases by adjusting globally constant scale factors for snow-free albedo, non-water-stressed bulk stomatal resistance, and critical root density (which is used to determine effective root-zone depth). The test is made in stand-alone mode, that is, using prescribed radiative and atmospheric forcing. Model performance is evaluated by comparing modeled runoff ratios with observed runoff ratios for a set of basins where precipitation biases have been shown to be minimal. The withholding of information on global variations in these parameters leads to a significant degradation of the capability of the model to simulate the annual runoff ratio. An additional set of optimization experiments, in which the parameters are examined individually, reveals that the stomatal resistance is, by far, the parameter among these three whose spatial variations add the most predictive power to the model in

  9. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part 504—Fuel Price Computation (a) Introduction. This appendix provides the equations and...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part 504—Fuel Price Computation (a) Introduction. This appendix provides the equations and...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part 504—Fuel Price Computation (a) Introduction. This appendix provides the equations and...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... example fuel price and inflation indices based on the latest data appearing in the Energy...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... example fuel price and inflation indices based on the latest data appearing in the Energy...

  14. Part II. Empowering grassroots evidence-based practice: a curricular model to foster undergraduate student-enabled practice change.

    PubMed

    Moch, Susan D; Cronje, Ruth J

    2010-01-01

    This article presents evidence collected over the past 15 years that attests to the success of curricular innovations conducted to foster socially meaningful contact between nursing students and practicing nurses as a means to promote evidence-based practice (EBP). Action research data collected as these pedagogical strategies have evolved suggest that such student-staff partnerships offer promise not only to encourage commitment to EBP among nursing students but also to surmount most of the barriers that prevent the widespread diffusion of EBP among practicing nurses in clinical settings. Based upon our successful experiences with student-staff interactions, we propose a curricular model-the Student-Enabled Practice Change model-that suffuses the undergraduate nursing school curriculum with opportunities for nursing students to form meaningful partnerships with practicing nurses. The Student-Enabled Practice Change Curricular Model relocates the power to drive practice change to the grassroots level of students and practicing nurses. PMID:20129588

  15. The inverse problem of refraction travel times, part II: Quantifying refraction nonuniqueness using a three-layer model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Steeples, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the second of a set of two papers in which we study the inverse refraction problem. The first paper, "Types of Geophysical Nonuniqueness through Minimization," studies and classifies the types of nonuniqueness that exist when solving inverse problems depending on the participation of a priori information required to obtain reliable solutions of inverse geophysical problems. In view of the classification developed, in this paper we study the type of nonuniqueness associated with the inverse refraction problem. An approach for obtaining a realistic solution to the inverse refraction problem is offered in a third paper that is in preparation. The nonuniqueness of the inverse refraction problem is examined by using a simple three-layer model. Like many other inverse geophysical problems, the inverse refraction problem does not have a unique solution. Conventionally, nonuniqueness is considered to be a result of insufficient data and/or error in the data, for any fixed number of model parameters. This study illustrates that even for overdetermined and error free data, nonlinear inverse refraction problems exhibit exact-data nonuniqueness, which further complicates the problem of nonuniqueness. By evaluating the nonuniqueness of the inverse refraction problem, this paper targets the improvement of refraction inversion algorithms, and as a result, the achievement of more realistic solutions. The nonuniqueness of the inverse refraction problem is examined initially by using a simple three-layer model. The observations and conclusions of the three-layer model nonuniqueness study are used to evaluate the nonuniqueness of more complicated n-layer models and multi-parameter cell models such as in refraction tomography. For any fixed number of model parameters, the inverse refraction problem exhibits continuous ranges of exact-data nonuniqueness. Such an unfavorable type of nonuniqueness can be uniquely solved only by providing abundant a priori information

  16. Update on a Pharmacokinetic-Centric Alternative Tier II Program for MMT—Part II: Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Manganese Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael D.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Andersen, Melvin E.; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Yoon, Miyoung; Keene, Athena M.; Dorman, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a variety of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been developed for the essential element manganese. This paper reviews the development of PBPK models (e.g., adult, pregnant, lactating, and neonatal rats, nonhuman primates, and adult, pregnant, lactating, and neonatal humans) and relevant risk assessment applications. Each PBPK model incorporates critical features including dose-dependent saturable tissue capacities and asymmetrical diffusional flux of manganese into brain and other tissues. Varied influx and efflux diffusion rate and binding constants for different brain regions account for the differential increases in regional brain manganese concentrations observed experimentally. We also present novel PBPK simulations to predict manganese tissue concentrations in fetal, neonatal, pregnant, or aged individuals, as well as individuals with liver disease or chronic manganese inhalation. The results of these simulations could help guide risk assessors in the application of uncertainty factors as they establish exposure guidelines for the general public or workers. PMID:22645610

  17. Process-based modeling of temperature and water profiles in the seedling recruitment zone: Part II. Seedling emergence timing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predictions of seedling emergence timing for spring wheat are facilitated by process-based modeling of the microsite environment in the shallow seedling recruitment zone. Hourly temperature and water profiles within the recruitment zone for 60 days after planting were simulated from the process-base...

  18. Method of Curved Models and Its Application to the Study of Curvilinear Flight of Airships. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourjienko, G A

    1937-01-01

    This report compares the results obtained by the aid of curved models with the results of tests made by the method of damped oscillations, and with flight tests. Consequently we shall be able to judge which method of testing in the tunnel produces results that are in closer agreement with flight test results.

  19. Error Modeling of Multi-baseline Optical Truss. Part II; Application to SIM Metrology Truss Field Dependent Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Liwei Dennis; Milman, Mark; Korechoff, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The current design of the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) employs a 19 laser-metrology-beam system (also called L19 external metrology truss) to monitor changes of distances between the fiducials of the flight system's multiple baselines. The function of the external metrology truss is to aid in the determination of the time-variations of the interferometer baseline. The largest contributor to truss error occurs in SIM wide-angle observations when the articulation of the siderostat mirrors (in order to gather starlight from different sky coordinates) brings to light systematic errors due to offsets at levels of instrument components (which include comer cube retro-reflectors, etc.). This error is labeled external metrology wide-angle field-dependent error. Physics-based model of field-dependent error at single metrology gauge level is developed and linearly propagated to errors in interferometer delay. In this manner delay error sensitivity to various error parameters or their combination can be studied using eigenvalue/eigenvector analysis. Also validation of physics-based field-dependent model on SIM testbed lends support to the present approach. As a first example, dihedral error model is developed for the comer cubes (CC) attached to the siderostat mirrors. Then the delay errors due to this effect can be characterized using the eigenvectors of composite CC dihedral error. The essence of the linear error model is contained in an error-mapping matrix. A corresponding Zernike component matrix approach is developed in parallel, first for convenience of describing the RMS of errors across the field-of-regard (FOR), and second for convenience of combining with additional models. Average and worst case residual errors are computed when various orders of field-dependent terms are removed from the delay error. Results of the residual errors are important in arriving at external metrology system component requirements. Double CCs with ideally co-incident vertices

  20. Explicit Finite Element Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabric for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems, Phase II. Part 3; Material Model Development and Simulation of Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, J.; Erlich, D.; Shockey, D.

    2009-01-01

    A team consisting of Arizona State University, Honeywell Engines, Systems & Services, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center, and SRI International collaborated to develop computational models and verification testing for designing and evaluating turbine engine fan blade fabric containment structures. This research was conducted under the Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance Center of Excellence and was sponsored by the Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program. The research was directed toward improving the modeling of a turbine engine fabric containment structure for an engine blade-out containment demonstration test required for certification of aircraft engines. The research conducted in Phase II began a new level of capability to design and develop fan blade containment systems for turbine engines. Significant progress was made in three areas: (1) further development of the ballistic fabric model to increase confidence and robustness in the material models for the Kevlar(TradeName) and Zylon(TradeName) material models developed in Phase I, (2) the capability was improved for finite element modeling of multiple layers of fabric using multiple layers of shell elements, and (3) large-scale simulations were performed. This report concentrates on the material model development and simulations of the impact tests.

  1. An instrument for theory and research development using the behavioral systems model for nursing: the cancer patient. Part II.

    PubMed

    Derdiarian, A K; Forsythe, A B

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the Derdiarian Behavioral System Model (DBSM) instrument was to measure and describe, within the Johnson Behavioral System Model (JBSM) perspective, the perceived behavioral changes of the cancer patient. Based on Johnson's (1968, 1980) premise that illness as a noxious stimulus effects imbalance in the behavioral system of the human being, it was extrapolated that changes that occur in a patient's behavioral patterns would be perceived by the patient. Thus, changes would reflect the description of the imbalance in the patient's behavioral system, which needs to be identified and described in a systematic way. The description of change was envisioned in terms of (1) the perceived existence of change; (2) the direction of change--increase or decrease; (3) the quality of change--positive or negative; (4) the importance of change--its significance; and (5) the physical, psychological, or emotional effect(s) of the illness perceived as causally associated with the change. PMID:6554614

  2. Model-based approaches for ivabradine development in paediatric population, part II: PK and PK/PD assessment.

    PubMed

    Peigné, Sophie; Fouliard, Sylvain; Decourcelle, Sophie; Chenel, Marylore

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this work were first to describe the pharmacokinetic (PK) of ivabradine and its active metabolite in a paediatric patient population after repeated oral administration of ivabradine using a population PK approach, and secondly to assess whether the blood/plasma ratio and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship are preserved in the paediatric population in comparison to adult. PK data for 70 patients were obtained after blood sampling using dried blood spot and one plasma sample in order to assess the relationship between blood and plasma concentration. In order to describe ivabradine and its metabolite blood concentrations in children, a joint population PK model was developed taking into account weight & age effects on PK parameters. Plasma PK exposure parameters were calculated in children using plasma PK profiles. In order to assess the PK/PD relationship in children, an adult PK/PD model was used. The relationship between blood and plasma concentrations was described using linear mixed effect models. Two and one-compartment models best described parent and metabolite dispositions. Weight effects were fixed to the allometric values of ¾ on clearance (CL) and 1 on volume. A maturation function was added on metabolite formation clearance (CL PM ) reflecting enzyme maturation. Plasma exposure comparison indicated that higher dose/kg were necessary to achieve a similar exposure between younger and older children. No differences between age classes were observed in terms of range of exposure at the maintenance dose. The PK/PD relationship in adult patients is conserved in children. PMID:26578442

  3. Arsenic Re-Mobilization in Water Treatment Adsorbents Under Reducing Conditions: Part II, XAS and Modeling Study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu,S.; Jing, C.; Meng, X.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of arsenic re-mobilization in spent adsorbents under reducing conditions was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and surface complexation model calculations. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy demonstrated that As(V) was partially reduced to As(III) in spent granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), titanium dioxide (TiO2), activated alumina (AA) and modified activated alumina (MAA) adsorbents after 2 years of anaerobic incubation. As(V) was completely reduced to As(III) in spent granular ferric oxide (GFO) under 2-year incubation. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy analysis showed that As(III) formed bidentate binuclear surface complexes on GFO as evidenced by an average As(III)-O bond distance of 1.78 Angstroms and As(III)-Fe distance of 3.34 Angstroms . The release of As from the spent GFO and TiO2 was simulated using the charge distribution multi-site complexation (CD-MUSIC) model. The observed redox ranges for As release and sulfate mobility were described by model calculations.

  4. Modeling Improvements for Air Source Heat Pumps using Different Expansion Devices at Varied Charge Levels Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes steady-state performance simulations performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. In total, 150 steady-state points were simulated, which covers refrigerant charge levels from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value, the outdoor temperatures at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C), indoor air flow rates from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate, and two types of expansion devices (fixed orifice and thermostatic expansion valve). A charge tuning method, which is to calibrate the charge inventory model based on measurements at two operation conditions, was applied and shown to improve the system simulation accuracy significantly in an extensive range of charge levels. In addition, we discuss the effects of suction line accumulator in modeling a heat pump system using either a fixed orifice or thermal expansion valve. Last, we identify the issue of refrigerant mass flow mal-distribution at low charge levels and propose an improved modeling approach.

  5. Ernst Mach and George Sarton's Successors: The Implicit Role Model of Teaching Science in USA and Elsewhere, Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2013-05-01

    George Sarton had a strong influence on modern history of science. The method he pursued throughout his life was the method he had discovered in Ernst Mach's Mechanics when he was a student in Ghent. Sarton was in fact throughout his life implementing a research program inspired by the epistemology of Mach. Sarton in turn inspired many others in several generations (James Conant, Thomas Kuhn, Gerald Holton, etc.). What were the origins of these ideas in Mach and what can this origin tell us about the history of science and science education nowadays? Which ideas proved to be successful and which ones need to be improved upon? The following article will elaborate the epistemological questions, which Charles Darwin's "Origin" raised concerning human knowledge and scientific knowledge and which led Mach to adapt the concept of what is "empirical" in contrast to metaphysical a priori assumptions a second time after Galileo. On this basis Sarton proposed "genesis and development" as the major goal of his journal Isis. Mach had elaborated this epistemology in La Connaissance et l'Erreur ( Knowledge and Error), which Sarton read in 1911 (Hiebert in Knowledge and error. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976; de Mey in George Sarton centennial. Communication & Cognition, Ghent, pp. 3-6, 1984). Accordingly for Sarton, history becomes not only a subject of science, but a method of science education. Culture—and science as part of culture—is a result of a genetic process. History of science shapes and is shaped by science and science education in a reciprocal process. Its epistemology needs to be adapted to scientific facts and the philosophy of science. Sarton was well aware of the need to develop the history of science and the philosophy of science along the lines of this reciprocal process. It was a very fruitful basis, but a specific part of it Sarton did not elaborate further, namely the erkenntnis-theory and psychology of science education. This proved to be a crucial missing

  6. A non-oscillatory balanced scheme for an idealized tropical climate model. Part II: Nonlinear coupling and moisture effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouider, Boualem; Majda, Andrew J.

    2005-10-01

    We use the non-oscillatory balanced numerical scheme developed in Part I to track the dynamics of a dry highly nonlinear barotropic/baroclinic coupled solitary wave, as introduced by Biello and Majda (2004), and of the moisture fronts of Frierson et al. (2004) in the presence of dry gravity waves, a barotropic trade wind, and the beta effect. It is demonstrated that, for the barotropic/baroclinic solitary wave, except for a little numerical dissipation, the scheme utilized here preserves total energy despite the strong interactions and exchange of energy between the baroclinic and barotropic components of the flow. After a short transient period where the numerical solution stays close to the asymptotic predictions, the flow develops small scale eddies and ultimately becomes highly turbulent. It is found here that the interaction of a dry gravity wave with a moisture front can either result in a reflection of a fast moistening front or the pure extinction of the precipitation. The barotropic trade wind stretches the precipitation patches and increases the lifetime of the moisture fronts which decay naturally by the effects of dissipation through precipitation while the Coriolis effect makes the moving precipitation patches disappear and appear at other times and places.

  7. TransCom N2O model inter-comparison, Part II: Atmospheric inversion estimates of N2O emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. L.; Ishijima, K.; Saikawa, E.; Corazza, M.; Karstens, U.; Patra, P. K.; Bergamaschi, P.; Chevallier, F.; Dlugokencky, E.; Prinn, R. G.; Weiss, R. F.; O'Doherty, S.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Krummel, P. B.; Vermeulen, A.; Tohjima, Y.; Jordan, A.; Haszpra, L.; Steinbacher, M.; Van der Laan, S.; Aalto, T.; Meinhardt, F.; Popa, M. E.; Moncrieff, J.; Bousquet, P.

    2014-02-01

    This study examines N2O emission estimates from 5 different atmospheric inversion frameworks. The 5 frameworks differ in the choice of atmospheric transport model, meteorological data, prior uncertainties and inversion method but use the same prior emissions and observation dataset. The mean emissions for 2006 to 2008 are compared in terms of the spatial distribution and seasonality. Overall, there is a good agreement among the inversions for the mean global total emission, which ranges from 16.1 to 18.7 Tg N yr-1 and is consistent with previous estimates. Ocean emissions represent between 31% and 38% of the global total compared to widely varying previous estimates of 24% to 38%. Emissions from the northern mid to high latitudes are likely to be more important, with a consistent shift in emissions from the tropics and subtropics to the mid to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere; the emission ratio for 0-30° N to 30-90° N ranges from 1.5 to 1.9 compared with 2.9 to 3.0 in previous estimates. The largest discrepancies across inversions are seen for the regions of South and East Asia and for tropical and South America owing to the poor observational constraint for these areas and to considerable differences in the modelled transport, especially inter-hemispheric exchange rates and tropical convection. Estimates of the seasonal cycle in N2O emissions are also sensitive to errors in modelled stratosphere-to-troposphere transport in the tropics and southern extra-tropics. Overall, the results show a convergence in the global and regional emissions compared to previous independent studies.

  8. Intelligent control for modeling of real-time reservoir operation, part II: artificial neural network with operating rule curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John

    2005-04-01

    To bridge the gap between academic research and actual operation, we propose an intelligent control system for reservoir operation. The methodology includes two major processes, the knowledge acquired and implemented, and the inference system. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a fuzzy rule base (FRB) are used to extract knowledge based on the historical inflow data with a design objective function and on the operating rule curves respectively. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is then used to implement the knowledge, to create the fuzzy inference system, and then to estimate the optimal reservoir operation. To investigate its applicability and practicability, the Shihmen reservoir, Taiwan, is used as a case study. For the purpose of comparison, a simulation of the currently used M-5 operating rule curve is also performed. The results demonstrate that (1) the GA is an efficient way to search the optimal input-output patterns, (2) the FRB can extract the knowledge from the operating rule curves, and (3) the ANFIS models built on different types of knowledge can produce much better performance than the traditional M-5 curves in real-time reservoir operation. Moreover, we show that the model can be more intelligent for reservoir operation if more information (or knowledge) is involved.

  9. Ground-motion modeling of Hayward fault scenario earthquakes, part II: Simulation of long-period and broadband ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Graves, Robert W.; Rodgers, Arthur; Brocher, Thomas M.; Simpson, Robert W.; Dreger, Douglas; Petersson, N. Anders; Larsen, Shawn C.; Ma, Shuo; Jachens, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    We simulate long-period (T>1.0–2.0 s) and broadband (T>0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenario earthquakes (Mw 6.7–7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault, we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions, compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with about 50% of the urban area experiencing modified Mercalli intensity VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland earthquake and the 2007 Mw 5.45 Alum Rock earthquake show that the U.S. Geological Survey’s Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area for Hayward fault earthquakes, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions for the suite of scenarios exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute much of this difference to the seismic velocity structure in the San Francisco Bay area and how the NGA models account for basin amplification; the NGA relations may underpredict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins. The simulations also suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period.

  10. New Tsunami Forecast Tools for the French Polynesia Tsunami Warning System Part II: Numerical Modelling and Tsunami Height Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamelot, Anthony; Reymond, Dominique

    2015-03-01

    Tsunami warning is classically based on two fundamental tools: the first one concerns the source parameters estimations, and the second one is the tsunami amplitude forecast. We presented in the first companion paper how the seismic source parameters are evaluated, and this second article describes the operational aspect and accuracy of the estimation of tsunami height using tsunami numerical modelling on a dedicated supercomputer (2.5 T-flops). The French Polynesian tsunami warning centre developed two new tsunami forecast tools for a tsunami warning context, based on our tsunami propagation numerical model named Taitoko. The first tool, named MERIT, that is very rapid, provides a preliminary forecast distribution of the tsunami amplitude for 30 sites located in French Polynesia in less than 5 min. In this case, the coastal tsunami height distribution is calculated from the numerical simulation of the tsunami amplitude in deep ocean using an empirical transfer function inspired by the Green Law. This method, which does not take into account resonance effects of bays and harbour, is suitable for rapid and first estimation of the tsunami danger. The second method, named COASTER, which uses 21 nested grids of increasing resolutions, gives more information about the coastal tsunami effects about the flow velocities, the arrival time of the maximal amplitude, and the maximal run-up height for five representative sites in 45 min. The historical tsunamis recorded over the last 22 years in French Polynesia have been simulated with these new tools to evaluate the accuracy of these methods. The results of the 23 historical tsunami simulations have been compared to the tide-gauge records of three sites in French Polynesia. The results, which are quite encouraging, shows standard errors of generally less than a 2 factor : the maximal standard error is 0.38 m for the Tahauku Bay of Hiva-Oa (Marquesas islands).

  11. A simple model of ultrasound propagation in a cavitating liquid. Part II: Primary Bjerknes force and bubble structures.

    PubMed

    Louisnard, O

    2012-01-01

    In a companion paper, a reduced model for propagation of acoustic waves in a cloud of inertial cavitation bubbles was proposed. The wave attenuation was calculated directly from the energy dissipated by a single bubble, the latter being estimated directly from the fully nonlinear radial dynamics. The use of this model in a mono-dimensional configuration has shown that the attenuation near the vibrating emitter was much higher than predictions obtained from linear theory, and that this strong attenuation creates a large traveling wave contribution, even for closed domain where standing waves are normally expected. In this paper, we show that, owing to the appearance of traveling waves, the primary Bjerknes force near the emitter becomes very large and tends to expel the bubbles up to a stagnation point. Two-dimensional axi-symmetric computations of the acoustic field created by a large area immersed sonotrode are also performed, and the paths of the bubbles in the resulting Bjerknes force field are sketched. Cone bubble structures are recovered and compare reasonably well to reported experimental results. The underlying mechanisms yielding such structures is examined, and it is found that the conical structure is generic and results from the appearance a sound velocity gradient along the transducer area. Finally, a more complex system, similar to an ultrasonic bath, in which the sound field results from the flexural vibrations of a thin plate, is also simulated. The calculated bubble paths reveal the appearance of other commonly observed structures in such configurations, such as streamers and flare structures. PMID:21764349

  12. Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease. Part II.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nishant; Vassallo, Robert; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A; McCormack, Francis X

    2015-07-01

    The diffuse cystic lung diseases have a broad differential diagnosis. A wide variety of pathophysiological processes spanning the spectrum from airway obstruction to lung remodeling can lead to multifocal cyst development in the lung. Although lymphangioleiomyomatosis and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are perhaps more frequently seen in the clinic, disorders such as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, follicular bronchiolitis, and light-chain deposition disease are increasingly being recognized. Obtaining an accurate diagnosis can be challenging, and management approaches are highly disease dependent. Unique imaging features, genetic tests, serum studies, and clinical features provide invaluable clues that help clinicians distinguish among the various etiologies, but biopsy is often required for definitive diagnosis. In part II of this review, we present an overview of the diffuse cystic lung diseases caused by lymphoproliferative disorders, genetic mutations, or aberrant lung development and provide an approach to aid in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25906201

  13. Thermocline circulation and ventilation of the Japan/East Sea, part II: A source water-mass mixing (SWAM) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yuzhu

    2010-09-01

    The recently obtained high resolution conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD), Argo and bottle data combined with historical geochemical data are used in a source water-mass mixing (SWAM) model for the Japan/East Sea (JES) thermocline. The water-mass properties for resolving model source water types include two physical conservative tracers: potential temperature θ (°C) and salinity S (psu), a dynamical tracer: fN2 (10 6 s -3) (where f is the Coriolis frequency and N2 is the squared buoyancy frequency), dissolved oxygen, O2 (μmol kg -1), and nutrient silicate, H4SiO4 (μmol kg -1) and two conservative chemical tracers: initial phosphate, PO40 (μmol kg -1) and NO (μmol kg -1). The mixing scheme comprises three source water masses: North Pacific Subtropical Water (NPSW) which is the only invasion water mass from the open North Pacific and two locally formed water masses, Tatar Strait Water (TSW) and Peter the Great Bay Water (PGBW). The SWAM model is performed on three neutral density surfaces σN=25.8, 26.4 and 27.0 encompassing the thermocline from about 50 to 180 dbar. The model-derived mixing fraction provides a quantitative description of the source water masses. Results show that NPSW contributes to only about one third of the mixing ratio while PGBW mixing proportion is more than 50%. This implies that most of NPSW is actually transformed and renewed in the JES by winter convection and probable brine rejection when NPSW is considered as a sole input source and PGBW and TSW are the transformed end-members of NPSW. Also it means that what we see the JES recirculation is actually the dominant PGBW water recirculation rather than the NPSW. The high mixing fraction of PGBW explains why JES water content is highly ventilated and has a very high oxygen and renewal rate. It is found that the JES transport is contributed by NPSW for 0.72±0.13 and 1.11±0.16 Sv by PGBW and 0.27±0.05 Sv by TSW, respectively. A total annual mean transport with an error bar is thus 2

  14. Model experiment to study sonic boom propagation through turbulence. Part II. Effect of turbulence intensity and propagation distance through turbulence.

    PubMed

    Lipkens, B; Blackstock, D T

    1998-09-01

    A model experiment was reported to be successful in simulating the propagation of sonic booms through a turbulent atmosphere [B. Lipkens and D. T. Blackstock, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 148-158 (1998)]. In this study the effect on N wave characteristics of turbulence intensity and propagation distance through turbulence are investigated. The main parameters of interest are the rise time and the peak pressure. The effect of turbulence intensity and propagation distance is to flatten the rise time and peak pressure distributions. Rise time and peak pressure distributions always have positive skewness after propagation through turbulence. Average rise time grows with turbulence intensity and propagation distance. The scattering of rise time data is one-sided, i.e., rise times are almost always increased by turbulence. Average peak pressure decreases slowly with turbulence intensity and propagation distance. For the reported data a threefold increase in average rise time is observed and a maximum decrease of about 20% in average peak pressure. Rise times more than ten times that of the no turbulence value are observed. At most, the maximum peak pressure doubles after propagation through turbulence, and the minimum peak pressure values are about one-half the no-turbulence values. Rounded waveforms are always more common than peaked waveforms. PMID:9745733

  15. Phase Equilibria in Ferrous Calcium Silicate Slags: Part II. Evaluation of Experimental Data and Computer Thermodynamic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolic, Stanko; Henao, Hector; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2008-04-01

    Ferrous calcium silicate slags (described by the FeO-Fe2O3-CaO-SiO2 system) are the basis for a number of slag systems used in nonferrous smelting. Characterization of this slag system is necessary to improve the design and optimization parameters of new processes, including fluxing and operating temperatures. Particularly of interest are the phase relations at intermediate oxygen partial pressures relevant to processes such as copper converting. Experimental data on the phase equilibria of these slags at controlled oxygen partial pressures in the temperature range between 1200 °C and 1350 °C are discussed, differences between various data sources are analyzed, and discrepancies are resolved. An evaluation of two thermodynamic computer models is undertaken to verify the computer-aided predictions using the experimental data. New experimental data for this system are reported for the temperature condition of 1300 °C, defined using the equilibration/rapid-quenching/electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) with wavelength dispersive detectors technique. This new information, combined with results from the previous study, has enabled the equilibrium liquidus compositions to be defined over a wide range of temperatures and oxygen partial pressures.

  16. A marching in space and time (MAST) solver of the shallow water equations. Part II: The 2D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aricò, C.; Nasello, C.; Tucciarelli, T.

    2007-05-01

    A novel methodology for the solution of the 2D shallow water equations is proposed. The algorithm is based on a fractional step decomposition of the original system in (1) a convective prediction, (2) a convective correction, and (3) a diffusive correction step. The convective components are solved using a Marching in Space and Time (MAST) procedure, that solves a sequence of small ODEs systems, one for each computational cell, ordered according to the cell value of a scalar approximated potential. The scalar potential is sought after computing first the minimum of a functional via the solution of a large linear system and then refining locally the optimum search. Model results are compared with the experimental data of two laboratory tests and with the results of other simulations carried out for the same tests by different authors. A comparison with the analytical solution of the oblique jump test has been also considered. Numerical results of the proposed scheme are in good agreement with measured data, as well as with analytical and higher order approximation methods results. The growth of the CPU time versus the cell number is investigated successively refining the elements of an initially coarse mesh. The CPU specific time, per element and per time step, is found out to be almost constant and no evidence of Courant-Friedrichs-Levi (CFL) number limitation has been detected in all the numerical experiments.

  17. Modeling the effects of UV variability and the QBO on the troposphere-stratosphere system. Part II: The troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Rind, D.; Balachandran, N.K.

    1995-08-01

    Results of experiments with a GCM involving changes in UV input ({plus_minus} 25%, {plus_minus}5% at wavelengths below 0.3 {mu}) and simulated equatorial QBO are presented, with emphasis on the tropospheric response. The QBO and UV changes alter the temperature in the lower stratosphere/upper troposphere warms, tropospheric eddy energy is reduced, leading to extratropical tropospheric cooling of some 0.5{degrees}C on the zonal average, and surface temperature changes up to {plus_minus}5{degrees}C locally. Opposite effects occur when the extratropical lower stratosphere/upper troposphere cools. Cooling or warming of the comparable region in the Tropics decreases/increases static stability, accelerating/decelerating the Hadley circulation. Tropospheric dynamical changes are on the order of 5%. The combined UV/QBO effect in the troposphere results from its impact on the middle atmosphere; in the QBO east phase, more energy is refracted to higher latitudes, due to the increased horizontal shear of the zonal wind, but with increased UV, this energy propagates preferentially out of the polar lower stratosphere, in response to the increased vertical shear of the zonal winds; therefore, it is less effective in warming the polar lower stratosphere. Due to their impacts on planetary wave generation and propagation, all combinations of UV and QBO phases affect the longitudinal patterns of tropospheric temperatures and geopotential heights. The modeled perturbations often agree qualitatively with observations and are of generally similar orders of magnitude. The results are sensitive to the forcing employed. In particular, the nature of the tropospheric response depends upon the magnitude (and presumably wavelength) of the solar irradiance perturbation. The results of the smaller UV variations ({plus_minus}5%) are more in agreement with observations, showing clear differences between the UV impact in the east and west QBO phase. 34 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems. Part II. Experimental assessment of spatial resolution performance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) methods have been introduced to clinical CT systems and are being used in some clinical diagnostic applications. The purpose of this paper is to experimentally assess the unique spatial resolution characteristics of this nonlinear reconstruction method and identify its potential impact on the detectabilities and the associated radiation dose levels for specific imaging tasks. Methods: The thoracic section of a pediatric phantom was repeatedly scanned 50 or 100 times using a 64-slice clinical CT scanner at four different dose levels [CTDIvol =4, 8, 12, 16 (mGy)]. Both filtered backprojection (FBP) and MBIR (Veo®, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were used for image reconstruction and results were compared with one another. Eight test objects in the phantom with contrast levels ranging from 13 to 1710 HU were used to assess spatial resolution. The axial spatial resolution was quantified with the point spread function (PSF), while the z resolution was quantified with the slice sensitivity profile. Both were measured locally on the test objects and in the image domain. The dependence of spatial resolution on contrast and dose levels was studied. The study also features a systematic investigation of the potential trade-off between spatial resolution and locally defined noise and their joint impact on the overall image quality, which was quantified by the image domain-based channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) detectability index d′. Results: (1) The axial spatial resolution of MBIR depends on both radiation dose level and image contrast level, whereas it is supposedly independent of these two factors in FBP. The axial spatial resolution of MBIR always improved with an increasing radiation dose level and/or contrast level. (2) The axial spatial resolution of MBIR became equivalent to that of FBP at some transitional contrast level, above which MBIR demonstrated superior spatial resolution than FBP (and vice

  19. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems. Part II. Experimental assessment of spatial resolution performance

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong; Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) methods have been introduced to clinical CT systems and are being used in some clinical diagnostic applications. The purpose of this paper is to experimentally assess the unique spatial resolution characteristics of this nonlinear reconstruction method and identify its potential impact on the detectabilities and the associated radiation dose levels for specific imaging tasks. Methods: The thoracic section of a pediatric phantom was repeatedly scanned 50 or 100 times using a 64-slice clinical CT scanner at four different dose levels [CTDI{sub vol} =4, 8, 12, 16 (mGy)]. Both filtered backprojection (FBP) and MBIR (Veo{sup ®}, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were used for image reconstruction and results were compared with one another. Eight test objects in the phantom with contrast levels ranging from 13 to 1710 HU were used to assess spatial resolution. The axial spatial resolution was quantified with the point spread function (PSF), while the z resolution was quantified with the slice sensitivity profile. Both were measured locally on the test objects and in the image domain. The dependence of spatial resolution on contrast and dose levels was studied. The study also features a systematic investigation of the potential trade-off between spatial resolution and locally defined noise and their joint impact on the overall image quality, which was quantified by the image domain-based channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) detectability index d′. Results: (1) The axial spatial resolution of MBIR depends on both radiation dose level and image contrast level, whereas it is supposedly independent of these two factors in FBP. The axial spatial resolution of MBIR always improved with an increasing radiation dose level and/or contrast level. (2) The axial spatial resolution of MBIR became equivalent to that of FBP at some transitional contrast level, above which MBIR demonstrated superior spatial resolution than

  20. A Microstructure Evolution Model for the Processing of Single-Crystal Alloy CMSX-4 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Bansal, Rohan; Gambone, Justin J.; Das, Suman

    2014-12-01

    Part I [Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2014, DOI:10.1007/s11663-014-0117-9] presented a comprehensive thermal, fluid flow, and solidification model that can predict the temperature distribution and flow characteristics for the processing of CMSX-4 alloy powder through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE). SLE is an additive manufacturing technology aimed at the creation of equiaxed, directionally solidified and single-crystal (SX) deposits of nickel-based superalloys using a fast-scanning laser beam. Part II here further explores the Marangoni convection-based model to predict the solidification microstructure as a function of the conditions at the trailing edge of the melt pool formed during the SLE process. Empirical values for several microstructural characteristics such as the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) criterion and the oriented-to-misoriented transition (OMT) criterion are obtained. Optical microscopy provides visual information on the various microstructural characteristics of the deposited material such as melt depth, CET location, OMT location, PDAS, etc. A quantitative and consistent investigation of this complex set of characteristics is both challenging and unprecedented. A customized image-analysis technique based on active contouring is developed to automatically extract these data from experimental micrographs. Quantitative metallography verifies that even for the raster scan pattern in SLE and the corresponding line heat source assumption, the PDAS follows the growth relation w ~ G -0.5 V -0.25 ( w = PDAS, G = temperature gradient and V = solidification velocity) developed for marginal stability under constrained growth. Models for the CET and OMT are experimentally validated, thereby providing powerful predictive capabilities for controlling the microstructure of SX alloys processed through SLE.

  1. A Microstructure Evolution Model for the Processing of Single-Crystal Alloy CMSX-4 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Bansal, Rohan; Gambone, Justin J.; Das, Suman

    2014-09-01

    Part I [Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s11663-014-0117-9] presented a comprehensive thermal, fluid flow, and solidification model that can predict the temperature distribution and flow characteristics for the processing of CMSX-4 alloy powder through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE). SLE is an additive manufacturing technology aimed at the creation of equiaxed, directionally solidified and single-crystal (SX) deposits of nickel-based superalloys using a fast-scanning laser beam. Part II here further explores the Marangoni convection-based model to predict the solidification microstructure as a function of the conditions at the trailing edge of the melt pool formed during the SLE process. Empirical values for several microstructural characteristics such as the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) criterion and the oriented-to-misoriented transition (OMT) criterion are obtained. Optical microscopy provides visual information on the various microstructural characteristics of the deposited material such as melt depth, CET location, OMT location, PDAS, etc. A quantitative and consistent investigation of this complex set of characteristics is both challenging and unprecedented. A customized image-analysis technique based on active contouring is developed to automatically extract these data from experimental micrographs. Quantitative metallography verifies that even for the raster scan pattern in SLE and the corresponding line heat source assumption, the PDAS follows the growth relation w ~G -0.5 V -0.25 (w = PDAS, G = temperature gradient and V = solidification velocity) developed for marginal stability under constrained growth. Models for the CET and OMT are experimentally validated, thereby providing powerful predictive capabilities for controlling the microstructure of SX alloys processed through SLE.

  2. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 261 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false II Appendix II to Part 261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Appendix II to Part 261...

  3. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Metric Units Used in Part 153 II Appendix II to Part 153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Pt. 153, App. II Appendix II...

  4. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Metric Units Used in Part 153 II Appendix II to Part 153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Pt. 153, App. II Appendix II...

  5. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Metric Units Used in Part 153 II Appendix II to Part 153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Pt. 153, App. II Appendix II...

  6. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Metric Units Used in Part 153 II Appendix II to Part 153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Pt. 153, App. II Appendix II...

  7. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 153 - Metric Units Used in Part 153

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Metric Units Used in Part 153 II Appendix II to Part 153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Pt. 153, App. II Appendix II...

  8. Probabilistic finite-state machines--part II.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Enrique; Thollard, Frank; de la Higuera, Colin; Casacuberta, Francisco; Carrasco, Rafael C

    2005-07-01

    Probabilistic finite-state machines are used today in a variety of areas in pattern recognition or in fields to which pattern recognition is linked. In Part I of this paper, we surveyed these objects and studied their properties. In this Part II, we study the relations between probabilistic finite-state automata and other well-known devices that generate strings like hidden Markov models and n-grams and provide theorems, algorithms, and properties that represent a current state of the art of these objects. PMID:16013751

  9. Cloud Properties Simulated by a Single-Column Model. Part II: Evaluation of Cumulus Detrainment and Ice-phase Microphysics Using a Cloud Resolving Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Yali; Krueger, Steven K.; Xu, Kuan-Man

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series in which kilometer-scale-resolving observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and a cloud-resolving model (CRM) are used to evaluate the single-column model (SCM) version of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System model. Part I demonstrated that kilometer-scale cirrus properties simulated by the SCM significantly differ from the cloud radar observations while the CRM simulation reproduced most of the cirrus properties as revealed by the observations. The present study describes an evaluation, through a comparison with the CRM, of the SCM's representation of detrainment from deep cumulus and ice-phase microphysics in an effort to better understand the findings of Part I. It is found that detrainment occurs too infrequently at a single level at a time in the SCM, although the detrainment rate averaged over the entire simulation period is somewhat comparable to that of the CRM simulation. Relatively too much detrained ice is sublimated when first detrained. Snow falls over too deep of a layer due to the assumption that snow source and sink terms exactly balance within one time step in the SCM. These characteristics in the SCM parameterizations may explain many of the differences in the cirrus properties between the SCM and the observations (or between the SCM and the CRM). A possible improvement for the SCM consists of the inclusion of multiple cumulus cloud types as in the original Arakawa-Schubert scheme, prognostically determining the stratiform cloud fraction and snow mixing ratio. This would allow better representation of the detrainment from deep convection, better coupling of the volume of detrained air with cloud fraction, and better representation of snow field.

  10. A musculoskeletal model of the equine forelimb for determining surface stresses and strains in the humerus-part II. Experimental testing and model validation.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Sarah; Stover, Susan M; Hull, M L; Galuppo, Larry D

    2008-08-01

    The first objective of this study was to experimentally determine surface bone strain magnitudes and directions at the donor site for bone grafts, the site predisposed to stress fracture, the medial and cranial aspects of the transverse cross section corresponding to the stress fracture site, and the middle of the diaphysis of the humerus of a simplified in vitro laboratory preparation. The second objective was to determine whether computing strains solely in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the humerus in the mathematical model was inherently limited by comparing the strains measured along the longitudinal axis of the bone to the principal strain magnitudes and directions. The final objective was to determine whether the mathematical model formulated in Part I [Pollock et al., 2008, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 130, p. 041006] is valid for determining the bone surface strains at the various locations on the humerus where experimentally measured longitudinal strains are comparable to principal strains. Triple rosette strain gauges were applied at four locations circumferentially on each of two cross sections of interest using a simplified in vitro laboratory preparation. The muscles included the biceps brachii muscle in addition to loaded shoulder muscles that were predicted active by the mathematical model. Strains from the middle grid of each rosette, aligned along the longitudinal axis of the humerus, were compared with calculated principal strain magnitudes and directions. The results indicated that calculating strains solely in the direction of the longitudinal axis is appropriate at six of eight locations. At the cranial and medial aspects of the middle of the diaphysis, the average minimum principal strain was not comparable to the average experimental longitudinal strain. Further analysis at the remaining six locations indicated that the mathematical model formulated in Part I predicts strains within +/-2 standard deviations of experimental strains at

  11. A theoretical study of the mechanism of oxygen binding by model anthraquinones. Part II. Quantum-mechanical studies of the energetics of oxygen binding to model anthraquinones.

    PubMed

    Jeziorek, D; Dyl, D; Liwo, A; Woźnicki, W; Tempczyk, A; Borowski, E

    1993-06-01

    Anthracycline derivatives, which constitute an important class of antitumor drugs, exhibit undesirable cardiotoxicity owing to their mediation in the process of oxygen reduction to the superoxide anion radical. Earlier work showed that this mediation could be facilitated by the formation of complexes with the 1 delta g oxygen molecule prior to reduction. In this paper, we investigate the energetics of the possible peroxides formed by a series of model anthraquinones: 1,4-dihydroxyl- (quinizarin), 1,8-dihydroxyl-, 1-hydroxy-8-methoxy-, 1,8-dimethoxy-, 1,4,5-trimethoxy- and 1,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-9,10-anthracenedione, as well as of daunorubicin and demethoxydaunorubicin, by semi-empirical quantum-mechanical MNDO and PM3 methods, and limited STO-3G ab initio calculations. It was found that the oxygen-binding site is determined by three factors: the high electron density and high HOMO coefficients on the carbon atoms to which oxygen binds, the minimum loss of conjugation within the anthraquinone moiety on oxygen binding and the minimum number of bonds to other heavy atoms of the oxygen-binding carbons (the steric effect). For different molecules, the energy of the most stable oxygen complex is the greatest for compounds with the lowest ionization potential. On the basis of this and our earlier studies, it was concluded that the anthracycline derivatives with reduced ability to bind oxygen and, therefore, reduced cardiotoxicity, should possess a high symmetry of II-electron density distribution, a high ionization potential and have all of the oxygen-binding sites condensed to other rings or substituted by bulky groups. PMID:8517915

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  15. 40 CFR Appendixes II-Iii to Part 264 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false II Appendixes II-III to Part 264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Appendixes II-III...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  17. Critical appraisal: dental amalgam update--part II: biological effects.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Michael J; Swift, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Dental amalgam restorations have been controversial for over 150 years. In Part I of this Critical Appraisal, the clinical efficacy of dental amalgam was updated. Here in Part II, the biological effects of dental amalgam are addressed. PMID:24320063

  18. Rigorous model-based uncertainty quantification with application to terminal ballistics—Part II. Systems with uncontrollable inputs and large scatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M.; Lashgari, A.; Li, B.; McKerns, M.; Mihaly, J.; Ortiz, M.; Owhadi, H.; Rosakis, A. J.; Stalzer, M.; Sullivan, T. J.

    2012-05-01

    This Part II of this series is concerned with establishing the feasibility of an extended data-on-demand (XDoD) uncertainty quantification (UQ) protocol based on concentration-of-measure inequalities and martingale theory. Specific aims are to establish the feasibility of the protocol and its basic properties, including the tightness of the predictions afforded by the protocol. The assessment is based on an application to terminal ballistics and a specific system configuration consisting of 6061-T6 aluminum plates struck by spherical 440c stainless steel projectiles at ballistic impact speeds in the range of 2.4-2.8 km/s. The system's inputs are the plate thickness, plate obliquity and impact velocity. The perforation area is chosen as the sole performance measure of the system. The objective of the UQ analysis is to certify the lethality of the projectile, i.e., that the projectile perforates the plate with high probability over a prespecified range of impact velocities, plate thicknesses and plate obliquities. All tests were conducted at Caltech's Small Particle Hypervelocity Range (SPHIR), which houses a two-stage gas gun. A feature of this facility is that the impact velocity, while amenable to precise measurement, cannot be controlled precisely but varies randomly according to a known probability density function. In addition, due to a competition between petalling and plugging mechanisms for the material system under consideration, the measured perforation area exhibits considerable scatter. The analysis establishes the feasibility of the XDoD UQ protocol as a rigorous yet practical approach for model-based certification of complex systems characterized by uncontrollable inputs and noisy experimental data.

  19. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18 II Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified...

  20. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  1. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  2. Talking about the Weather, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Allan A.

    1984-01-01

    This second part of a two-part article highlights some mathematics involved in the study of meteorology. Examples are given of the application of mathematics to the study of the atmosphere, with three problems discussed. (MNS)

  3. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  4. Final Report for Dynamic Models for Causal Analysis of Panel Data. Internal Politics of Growth and Decline. Part II, Chapter 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Michael T.; Freeman, John

    The document, part of a series of chapters described in SO 011 759, describes a model that incorporates organizational politics and environmental dependence into a study of the effects of growth and decline on the number of school personnel. The first section describes the original model which assumes that as the number of students in a district…

  5. Coal-fired power materials - Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P.

    2008-09-15

    Part 1 discussed some general consideration in selection of alloys for advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plant boilers. This second part covers results reported by the US project consortium, which has extensively evaluated the steamside oxidation, fireside corrosion, and fabricability of the alloys selected for USC plants. 3 figs.

  6. Simplification of physics-based electrochemical model for lithium ion battery on electric vehicle. Part II: Pseudo-two-dimensional model simplification and state of charge estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuebing; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu

    2015-03-01

    Now the lithium ion batteries are widely used in electric vehicles (EV). The battery modeling and state estimation are of great importance. The rigorous physics-based electrochemical model is too complicated for on-line simulation in vehicle. In this work, the simplification of the physics-based model for application on real vehicle is proposed. An improved single particle (SP) model is introduced with high precision and the same level of computations as the original single particle model. A simplified pseudo-two-dimensional (SP2D) model is developed. The distribution of the pore wall flux is analyzed and an approximate method is developed to find the solution. The developed models are compared with rigorous electrochemical model and original SP models. The results demonstrate that the models introduced in this work could simulate the battery efficiently without too much loss of accuracy. A state of charge (SOC) estimation algorithm using the Luenberger observer with the SP2D model is proposed and shows high precision. This SOC estimation method could be used in the BMS in real vehicle.

  7. Biochemical Engineering. Part II: Process Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, B.

    1972-01-01

    Describes types of industrial techniques involving biochemical products, specifying the advantages and disadvantages of batch and continuous processes, and contrasting biochemical and chemical engineering. See SE 506 318 for Part I. (AL)

  8. Fire prevention on airplanes. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatier, J

    1929-01-01

    This part of the report presents a detailed examination of spark prevention, fire extinguishers, and fuel tank location and design. A continued program of investigations and research is also proposed.

  9. International Perspectives in Leadership Development: Part II.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    In the second part of this two-part series, leadership development perspectives are shared from the opening of the Penn Wharton China Center in Beijing. The symposium brought national leaders from Chinese academic settings and professional organizations together with thought leaders from the United States to discuss nursing leadership across the care continuum. Highlights of demographic shifts, clinical demands, and policy decisions are presented, with an eye toward future trends in professional development. PMID:26352039

  10. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries. PMID:10645833

  11. Improved computational model (AQUIFAS) for activated sludge, integrated fixed-film activated sludge, and moving-bed biofilm reactor systems, part II: multilayer biofilm diffusional model.

    PubMed

    Sen, Dipankar; Randall, Clifford W

    2008-07-01

    Research was undertaken to develop a diffusional model of the biofilm that can be applied in lieu of a semi-empirical model to upgrade an activated sludge system to an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) or moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system. The model has been developed to operate with up to 12 cells (reactors) in series, with biofilm media incorporated to one or more of the zone cells, except the anaerobic zone cells. The values of the kinetic parameters for the model were measured using pilot-scale activated sludge, IFAS, and MBBR systems. The biofilm is divided into 12 layers and has a stagnant liquid layer. Diffusion and substrate utilization are calculated for each layer. The equations are solved simultaneously using a finite difference technique. The biofilm flux model is then linked to the activated sludge model. Advanced features include the ability to compute the biofilm thickness and the effect of biofilm thickness on performance. The biofilm diffusional model is also used to provide information and create a table of biofilm yields at different substrate concentrations that can be used in the semi-empirical model. PMID:18710146

  12. Understanding leachate flow in municipal solid waste landfills by combining time-lapse ERT and subsurface flow modelling - Part II: Constraint methodology of hydrodynamic models.

    PubMed

    Audebert, M; Oxarango, L; Duquennoi, C; Touze-Foltz, N; Forquet, N; Clément, R

    2016-09-01

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in the operation of municipal solid waste landfills as bioreactors. To ensure optimal water content distribution, bioreactor operators need tools to design leachate injection systems. Prediction of leachate flow by subsurface flow modelling could provide useful information for the design of such systems. However, hydrodynamic models require additional data to constrain them and to assess hydrodynamic parameters. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a suitable method to study leachate infiltration at the landfill scale. It can provide spatially distributed information which is useful for constraining hydrodynamic models. However, this geophysical method does not allow ERT users to directly measure water content in waste. The MICS (multiple inversions and clustering strategy) methodology was proposed to delineate the infiltration area precisely during time-lapse ERT survey in order to avoid the use of empirical petrophysical relationships, which are not adapted to a heterogeneous medium such as waste. The infiltration shapes and hydrodynamic information extracted with MICS were used to constrain hydrodynamic models in assessing parameters. The constraint methodology developed in this paper was tested on two hydrodynamic models: an equilibrium model where, flow within the waste medium is estimated using a single continuum approach and a non-equilibrium model where flow is estimated using a dual continuum approach. The latter represents leachate flows into fractures. Finally, this methodology provides insight to identify the advantages and limitations of hydrodynamic models. Furthermore, we suggest an explanation for the large volume detected by MICS when a small volume of leachate is injected. PMID:27095292

  13. Getting in Taped, Part I and Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundy, H. M.; Higgins, J.

    1971-01-01

    This article is in two parts: discussion of mathematical concepts involved in converting the reading from the tape-recorder counter which counts the turns of the run-off spool to that from the counter which counts turns of the take-up spool; calculating the length of tape run off when given the reading from the tape-recorder counter of the run-off…

  14. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... affecting Table II to part 150, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... potential compatibility problems, this commodity is not assigned to a specific group in Figure 1 to 46 CFR part 150 (Compatibility Chart). 2 See Appendix I to 46 CFR part 150 (Exceptions to the Chart)....

  15. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... affecting Table II to part 150, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... potential compatibility problems, this commodity is not assigned to a specific group in Figure 1 to 46 CFR part 150 (Compatibility Chart). 2 See Appendix I to 46 CFR part 150 (Exceptions to the Chart)....

  16. The effect of coupled mass transport and internal reforming on modeling of solid oxide fuel cells part II: Benchmarking transient response and dynamic model fidelity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Kevin J.; Braun, Robert J.

    2016-02-01

    One- and 'quasi' two-dimensional (2-D) dynamic, interface charge transport models of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) developed previously in a companion paper, are benchmarked against other models and simulated to evaluate the effects of coupled transport and chemistry. Because the reforming reaction can distort the concentration profiles of the species within the anode, a 'quasi' 2-D model that captures porous media mass transport and electrochemistry is required. The impact of a change in concentration at the triple-phase boundary is twofold wherein the local Nernst potential and anode exchange current densities are influenced, thereby altering the current density and temperature distributions of the cell. Thus, the dynamic response of the cell models are compared, and benchmarked against previous channel-level models to gauge the relative importance of capturing in-situ reforming phenomena on cell performance. Simulation results indicate differences in the transient electrochemical response for a step in current density where the 'quasi' 2-D model predicts a slower rise and fall in cell potential due to the additional volume of the porous media and mass transport dynamics. Delays in fuel flow rate are shown to increase the difference observed in the electrochemical response of the cells.

  17. Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alami, Wali A.; Hodge, Carlton T., Ed.

    The first section of this companion volume to "Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part I" (AL 002 041) presents the Arabic script version of the pre-drills in Lessons IA-IIB in that volume. The second and major section comprises 20 lessons consisting of pre-drills, texts, notes, and questions. All material in this volume appears in Arabic script…

  18. A Fundamental Breakdown. Part II: Manipulative Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, J. Scott; Mohr, Derek J.

    2005-01-01

    In the May, 2005, issue of "TEPE," the "Research to Practice" section initiated a two-part series focused on assessing fundamental locomotor and manipulative skills. The series was generated in response to research by Pappa, Evanggelinou, & Karabourniotis (2005), recommending that curricular programming in physical education at the elementary…

  19. Searching LEXIS and WESTLAW: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Carl

    1986-01-01

    This second of a three-part series compares search features (i.e., truncation symbols, boolean operators, proximity operators, phrase searching, save searches) of two databases providing legal information. Search tips concerning charges and effective searching and tables listing functions of commands and proximity operators for both databases are…

  20. The Metis Nation--Part Two II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorian, John

    1978-01-01

    This article deals with historical events involving the Metis people from the time Manitoba entered the Confederation to the conclusion of the 1885 battle at Fish Creek near Batoche, Saskatchewan. Part I is in the Summer, 1978 issue of the Northian. (Author/RTS)

  1. Inquiry and Living History, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Sharon; Smalley, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of this article, the authors introduced the living history program. This yearly, weeklong program features living portrayals of famous people, which becomes a catalyst for teaching curricular standards, as well as providing the spark for inquiry. Successful implementation of this program requires providing teachers with…

  2. Modelling ecological and human exposure to POPs in Venice lagoon - Part II: Quantitative uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in coupled exposure models.

    PubMed

    Radomyski, Artur; Giubilato, Elisa; Ciffroy, Philippe; Critto, Andrea; Brochot, Céline; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The study is focused on applying uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to support the application and evaluation of large exposure models where a significant number of parameters and complex exposure scenarios might be involved. The recently developed MERLIN-Expo exposure modelling tool was applied to probabilistically assess the ecological and human exposure to PCB 126 and 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the Venice lagoon (Italy). The 'Phytoplankton', 'Aquatic Invertebrate', 'Fish', 'Human intake' and PBPK models available in MERLIN-Expo library were integrated to create a specific food web to dynamically simulate bioaccumulation in various aquatic species and in the human body over individual lifetimes from 1932 until 1998. MERLIN-Expo is a high tier exposure modelling tool allowing propagation of uncertainty on the model predictions through Monte Carlo simulation. Uncertainty in model output can be further apportioned between parameters by applying built-in sensitivity analysis tools. In this study, uncertainty has been extensively addressed in the distribution functions to describe the data input and the effect on model results by applying sensitivity analysis techniques (screening Morris method, regression analysis, and variance-based method EFAST). In the exposure scenario developed for the Lagoon of Venice, the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB 126 in human blood turned out to be mainly influenced by a combination of parameters (half-lives of the chemicals, body weight variability, lipid fraction, food assimilation efficiency), physiological processes (uptake/elimination rates), environmental exposure concentrations (sediment, water, food) and eating behaviours (amount of food eaten). In conclusion, this case study demonstrated feasibility of MERLIN-Expo to be successfully employed in integrated, high tier exposure assessment. PMID:27432731

  3. USE OF FOUR-DIMENSIONAL DATA ASSIMILATION IN A LIMITED-AREA MESOSCALE MODEL - PART II: EFFECTS OF DATA ASSIMILATION WITHIN THE PLANETARY BOUNDARY LAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) scheme based on Newtonian relaxation or nudging has been developed and evaluated in the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR) Limited-Area Mesoscale Model. t was shown in Part I of this study ...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 265 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false II Appendix II to Part 265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES...

  6. A model for lignin alteration - Part II: Numerical model of natural gas generation and application to the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, D.F.; Ortoleva, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    The model presented here simulates a network of parallel and sequential reactions that describe the structural and chemical transformation of lignin-derived sedimentary organic matter (SOM) and the resulting generation of mobile species from shallow burial to approximately low-volatile bituminous rank. The model is calibrated to the Upper Cretaceous Williams Fork Formation coal of the Piceance Basin at the Multi-Well Experiment (MWX) Site, assuming this coal is largely derived from lignin. The model calculates the content of functional groups on the residual molecular species, C, H, and O elemental weight percents of the residual species, and moles of residual molecular species and mobile species (including components of natural gas) through time. The model is generally more sensitive to initial molecular structure of the lignin-derived molecule and the H2O content of the system than to initial temperature, as the former affect the fundamental reaction paths. The model is used to estimate that a total of 314 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of methane is generated by the Williams Fork coal over the basin history. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparison of the COG and MCNP codes in computational neutron capture therapy modeling, Part II: gadolinium neutron capture therapy models and therapeutic effects.

    PubMed

    Wangerin, K; Culbertson, C N; Jevremovic, T

    2005-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the COG Monte Carlo radiation transport code, developed and tested by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, for gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) related modeling. The validity of COG NCT model has been established for this model, and here the calculation was extended to analyze the effect of various gadolinium concentrations on dose distribution and cell-kill effect of the GdNCT modality and to determine the optimum therapeutic conditions for treating brain cancers. The computational results were compared with the widely used MCNP code. The differences between the COG and MCNP predictions were generally small and suggest that the COG code can be applied to similar research problems in NCT. Results for this study also showed that a concentration of 100 ppm gadolinium in the tumor was most beneficial when using an epithermal neutron beam. PMID:16010124

  8. Unified error model based spatial error compensation for four types of CNC machining center: Part II-unified model based spatial error compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kaiguo; Yang, Jianguo; Yang, Liyan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a spatial error compensation method was proposed for CNC machining center based on the unified error model. The spatial error distribution was analyzed in this research. The result shows that the spatial error is relative to each axis of a CNC machine tool. Moreover, the spatial error distribution is non-linear and there is no regularity. In order to improve the modeling accuracy and efficiency, an automatic error modeling application was designed based on the orthogonal polynomials. To realize the spatial error compensation, a multi-thread parallel processing mode based error compensation controller was designed. Using the spatial error compensation method, the machine tools' accuracy is greatly improved compared to that with no compensation.

  9. Spent fuel radionuclide source term model for assessing spent fuel performance in geological disposal. Part II: Matrix alteration model and global performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinssot, Christophe; Ferry, Cécile; Lovera, Patrick; Jegou, Christophe; Gras, Jean-Marie

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the research conducted on the long term evolution of spent nuclear fuel under geological disposal conditions, a source term model has been developed to evaluate the instantaneous release of radionuclides (RN) (instant release fraction, IRF) and the delayed release of the RN which are embedded within the matrix. This model takes into account most of the scientific results currently available except the effect of hydrogen and the current knowledge of the uncertainties. IRF was assessed by considering the evolution with time of the RN inventories located within the fuel microstructure to which no confinement properties can be allocated over the long term (gap, rim, grain boundaries). This allows for bounding values for the IRF as a function of time of canister breach and burnup. The matrix radiolytic dissolution was modeled by a simple kinetic model neglecting the recombination of radiolytic species and the influence of aqueous ligands. The oxidation of the UO 2 matrix was assumed not to be kinetically controlled. Spent fuel performance was therefore demonstrated to mainly depend on the reactive surface area.

  10. Models, Part IV: Inquiry Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discusses models for information skills that include inquiry-oriented activities. Highlights include WebQuest, which uses Internet resources supplemented with videoconferencing; Minnesota's Inquiry Process based on the Big Six model for information problem-solving; Indiana's Student Inquiry Model; constructivist learning models for inquiry; and…

  11. Dielectric permittivity of quantum plasma. Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, Yu. V.; Kuzelev, M. V.

    2014-05-01

    The transverse and longitudinal dielectric permittivities of isotropic quantum plasma are calculated in the quantum plasma models based on the Dirac and Pauli equations. The dispersion relations for transverse-longitudinal waves in quantum particle beams are derived. Relativistic longitudinal and transverse waves in cold isotropic quantum plasma in models based on the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, as well as spin waves in the model based on the Pauli equation, are considered. Conditions for wave-particle resonance interactions in relativistic quantum plasma are analyzed.

  12. On the Waveguide Modelling of Dynamic Stiffness of Cylindrical Vibration Isolators. Part II: the Dispersion Relation Solution, Convergence Analysis and Comparison with Simple Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KARI, L.

    2001-07-01

    Based on a waveguide model presented in a companion paper (L. Kari 2001 Journal of Sound and Vibration244, 211-233 [1]), the influences of higher order modes and structure-borne sound dispersion on the axial dynamic stiffness for cylindrical vibration isolators are investigated. On the whole, a moderate mode number results in an accurate stiffness prediction while an accurate stress point value prediction requires more modes. The dispersion relation is solved by a modified Newton-Raphson method with initial values given by an asymptotic expansion or a winding integral method. The integral technique is based on the argument principle; but, as the square root operators in the dispersion relation yield branch points, some modifications are needed. To create single-valued functions conforming to the argument principle, the winding integral search domain is split into branch cut absent subdomains, containing adaptively defined square root operators. The subregion method used for the fulfilment of the boundary conditions at the lateral surfaces is shown to converge faster than for the point-matching method. However, the latter reveals a similar convergence rate as the former at overdetermination. Comparisons with simple stiffness models are made. These models, known as the long rod, the Love, the Bishop, the Kynch, the Mindlin and Herrmann and the Mindlin and McNiven theories are shown to diverge substantially from the presented “exact” theory. To a great extent, the pertinent stress and displacement fields, derived from the presented waveguide model, explain the discrepancies reported for the approximate theories.

  13. Modeling the effect of cell-associated polymeric fluid layers on force spectroscopy measurements. Part II: experimental results and comparison with model predictions.

    PubMed

    Coldren, Faith M; Foteinopoulou, Katerina; Verbeeten, Wilco M H; Carroll, David L; Laso, Manuel

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, experimentally obtained force curves on Staphylococcus aureus are compared with a previously developed model that incorporates hydrodynamic effects of extracellular polysaccharides together with the elastic response of the bacterium and cantilever. Force-displacement curves were predicted without any adjustable parameters. It is demonstrated that experimental results can be accurately described by our model, especially if viscoelastic effects of the extracellular polysaccharide layer are taken into account. Polysaccharide layer viscoelasticity was treated by means of a multimode Phan-Thien/Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation. Typical maximum relaxation times range from 0.2 to 2 s, whereas the corresponding zero-shear-rate viscosities are 6-9 Pa.s, based on published, steady-state rheological measurements on Staphylococcus aureus polysaccharide extracted from its native environment. The bacterial elastic constant is found to be in the range 0.02-0.4 N/m, corresponding to bacterial wall Young's moduli in the range of a few hundred MPa. Repeatability of measurements performed on different bacteria is found to be only fair, due to large individuum variability, whereas repetitions of measurements on the same bacterium showed high reproducibility. Improved force-indentation curve predictions are expected if transient rheological characterization of extracellular polysaccharides is available. More desirable however is the direct, in vivo rheological characterization of the extracellular polysaccharide. A model-based analysis of experimental force-indentation curves shows that appreciable further experimental improvements are still necessary to achieve this goal. PMID:18666789

  14. Theoretical study of the electronically excited radical cations of naphthalene and anthracene as archetypal models for astrophysical observations. Part II. Dynamics consequences.

    PubMed

    Ghanta, S; Reddy, V Sivaranjana; Mahapatra, S

    2011-08-28

    Nuclear dynamics is investigated theoretically from first principles by employing the ab initio vibronic models of the prototypical naphthalene and anthracene radical cations developed in Part I. This Part is primarily aimed at corroborating a large amount of available experimental data with a specific final goal to establish an unambiguous link with the current observations in astrophysics and astronomy. The detailed analyses presented here perhaps establish that these two prototypical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon radical cations are indeed potential carriers of the observed diffuse interstellar bands. PMID:21750791

  15. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24474103

  16. Short history of PACS (Part II: Europe).

    PubMed

    Lemke, Heinz U

    2011-05-01

    Although the concept of picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) was developed in Europe during the latter part of the 1970s, no working system was completed at that time. The first PACS implementations took place in the United States in the early 1980s, e.g. at Pennsylvania University, UCLA, and Kansas City University. Some more or less successful PACS developments also took place in Europe in the 1980s, particularly in the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Scandinavia, and Germany. Most systems could be characterized by their focus on a single department, such as radiology or nuclear medicine. European hospital-wide PACS with high visibility evolved in the early 1990s in London (Hammersmith Hospital) and Vienna (SMZO). These were followed during the latter part of the 1990s by approximately 10-20 PACS installations in each of the major industrialized countries of Europe. Wide-area PACS covering several health care institutions in a region are now in the process of being implemented in a number of European countries. Because of limitations of space some countries, for example, Denmark, Finland, Spain, Greece, as well as Eastern European countries, etc. could not be appropriately represented in this paper. PMID:21466932

  17. Piezoresistive Cantilever Performance—Part II: Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Jin; Doll, Joseph C.; Rastegar, Ali J.; Pruitt, Beth L.

    2010-01-01

    Piezoresistive silicon cantilevers fabricated by ion implantation are frequently used for force, displacement, and chemical sensors due to their low cost and electronic readout. However, the design of piezoresistive cantilevers is not a straightforward problem due to coupling between the design parameters, constraints, process conditions, and performance. We systematically analyzed the effect of design and process parameters on force resolution and then developed an optimization approach to improve force resolution while satisfying various design constraints using simulation results. The combined simulation and optimization approach is extensible to other doping methods beyond ion implantation in principle. The optimization results were validated by fabricating cantilevers with the optimized conditions and characterizing their performance. The measurement results demonstrate that the analytical model accurately predicts force and displacement resolution, and sensitivity and noise tradeoff in optimal cantilever performance. We also performed a comparison between our optimization technique and existing models and demonstrated eight times improvement in force resolution over simplified models. PMID:20333323

  18. Validation of updated neutronic calculation models proposed for Atucha-II PHWR. Part II: Benchmark comparisons of PUMA core parameters with MCNP5 and improvements due to a simple cell heterogeneity correction

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, C.; Mollerach, R.; Leszczynski, F.; Serra, O.; Marconi, J.; Fink, J.

    2006-07-01

    In 2005 the Argentine Government took the decision to complete the construction of the Atucha-II nuclear power plant, which has been progressing slowly during the last ten years. Atucha-II is a 745 MWe nuclear station moderated and cooled with heavy water, of German (Siemens) design located in Argentina. It has a pressure vessel design with 451 vertical coolant channels and the fuel assemblies (FA) are clusters of 37 natural UO{sub 2} rods with an active length of 530 cm. For the reactor physics area, a revision and update of reactor physics calculation methods and models was recently carried out covering cell, supercell (control rod) and core calculations. This paper presents benchmark comparisons of core parameters of a slightly idealized model of the Atucha-I core obtained with the PUMA reactor code with MCNP5. The Atucha-I core was selected because it is smaller, similar from a neutronic point of view, more symmetric than Atucha-II, and has some experimental data available. To validate the new models benchmark comparisons of k-effective, channel power and axial power distributions obtained with PUMA and MCNP5 have been performed. In addition, a simple cell heterogeneity correction recently introduced in PUMA is presented, which improves significantly the agreement of calculated channel powers with MCNP5. To complete the validation, the calculation of some of the critical configurations of the Atucha-I reactor measured during the experiments performed at first criticality is also presented. (authors)

  19. [Seafood poisonings. Part II. Fish poisonings].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Fish plays a significant role in human life, mainly as part of a balanced healthy diet and a good source of many of nutrients. However, contact with fish may be harmful or even life-threatening to man. Toxic effects, that fish exerts toward men (ichthyotoxism), result from envenomations by poison. ous fish equipped in venom apparatus (ichthyoacanthotoxism), direct contact with venom produced by skin glandules (ichthyocrinotoxism), or consuming fish containing toxins for nutritional purposes (ichthyosarcotoxism). In the present review, different fish-borne food poisonings are presented including their etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology and treatment. In fact, the majority of fish poisonings are intoxications with toxins primary produced by bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae. These are consumed and accumulated in the food chain by herbivorous and predatory fish, that in turn may be a cause of poisonings in humans. PMID:23243919

  20. The sociogeometry of inequality: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-05-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices - the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we focus on the gap between the rich and the poor, which is quantified by gauges termed disparity curves. We shift from disparity curves to disparity sets, define inequality indices in terms of disparity sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of disparity sets. We conclude with mean-absolute-deviation (MAD) representations of the inequality indices established in this series of papers, and with a comparison of these indices to the popular Gini index.

  1. Has the tsunami arrived? Part II.

    PubMed

    Halverson, Dean; Glowac, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare is an industry in the midst of significant change. After years of double-digit cost increases, the system has reached a tipping point. Where once only employers were heard crying out for change, the call is now coming from all levels of American society. The voice that is most important to effect change is the newest--that of the consumer. In part two of our overview of the healthcare tsunami, we hope to offer you some insights and practical ideas on how to improve the return on investment of your marketing. We believe those who work to understand the new market forces and react with insight will not just survive during the tsunami, they will thrive. PMID:19663358

  2. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part II).

    PubMed

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this second part of the review, we will look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. We will also review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system. PMID:26049964

  3. The cost of cancer care: Part II.

    PubMed

    Eagle, David

    2012-11-01

    The rising cost of cancer treatment competes with the availability of effective therapy as a limiting factor in our war on cancer. Specific programs are being developed that have the potential to slow the growth in spending on oncology care. The Affordable Care Act includes provisions for containing healthcare costs, such as accountable care organizations and the Independent Payment Advisory Board. Within oncology, specific programs have emerged, including clinical pathways, episode-of-care based payment arrangements, and the oncology medical home. All models of cost containment have strengths and weaknesses. Outside of the United States, explicit rationing exists' through national health technology assessment organizations. Excessive demands on physicians to limit spending at the bedside could potentially create conflicts with their professional responsibility to patients. While spending for cancer care in the US is high, its "worth" is ultimately a societal decision. Recent economic modeling suggests that we may be achieving value for the money we spend. PMID:23330356

  4. Heat transport and solidification in the electromagnetic casting of aluminum alloys: Part II. Development of a mathematical model and comparison with experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasso, D. C.; Evans, J. W.; Wilson, I. J.

    1995-02-01

    In this second article of a two-part series, a mathematical model for heat transport and solidification of aluminum in electromagnetic casting is developed. The model is a three-dimensional one but involves a simplified treatment of convective heat transport in the liquid metal pool. Heat conduction in the solid was thought to play a dominant role in heat transport, and the thermal properties of the two alloys used in measurements reported in Part I (AA 5182 and 3104) were measured independently for input to the model. Heat transfer into the water sprays impacting the sides of the ingot was approximated using a heat-transfer coefficient from direct chill casting; because this heat-transfer step appears not to be rate determining for solidification and cooling of most of the ingot, there is little inaccuracy involved in this approximation. Joule heating was incorporated into some of the computations, which were carried out using the finite element software FIDAP. There was good agreement between the computed results and extensive thermocouple measurements (reported in Part I) made on a pilot-scale caster at Reynolds Metals Company (Richmond, VA).

  5. A Physicist for All Seasons: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Frank

    2013-06-01

    The second part of this interview covers Frank Oppenheimer's move to the University of California at Berkeley and wartime work at the Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, at the electromagnetic-separation plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and at Los Alamos, New Mexico (1941-1945); his postwar research at Berkeley (1945-1947); his appointment at the University of Minnesota in 1947 and firing two years later after being required to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee; his decade as a rancher in Colorado (1949-1959) and high-school science teacher toward the end of this period; his research at the University of Colorado in Boulder after 1959; his year as a Guggenheim Fellow at University College London in 1965; and his founding of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. California, in 1969. He also discusses his wartime relations with his older brother Robert and postwar events in Robert's life, including his Hearings before the Personnel Security Board of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1954.

  6. Overactive bladder - 18 years - Part II.

    PubMed

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell'Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, Jose Antonio; Castano, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; Lopez, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics - pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy - started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning - as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder - 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder. PMID:27176185

  7. DICOM: key concepts--part II.

    PubMed

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The objective of these two installments of IT World was to give a general overview of DICOM and to take a look at different parts of the standard to get a sense of its main themes. We found that the standard provides a common reference for all developers but does not impose a single type of implementation. This allows for innovation. The standard is also built for flexibility, able to adapt to new modalities that have a need to communicate. The speedy acceptance of DICOM by the medical imaging industry is opening new possibilities for healthcare organizations to increase the quality while decreasing the cost of patient care. All of the DICOM networked supporting medical equipment as well as the organization's computer systems made by multiple original equipment manufacturers and located at one site or many sites can communicate by means of DICOM. This gives us the opportunity for medical images to be captured and communicated quicker. The result enables physicians to make diagnoses and treatment decisions sooner. It's all good stuff and even more reason why we should endeavor to understand the basics of DICOM. DICOM is here to stay! PMID:16111406

  8. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This text, Part II, contains material designed to follow Part I. Chapters included in this text are: (6) Derivatives of Exponential and Related Functions; (7) Area and…

  9. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  10. Correctional Training. Institution Familiarization. Part II: The Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Prisons (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    Designed to assist training coordinators in the initial institution familiarization training for new employees in correctional institutions, this manual consists of two documents: a training coordinator's guide (Part I - CE 017 285) and this document, the training program (Part II). Four training areas are treated: (1) an introduction consisting…

  11. Electroconvulsive Therapy Part II: A Biopsychosocial Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Nancy A.; Prudic, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The myths surrounding electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and the misconceptions held by the general public, clinicians, and patients have interfered with acceptance of this treatment throughout its history. Misunderstandings surrounding ECT, and its consequent stigmatization, are reviewed, including negative depictions of ECT in film, print media, and on the Internet. Clinicians involved in the delivery of ECT benefit from gaining an understanding of how ECT may be perceived by patients and other mental health professionals; they can play a vital role in educating patients and helping ensure the delivery of a successful course of ECT. Guidance is provided for clinicians on how to support patients and families through the ECT process using a model team approach. Anxiety reduction, meeting individual needs, patient and family psychoeducation, assessment of psychosocial supports, and discharge planning are discussed. PMID:19820554

  12. AI And Early Vision - Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1989-08-01

    A quarter of a century ago I introduced two paradigms into psychology which in the intervening years have had a direct impact on the psychobiology of early vision and an indirect one on artificial intelligence (AI or machine vision). The first, the computer-generated random-dot stereogram (RDS) paradigm (Julesz, 1960) at its very inception posed a strategic question both for AI and neurophysiology. The finding that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis) is possible without the many enigmatic cues of monocular form recognition - as assumed previously - demonstrated that stereopsis with its basic problem of finding matches between corresponding random aggregates of dots in the left and right visual fields became ripe for modeling. Indeed, the binocular matching problem of stereopsis opened up an entire field of study, eventually leading to the computational models of David Marr (1982) and his coworkers. The fusion of RDS had an even greater impact on neurophysiologists - including Hubel and Wiesel (1962) - who realized that stereopsis must occur at an early stage, and can be studied easier than form perception. This insight recently culminated in the studies by Gian Poggio (1984) who found binocular-disparity - tuned neurons in the input stage to the visual cortex (layer IVB in V1) in the monkey that were selectively triggered by dynamic RDS. Thus the first paradigm led to a strategic insight: that with stereoscopic vision there is no camouflage, and as such was advantageous for our primate ancestors to evolve the cortical machinery of stereoscopic vision to capture camouflaged prey (insects) at a standstill. Amazingly, although stereopsis evolved relatively late in primates, it captured the very input stages of the visual cortex. (For a detailed review, see Julesz, 1986a)

  13. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches: PART II.

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M. E.; Andrade, R.M.; Taylor, D. J.; Stimmel, J. J.; Zaelke, R. L.; Balkey, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    As a matter of good business practices, a team of glovebox experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been assembled to proactively investigate processes and procedures that minimize unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures. A major part of this effort involves the review of glovebox glove failures that have occurred at the Plutonium Facility and at the Chemical and Metallurgy Research Facility. Information dating back to 1993 has been compiled from formal records. This data has been combined with information obtained from a baseline inventory of about 9,000 glovebox gloves. The key attributes tracked include those related to location, the glovebox glove, type and location of breaches, the worker, and the consequences resulting from breaches. This glovebox glove failure analysis yielded results in the areas of the ease of collecting this type of data, the causes of most glove failures that have occurred, the effectiveness of current controls, and recommendations to improve hazard control systems. As expected, a significant number of breaches involve high-risk operations such as grinding, hammering, using sharps (especially screwdrivers), and assembling equipment. Surprisingly, tasks such as the movement of equipment and material between gloveboxes and the opening of cans are also major contributions of breaches. Almost half the gloves fail within a year of their install date. The greatest consequence for over 90% of glovebox glove failures is alpha contamination of protective clothing. Personnel self-monitoring at the gloveboxes continues to be the most effective way of detecting glovebox glove failures. Glove failures from these tasks can be reduced through changes in procedures and the design of remote-handling apparatus. The Nuclear Materials Technology Division management uses this information to improve hazard control systems to reduce the number of unplanned breaches in the glovebox further. As a result, excursions of contaminants

  14. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Pt. 257, App. II Appendix II... aerated pile or windrow composting methods, the solid waste is maintained at minimum operating conditions... methods or operating conditions may be acceptable if pathogens and vector attraction of the...

  15. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin

  16. MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES PART II: MOUSE MODELS OF OXPHOS DEFICIENCIES CAUSED BY DEFECTS IN REGULATORY FACTORS AND OTHER COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Iommarini, Luisa; Peralta, Susana; Torraco, Alessandra; Diaz, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are defined as defects that affect the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). They are characterized by a heterogeneous array of clinical presentations due in part to a wide variety of factors required for proper function of the components of the OXPHOS system. There is no cure for these disorders owing our poor knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of disease. To understand the mechanisms of human disease numerous mouse models have been developed in recent years. Here we summarize the features of several mouse models of mitochondrial diseases directly related to those factors affecting mtDNA maintenance, replication, transcription, translation as well to other proteins that are involved in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control which affect mitochondrial OXPHOS function without been intrinsic components of the system. We discuss how these models have contributed to our understanding of mitochondrial diseases and their pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25640959

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II... STANDARD Pt. 541, App. A-II Appendix A-II to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543...

  18. Hypoelastic Soft Tissues: Part II: In-Plane Biaxial Experiments.

    PubMed

    Freed, Alan D; Einstein, Daniel R; Sacks, Michael S

    2010-08-01

    In Part I, a novel hypoelastic framework for soft-tissues was presented. One of the hallmarks of this new theory is that the well-known exponential behavior of soft-tissues arises consistently and spontaneously from the integration of a rate based formulation. In Part II, we examine the application of this framework to the problem of biaxial kinematics, which are common in experimental soft-tissue characterization. We confine our attention to an isotropic formulation in order to highlight the distinction between non-linearity and anisotropy. In order to provide a sound foundation for the membrane extension of our earlier hypoelastic framework, the kinematics and kinetics of in-plane biaxial extension are revisited, and some enhancements are provided. Specifically, the conventional stress-to-traction mapping for this boundary value problem is shown to violate the conservation of angular momentum. In response, we provide a corrected mapping. In addition, a novel means for applying loads to in-plane biaxial experiments is proposed. An isotropic, isochoric, hypoelastic, constitutive model is applied to an in-plane biaxial experiment done on glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium. The experiment is comprised of eight protocols that radially probe the biaxial plane. Considering its simplicity (two adjustable parameters) the model does a reasonably good job of describing the non-linear normal responses observed in these experimental data, which are more prevalent than are the anisotropic responses exhibited by this tissue. PMID:21394222

  19. A physically-derived nonquasi-static model of ferroelectric amplifiers for computer-aided device simulation - Part II: The ferroelectric common-source and common-gate amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyah, Rana; Hunt, Mitchell; Ho, Fat D.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, Part II of the authors' paper [1], the physically-derived nonquasi-static model presented in [1] is applied to the ferroelectric common-source and common-gate amplifiers. The model is based on the method of partitioned channel and ferroelectric layers and is valid in accumulation, depletion, and all three cases of inversion: weak, moderate, and strong. The equations of this model are based on the standard MOSFET equations that have been adapted to include the ferroelectric properties. The model code is written in MATLAB and outputs voltage plots with respect to time. The accuracy and effectiveness of the model are verified by two test cases, where the modeled results are compared to empirically-derived oscilloscope plots.

  20. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Alves, Vinicius M; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R(2)=0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q(2)ext=0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. PMID:25560673

  1. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R2=0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q2ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. PMID:25560673

  2. Key to Opening Kidney for In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation Entrance in Health and Disease: Part II: Mechanistic Models and In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Scotcher, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Posada, Maria; Galetin, Aleksandra; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2016-09-01

    It is envisaged that application of mechanistic models will improve prediction of changes in renal disposition due to drug-drug interactions, genetic polymorphism in enzymes and transporters and/or renal impairment. However, developing and validating mechanistic kidney models is challenging due to the number of processes that may occur (filtration, secretion, reabsorption and metabolism) in this complex organ. Prediction of human renal drug disposition from preclinical species may be hampered by species differences in the expression and activity of drug metabolising enzymes and transporters. A proposed solution is bottom-up prediction of pharmacokinetic parameters based on in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE), mediated by recent advances in in vitro experimental techniques and application of relevant scaling factors. This review is a follow-up to the Part I of the report from the 2015 AAPS Annual Meeting and Exhibition (Orlando, FL; 25th-29th October 2015) which focuses on IVIVE and mechanistic prediction of renal drug disposition. It describes the various mechanistic kidney models that may be used to investigate renal drug disposition. Particular attention is given to efforts that have attempted to incorporate elements of IVIVE. In addition, the use of mechanistic models in prediction of renal drug-drug interactions and potential for application in determining suitable adjustment of dose in kidney disease are discussed. The need for suitable clinical pharmacokinetics data for the purposes of delineating mechanistic aspects of kidney models in various scenarios is highlighted. PMID:27506526

  3. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part II: Multi-layered cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, H; McCoy, R B; Klein, S A; Xie, S; Luo, Y; Avramov, A; Chen, M; Cole, J; Falk, M; Foster, M; Genio, A D; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; McFarquhar, G; Poellot, M; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a deep, multi-layered, mixed-phase cloud system observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. This cloud system was associated with strong surface turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes as cold air flowed over the open Arctic Ocean, combined with a low pressure system that supplied moisture at mid-level. The simulations, performed by 13 single-column and 4 cloud-resolving models, generally overestimate the liquid water path and strongly underestimate the ice water path, although there is a large spread among the models. This finding is in contrast with results for the single-layer, low-level mixed-phase stratocumulus case in Part I of this study, as well as previous studies of shallow mixed-phase Arctic clouds, that showed an underprediction of liquid water path. The overestimate of liquid water path and underestimate of ice water path occur primarily when deeper mixed-phase clouds extending into the mid-troposphere were observed. These results suggest important differences in the ability of models to simulate Arctic mixed-phase clouds that are deep and multi-layered versus shallow and single-layered. In general, models with a more sophisticated, two-moment treatment of the cloud microphysics produce a somewhat smaller liquid water path that is closer to observations. The cloud-resolving models tend to produce a larger cloud fraction than the single-column models. The liquid water path and especially the cloud fraction have a large impact on the cloud radiative forcing at the surface, which is dominated by the longwave flux for this case.

  4. Limit analysis and homogenization of porous materials with Mohr-Coulomb matrix. Part II: Numerical bounds and assessment of the theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, F.; Anoukou, K.; Pastor, J.; Kondo, D.

    2016-06-01

    This second part of the two-part study is devoted to the numerical Limit Analysis of a hollow sphere model with a Mohr-Coulomb matrix and its use for the assessment of theoretical results. Brief background and fundamental of the static and kinematic approaches in the context of numerical limit analysis are first recalled. We then present the hollow sphere model, together with its axisymmetric FEM discretization and its mechanical position. A conic programming adaptation of a previous iterative static approach, based on a piecewise linearization (PWL) of the plasticity criterion, was first realized. Unfortunately, the resulting code, no more than the PWL one, did not allow sufficiently refined meshes for loss of convergence of the conic optimizer. This problem was solved by using the projection algorithm of Ben Tal and Nemriovski (BTN) and the (interior point) linear programming code XA. For the kinematic approach, a first conic adaptation appeared also inefficient. Then, an original mixed (but fully kinematic) approach dedicated to the general Mohr-Coulomb axisymmetric problem was elaborated. The final conic mixed code appears much more robust than the classic one when using the conic code MOSEK, allowing us to take into account refined numerical meshes. After a fine validation in the case of spherical cavities and isotropic loadings (for which the exact solution is known) and comparison to previous (partial) results, numerical lower and upper bounds (a posteriori verified) of the macroscopic strength are provided. These bounds are used to assess and validate the theoretical results of the companion (part I) paper. Effects of the friction angle as well as that of the porosity are illustrated.

  5. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  6. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-17

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  7. Extension of an Itô-based general approximation technique for random vibration of a BBW general hysteris model part II: Non-Gaussian analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodi, H.; Noori, M.

    1990-07-01

    The work presented in this paper constitutes the second phase of on-going research aimed at developing mathematical models for representing general hysteretic behavior of structures and approximation techniques for the computation and analysis of the response of hysteretic systems to random excitations. In this second part, the technique previously developed by the authors for the Gaussian response analysis of non-linear systems with general hysteretic behavior is extended for the non-Gaussian analysis of these systems. This approximation technique is based on the approach proposed independently by Ibrahim and Wu-Lin. In this work up to fourth order moments of the response co-ordinates are obtained for the Bouc-Baber-Wen smooth hysteresis model. These higher order statistics previously have not been made available for general hysteresis models by using existing approximation methods. Second order moments obtained for the model by this non-Gaussian closure scheme are compared with equivalent linearization and Gaussian closure results via Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). Higher order moments are compared with the simulation results. The study performed for a wide range of degradation parameters and input power spectral density ( PSD) levels shows that the non-Gaussian responses obtained by this approach are in better agreement with the MCS results than the linearized and Gaussian ones. This approximation technique can provide information on higher order moments for general hysteretic systems. This information is valuable in random vibration and the reliability analysis of hysteretically yielding structures.

  8. Kinetics of the conversion of dihydroxyacetone to methylglyoxal in New Zealand mānuka honey: Part II--Model systems.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Megan N C; Manley-Harris, Merilyn; Lane, Joseph R; Field, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    The irreversible dehydration reaction of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to methylglyoxal (MGO) in a honey model system has been examined to investigate the influence of added perturbant species on the reaction rate. The secondary amino acid proline, primary amino acids (alanine, lysine and serine), and iron, or combinations of these perturbants, were added to artificial honey with either DHA or MGO and stored at 20, 27 and 37°C. These systems were monitored over time. A 1:1 conversion of DHA to MGO was not observed in any system studied, including the control system with no added perturbants. Addition of proline to the matrix increased consumption of DHA but did not produce any more MGO than the control sample. Lysine and serine behaved similarly. Alanine enhanced the conversion of DHA to MGO and had the best efficiency of conversion of DHA to MGO for the amino acids studied. An iron II salt enhanced the conversion of DHA to MGO, even in the presence of proline. PMID:26920323

  9. Generalized model of electromigration with 1:1 (analyte:selector) complexation stoichiometry: part II. Application to dual systems and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Müllerová, Ludmila; Dubský, Pavel; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2015-03-01

    Interactions among analyte forms that undergo simultaneous dissociation/protonation and complexation with multiple selectors take the shape of a highly interconnected multi-equilibrium scheme. This makes it difficult to express the effective mobility of the analyte in these systems, which are often encountered in electrophoretical separations, unless a generalized model is introduced. In the first part of this series, we presented the theory of electromigration of a multivalent weakly acidic/basic/amphoteric analyte undergoing complexation with a mixture of an arbitrary number of selectors. In this work we demonstrate the validity of this concept experimentally. The theory leads to three useful perspectives, each of which is closely related to the one originally formulated for simpler systems. If pH, IS and the selector mixture composition are all kept constant, the system is treated as if only a single analyte form interacted with a single selector. If the pH changes at constant IS and mixture composition, the already well-established models of a weakly acidic/basic analyte interacting with a single selector can be employed. Varying the mixture composition at constant IS and pH leads to a situation where virtually a single analyte form interacts with a mixture of selectors. We show how to switch between the three perspectives in practice and confirm that they can be employed interchangeably according to the specific needs by measurements performed in single- and dual-selector systems at a pH where the analyte is fully dissociated, partly dissociated or fully protonated. Weak monoprotic analyte (R-flurbiprofen) and two selectors (native β-cyclodextrin and monovalent positively charged 6-monodeoxy-6-monoamino-β-cyclodextrin) serve as a model system. PMID:25666498

  10. A Probabilistic Foundation of Elementary Particle Statistics. Part II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Domenico; Garibaldi, Ubaldo

    The long history of ergodic and quasi-ergodic hypotheses provides the best example of the attempt to supply non-probabilistic justifications for the use of statistical mechanics in describing mechanical systems. In this paper we reverse the terms of the problem. We aim to show that accepting a probabilistic foundation of elementary particle statistics dispenses with the need to resort to ambiguous non-probabilistic notions like that of (in)distinguishability. In the quantum case, starting from suitable probability conditions, it is possible to deduce elementary particle statistics in a unified way. Following our approach Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics can also be deduced, and this deduction clarifies its status. Thus our primary aim in this paper is to give a mathematically rigorous deduction of the probability of a state with given energy for a perfect gas in statistical equilibrium; that is, a deduction of the equilibrium distributions for a perfect gas. A crucial step in this deduction is the statement of a unified statistical theory based on clearly formulated probability conditions from which the particle statistics follows. We believe that such a deduction represents an important improvement in elementary particle statistics, and a step towards a probabilistic foundation of statistical mechanics. The present Part II is devoted to this deduction. Part I presented the necessary tools. After the deduction of the probability of a state with given energy for a system in statistical equilibrium, we will propose in the last section a simple model giving an ergodic interpretation of the equilibrium distributions.

  11. A Quantitative Review and Meta-models of the Variability and Factors Affecting Oral Drug Absorption-Part II: Gastrointestinal Transit Time.

    PubMed

    Abuhelwa, Ahmad Y; Foster, David J R; Upton, Richard N

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis for the values of, and variability in, gastrointestinal (GI) transit times of non-disintegrating single-unit ("tablet") and multiple-unit ("pellets/multi-unit tablet") solid dosage forms, characterize the effect of food on the values and variability in these parameters and present quantitative meta-models of the distributions of GI transit times in the respective GI regions to help inform models of oral drug absorption. The literature was systemically reviewed for the values of, and the variability in, gastric, small intestinal and colonic transit times under fed and fasted conditions. Meta-analysis used the "metafor" package of the R language. Meta-models of GI transit were assumed to be log-normally distributed between the studied populations. Twenty-nine studies including 125 reported means and standard deviations were used in the meta-analysis. Caloric content of administered food increased variability and delayed the gastric transit of both pellets and tablets. Conversely, food caloric content reduced the variability but had no significant influence on the mean small intestinal transit time (SITT). Food had no significant effect on the transit time through the colon. The transit of pellets through the colon was significantly slower than that of single-unit tablets which is most likely related to their smaller size. GI transit times may influence the dissolution and absorption of oral drugs. The meta-models of GI transit times may be used as part of semi-physiological absorption models to characterize the influence of transit time on the dissolution, absorption and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of oral drugs. PMID:27439620

  12. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  13. Monte Carlo Bayesian Inference on a Statistical Model of Sub-gridcolumn Moisture Variability Using High-resolution Cloud Observations . Part II; Sensitivity Tests and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Part I presented a Monte Carlo Bayesian method for constraining a complex statistical model of GCM sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution MODIS cloud data, thereby permitting large-scale model parameter estimation and cloud data assimilation. This part performs some basic testing of this new approach, verifying that it does indeed significantly reduce mean and standard deviation biases with respect to the assimilated MODIS cloud optical depth, brightness temperature and cloud top pressure, and that it also improves the simulated rotational-Ramman scattering cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP) against independent (non-assimilated) retrievals from the OMI instrument. Of particular interest, the Monte Carlo method does show skill in the especially difficult case where the background state is clear but cloudy observations exist. In traditional linearized data assimilation methods, a subsaturated background cannot produce clouds via any infinitesimal equilibrium perturbation, but the Monte Carlo approach allows finite jumps into regions of non-zero cloud probability. In the example provided, the method is able to restore marine stratocumulus near the Californian coast where the background state has a clear swath. This paper also examines a number of algorithmic and physical sensitivities of the new method and provides guidance for its cost-effective implementation. One obvious difficulty for the method, and other cloud data assimilation methods as well, is the lack of information content in the cloud observables on cloud vertical structure, beyond cloud top pressure and optical thickness, thus necessitating strong dependence on the background vertical moisture structure. It is found that a simple flow-dependent correlation modification due to Riishojgaard (1998) provides some help in this respect, by better honoring inversion structures in the background state.

  14. Acute dental pain, Part II: Diagnosis and emergency treatment.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, J R

    1990-09-01

    Part II of this two-part series differentiates and explores endodontic-related emergencies with reversible and irreversible pulpitis. Indications and contra-indications for vital pulp therapy are explained, and treatment is outlined. The inflammatory process involved in irreversible pulpal disease is summarized, and the clinical signs, symptoms, and treatment of irreversible pulpitis (with and without acute periradicular involvement, with pulp necrosis, and acute periradicular abscess with and without cellulitis) are discussed. PMID:2097056

  15. Inert doublet model and LEP II limits

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstroem, Erik; Gustafsson, Michael; Edsjoe, Joakim

    2009-02-01

    The inert doublet model is a minimal extension of the standard model introducing an additional SU(2) doublet with new scalar particles that could be produced at accelerators. While there exists no LEP II analysis dedicated for these inert scalars, the absence of a signal within searches for supersymmetric neutralinos can be used to constrain the inert doublet model. This translation however requires some care because of the different properties of the inert scalars and the neutralinos. We investigate what restrictions an existing DELPHI Collaboration study of neutralino pair production can put on the inert scalars and discuss the result in connection with dark matter. We find that although an important part of the inert doublet model parameter space can be excluded by the LEP II data, the lightest inert particle still constitutes a valid dark matter candidate.

  16. Preparation of Power Distribution System for High Penetration of Renewable Energy Part I. Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Regulation Pat II. Distribution Circuit Modeling and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshkbar Sadigh, Arash

    by simulation and experimental tests under various conditions considering all possible cases such as different amounts of voltage sag depth (VSD), different amounts of point-on-wave (POW) at which voltage sag occurs, harmonic distortion, line frequency variation, and phase jump (PJ). Furthermore, the ripple amount of fundamental voltage amplitude calculated by the proposed method and its error is analyzed considering the line frequency variation together with harmonic distortion. The best and worst detection time of proposed method were measured 1ms and 8.8ms, respectively. Finally, the proposed method has been compared with other voltage sag detection methods available in literature. Part 2: Power System Modeling for Renewable Energy Integration: As power distribution systems are evolving into more complex networks, electrical engineers have to rely on software tools to perform circuit analysis. There are dozens of powerful software tools available in the market to perform the power system studies. Although their main functions are similar, there are differences in features and formatting structures to suit specific applications. This creates challenges for transferring power system circuit models data (PSCMD) between different software and rebuilding the same circuit in the second software environment. The objective of this part of thesis is to develop a Unified Platform (UP) to facilitate transferring PSCMD among different software packages and relieve the challenges of the circuit model conversion process. UP uses a commonly available spreadsheet file with a defined format, for any home software to write data to and for any destination software to read data from, via a script-based application called PSCMD transfer application. The main considerations in developing the UP are to minimize manual intervention and import a one-line diagram into the destination software or export it from the source software, with all details to allow load flow, short circuit and

  17. Ethical Research Practices: Collaborative Action Research, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This is part II of a case study involving a large federally funded technology grant program implemented across several central Texas school districts and was followed by the researcher-participant at the university level as well as one of the campus sites. Many ethical research questions were raised during this study such as the use of participant…

  18. Predictors of Performance on National Board Examinations Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Michael W.

    1984-01-01

    In an investigation of the predictors of success on the dental National Board Examinations Part II, three studies were undertaken to test (1) the factual validity of a mock examination, (2) the usefulness of the mock examination as a predictor of board examination success, and (3) whether the third cross-validated the previous findings. (MSE)

  19. Guide to the Archives of International Organizations. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walne, Peter, Comp.

    This compilation forms Part II of the guide according to the plan conceived by a working party of the Section of Archivists of International Organisations of the International Council on Archives in 1974-1975. The directory provides access to national and other archive and manuscript repositories that maintain the archives of international…

  20. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... citations affecting Table II to part 150, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... peroxide solutions 1 Lactic acid 2 Long chain alkaryl sulfonic acid (C16-C60) 2 Magnesium chloride solution...-Dimethyldodecylamine Di-n-propylamine Diphenylamine, reaction product with 2,2,4-Trimethylpentene...

  1. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... citations affecting Table II to part 150, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... peroxide solutions 1 Lactic acid 2 Long chain alkaryl sulfonic acid (C16-C60) 2 Magnesium chloride solution...-Dimethyldodecylamine Di-n-propylamine Diphenylamine, reaction product with 2,2,4-Trimethylpentene...

  2. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... II to part 150, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of... peroxide solutions 1 Lactic acid 2 Long chain alkaryl sulfonic acid (C16-C60) 2 Magnesium chloride solution...-Dimethyldodecylamine Di-n-propylamine Diphenylamine, reaction product with 2,2,4-Trimethylpentene...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - ECCS Evaluation Models

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false ECCS Evaluation Models K Appendix K to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. K Appendix K to Part 50—ECCS Evaluation Models I. Required and Acceptable Features of Evaluation Models. II. Required Documentation. I. Required...

  4. Preparation of Power Distribution System for High Penetration of Renewable Energy Part I. Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Regulation Pat II. Distribution Circuit Modeling and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshkbar Sadigh, Arash

    by simulation and experimental tests under various conditions considering all possible cases such as different amounts of voltage sag depth (VSD), different amounts of point-on-wave (POW) at which voltage sag occurs, harmonic distortion, line frequency variation, and phase jump (PJ). Furthermore, the ripple amount of fundamental voltage amplitude calculated by the proposed method and its error is analyzed considering the line frequency variation together with harmonic distortion. The best and worst detection time of proposed method were measured 1ms and 8.8ms, respectively. Finally, the proposed method has been compared with other voltage sag detection methods available in literature. Part 2: Power System Modeling for Renewable Energy Integration: As power distribution systems are evolving into more complex networks, electrical engineers have to rely on software tools to perform circuit analysis. There are dozens of powerful software tools available in the market to perform the power system studies. Although their main functions are similar, there are differences in features and formatting structures to suit specific applications. This creates challenges for transferring power system circuit models data (PSCMD) between different software and rebuilding the same circuit in the second software environment. The objective of this part of thesis is to develop a Unified Platform (UP) to facilitate transferring PSCMD among different software packages and relieve the challenges of the circuit model conversion process. UP uses a commonly available spreadsheet file with a defined format, for any home software to write data to and for any destination software to read data from, via a script-based application called PSCMD transfer application. The main considerations in developing the UP are to minimize manual intervention and import a one-line diagram into the destination software or export it from the source software, with all details to allow load flow, short circuit and

  5. Analysis and evaluation of a biomedical polycarbonate urethane tested in an in vitro study and an ovine arthroplasty model. Part II: in vivo investigation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Smith, Nigel; Jones, Eric; Finch, Dudley S; Cameron, Ruth Elizabeth

    2005-02-01

    The polyurethane (PU) elastomer Corethane 80A (Corvita) is being considered as the acetabular bearing material in a novel total replacement hip joint. Its biostability was investigated in vitro (Analysis and evaluation of a biomedical polycarbonate urethane tested in an in vitro study and an ovine arthroplasty model. Part I: material selection and evaluation, Biomaterials, in press) together with three other commercially available biomedical PUs: Pellethane 2363-80A (DOW Chemical), a polyhexamethylene oxide based PU, PHMO-PU (CSIRO, not supplied as a commercial product) and ChronoFlex AL-80A (CardioTech). From the in vitro studies, Corethane 80A displayed the best overall resistance to hydrolysis, ESC, MIO and calcification, followed by ChronoFlex 80A and PHMO-PU, with Pellethane 80A being the least stable. Building on the in vitro investigation, the follow-up in vivo study (reported here) assessed Corethane 80A as the bearing layer in a prototype compliant layer acetabular cup, in a fully functioning ovine total hip arthoplasty (THA) model. PU degradation in the retrieved cups was analysed using a range of analytical and physical-testing methods including mechanical testing, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy. The Corethane 80A functioned well in the THA model, with the bearing surfaces of the retrieved hip cups showing no significant evidence of biodegradation or wear damage after 3 years in vivo. The findings in this study provide compelling evidence for the biostability and effectiveness of acetabular cups incorporating a Corethane 80A compliant bearing layer. PMID:15282141

  6. Metropolitan-scale Transport and Dispersion from the New York World Trade Center Following September 11, 2001. Part II: An Application of the CALPUFF Plume Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliam, Robert C.; Huber, Alan H.; Raman, Sethu

    2005-10-01

    Following the collapse of the New York World Trade Center (WTC) towers on September 11, 2001, Local, State, and Federal agencies initiated numerous air monitoring activities to better understand the ongoing impacts of emissions from the disaster. The collapse of the World Trade Center towers and associated fires that lasted for several weeks resulted at times in a noticeable plume of material that was dispersed around the Metropolitan New York City (NYC) area. In general, the plume was only noticeable for a short period of time following September 11, and only apparent close to the World Trade Center site. A study of the estimated pathway which the plume of WTC material would likely follow was completed to support the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s 2002 initial exposure assessments. In this study, the WTC emissions were simulated using the CALMET-CALPUFF model in order to examine the general spatial and temporal dispersion patterns over NYC. This paper presents the results of the CALPUFF plume model in terms of plume dilution and location, since the exact source strength remains unknown. Independent observations of PM2.5 are used to support the general dispersion features calculated by the model. Results indicate that the simulated plume matched well with an abnormal increase (600 1000% of normal) in PM2.5 two nights after the WTC collapse as the plume rotated north to southeast, towards parts of NYC. Very little if any evidence of the plume signature was noted during a similar flow scenario a week after September 11. This leads to the conclusion that other than areas within a few kilometers from the WTC site, the PM2.5 plume was not observable over NYC’s background concentration after the first few days.

  7. Formation of high-grade ignimbrites Part II. A pyroclastic suspension current model with implications also for low-grade ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundt, Armin

    Analogue experiments in part I led to the conclusion that pyroclastic flows depositing very high-grade ignimbrite move as dilute suspension currents. In the thermo-fluid-dynamical model developed, the degree of cooling of expanded turbulent pyroclastic flows dynamically evolves in response to entrainment of air and mass loss to sedimentation. Initial conditions of the currents are derived from column-collapse modeling for magmas with an initial H2O content of 1-3wt.% erupting through circular vents and caldera ring-fissures. The flows spread either longitudinally or radially from source up to a runout distance that increases with higher mass flux but decreases with higher gas content, temperature, bottom slope and coarser initial grain size. Progressive dilution by entrainment and sedimentation causes pyroclastic currents to transform into buoyant ash plumes at the runout distance. The ash plumes reach stratospheric heights and distribute 30-80% of the erupted material as widespread co-ignimbrite ash. Pyroclastic suspension currents with initial mass fluxes of 107-1012kg/s can spread for tens of kilometers with only limited cooling, although they move as supercritical, strongly entraining currents for the eruption conditions considered here. With increasing eruption mass flux, cooling during passage through the fountain diminishes while cooling during flow transport increases. The net effect is that eruption temperature exerts the prime control on emplacement temperature. Pyroclastic suspension currents can form welded ignimbrite across their entire extent if eruption temperature is To>1.3.Tmw, the minimum welding temperature. High eruption rates, a large fraction of fine ash, and a ring-fissure vent favor the formation of extensive high-grade ignimbrite. For very hot eruptions producing sticky, partially molten pyroclasts, analysis of particle aggregation systematics shows that factors favoring longer runout also favor more efficient aggregation, which reduces

  8. A multi-model assessment for the 2006 and 2010 simulations under the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 2 over North America: Part II. Evaluation of column variable predictions using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Yahya, Khairunnisa; Zhang, Yang; Hogrefe, Christian; Pouliot, George; Knote, Christoph; Hodzic, Alma; San Jose, Roberto; Perez, Juan L.; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Baro, Rocio; Makar, Paul; Bennartz, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Within the context of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative Phase 2 (AQMEII2) project, this part II paper performs a multi-model assessment of major column abundances of gases, radiation, aerosol, and cloud variables for 2006 and 2010 simulations with three online-coupled air quality models over the North America using available satellite data. It also provides the first comparative assessment of the capabilities of the current generation of online-coupled models in simulating column variables. Despite the use of different model configurations and meteorological initial and boundary conditions, most simulations show comparable model performance for many variables. The evaluation results show an excellent agreement between all simulations and satellite-derived radiation variables including downward surface solar radiation, longwave radiation, and top-of-atmospheric outgoing longwave radiation, as well as precipitable water vapor with domain-average normalized mean biases (NMBs) of typically less than 5% and correlation coefficient (R) typically more than 0.9. Most simulations perform well for column-integrated abundance of CO with domain-average NMBs of -9.4% to -2.2% in 2006 and -12.1% to 4.6% in 2010 and from reasonably well to fair for column NO2, HCHO, and SO2, with domain-average NMBs of -37.7% to 2.1%, -27.3% to 59.2%, and 16.1% to 114.2% in 2006, respectively, and, 12.9% to 102.1%, -25.0% to 87.6%, -65.2% to 7.4% in 2010, respectively. R values are high for CO and NO2 typically between 0.85 and 0.9 (i.e., R2 of 0.7-0.8). Tropospheric ozone residuals are overpredicted by all simulations due to overestimates of ozone profiles from boundary conditions. Model performance for cloud-related variables is mixed and generally worse compared to gases and radiation variables. Cloud fraction (CF) is well reproduced by most simulations. Other aerosol/cloud related variables such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), cloud optical thickness, cloud liquid

  9. RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Part II: Analysis of ITER plasma facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federici, Gianfranco; Raffray, A. René

    1997-04-01

    The transient thermal model RACLETTE (acronym of Rate Analysis Code for pLasma Energy Transfer Transient Evaluation) described in part I of this paper is applied here to analyse the heat transfer and erosion effects of various slow (100 ms-10 s) high power energy transients on the actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). These have a strong bearing on the PFC design and need careful analysis. The relevant parameters affecting the heat transfer during the plasma excursions are established. The temperature variation with time and space is evaluated together with the extent of vaporisation and melting (the latter only for metals) for the different candidate armour materials considered for the design (i.e., Be for the primary first wall, Be and CFCs for the limiter, Be, W, and CFCs for the divertor plates) and including for certain cases low-density vapour shielding effects. The critical heat flux, the change of the coolant parameters and the possible severe degradation of the coolant heat removal capability that could result under certain conditions during these transients, for example for the limiter, are also evaluated. Based on the results, the design implications on the heat removal performance and erosion damage of the variuos ITER PFCs are critically discussed and some recommendations are made for the selection of the most adequate protection materials and optimum armour thickness.

  10. Transient response of the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere model to increasing carbon dioxide. Part II: Spatial and temporal structure of response

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.M.; Mitchell, J.F.B.

    1995-01-01

    A high-resolution (2.75{degrees} lat x 3.75{degrees} long) coupled ocean-atmosphere model has been used to simulate the transient response of climate to a gradual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Although the radiative forcing increases linearly, there is a delay of about 30 yr before the ocean warms appreciably. This {open_quotes}cold start{close_quotes} is, at least partly, an artifact of the experimental design. At the time of doubling (after 70 yr), the patterns of change are similar to those found in comparable studies of the equilibrium response, except in the high latitudes of the Southern Ocean and the North Atlantic, where the warming is considerably reduced. The mechanisms leading to this reduction are discussed. After two to three decades, the pattern of warming is well established. The warming over land is substantially larger than that over the sea, with a consequent lowering of surface pressure over the northern continents in summer. The patterns of changes in precipitation and soil moisture take longer to establish themselves, although locally there are consistent changes after the third decade. 55 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.