Science.gov

Sample records for modell und programm

  1. Programmers manual for a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.; Jobson, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model for simulating water-quality constituents such as temperature, dissolved oxygen , and suspended sediment in rivers is presented in this Programmers Manual. Lagrangian transport modeling techniques, the model 's subroutines, and the user-written decay-coefficient subroutine are discussed in detail. Appendices list the program codes. The Programmers Manual is intended for the model user who needs to modify code either to adapt the model to a particular need or to use reaction kinetics not provided with the model. (Author 's abstract)

  2. Communications network design and costing model programmers manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, K. P.; Somes, S. S.; Clark, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Otpimization algorithms and techniques used in the communications network design and costing model for least cost route and least cost network problems are examined from the programmer's point of view. All system program modules, the data structures within the model, and the files which make up the data base are described.

  3. A Model for Effective Implementation of Flexible Programme Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Carey; Littlejohn, Allison; Falconer, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    The model developed here is the outcome of a project funded by the Quality Assurance Agency Scotland to support implementation of flexible programme delivery (FPD) in post-compulsory education. We highlight key features of FPD, including explicit and implicit assumptions about why flexibility is needed and the perceived barriers and solutions to…

  4. Teaching Modelling Concepts: Enter the Pocket-Size Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaar, Kermit A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the failure of students to see a physiological system in an integrated way. Programmable calculators armed with a printer are suggested as useful teaching devices that avoid the expense and the unavailability of computers for modelling in teaching physiology. (Author/SA)

  5. Calibration of hydrological model with programme PEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej; Kryžanowski, Andrej; Bezak, Nejc; Šraj, Mojca

    2016-04-01

    PEST is tool based on minimization of an objective function related to the root mean square error between the model output and the measurement. We use "singular value decomposition", section of the PEST control file, and Tikhonov regularization method for successfully estimation of model parameters. The PEST sometimes failed if inverse problems were ill-posed, but (SVD) ensures that PEST maintains numerical stability. The choice of the initial guess for the initial parameter values is an important issue in the PEST and need expert knowledge. The flexible nature of the PEST software and its ability to be applied to whole catchments at once give results of calibration performed extremely well across high number of sub catchments. Use of parallel computing version of PEST called BeoPEST was successfully useful to speed up calibration process. BeoPEST employs smart slaves and point-to-point communications to transfer data between the master and slaves computers. The HBV-light model is a simple multi-tank-type model for simulating precipitation-runoff. It is conceptual balance model of catchment hydrology which simulates discharge using rainfall, temperature and estimates of potential evaporation. Version of HBV-light-CLI allows the user to run HBV-light from the command line. Input and results files are in XML form. This allows to easily connecting it with other applications such as pre and post-processing utilities and PEST itself. The procedure was applied on hydrological model of Savinja catchment (1852 km2) and consists of twenty one sub-catchments. Data are temporary processed on hourly basis.

  6. The Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, SWECLIM: a review.

    PubMed

    Rummukainen, Markku; Bergström, Sten; Persson, Gunn; Rodhe, Johan; Tjernström, Michael

    2004-06-01

    The Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, SWECLIM, was a 6.5-year national research network for regional climate modeling, regional climate change projections and hydrological impact assessment and information to a wide range of stakeholders. Most of the program activities focussed on the regional climate system of Northern Europe. This led to the establishment of an advanced, coupled atmosphere-ocean-hydrology regional climate model system, a suite of regional climate change projections and progress on relevant data and process studies. These were, in turn, used for information and educational purposes, as a starting point for impact analyses on different societal sectors and provided contributions also to international climate research. PMID:15264594

  7. Numerical model for the Programmable Multirole Furnace (PMZF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, M.; Panzarella, C. H.; Destro-Sidik, K. E.; Krolikowski, C. R.; Licht, B. W.

    1993-01-01

    The present account of the Programmable Multizone Furnace numerical model uses various examples to illustrate the ways in which the model serves as an optimization, test, prediction, and visualization tool; a numerical PID-control algorithm obtains the desired sample temperature distributions and allows the model to solve an inverse heat transfer problem where the desired sample temperature profile is the input and the required heater power distribution is the output of numerical simulations. Parametric studies show how the total power consumption of the furnace is affected by such design variables as the conductivity.

  8. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    1997-05-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  9. Maintaining Adherence Programme: evaluation of an innovative service model

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Llewellyn; O'Keeffe, Christine; Smyth, Ian; Mallalieu, Judi; Baldock, Laura; Oliver, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method The Maintaining Adherence Programme (MAP) is a new model of care for patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar affective disorder which aims to encourage adherence and prevent relapse. This evaluation, conducted by retrospective and prospective data collection (including patient questionnaires and staff interviews), aimed to describe MAP's impact on healthcare resource use, clinical measures and patient and staff satisfaction, following its implementation in a university National Health Service (NHS) foundation trust in England. We included 143 consenting patients who entered MAP before 31 March 2012. Results In-patient bed days and non-MAP NHS costs reduced significantly in the 18 months post-MAP entry. At 15–18 months post-MAP, Medication Adherence Rating Scale scores had improved significantly from baseline and there was a shift towards less severe clinician-rated disease categories. Based on patient surveys, 96% would recommend MAP to friends, and staff were also overwhelmingly positive about the service. Clinical implications MAP was associated with reduced cost of treatment, improvements in clinical outcomes and very high patient and staff satisfaction. PMID:26958352

  10. Proliferation Risk Characterization Model Prototype Model - User and Programmer Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Dukelow, J.S.; Whitford, D.

    1998-12-01

    A model for the estimation of the risk of diversion of weapons-capable materials was developed. It represents both the threat of diversion and site vulnerability as a product of a small number of variables (two to eight), each of which can take on a small number (two to four) of qualitatively defined (but quantitatively implemented) values. The values of the overall threat and vulnerability variables are then converted to threat and vulnerability categories. The threat and vulnerability categories are used to define the likelihood of diversion, also defined categorically. The evaluator supplies an estimate of the consequences of a diversion, defined categorically, but with the categories based on the IAEA Attractiveness levels. Likelihood and Consequences categories are used to define the Risk, also defined categorically. The threat, vulnerability, and consequences input provided by the evaluator contains a representation of his/her uncertainty in each variable assignment which is propagated all the way through to the calculation of the Risk categories. [Appendix G available on diskette only.

  11. A Distributed Model for Managing Academic Staff in an International Online Academic Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Yoram M.; Leng, Paul H.

    2007-01-01

    Online delivery of programmes of Higher Education typically involves a distributed community of students interacting with a single university site, at which the teachers, learning resources and administration of the programme are located. The alternative model, of a fully "Virtual University", which assumes no physical campus, poses problems of…

  12. The Effects of Instructional Procedures on Beginning Programmers' Mental Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayman, Piraye

    Because previous research by Bayman and Mayer (1983) suggests that individuals who attempt to learn their first computer language develop a variety of misconceptions of the meanings of individual programming statements, this study investigated whether it is possible to enhance beginning programmers' understanding of the programming statements…

  13. Community Environmental Education as a Model for Effective Environmental Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Morag

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of community environmental education outlined in environmental education literature are supported by the findings and implications of a research study undertaken in New Zealand. Evidence from a two-case case study suggests that environmental programmes guided by the key principles and practices of community environmental education,…

  14. Cost-effectiveness of a hypertension management programme in an elderly population: a Markov model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mounting evidence shows that multi-intervention programmes for hypertension treatment are more effective than an isolated pharmacological strategy. Full economic evaluations of hypertension management programmes are scarce and contain methodological limitations. The aim of the study was to evaluate if a hypertension management programme for elderly patients is cost-effective compared to usual care from the perspective of a third-party payer. Methods We built a cost-effectiveness model using published evidence of effectiveness of a comprehensive hypertension programme vs. usual care for patients 65 years or older at a community hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We explored incremental cost-effectiveness between groups. The model used a life-time framework adopting a third-party payer's perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated in International Dollars per life-year gained. We performed a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) to explore variable uncertainty. Results The ICER for the base-case of the "Hypertension Programme" versus the "Usual care" approach was 1,124 International Dollars per life-year gained. PSA did not significantly influence results. The programme had a probability of 43% of being dominant (more effective and less costly) and, overall, 95% chance of being cost-effective. Discussion Results showed that "Hypertension Programme" had high probabilities of being cost-effective under a wide range of scenarios. This is the first sound cost-effectiveness study to assess a comprehensive hypertension programme versus usual care. This study measures hard outcomes and explores robustness through a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Conclusions The comprehensive hypertension programme had high probabilities of being cost-effective versus usual care. This study supports the idea that similar programmes could be the preferred strategy in countries and within health care systems where hypertension treatment for

  15. An Evidence-Based Model for Early-Grade Reading Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John P.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a model for design of early-grade reading programmes that is based on research and the implementation of research findings. The model has three components: (1) schools should provide instruction in a language their students speak and understand; (2) teachers should employ instruction that is consistent with the current…

  16. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION FOR THE TEXAS INSTRUMENTS PROGRAMMABLE 59 CALCULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a version of EPA's electrostatic precipitator (ESP) model suitable for use on a Texas Instruments Programmable 59 (TI-59) hand-held calculator. This version of the model allows the calculation of ESP collection efficiency, including corrections for non-ideal ...

  17. Programmer's guide to the Argonne Coal Market Model. [USA; mathematical models

    SciTech Connect

    Guziel, K.A.; Krohm, G.C.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Macal, C.M.

    1980-02-01

    The Argonne Coal Market Model was developed as part of a comprehensive DOE study of coal-related environmental, health, and safety impacts. The model includes a high degree of regional detail on both supply and demand. Coal demand is input separately for industrial and utility users in each region, and coal supply in each region is characterized by a linearly increasing function relating increments of new mine capacity to the marginal cost of extraction. Rail transportation costs and control technology costs are estimated for each supply-demand link. A quadratic programming algorithm is used to optimize flow patterns for the system. This report documents the model for programmers and users interested in technical details of the computer code.

  18. A Model for Design of Tailored Working Environment Intervention Programmes for Small Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Kvorning, Laura V; Rasmussen, Charlotte DN; Smith, Louise H; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Small enterprises have higher exposure to occupational hazards compared to larger enterprises and further, they have fewer resources to control the risks. In order to improve the working environment, development of efficient measures is therefore a major challenge for regulators and other stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to develop a systematic model for the design of tailored intervention programmes meeting the needs of small enterprises. Methods An important challenge for the design process is the transfer of knowledge from one context to another. The concept of realist analysis can provide insight into mechanisms by which intervention knowledge can be transferred from one context to another. We use this theoretical approach to develop a design model. Results The model consist of five steps: 1) Defining occupational health and safety challenges of the target group, 2) selecting methods to improve the working environment, 3) developing theories about mechanisms which motivate the target group, 4) analysing the specific context of the target group for small enterprise programmes including owner-management role, social relations, and the perception of the working environment, and 5) designing the intervention based on the preceding steps. We demonstrate how the design model can be applied in practice by the development of an intervention programme for small enterprises in the construction industry. Conclusion The model provides a useful tool for a systematic design process. The model makes it transparent for both researchers and practitioners as to how existing knowledge can be used in the design of new intervention programmes. PMID:23019530

  19. A Left-Hemisphere Model for Right-Hemisphere Programmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Gordon C.

    The paper presents an action-and-decision (left-hemisphere) algorithm as a model for planning by holistic, intuitive (right-hemisphere) managers of service programs, including programs for exceptional children. Because the model is not based upon an established literature in the field of service to exceptional individuals, and because it appears…

  20. Flexible Programmes in Higher Professional Education: Expert Validation of a Flexible Educational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellekens, Ad; Paas, Fred; Verbraeck, Alexander; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    In a preceding case study, a process-focused demand-driven approach for organising flexible educational programmes in higher professional education (HPE) was developed. Operations management and instructional design contributed to designing a flexible educational model by means of discrete-event simulation. Educational experts validated the model…

  1. Academic Civic Mindedness and Model Citizenship in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky

    2016-01-01

    This study uses interview and survey methods to describe the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme's (DP) development of students' "academic civic mindedness" and "model citizenship" at four public schools in California. Results indicate that the DP pedagogy enables students to develop many of the skills that are…

  2. Implementation of Linus Programme Based on the Model of Van Meter and Van Horn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Nazariyah bt; Idris, Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the understanding of school leaders on the implementation of LINUS programme that based on the features contained in the Implementation Model of Van Meter and Van Horn (1975). The study was carried out in the form of qualitative method and particularly, the multiple case studies that were conducted in four…

  3. Evaluation of the Barnet Early Autism Model (BEAM) Teaching Intervention Programme in a "Real World" Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A.; Makrygianni, Maria; Waddington, Emma; Etherington, Annie; Gainsborough, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The Barnet Early Autism Model (BEAM) for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was compared to a time-comparable approach (Portage) in terms of child outcomes and parental functioning. BEAM produced improvements in the adaptive behavioural function and language abilities of the children with ASD. Additionally, the programme produced…

  4. From Activity to Learning: Using Cultural Historical Activity Theory to Model School Library Programmes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Eric M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: changes in educational policy and practice demand that we examine school library programmes from a new perspective. As a model that takes a developmental view of minds in context, Cultural Historical Activity Theory is particularly well suited to the study of school libraries and the learning that occurs therein. This paper focuses…

  5. Model Programmes and Practice Issues in Orientation and Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Mary-Maureen; Hill, Everett W.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses diversity in the population of individuals with visual impairments, the changing role of orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists, and the broadened definition of O&M. An overview of best practices and model demonstration programs for providing O&M services to a diverse population of persons with visual impairments is presented. (SM)

  6. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : programmer's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus, C. M.; Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.

    1999-02-24

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.

  7. A modelling approach to vaccination and contraception programmes for rabies control in fox populations.

    PubMed

    Suppo, C; Naulin, J M; Langlais, M; Artois, M

    2000-08-01

    In a previous study, three of the authors designed a one-dimensional model to simulate the propagation of rabies within a growing fox population; the influence of various parameters on the epidemic model was studied, including oral-vaccination programmes. In this work, a two-dimensional model of a fox population having either an exponential or a logistic growth pattern was considered. Using numerical simulations, the efficiencies of two prophylactic methods (fox contraception and vaccination against rabies) were assessed, used either separately or jointly. It was concluded that far lower rates of administration are necessary to eradicate rabies, and that the undesirable side-effects of each programme disappear, when both are used together. PMID:11007334

  8. Student Satisfaction with Canadian Music Programmes: The Application of the American Customer Satisfaction Model in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to empirically investigate several antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction (SS) with Canadian university music programmes as well as to measure students' level of programme satisfaction. For this, the American Customer Satisfaction Model was tested through a survey of 276 current Canadian music students.…

  9. A programme of studies including assessment of diagnostic accuracy of school hearing screening tests and a cost-effectiveness model of school entry hearing screening programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Fortnum, Heather; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Hyde, Chris; Taylor, Rod S; Ozolins, Mara; Errington, Sam; Zhelev, Zhivko; Pritchard, Clive; Benton, Claire; Moody, Joanne; Cocking, Laura; Watson, Julian; Roberts, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Identification of permanent hearing impairment at the earliest possible age is crucial to maximise the development of speech and language. Universal newborn hearing screening identifies the majority of the 1 in 1000 children born with a hearing impairment, but later onset can occur at any time and there is no optimum time for further screening. A universal but non-standardised school entry screening (SES) programme is in place in many parts of the UK but its value is questioned. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of hearing screening tests and the cost-effectiveness of the SES programme in the UK. DESIGN Systematic review, case-control diagnostic accuracy study, comparison of routinely collected data for services with and without a SES programme, parental questionnaires, observation of practical implementation and cost-effectiveness modelling. SETTING Second- and third-tier audiology services; community. PARTICIPANTS Children aged 4-6 years and their parents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Diagnostic accuracy of two hearing screening devices, referral rate and source, yield, age at referral and cost per quality-adjusted life-year. RESULTS The review of diagnostic accuracy studies concluded that research to date demonstrates marked variability in the design, methodological quality and results. The pure-tone screen (PTS) (Amplivox, Eynsham, UK) and HearCheck (HC) screener (Siemens, Frimley, UK) devices had high sensitivity (PTS ≥ 89%, HC ≥ 83%) and specificity (PTS ≥ 78%, HC ≥ 83%) for identifying hearing impairment. The rate of referral for hearing problems was 36% lower with SES (Nottingham) relative to no SES (Cambridge) [rate ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 0.69; p < 0.001]. The yield of confirmed cases did not differ between areas with and without SES (rate ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.06; p = 0.12). The mean age of referral did not differ between areas with and without SES for all referrals but children

  10. Falten und fliegen: Papierflieger und ihre Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Werner

    2004-09-01

    Mit Papierfliegern können wichtige Eigenschaften der Aerodynamik anschaulich vermittelt werden: ein Blatt Papier, ein paar Faltungen und schon kann man experimentieren. Allerdings sind beim Trimmen des Fliegers einige Punkte zu beachten. Besonders wichtig ist die Y-Stellung der Flügel, die ihm Flugstabilität verleiht. Ist der Flieger fertig, dann gilt es, die dem Modell am besten angepasste Wurftechnik herauszufinden. Dazu variiert man Wurfgeschwindigkeit und Abwurfwinkel. Den Boden kann ein Papierflieger auf vier prinzipiell verschiedenen Flugkurven erreichen: Optimal ist die Gerade, dann fliegt er am weitesten.

  11. A Model Immunization Programme to Control Japanese Encephalitis in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Nguyen Thu; Hanh, Hoang Duc; Chang, Na Yoon; Duong, Tran Nhu; Gibbons, Robert V.; Marks, Florian; Thu, Nghiem Anh; Hong, Nguyen Minh; Park, Jin Kyung; Tuan, Pham Anh; Nisalak, Ananda; Clemens, John D.; Xu, Zhi-yi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Viet Nam, an inactivated, mouse brain-derived vaccine for Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been given exclusively to ≤5 years old children in 3 paediatric doses since 1997. However, JE incidence remained high, especially among children aged 5-9 years. We conducted a model JE immunization programme to assess the feasibility and impact of JE vaccine administered to 1-9 year(s) children in 3 standard-dose regimen: paediatric doses for children aged <3 years and adult doses for those aged ≥3 years. Of the targeted children, 96.2% were immunized with ≥2 doses of the vaccine. Compared to the national immunization programme, JE incidence rate declined sharply in districts with the model programme (11.32 to 0.87 per 100,000 in pre-versus post-vaccination period). The rate of reduction was most significant in the 5-9 years age-group. We recommend a policy change to include 5-9 years old children in the catch-up immunization campaign and administer a 4th dose to those aged 5-9 years, who had received 3 doses of the vaccine during the first 2-3 years of life. PMID:25995736

  12. Implementation of an HACCP model in foot and mouth disease control programmes.

    PubMed

    van Gelderen, C J; Durrieu, M; Schudel, A A

    2015-12-01

    The organisation and structure of the official Veterinary Services (OVS) are designed to meet a specific aim--the health certification of animal health, welfare and food safety in the production and processing stage. Disease prevention and control calls for programmes and projects that, depending on the characteristics of each disease, may involve any branch of the OVS, from the laboratory to field activities. For the purpose of this work, the model used is that of a country that is 'free from foot and mouth disease with vaccination' in accordance with the conditions stipulated in Chapter 8.8. of the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code. These conditions state that, to maintain this health status, a programme of monitoring and continuous control of the relevant variables must be implemented. This is achieved by applying good practice and identifying the critical control points in all processes, using a checklist that simplifies the task. The system that is developed can also serve as a guide for internal or external programme audits. PMID:27044166

  13. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip (2nd Aufl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  14. Human Onchocerciasis: Modelling the Potential Long-term Consequences of a Vaccination Programme

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Hugo C.; Walker, Martin; Lustigman, Sara; Taylor, David W.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, the predominant onchocerciasis control strategy in Africa is annual mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin. However, there is a consensus among the global health community, supported by mathematical modelling, that onchocerciasis in Africa will not be eliminated within proposed time frameworks in all endemic foci with only annual MDA, and novel and alternative strategies are urgently needed. Furthermore, use of MDA with ivermectin is already compromised in large areas of central Africa co-endemic with Loa loa, and there are areas where suboptimal or atypical responses to ivermectin have been documented. An onchocerciasis vaccine would be highly advantageous in these areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a previously developed onchocerciasis transmission model (EPIONCHO) to investigate the impact of vaccination in areas where loiasis and onchocerciasis are co-endemic and ivermectin is contraindicated. We also explore the potential influence of a vaccination programme on infection resurgence in areas where local elimination has been successfully achieved. Based on the age range included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), the vaccine was assumed to target 1 to 5 year olds. Our modelling results indicate that the deployment of an onchocerciasis vaccine would have a beneficial impact in onchocerciasis–loiasis co-endemic areas, markedly reducing microfilarial load in the young (under 20 yr) age groups. Conclusions/Significance An onchocerciasis prophylactic vaccine would reduce the onchocerciasis disease burden in populations where ivermectin cannot be administered safely. Moreover, a vaccine could substantially decrease the chance of re-emergence of Onchocerca volvulus infection in areas where it is deemed that MDA with ivermectin can be stopped. Therefore, a vaccine would protect the substantial investments made by present and past onchocerciasis control programmes, decreasing the chance of disease recrudescence and

  15. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 3.34): Programmer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie F.; Johnson, Dale L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a programmer's guide for the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 3.34). Included are a brief history and review of the model since its origin in 1988 and a technical discussion of recent additions and modifications. Examples of how to run both the interactive and batch (subroutine) forms are presented. Instructions are provided on how to customize output of the model for various parameters of the Mars atmosphere. Detailed descriptions are given of the main driver programs, subroutines, and associated computational methods. Lists and descriptions include input, output, and local variables in the programs. These descriptions give a summary of program steps and 'map' of calling relationships among the subroutines. Definitions are provided for the variables passed between subroutines through common lists. Explanations are provided for all diagnostic and progress messages generated during execution of the program. A brief outline of future plans for Mars-GRAM is also presented.

  16. Functional Model of Carbon Nanotube Programmable Resistors for Hybrid Nano/CMOS Circuit Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weisheng; Agnus, Guillaume; Derycke, Vincent; Filoramo, Ariana; Gamrat, Christian; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe

    Hybrid Nano (e.g. Nanotube and Nanowire) /CMOS circuits combine both the advantages of Nano-devices and CMOS technologies; they have thus become the most promising candidates to relax the intrinsic drawbacks of CMOS circuits beyond Moore’s law. A functional simulation model for an hybrid Nano/CMOS design is presented in this paper. It is based on Optically Gated Carbon NanoTube Field Effect Transistors (OG-CNTFET), which can be used as 2-terminal programmable resistors. Their resistance can be adjusted precisely, reproducibly and in a non-volatile way, over three orders of magnitude. These interesting behaviors of OG-CNTFET promise great potential for developing the non-volatile memory and neuromorphic adaptive computing circuits. The model is developed in Verilog-A language and implemented on Cadence Virtuoso platform with Spectre 5.1.41 simulator. Many experimental parameters are included in this model to improve the simulation accuracy.

  17. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Prevention Programmes in Vietnam, 2006-2010: A Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Quang Duy; Wilson, David P.; Kerr, Cliff C.; Shattock, Andrew J.; Do, Hoa Mai; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vietnam has been largely reliant on international support in its HIV response. Over 2006-2010, a total of US$480 million was invested in its HIV programmes, more than 70% of which came from international sources. This study investigates the potential epidemiological impacts of these programmes and their cost-effectiveness. Methods We conducted a data synthesis of HIV programming, spending, epidemiological, and clinical outcomes. Counterfactual scenarios were defined based on assumed programme coverage and behaviours had the programmes not been implemented. An epidemiological model, calibrated to reflect the actual epidemiological trends, was used to estimate plausible ranges of programme impacts. The model was then used to estimate the costs per averted infection, death, and disability adjusted life-year (DALY). Results Based on observed prevalence reductions amongst most population groups, and plausible counterfactuals, modelling suggested that antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention programmes over 2006-2010 have averted an estimated 50,600 [95% uncertainty bound: 36,300–68,900] new infections and 42,600 [36,100–54,100] deaths, resulting in 401,600 [312,200–496,300] fewer DALYs across all population groups. HIV programmes in Vietnam have cost an estimated US$1,972 [1,447–2,747], US$2,344 [1,843–2,765], and US$248 [201–319] for each averted infection, death, and DALY, respectively. Conclusions Our evaluation suggests that HIV programmes in Vietnam have most likely had benefits that are cost-effective. ART and direct HIV prevention were the most cost-effective interventions in reducing HIV disease burden. PMID:26196290

  18. Transfer of Learning from Management Development Programmes: Testing the Holton Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwan, Cyril; Birchall, David

    2006-01-01

    Transfer of learning from management development programmes has been described as the effective and continuing application back at work of the knowledge and skills gained on those programmes. It is a very important issue for organizations today, given the large amounts of investment in these programmes and the small amounts of that investment that…

  19. Preparing the Dutch delta for future droughts: model based support in the national Delta Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Maat, Judith; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; van der Vat, Marnix; Hunink, Joachim; Prinsen, Geert; Visser, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: uncertainty, policymaking, adaptive policies, fresh water management, droughts, Netherlands, Dutch Deltaprogramme, physically-based complex model, theory-motivated meta-model To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, is established to assess impacts of climate scenarios and socio-economic developments and to explore policy options. The results should contribute to a national adaptive plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions, if necessary. For this purpose, we followed a model-based step-wise approach, wherein both physically-based complex models and theory-motivated meta-models were used. First step (2010-2011) was to make a quantitative problem description. This involved a sensitivity analysis of the water system for drought situations under current and future conditions. The comprehensive Dutch national hydrological instrument was used for this purpose and further developed. Secondly (2011-2012) our main focus was on making an inventory of potential actions together with stakeholders. We assessed efficacy, sell-by date of actions, and reassessed vulnerabilities and opportunities for the future water supply system if actions were (not) taken. A rapid assessment meta-model was made based on the complex model. The effects of all potential measures were included in the tool. Thirdly (2012-2013), with support of the rapid assessment model, we assessed the efficacy of policy actions over time for an ensemble of possible futures including sea level rise and climate and land use change. Last step (2013-2014) involves the selection of preferred actions from a set of promising actions that meet the defined objectives. These actions are all modeled and evaluated using the complex model. The outcome of the process will be an adaptive management plan. The adaptive plan describes a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of policy actions - to achieve targets under

  20. Modeling programmable deformation of self-folding all-polymer structures with temperature-sensitive hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Meie; Zhou, Jinxiong

    2013-11-01

    Combination of soft active hydrogels with hard passive polymers gives rise to all-polymer composites. The hydrogel is sensitive to external stimuli while the passive polymer is inert. Utilizing the different behaviors of two materials subject to environmental variation, for example temperature, results in self-folding soft machines. We report our efforts to model the programmable deformation of self-folding structures with temperature-sensitive hydrogels. The self-folding structures are realized either by constructing a bilayer structure or by incorporating hydrogels as hinges. The methodology and the results may aid the design, control and fabrication of 3D complex structures from 2D simple configurations through self-assembly.

  1. Accurate programmable electrocardiogram generator using a dynamical model implemented on a microcontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien Chang, Jia-Ren; Tai, Cheng-Chi

    2006-07-01

    This article reports on the design and development of a complete, programmable electrocardiogram (ECG) generator, which can be used for the testing, calibration and maintenance of electrocardiograph equipment. A modified mathematical model, developed from the three coupled ordinary differential equations of McSharry et al. [IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 289, (2003)], was used to locate precisely the positions of the onset, termination, angle, and duration of individual components in an ECG. Generator facilities are provided so the user can adjust the signal amplitude, heart rate, QRS-complex slopes, and P- and T-wave settings. The heart rate can be adjusted in increments of 1BPM (beats per minute), from 20to176BPM, while the amplitude of the ECG signal can be set from 0.1to400mV with a 0.1mV resolution. Experimental results show that the proposed concept and the resulting system are feasible.

  2. Entrepreneurial training for girls empowerment in Lesotho: A process evaluation of a model programme

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Mary O'Neill; Kuriansky, Judy; Lytle, Megan; Vistman, Bozhena; Mosisili, ‘Mathato S.; Hlothoane, Lieketso; Matlanyane, Mapeo; Mokobori, Thabang; Mosuhli, Silas; Pebane, Jane

    2014-01-01

    A Girls Empowerment Programme held in 2010 in Lesotho, Sub-Saharan Africa, focused on HIV/AIDS risk reduction and prevention, life skills and entrepreneurial training (income-generating activities). Entrepreneurial training was a crucial part of equipping the camp attendees with basic skills to help them develop sustainable livelihoods. Such skills and financial independence are essential to enable rural girls to complete their secondary schooling (in a fee-based educational system) and to pursue a career, as well as to further help them be less susceptible to transactional sex and its significant risks. The results of a brief process evaluation with some nested supporting data showed considerable improvement in the girls' knowledge about income-generating activities. In addition, almost half of the camp attendees participated in further entrepreneurial training and about half of these girls went on to develop small businesses. Replication of this model of camp training is recommended and being explored in other African countries. PMID:25505804

  3. Exploration geophysics calculator programs for use on Hewlett-Packard models 67 and 97 programmable calculators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, David L.; Watts, Raymond D.

    1978-01-01

    Program listing, instructions, and example problems are given for 12 programs for the interpretation of geophysical data, for use on Hewlett-Packard models 67 and 97 programmable hand-held calculators. These are (1) gravity anomaly over 2D prism with = 9 vertices--Talwani method; (2) magnetic anomaly (?T, ?V, or ?H) over 2D prism with = 8 vertices?Talwani method; (3) total-field magnetic anomaly profile over thick sheet/thin dike; (4) single dipping seismic refractor--interpretation and design; (5) = 4 dipping seismic refractors--interpretation; (6) = 4 dipping seismic refractors?design; (7) vertical electrical sounding over = 10 horizontal layers--Schlumberger or Wenner forward calculation; (8) vertical electric sounding: Dar Zarrouk calculations; (9) magnetotelluric planewave apparent conductivity and phase angle over = 9 horizontal layers--forward calculation; (10) petrophysics: a.c. electrical parameters; (11) petrophysics: elastic constants; (12) digital convolution with = 10-1ength filter.

  4. Cohort effects in dynamic models and their impact on vaccination programmes: an example from Hepatitis A

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, Arni SR; Chen, Maggie H; Pham, Ba' Z; Tricco, Andrea C; Gilca, Vladimir; Duval, Bernard; Krahn, Murray D; Bauch, Chris T

    2006-01-01

    Background Infection rates for many infectious diseases have declined over the past century. This has created a cohort effect, whereby older individuals experienced a higher infection rate in their past than younger individuals do now. As a result, age-stratified seroprevalence profiles often differ from what would be expected from constant infection rates. Methods Here, we account for the cohort effect by fitting an age-structured compartmental model with declining transmission rates to Hepatitis A seroprevalence data for Canadian-born individuals. We compare the predicted impact of universal vaccination with and without including the cohort effect in the dynamic model. Results We find that Hepatitis A transmissibility has declined by a factor of 2.8 since the early twentieth century. When the cohort effect is not included in the model, incidence and mortality both with and without vaccination are significantly over-predicted. Incidence (respectively mortality) over a 20 year period of universal vaccination is 34% (respectively 90%) higher than if the cohort effect is included. The percentage reduction in incidence and mortality due to vaccination are also over-predicted when the cohort effect is not included. Similar effects are likely for many other infectious diseases where infection rates have declined significantly over past decades and where immunity is lifelong. Conclusion Failure to account for cohort effects has implications for interpreting seroprevalence data and predicting the impact of vaccination programmes with dynamic models. Cohort effects should be included in dynamic modelling studies whenever applicable. PMID:17147828

  5. Modeling and Design of Realistic Si3N4-BASED Integrated Optical Programmable Power Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uranus, H. P.; Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.; Stoffer, R.

    Controllable splitting of optical power with a large splitting ratio range is often required in an integrated optical chip, e.g. for the readout of phase-shift in a slow-light sensor. In this work, we report the modeling and design of an integrated optical programmable power splitter consisting of a Y-junction with a programmable phase-shifter cascaded to a directional coupler. We used a vectorial mode solver, and a combination of a transfer matrix method with a 3D vectorial coupled-mode theory (CMT) to compute the power transfer ratio of a realistic device structure made of Si3N4, TEOS, and SiO2 grown on a Si substrate. In the simulations, waveguide attenuation values derived from the measured attenuation of a prefabricated test wafer, have been taken into account. Vectorial modal fields of individual waveguides, as computed by a mode solver, were used as the basis for the CMT computation. In the simulation, an operational wavelength around 632.8 nm was assumed. Our simulations reveal that maximum power splitting ratio can be achieved when the directional coupler is operated as a 3-dB coupler with the phase-shifter set to produce a 90° phase-shift. The required coupler length for such desired operating condition is highly-dependent on the gap size. On the other hand, the inclusion of the waveguide loss and the non-parallel section of the directional coupler into the model only slightly affect the results.

  6. The Impact of Professional Development: A Theoretical Model for Empirical Research, Evaluation, Planning and Conducting Training and Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Stephan Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers several trends in professional development programmes found internationally. The use of multiple learning approaches and of different modes and types of learning in PD is described. Various theories and models of evaluation are discussed in the light of common professional development activities. Several recommendations are…

  7. A Causal Modelling Approach to the Development of Theory-Based Behaviour Change Programmes for Trial Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardeman, Wendy; Sutton, Stephen; Griffin, Simon; Johnston, Marie; White, Anthony; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kinmonth, Ann Louise

    2005-01-01

    Theory-based intervention programmes to support health-related behaviour change aim to increase health impact and improve understanding of mechanisms of behaviour change. However, the science of intervention development remains at an early stage. We present a causal modelling approach to developing complex interventions for evaluation in…

  8. Design of a Model for a Professional Development Programme for a Multidisciplinary Science Subject in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Talitha C.; Coenders, Fer G. M.; Terlouw, Cees; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are increasingly integrating multidisciplinary education into their programmes. The Minister of Education, Culture and Science has introduced a new, integrated science subject in secondary education in the Netherlands, called Nature, Life and Technology (NLT). This research note describes the design of a generic model for a professional…

  9. Developing the Model for Optimal Learning and Transfer (MOLT) Following an Evaluation of Outdoor Groupwork Skills Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Sam Joseph; Cumming, Jennifer; Holland, Mark J. G.; Burns, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the perceived efficacy of outdoor groupwork skills programmes for the undergraduate and postgraduate students, and the factors that influence its success. It also illustrates the use of Kirkpatrick's (1994) 4-level model of training evaluation as a framework for qualitative investigation of learning and…

  10. The potential spread of severe footrot in Norway if no elimination programme had been initiated: a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Grøneng, Gry M; Vatn, Synnøve; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Nafstad, Ola; Hopp, Petter

    2015-01-01

    When severe footrot was detected in Norway in 2008, a surveillance programme was initiated and followed by an elimination programme. By 2013 the disease had spread to two of 19 counties and a total of 119 (1%) sheep flocks had been diagnosed with severe footrot. A simulation model was developed to estimate the potential spread of severe footrot in Norway and to estimate the relative importance of the different spreading routes. The model parameters were based on the rate of spread of the first 38 diagnosed cases and the management and climatic factors particular for Norway. The model showed that by 2013, severe footrot would have spread to six counties and infected 16% of the sheep flocks if no elimination programme had been initiated. If this is compared with the 1% of flocks that were diagnosed in Norway by 2013, there seems to be a large effect of the implemented footrot elimination programme. By 2035, it was estimated that severe footrot would have spread to 16 counties and 64% of the sheep flocks. Such an extensive spread would probably impose a large negative impact on the sheep industry and welfare of the sheep. The most effective way to curb the spread of severe footrot was by decreasing the within county infection rate. This could be achieved by decreasing the contact between flocks or by decreasing the environmental load of D. nodosus, for example by footbathing sheep, culling diseased sheep or eliminating severe footrot in the flock. PMID:25828795

  11. An Economic Aspect of the AVOID Programme: Analysis Using the AIM/CGE Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2010-05-01

    This presentation purposes to show the results of the analysis that the AIM/CGE [Global] model contributed to Work Stream 1 of the AVOID programme. Three economic models participate in this WS to analyze the economic aspects of defined climate policies, and the AIM/CGE [Global] model is one of them. The reference scenario is SRES A1B and five policy scenarios (2016.R2.H, 2016.R4.L, 2016.R5.L, 2030.R2.H, and 2030.R5.L) are considered. The climate policies are expressed as emissions pathways of several gases such as greenhouse gases and aerosols. The AIM/CGE [Global] model is a recursive dynamic global CGE model with 21 industrial sectors and 24 world regions. These definitions are based on the GTAP6 database and it is used as the economic data of the base year. Some important characteristics of this model can be summarized as follows: power generation by various sources (from non-renewables to renewables) are considered; CCS technology is modeled; biomass energy (both traditional and purpose-grown) production and consumption are included; not only CO2 emissions but also other gases are considered; international markets are modeled for international trade of some fossil fuels; relationships between the costs and resource reserves of fossil fuels are modeled. The model is run with 10-year time steps until 2100. For the reference case, there are no constraints and the model is run based on the drivers (assumptions on GDP and population for A1B) and AEEI. The reference case does not have the same emissions pathways as the prescribed emissions for A1B in AVOID. For scenario cases, the model is run under emissions constraints. In particular, for each policy scenario, the constraint on each gas in each 10-year step is derived. The percentage reduction in emissions that occurs between the AVOID A1B scenario and the particular policy scenario, for each gas in each 10-year period is first calculated, and then these percentage reductions are applied to the AIM reference case

  12. Costs and longer-term savings of parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conduct disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders in children and may persist into adulthood in about 50% of cases. The costs to society are high and impact many public sector agencies. Parenting programmes have been shown to positively affect child behaviour, but little is known about their potential long-term cost-effectiveness. We therefore estimate the costs of and longer-term savings from evidence-based parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder. Methods A decision-analytic Markov model compares two scenarios: 1) a 5-year old with clinical conduct disorder receives an evidence-based parenting programme; 2) the same 5-year old does not receive the programme. Cost-savings analysis is performed by comparing the probability that conduct disorder persists over time in each scenario, adopting both a public sector and a societal perspective. If the intervention is successful in reducing persistent conduct disorder, cost savings may arise from reduced use of health services, education support, social care, voluntary agencies and from crimes averted. Results Results strongly suggest that parenting programmes reduce the chance that conduct disorder persists into adulthood and are cost-saving to the public sector within 5-8 years under base case conditions. Total savings to society over 25 years are estimated at £16,435 per family, which compares with an intervention cost in the range of £952-£2,078 (2008/09 prices). Conclusions Effective implementation of evidence-based parenting programmes is likely to yield cost savings to the public sector and society. More research is needed to address evidence gaps regarding the current level of provision, longer-term effectiveness and questions of implementation, engagement and equity. PMID:21999434

  13. WASP4, a hydrodynamic and water-quality model - model theory, user's manual, and programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, R.B.; Wool, T.A.; Connolly, J.P.; Schanz, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program Version 4 (WASP4) is a dynamic compartment-modeling system that can be used to analyze a variety of water-quality problems in a diverse set of water bodies. WASP4 simulates the transport and transformation of conventional and toxic pollutants in the water column and benthos of ponds, streams, lakes, reservoirs, rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters. The WASP4 modeling system covers four major subjects--hydrodynamics, conservative mass transport, eutrophication-dissolved oxygen kinetics, and toxic chemical-sediment dynamics. The WASP4 modeling system consists of two stand-alone computer programs, DYNHYD4 and WASP4, that can be run in conjunction or separately. The hydrodynamic program, DYNHYD4, simulates the movement of water and the water quality program, WASP4, simulates the movement and interaction of pollutants within the water. The latter program is supplied with two kinetic submodels to simulate two of the major classes of water-quality problems--conventional pollution (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, nutrients, and eutrophication) and toxic pollution (organic chemicals, heavy metals, and sediment). The substitution of either sub-model constitutes the models EUTRO4 and TOXI4, respectively.

  14. WASP4, A HYDRODYNAMIC AND WATER QUALITY MODEL - MODEL THEORY, USER'S MANUAL, AND PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program Version 4 (WASP4) is a dynamic compartment modeling system that can be used to analyze a variety of water quality problems in a diverse set of water bodies. WASP4 simulates the transport and transformation of conventional and toxic po...

  15. Branchen und Unternehmensbereiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Regine

    Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die Haupteinsatzgebiete von Mathematikern, Informatikern, Naturwissenschaftlern und Ingenieuren in den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbranchen und Unternehmensbereichen. Dabei werden ausbildungsnahe Aufgabenbereiche ebenso beschrieben wie eher fachferne Tätigkeiten und neben den klassischen Branchen und Berufsbildern auch neue Tätigkeitsfelder für MINT-Fachkräfte beschrieben.

  16. African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control 1995–2015: Model-Estimated Health Impact and Cost

    PubMed Central

    Coffeng, Luc E.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Zouré, Honorat G. M.; Veerman, J. Lennert; Agblewonu, Koffi B.; Murdoch, Michele E.; Noma, Mounkaila; Fobi, Grace; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Bundy, Donald A. P.; Habbema, Dik; de Vlas, Sake J.; Amazigo, Uche V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. Methods and Findings With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. Conclusions Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future. PMID:23383355

  17. Shuttle cryogenics supply system. Optimization study. Volume 5 B-2, part 1: Appendix programmers manual for math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An appendix to the programmers manual for the mathematical model pertaining to the design of cryogenic supply systems for spacecraft is presented. The program listing was produced using the EXEC-8 LISTALL processor which lists a file in alphabetical order. Since the processor does not differentiate between subroutines, functions, and procedure definition processors, each subprogram has been relabeled to clearly identify the type of symbolic listing.

  18. Shuttle cryogenics supply system optimization study. Volume 5, B-3, part 2: Appendix to programmers manual for math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A computer programmer's manual for a digital computer which will permit rapid and accurate parametric analysis of current and advanced attitude control propulsion systems is presented. The concept is for a cold helium pressurized, subcritical cryogen fluid supplied, bipropellant gas-fed attitude control propulsion system. The cryogen fluids are stored as liquids under low pressure and temperature conditions. The mathematical model provides a generalized form for the procedural technique employed in setting up the analysis program.

  19. Estimating the coverage of a targeted mobile tuberculosis screening programme among illicit drug users and homeless persons with truncated models

    PubMed Central

    VAN HEST, N. A. H.; De VRIES, G.; SMIT, F.; GRANT, A. D.; RICHARDUS, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Truncated models are indirect methods to estimate the size of a hidden population which, in contrast to the capture–recapture method, can be used on a single information source. We estimated the coverage of a tuberculosis screening programme among illicit drug users and homeless persons with a mobile digital X-ray unit between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005 in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, using truncated models. The screening programme reached about two-third of the estimated target population at least once annually. The intended coverage (at least two chest X-rays per person per year) was about 23%. We conclude that simple truncated models can be used relatively easily on available single-source routine data to estimate the size of a population of illicit drug users and homeless persons. We assumed that the most likely overall bias in this study would be overestimation and therefore the coverage of the targeted mobile tuberculosis screening programme would be higher. PMID:17631692

  20. Meeting International Postgraduate Student Needs: A Programme-Based Model for Learning and Teaching Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Nigel; Dickinson, John

    2012-01-01

    International postgraduate students are important to the higher education sectors of many countries. They arrive from all over the world with diverse cultures and prior experiences. Such students present additional challenges in terms of programme-based learning and teaching support. This action research was undertaken at a large university…

  1. The BLK "21" Programme In Germany: A "Gestaltungskompetenz"-Based Model For Education For Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Haan, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to describe the German BLK "21" Programme (State--Federal States Commission for Educational Planning and Research Promotion [BLK]) which supported the introduction of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) into schools from 1999 to 2004. Its political basis, conceptualisation, implementation and results are described.…

  2. A Model for Developing and Assessing Youth-Based Environmental Engagement Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riemer, Manuel; Lynes, Jennifer; Hickman, Gina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that a fundamental cultural shift is needed to effectively address anthropogenic causes of climate change. Evidence suggests that youth are well positioned to create such transformation. While various studies have contributed empirical evidence to numerous youth-based non-formal environmental engagement programmes, what is…

  3. Integrated Teacher Education Programme for Open Distance Learning: A Model for Development and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Sutapa

    2013-01-01

    Teacher education in India, including that offered by the open distance learning (ODL) system to thousands every year, imparts mainly pedagogic knowledge, although the need for integrated teacher education programmes has been underscored. As the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), an ODL institution, will develop an integrated Bachelor…

  4. Economics and planning in the veterinary undergraduate programme: a model for sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Mlangwa, J E; Kisauzi, D N

    1993-09-01

    Veterinarians in sub-Saharan Africa work in resource-deficient environments. Decisions taken by veterinarians in this sub-region, on animal health, animal husbandry and public health issues, are therefore influenced by economic factors including macro-economic considerations related to the current structural adjustment programmes being implemented in the sub-region. In turn, decisions or advice given by veterinarians have socio-economic consequences on clients, on the effectiveness of the delivery systems for veterinary services and on the growth of national economies. For these reasons, economics and planning should be essential components of all modern veterinary undergraduate programmes in sub-Saharan Africa, in order to give veterinarians a basis for making decisions and giving advice which is both technically and economically sound. The authors argue that principles of livestock economics, livestock enterprise management, livestock investment analysis and economics of animal health care are necessary elements in economics and planning courses. They propose a division of these elements into discrete course units to allow for flexibility and adaptability to the different curriculum structures of schools in sub-Saharan Africa and, possibly, continuing professional development courses. The resource requirement for teaching the courses, the integration of the units in the undergraduate programme and the problems which are likely to be encountered in developing the courses are discussed. PMID:8219326

  5. [Hardware Implementation of Numerical Simulation Function of Hodgkin-Huxley Model Neurons Action Potential Based on Field Programmable Gate Array].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinlong; Lu, Mai; Hu, Yanwen; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Pan, Qiangqiang

    2015-12-01

    Neuron is the basic unit of the biological neural system. The Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model is one of the most realistic neuron models on the electrophysiological characteristic description of neuron. Hardware implementation of neuron could provide new research ideas to clinical treatment of spinal cord injury, bionics and artificial intelligence. Based on the HH model neuron and the DSP Builder technology, in the present study, a single HH model neuron hardware implementation was completed in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The neuron implemented in FPGA was stimulated by different types of current, the action potential response characteristics were analyzed, and the correlation coefficient between numerical simulation result and hardware implementation result were calculated. The results showed that neuronal action potential response of FPGA was highly consistent with numerical simulation result. This work lays the foundation for hardware implementation of neural network. PMID:27079105

  6. Physikunterricht und Kalter Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieß, Falk; Kremer, Armin

    Die Indienstnahme des Physikunterrichts für militaristische und politische Zwecke ist in Deutschland nichts Neues: Die Wurzeln liegen im Kaiserreich und im Faschismus ("Wehrphysik"), und die Praxis im Kalten Krieg stellt hier nichts Außergewöhnliches, sondern lediglich eine auffällige Kontinuität dar.

  7. In vitro and modelling approaches to risk assessment from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ToxCast programme.

    PubMed

    Judson, Richard; Houck, Keith; Martin, Matt; Knudsen, Thomas; Thomas, Russell S; Sipes, Nisha; Shah, Imran; Wambaugh, John; Crofton, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    A significant challenge in toxicology is the 'too many chemicals' problem. Human beings and environmental species are exposed to tens of thousands of chemicals, only a small percentage of which have been tested thoroughly using standard in vivo test methods. This study reviews several approaches that are being developed to deal with this problem by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, under the umbrella of the ToxCast programme (http://epa.gov/ncct/toxcast/). The overall approach is broken into seven tasks: (i) identifying biological pathways that, when perturbed, can lead to toxicity; (ii) developing high-throughput in vitro assays to test chemical perturbations of these pathways; (iii) identifying the universe of chemicals with likely human or ecological exposure; (iv) testing as many of these chemicals as possible in the relevant in vitro assays; (v) developing hazard models that take the results of these tests and identify chemicals as being potential toxicants; (vi) generating toxicokinetics data on these chemicals to predict the doses at which these hazard pathways would be activated; and (vii) developing exposure models to identify chemicals for which these hazardous dose levels could be achieved. This overall strategy is described and briefly illustrated with recent examples from the ToxCast programme. PMID:24684691

  8. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume V. SPAHR programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, numbers of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume contains a programmer's guide to SPAHR.

  9. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  10. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  11. Using a NPWE model observer to assess suitable image quality for a digital mammography quality assurance programme.

    PubMed

    Monnin, P; Bochud, F O; Verdun, F R

    2010-01-01

    A method of objectively determining imaging performance for a mammography quality assurance programme for digital systems was developed. The method is based on the assessment of the visibility of a spherical microcalcification of 0.2 mm using a quasi-ideal observer model. It requires the assessment of the spatial resolution (modulation transfer function) and the noise power spectra of the systems. The contrast is measured using a 0.2-mm thick Al sheet and Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) blocks. The minimal image quality was defined as that giving a target contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of 5.4. Several evaluations of this objective method for evaluating image quality in mammography quality assurance programmes have been considered on computed radiography (CR) and digital radiography (DR) mammography systems. The measurement gives a threshold CNR necessary to reach the minimum standard image quality required with regards to the visibility of a 0.2-mm microcalcification. This method may replace the CDMAM image evaluation and simplify the threshold contrast visibility test used in mammography quality. PMID:20395413

  12. [Design and implementation of the pulse wave generator with field programmable gate array based on windkessel model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Fu, Quanhai; Xu, Lisheng; Liu, Jia; He, Dianning; Li, Qingchun

    2014-10-01

    Pulse waves contain rich physiological and pathological information of the human vascular system. The pulse wave diagnosis systems are very helpful for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Accurate pulse waveform is necessary to evaluate the performances of the pulse wave equipment. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate pulse waveform due to several kinds of physiological and pathological conditions for testing and maintaining the pulse wave acquisition devices. A pulse wave generator was designed and implemented in the present study for this application. The blood flow in the vessel was simulated by modeling the cardiovascular system with windkessel model. Pulse waves can be generated based on the vascular systems with four kinds of resistance. Some functional models such as setting up noise types and signal noise ratio (SNR) values were also added in the designed generator. With the need of portability, high speed dynamic response, scalability and low power consumption for the system, field programmable gate array (FPGA) was chosen as hardware platform, and almost all the works, such as developing an algorithm for pulse waveform and interfacing with memory and liquid crystal display (LCD), were implemented under the flow of system on a programmable chip (SOPC) development. When users input in the key parameters through LCD and touch screen, the corresponding pulse wave will be displayed on the LCD and the desired pulse waveform can be accessed from the analog output channel as well. The structure of the designed pulse wave generator is simple and it can provide accurate solutions for studying and teaching pulse waves and the detection of the equipments for acquisition and diagnosis of pulse wave. PMID:25764709

  13. Development and modeling of a stereo vision focusing system for a field programmable gate array robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tickle, Andrew J.; Buckle, James; Grindley, Josef E.; Smith, Jeremy S.

    2010-10-01

    Stereo vision is a situation where an imaging system has two or more cameras in order to make it more robust by mimicking the human vision system. By using two inputs, knowledge of their own relative geometry can be exploited to derive depth information from the two views they receive. 3D co-ordinates of an object in an observed scene can be computed from the intersection of the two sets of rays. Presented here is the development of a stereo vision system to focus on an object at the centre of a baseline between two cameras at varying distances. This has been developed primarily for use on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) but an adaptation of this developed methodology is also presented for use with a PUMA 560 Robotic Manipulator with a single camera attachment. The two main vision systems considered here are a fixed baseline with an object moving at varying distances from this baseline, and a system with a fixed distance and a varying baseline. These two differing situations provide enough data so that the co-efficient variables that determine the system operation can be calibrated automatically with only the baseline value needing to be entered, the system performs all the required calculations for the user for use with a baseline of any distance. The limits of system with regards to the focusing accuracy obtained are also presented along with how the PUMA 560 controls its joints for the stereo vision and how it moves from one position to another to attend stereo vision compared to the two camera system for the FPGA. The benefits of such a system for range finding in mobile robotics are discussed and how this approach is more advantageous when compared against laser range finders or echolocation using ultrasonics.

  14. The Model-Based View of Scientific Theories and the Structuring of School Science Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Develaki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Model theory in contemporary philosophy of science interprets scientific theories as sets of models, and contributes significantly to the understanding of the relation between theories, models, and the real world. The clarification of this relation is fundamental for the understanding of the nature of scientific methods and scientific knowledge…

  15. Empirical Evaluation of a Forecasting Model for Successful Facilitation in Telematic Learning Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisschoff, A.; Bisschoff, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education evaluated the usefulness of a model created to predict the success of distance education course facilitators. The model identified eight key attributes based on performance measures from the 1999 Facilitator Customer Service Survey. The evaluation accredited the model while suggesting…

  16. Programmable Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Lee, Clement G.; Nguyen, Huy

    2011-01-01

    A programmable oscillator is a frequency synthesizer with an output phase that tracks an arbitrary function. An offset, phase-locked loop circuit is used in combination with an error control feedback loop to precisely control the output phase of the oscillator. To down-convert the received signal, several stages of mixing may be employed with the compensation for the time-base distortion of the carrier occurring at any one of those stages. In the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), the compensation occurs in the mixing from an intermediate frequency (IF), whose value is dependent on the station and band, to a common IF used in the final stage of down-conversion to baseband. The programmable oscillator (PO) is used in the final stage of down-conversion to generate the IF, along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier, thus removing it from the final down-converted signal.

  17. Budget impact analysis of a pneumococcal vaccination programme in the 65-year-old Spanish cohort using a dynamic model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the costs and clinical benefits of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) administered annually to the 65-year-old cohort in Spain versus the alternative of not vaccinating patients and treating them only when infected. Methods Cases of pneumococcal disease avoided were calculated through a dynamic model based on the work of Anderson and May (1999). Sixty-six percent of the 65-year-old cohort was assumed to have been vaccinated with one PCV13 dose (304,492 subjects). Base-case estimated vaccine effectiveness and serotype coverage were 58% and 60%, respectively. Disease-related costs were calculated based on published data. Results Over the 5-year period, a total of 125,906 cases of pneumococcal disease would be avoided. Net savings of €102 million would be obtained. The cost-saving distribution was not homogeneous, starting in the 2nd year and increasing through the 5th. To demonstrate model robustness, an additional scenario analysis was performed using extreme values of model parameters (vaccination programme coverage, vaccine effectiveness, discount rate and disease costs). Under those scenarios, net savings were always achieved. Conclusions Based on the assumptions of the model, the 65-year-cohort pneumococcal vaccination campaign appears to be a cost-saving intervention in the Spanish population under different scenarios. PMID:23578307

  18. Geoinformation und Staat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zypries, Brigitte

    2002-09-01

    Geoinformationen besaßen als Grundlage militärischer Interventionen schon immer einen hohen Stellenwert für den Staat. Im Zeitalter der modernen Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien wächst in demokratischen Staaten die Bedeutung von Geodaten weit über den Verteidigungsbereich hinaus. Brigitte Zypries, Staatssekretärin im Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI) und Vorsitzende des Interministeriellen Ausschusses für Geoinformationswesen (IMAGI), sprach mit Dipl.-Geogr. Ute C. Bauerüber die Anwendung und Koordinierung von Geodaten in Politik und Staat.

  19. Roboter und Zuckerstangen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Heike

    Bei Produktion und Logistik denkt man sofort an Fabriken, Lagerhallen und Gabelstapler und nicht unbedingt an Zellbiologie. Sieht man etwas genauer hin erscheint dieser Gedankensprung jedoch gar nicht mehr so unpassend. In einer lebenden Zelle laufen eine Vielzahl von Produktions-, Transport- und Regulationsprozessen ab. Soll etwa ein gerade verfügbarer Rohstoff abgebaut werden, muss vielleicht ein Signal ein Gen erreichen, das ein geeignetes Enzym kodiert. Die Aktivierung des Gens führt über mehrere Zwischenstationen zur Produktion des Enzyms, das schließlich noch dahin gelangen muss, wo es gebraucht wird. Ist der Bedarf gedeckt, muss wiederum die Enzymproduktion eingestellt werden.

  20. Sternbilder und ihre Mythen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasching, Gerhard

    Die Sternbilder, die seit alters her die Menschen in ihren Bann gezogen haben, und die damit verbundenen Mythen werden in zweifacher Weise vorgestellt. Erstens ist es die Absicht, dem Leser zu helfen, sich am Sternenhimmel zurechtzufinden, und zweitens will es ihm die Vielfalt der Bilder vermitteln, die damit verbunden sind. Am Anfang des Buches stehen die prächtigen Erzählungen aus Ovids Metamorphosen. Dann ist vom Sternenhimmel im Jahreskreis die Rede, um den Leser anzuregen, diesen fast unendlichen Bilderreichtum sich selbst durch eigene Beobachtungen zu erschließen. Ein umfangreicher Abschnitt behandelt die einzelnen Sternbilder und das hierzu überlieferte Wissen. Sternkarten und alte Kupferstiche aus dem Bestand der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek zeigen, wie man sich in früheren Jahrhunderten den Sternenhimmel vorgestellt hat. Sternsagen und Mythen werden erzählt und auch das ptolemäische und das kopernikanische Weltsystem werden einander gegenübergestellt. Ausführliche Sachverzeichnisse mit über 3000 Suchbegriffen erleichtern den Zugang zu Stern- und Sternbildnamen und zur Mythologie.

  1. Integument und Anhangsorgane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schliemann, Harald

    Das Integument umhüllt den Wirbeltierkörper lückenlos. In der embryonalen Mundbucht (Stomodaeum) und der Afterbucht (Proctodaeum) grenzt es an die Auskleidung des Darmrohres. Über die generelle Bedeutung einer Haut als Abgrenzung zwischen Körperinnenraum und Außenmedium hinaus hat es bei Schädeltieren ein breites Spektrum von Funktionen. Die wichtigsten sind: Mechanischer Schutz durch Verhornungen und Verknöch erungen; Wundheilung; Schutz vor Wasserverlust; Schutz vor Infektionen durch bakterizide Drüsensekrete und immunkompetente Zellen; Schutz vor kurzwelliger Strahlung durch Pigmente; Schutz vor Überwärmung durch Schweißdrüsensekrete und Schutz vor Wärmeverlust durch Federn und Haare; Ausbildung lokomotorisch wichtiger Strukturen wie Federn, Flug- und Schwimmhäute, Krallen und Hufe; Redukt ion des Strömungswiderstandes durch Dämpfungshaut; Abgabe von Sekreten zur Ernährung (Milch); Ausbildung von Strukturen zu Nahrungserwerb und_-bearbeitung, z. B. Zähne, Barten;

  2. Development of Children's Creative Visual Imagination: A Theoretical Model and Enhancement Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziedziewicz, Dorota; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new theoretical model of creative imagination and its applications in early education. The model sees creative imagination as composed of three inter-related components: vividness of images, their originality, and the level of transformation of imageries. We explore the theoretical and practical consequences of this new…

  3. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  4. Seasonality of global and Arctic black carbon processes in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Rashed; Salzen, Knut; Flanner, Mark; Sand, Maria; Langner, Joakim; Wang, Hailong; Huang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    This study quantifies black carbon (BC) processes in three global climate models and one chemistry transport model, with focus on the seasonality of BC transport, emissions, wet and dry deposition in the Arctic. In the models, transport of BC to the Arctic from lower latitudes is the major BC source for this region. Arctic emissions are very small. All models simulated a similar annual cycle of BC transport from lower latitudes to the Arctic, with maximum transport occurring in July. Substantial differences were found in simulated BC burdens and vertical distributions, with Canadian Atmospheric Global Climate Model (CanAM) (Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM) producing the strongest (weakest) seasonal cycle. CanAM also has the shortest annual mean residence time for BC in the Arctic followed by Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute Multiscale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry model, Community Earth System Model, and NorESM. Overall, considerable differences in wet deposition efficiencies in the models exist and are a leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. Results from model sensitivity experiments indicate that convective scavenging outside the Arctic reduces the mean altitude of BC residing in the Arctic, making it more susceptible to scavenging by stratiform (layer) clouds in the Arctic. Consequently, scavenging of BC in convective clouds outside the Arctic acts to substantially increase the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition in the Arctic, which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging. In contrast, the simulated seasonality of BC concentrations in the upper troposphere is only weakly influenced by wet deposition in stratiform clouds, whereas lower tropospheric concentrations are highly sensitive.

  5. He Waka Tino Whakarawea: A Model for Evaluating the Cultural Appropriateness and Effectiveness of Programmes and Services for Maori Learners both with and without Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a waka tino whakarawea model for evaluating programmes and services for Maori learners. It is based on a set of underlying principles identified in the author's PhD study (Bevan-Brown, 2002). Explanations are provided for eight principles: kaupapa Maori; importance, relevance and beneficence; participation; empowerment,…

  6. Petri net-based dependability modeling methodology for reconfigurable field programmable gate arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, Rafał; Orleański, Piotr; Poźniak, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Dependability modeling is an important issue for aerospace and space equipment designers. From system level perspective, one has to choose from multitude of possible architectures, redundancy levels, component combinations in a way to meet desired properties and dependability and finally fit within required cost and time budgets. Modeling of such systems is getting harder as its levels of complexity grow together with demand for more functional and flexible, yet more available systems that govern more and more crucial parts of our civilization's infrastructure (aerospace transport systems, telecommunications, exploration probes). In this article promising method of modeling complex systems using Petri networks is introduced in context of qualitative and quantitative dependability analysis. This method, although with some limitation and drawback offer still convenient visual formal method of describing system behavior on different levels (functional, timing, random events) and offers straight correspondence to underlying mathematical engine, perfect for simulations and engineering support.

  7. A programmable analog subthreshold biomimetic model for bi-directional communication with the brain.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Viviane S; Song, Dong; Bouteiller, Jean-Marie C; Choma, John; Berger, Theodore W

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a hardware implementation of a second order Laguerre Expansion of Volterra Kernel (LEV) model with four basis functions. The model is versatile enough to be applied at different abstraction levels (synapse, neuron, or network of neurons) and is implemented with analog building blocks in a modular manner. These analog blocks, realized using low power subthreshold CMOS transistors, can serve as a basis for large-scale hardware systems that emulate multi-input multi-output (MIMO) spike transformations in populations of neurons. The normalized mean square error between the signals produced by the circuit LEV implementation and the ideal LEV model is 8.15%. The total power consumption of the analog circuitry is less than 33nW. PMID:24109805

  8. ICT in EMI Programmes at Tertiary Level in Spain: A Holistic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Nanclares, Nuria; Jimenez-Munoz, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) in Spain has increased the number of degrees taught through English, although secondary schools do not ensure an appropriate set of linguistic skills for bilingual degrees. A holistic, accountable model for Information and Communications Technology (ICT)-supported learning can give students the adequate…

  9. Investigating and Improving the Models of Programming Concepts Held by Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, L.; Ferguson, J.; Roper, M.; Wood, M.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of introductory computer programming seems far from successful, with many first-year students performing more poorly than expected. One possible reason for this is that novices hold "non-viable" mental models (internal explanations of how something works) of key programming concepts which then cause misconceptions and difficulties. An…

  10. The Development of Individualised Educational Programmes Using a Decision-Making Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kenneth; Bachor, Dan; Thomson, George

    2002-01-01

    A case study investigated the use of a decision-making model, characterized by partnerships between professionals and learners, in the development of Individualized Education Programs (IEP) for students with learning difficulties in Scotland. The student (age 13) and the teachers agreed that the development of an IEP collectively had been useful.…

  11. Katzenaugen und Sternsteine: Spielwiese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucke, Christian; Schlichting, Hans-Joachim

    2004-07-01

    Edelsteine vom Typ Chrysoberyll sind auch unter der Kurzbezeichnung Katzenauge bekannt. Im Chrysoberyll eingelagert sind feine, parallel angeordnete, metallisch glänzende Nadeln aus Rutil (Titandioxid). Auch Hohlkanäle und Risse durchziehen das Material. Lichtreflexion an diesen Einlagerungen und Kanälen erklärt das Lichtband, das dem Stein zu seinem Namen verhalf.

  12. Tycho Brahe - Instrumentenbauer und Meister der Beobachtungstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Vor der Erfindung des Fernrohrs war der dänische Astronom Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) der bedeutendste beobachtende Astronom. Von seinem Observatorium Uraniborg auf der - damals dänischen - Insel Hven ist heute noch der Grundriß erkennbar, von Stjerneborg sind die Fundamente erhalten, die Kuppeln in den 1950er Jahren ergänzt. In der Astronomie-Ausstellung im Deutschen Museum gibt es ein Modell der Sternwarte Uraniborg und der zugehörigen Instrumente (Maßstab 1:10); das größere Modell wurde dem Technischen Museum in Malmö geschenkt. Die Instrumente, die er in den Observatorien Uraniborg und Stjerneborg benutzte, sind nicht erhalten. Aber es gibt gute Beschreibungen der Instrumente (Halbkreis, Quadranten, Sextanten, Armillarsphären, Triquetrum, Himmelsglobus) in seinem Buch Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandsbek 1598). Eine Nachbildung des großen hölzernen Quadranten kann man im Runden Turm in Kopenhagen sehen. Zwei Sextanten, hergestellt für Tycho um 1600 von Jost Bürgi und Erasmus Habermel, gibt es noch im Nationalmuseum für Technik in Prag. Ähnlichkeiten von Tychos Instrumenten mit Groß-Instrumenten aus dem islamischen Kulturkreis sind auffällig. Tycho Brahes Meßgeräte markieren einen großen Fortschritt in der Entwicklung astronomischer Instrumente und Meßtechniken und bilden die Grundlage für den weiteren Fortschritt der Positionsastronomie und der damit verbundenen Tabellenwerke. Die Nachwirkungen sind bis ins 17. und 18. Jahrhundert nachweisbar.

  13. Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults

    PubMed Central

    Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from −23% for sodium and −62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (−15 to −28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial

  14. Messung und Analyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathelt, Hartmut; Scheinhardt, Michael; Sell, Hendrik; Sottek, Roland; Guidati, Sandro; Helfer, Martin

    Für die Beurteilung von Akustik und Fahrkomfort eines Fahrzeugs gilt in der Fahrzeugentwicklung immer noch der alte Grundsatz: "Der Kunde fährt nicht am Prüfstand, sondern auf der Straße“. Daher werden Gesamtbeurteilungen des Entwicklungsstandes und Konkurrenzvergleiche (Benchmarking) nach wie vor auf der Straße durchgeführt, meist auf ausgewählten Fahrbahnen am Prüfgelände oder im Rahmen der regelmäßigen Winter- und Sommererprobungen unter extremen Witterungsverhältnissen.

  15. Display system software for the integration of an ADAGE 3000 programmable display generator into the solid modeling package C.A.D. software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, R. J.; Lane, H. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A software system that integrates an ADAGE 3000 Programmable Display Generator into a C.A.D. software package known as the Solid Modeling Program is described. The Solid Modeling Program (SMP) is an interactive program that is used to model complex solid object through the composition of primitive geomeentities. In addition, SMP provides extensive facilities for model editing and display. The ADAGE 3000 Programmable Display Generator (PDG) is a color, raster scan, programmable display generator with a 32-bit bit-slice, bipolar microprocessor (BPS). The modularity of the system architecture and the width and speed of the system bus allow for additional co-processors in the system. These co-processors combine to provide efficient operations on and rendering of graphics entities. The resulting software system takes advantage of the graphics capabilities of the PDG in the operation of SMP by distributing its processing modules between the host and the PDG. Initially, the target host computer was a PRIME 850, which was later substituted with a VAX-11/785. Two versions of the software system were developed, a phase 1 and a phase 2. In phase 1, the ADAGE 3000 is used as a frame buffer. In phase II, SMP was functionally partitioned and some of its functions were implemented in the ADAGE 3000 by means of ADAGE's SOLID 3000 software package.

  16. Getreide, Brot und Feine Backwaren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Grabowski, Hans-Uwe; Rolfe, Birgit

    Getreide und Getreideerzeugnisse sind ebenso wie Brot und Feine Backwaren nach dem Lebensmittel- und Futtermittel-Gesetzbuch (LFGB) [1] Lebensmittel im Sinne des Artikels 2 der VO (EG) Nr. 178/2002 (BasisVO) (s. auch Kap. 1.6/2.4.1/3.2). Gesetzlich festgelegte Begriffsbestimmungen gibt es für diese Lebensmittel nicht. Man muss sich daher allgemeiner Verkehrsauffassungen bedienen, wie sie von der Deutschen Lebensmittelbuch-Kommission in Form von Leitsätzen erarbeitet und veröffentlicht wurden [2]. Der Gesundheitsschutz und der Schutz des Verbrauchers vor Täuschung sind in der Basis-VO und dem LFGB geregelt.

  17. Epidemiologic programs for computers and calculators. Simple algorithms for the representation of deterministic and stochastic versions of the Reed-Frost epidemic model using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Franco, E L; Simons, A R

    1986-05-01

    Two programs are described for the emulation of the dynamics of Reed-Frost progressive epidemics in a handheld programmable calculator (HP-41C series). The programs provide a complete record of cases, susceptibles, and immunes at each epidemic period using either the deterministic formulation or the trough analogue of the mechanical model for the stochastic version. Both programs can compute epidemics that include a constant rate of influx or outflux of susceptibles and single or double infectivity time periods. PMID:3962973

  18. IQM-Reifegradmodell für die Bewertung und Verbesserung des Information Lifecycle Management Prozesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baškarada, Saša; Gebauer, Marcus; Koronios, Andy; Gao, Jing

    Heutige Organisationen produzieren und speichern mehr Informationen als je zuvor. Der resultierende Informationsüberfluss, zusammen mit einem Mangel an Qualitätssicherung für das Information Lifecycle Management, führt zu einem unsicheren Status der Informationsqualität in vielen Organisationen. Weiterhin hat sich herausgestellt, dass das Bewerten, Verbessern und Steuern der Informationsqualität ein offenkundig schwieriges Unterfangen ist. Dieses Kapitel stellt ein Modell zur Bewertung und Verbesserung der Information Quality Management Capability Maturity (IQM-Reifegrad) vor. Es wird ein Satz von Kriterien vorgestellt, der aus Literaturrecherche und Fallstudien abgeleitet wurde. Die Reifegradindikatoren werden validiert und in einem mehrstufigen Reifegradmodell durch eine Delphi-Studie gruppiert. Das abgeleitete IQM-Reifegradmodell hilft Organisationen ihre bestehenden Praktiken im IQM zu bewerten und potentielle Lücken und Verbesserungsstrategien zu ermitteln.

  19. Unternehmens- und Marktstatistik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grömling, Michael; Scheinost, Ulrich

    Deutschland verfügt über ein gut ausgebautes System amtlicher und nicht amtlicher Unternehmens- und Marktstatistiken, das sich in einem fortwährenden Wandel befindet. Wird es sinnvoll genutzt, können für einzelne Marktteilnehmer wie für die gesamte Gesellschaft kostspielige Fehlentwicklungen vermieden werden. Dazu bedarf es eines sachkundigen Überblicks über die Vielfalt der Statistiken und der zwischen ihnen bestehenden Beziehungen sowie einer ständigen Anpassung an die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung. Als eine mögliche Orientierung kann der auf der Güter- und Faktorebene zu beobachtende Wandel dienen. Einer adäquaten Abbildung der ökonomischen Realität stehen in Deutschland mit seiner starken Verrechtlichung der Statistik jedoch mancherlei Schwierigkeiten im Wege. Teilweise tiefgreifende Reformbestrebungen sind vor allem auf europäischer Ebene im Gange. Als eine ergebnisorientierte Innovation für das Gesamtsystem der Unternehmens- und Marktstatistik wird ein modular aufgebautes System vorgestellt, das auch bei unterschiedlichen und sich wandelnden Rahmenbedingungen schrittweise realisiert werden kann.

  20. Datenintegration und Deduplizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiholder, Jens; Schmid, Joachim

    In Unternehmen liegen viele Daten heutzutage immer seltener vollständig an einem einzigen physikalischen Ort vor, sondern sind weltweit verteilt. Dies liegt zum einen an der immer besser gewordenen Infrastruktur, die eine solche Verteilung auf einfache Art und Weise ermöglicht, und zum anderen an der Tatsache, dass viele Unternehmen weltweit tätig sind. So fallen Daten weltweit an, werden aber jeweils lokal - vor Ort - gespeichert. Daher müssen oft mehrere Datenquellen genutzt werden, um einen aktuellen, vollständigen und genauen Überblick über die vorhandenen Daten zu gewinnen. Datenintegration hilft, indem sie Daten aus mehreren Quellen zusammenführt und einheitlich darstellt. Diese integrierten Daten können genutzt werden, um sich einen Überblick über das Unternehmen zu verschaffen, z.B. wenn Unternehmen fusionieren und nur noch eine Kundendatenbank bestehen bleiben soll, oder wenn zu einem Kunden die Daten aus den verschiedenen Fachabteilungen zusammengeführt werden sollen. Anhand eines solchen Beispiels, der Integration von Kundendaten zu Kfz- und Lebensversicherungen erläutern wir im Folgenden einzelne Techniken.

  1. WASP3 (WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS PROGRAM), A HYDRODYNAMIC AND WATER QUALITY MODEL - MODEL THEORY, USER'S MANUAL, AND PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program--3 (WASP3) is a dynamic compartment modeling system that can be used to analyze a variety of water quality problems in a diverse set of water bodies. WASP3 simulates the transport and transformation of conventional and toxic pollutant...

  2. Innovation and Alliances in International Management Programmes; Redefining and Extending the Model. The "Transcontinental Tracks" at Grenoble EM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mark; O'Sullivan, Patrick; Zahner, Martin; Silvestre, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe an innovative international management programme that has been developed across four countries for Master-level students. It first analyses the advantages and disadvantages of two of the most common forms of internationalisation in higher education; the student exchange and full-scale offshore…

  3. Academic Civic Mindedness and Model Citizenship in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme. Working Paper WR-1044-IBO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky

    2014-01-01

    Originally founded as a private means for diplomats' children to earn an internationally recognized high school diploma, today the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (DP) serves students from a variety of backgrounds in 144 countries. The IB mission and Learner Profile--consisting of ten attributes to foster in students--suggest…

  4. Geologie der terrestrischen Planeten und Monde.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöffler, D.

    Contents: 1. Inhalt und Aufgabe der Planetologie. 2. Aufbau des Sonnensystems. 3. Methoden der Exploration und Analyse der Planeten und Monde. 4. Geologische Grundprozesse auf den terrestrischen Planeten und Monden. 5. Geologische Formationen der planetaren Oberflächen. 6. Gesteine und Mineralien der planetaren Krusten. 7. Der innere Aufbau der terrestrischen planetaren Körper. 8. Vergleichende geologische Entwicklungsgeschichte der terrestrischen Planeten und des Mondes. 9. Ursprung und Entstehung der terrestrischen planetaren Körper.

  5. [A comparison of multimodal programmes of patient education in the rehabilitation of chronic low back pain].

    PubMed

    Morfeld, M; Küch, D; Greitemann, B; Dibbelt, S; Salewski, C; Franke, G H; Liebenau, A

    2010-04-01

    There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of multimodal intervention concepts for chronic low back pain in the international literature, and accordingly several German rehabilitation programmes for the treatment of chronic low back pain patients have been developed. Focus of this paper is to describe and compare frequently used German multimodal intervention programmes for in- and outpatient rehabilitation of patients with chronic low back pain. Programmes were chosen by searching the most relevant online resources as well as the online pages of Deutsche Rentenversicherung and Zentrum Patientenschulung during September 2008. Keywords guiding the search were: Patientenschulung, Rückenschmerzen, Manual, psychologische multimodale Interventionskonzepte, Rehabilitationsprogramm, psychology, intervention, low back pain, manual and therapy. By this means, six manually supported multimodal rehabilitation programmes for the in- and outpatient therapy of patients with chronic back pain could be identified: Göttinger Rücken-Intensiv-Programm (GRIP), the psychological programme for chronic head- and low back pain, the Münchner Rücken-Intensiv-Programm (MRIP), Back to Balance, Arbeiten und Leben--Back to Balance (ALEBABA) und Rückenfit: Lebenslust statt Krankheitsfrust. These programmes are depicted and compared with regard to their potentials and limitations in supporting the rehabilitation process of patients with chronic low back pain. While comparing the programmes, a number of similarities between them can be detected, as well as pronounced differences, e. g., regarding settings and complexity. In most programmes, lack of appropriate evaluation studies and lack of aftercare turn out to be critical aspects. PMID:20446189

  6. Patentierung und Patentlage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Uwe

    Gewerbliche Schutzrechte nehmen in der nationalen Rechts- und Wirtschaftsordnung sowie auch auf internationaler Ebene stetig an Bedeutung zu. Sie dienen dem Schutz geistigen Eigentums und sind für jeden Gewerbetreibenden nicht nur im Hinblick darauf von Bedeutung, eigene Rechte zu sichern, sondern auch insofern von Relevanz, dass ein Verstoß gegen Rechte Dritter zu vermeiden ist. Zu den gewerblichen Schutzrechten gehören unter anderem Kennzeichenrechte, Geschmacksmusterrechte sowie die sogenannten technischen Schutzrechte in Form des Patents sowie des Gebrauchsmusters. Die folgenden Ausführungen befassen sich ausschließlich mit den technischen Schutzrechten und geben eine kurze Einführung in die Voraussetzungen, das Entstehen und den Wegfall sowie in die Wirkungen technischer Schutzrechte. Beleuchtet wird die Situation im Wesentlichen im Hinblick auf nationale technische Schutzrechte, d. h. auf Deutsche Patente und Gebrauchsmuster sowie auf Europäische Patente, die Schutz in Deutschland entfalten. Die Möglichkeit der Erlangung von Schutzrechten im außereuropäischen Ausland wird nur am Rande gestreift.

  7. Technikwissenschaft - Erfinden und Entdecken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnemann, Gerhard

    Umrissen wird das allgemeine Ziel der Technikwissenschaft, konstruktiv zu verwerten und nicht-natürlich Entdeckbares zu erfinden. Wir befinden uns in einer Umwälzung der Technik im Verlauf der wissenschaftlich-technischen Revolution, auf dem Wege zu einem neuen Techniktyp. Dieser schafft und nutzt die künstliche Intelligenz. Dazu benötigt der in der Technik tätige Mensch spezielle Kenntnisse und Erfahrungen in kreativ-konstruktiver, -gestalterischer und erfinderischer Sicht mit dem Einsatz spezieller Strukturen und Sprachen. Vorschläge zur Arbeitsweise in der Technik werden gegeben.Translated AbstractTechnological Science-Invent and DiscoverThe general aim of engineering science is outlined to utilize results constructively and to invent something that cannot be discovered in nature. We are now in a period of transformation of technology in the course of scientific-technological revolution, on the way to a new type of technology. This new type creates and utilizes artificial intelligence. For this, man acitive in this field requires special knowledge and experiences in a creative, constructive, design-oriented and ultimately inventive way by deploying special structures and languages. There are also made some proposals concerning the method of working in the field of technology.

  8. Darwinische Kulturtheorie - Evolutionistische und "evolutionistische`` Theorien sozialen Wandels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antweiler, Christoph

    Evolutionistische Argumentationen außerhalb der Biologie sind weit verbreitet. Wenn sie vertreten werden, heißt das mitnichten, dass sie notwendigerweise von darwinischen Argumenten geprägt sind. Wenn man Evolution und Kultur aus explizit darwinischer Perspektive zusammen bringt, bedeutet das noch lange nicht unbedingt Soziobiologie. Und es bedeutet sicherlich nicht Sozialdarwinismus. Dieser Beitrag soll einen Überblick der so genannten evolutionären Ansätze bzw. evolutionistischen Ansätze zu menschlichen Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen geben. Es soll gezeigt werden, was in den Ansätzen analytisch zu trennen ist und was synthetisch zusammen gehört. Mein Beitrag ist nicht wissenschaftsgeschichtlich angelegt, sondern systematisch ausgerichtet und hat zwei Schwerpunkte (Antweiler 2008; Antweiler 2009b). Zum einen geht es um kausale Zusammenhänge von organischer Evolution und gesellschaftlichem Wandel. Auf der anderen Seite werden Analogien zwischen biotischer und kultureller Evolution erläutert, die als spezifische Ähnlichkeiten dieser beiden als grundsätzlich verschieden gesehenen Prozesse aufgefasst werden. Dadurch wird die Frage aufgeworfen, ob die Evolution von Organismen einerseits und die Transformation von Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen andererseits, spezielle Fälle eines allgemeinen Modells von Evolution darstellen.

  9. Venture Kapital und Life Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Sebastian; Beermann, Christian

    Um sich weiter im internationalen Wettbewerb behaupten zu können, müssen deutsche Unternehmen heute in Schlüsseltechnologien wie die Medizintechnik und die Biotechnologie, zusammenfassend unter dem Begriff der Life Sciences bekannt, investieren. Eine führende Wettbewerbsposition erfordert immer die konsequente Weiterentwicklung von Produkten und Lösungen, um Innovationspotenziale in medizinische Verfahren umzusetzen. Die damit unmittelbar verbundenen hohen Ausgaben für Forschung und Entwicklung stellen ein bedeutendes Problem junger Life Science Unternehmen dar. Vor allem die, verglichen mit nicht-medizinischen Branchen, längeren Forschungs- und Entwicklungszyklen in der Frühphase eines Life Science Unternehmens und die längere Dauer bis zur Profitabilität erhöhen das Risiko der Finanzinvestoren. Die Zeitdauer, um ein medizinisches Produkt bis zur Marktreife zu entwickeln und letztlich auf dem Markt anzubieten, kann aufgrund der notwendigen intensiven Forschung nur unscharf geplant werden und erhöht die Unsicherheit über den Zeitpunkt der ersten Einnahmen. Damit verschärfen sich gerade im Life Science Bereich allgemeine Problematiken von Gründungs- und Wachstumsfinanzierungen wie starke Informationsasymmetrien zwischen Gründer und potentiellen Kapitalgebern. Oftmals ist die Entwicklung einer innovativen Technologie abhängig von einzelnen Personen, von deren Wissen und Engagement die Umsetzung und der Erfolg eines gesamten Produktkonzeptes abhängen.

  10. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  11. Developing and Optimising the Use of Logic Models in Systematic Reviews: Exploring Practice and Good Practice in the Use of Programme Theory in Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Kneale, Dylan; Thomas, James; Harris, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Logic models are becoming an increasingly common feature of systematic reviews, as is the use of programme theory more generally in systematic reviewing. Logic models offer a framework to help reviewers to ‘think’ conceptually at various points during the review, and can be a useful tool in defining study inclusion and exclusion criteria, guiding the search strategy, identifying relevant outcomes, identifying mediating and moderating factors, and communicating review findings. Methods and Findings In this paper we critique the use of logic models in systematic reviews and protocols drawn from two databases representing reviews of health interventions and international development interventions. Programme theory featured only in a minority of the reviews and protocols included. Despite drawing from different disciplinary traditions, reviews and protocols from both sources shared several limitations in their use of logic models and theories of change, and these were used almost unanimously to solely depict pictorially the way in which the intervention worked. Logic models and theories of change were consequently rarely used to communicate the findings of the review. Conclusions Logic models have the potential to be an aid integral throughout the systematic reviewing process. The absence of good practice around their use and development may be one reason for the apparent limited utility of logic models in many existing systematic reviews. These concerns are addressed in the second half of this paper, where we offer a set of principles in the use of logic models and an example of how we constructed a logic model for a review of school-based asthma interventions. PMID:26575182

  12. Evaluating the impacts of screening and smoking cessation programmes on lung cancer in a high-burden region of the USA: a simulation modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Tramontano, Angela C; Sheehan, Deirdre F; McMahon, Pamela M; Dowling, Emily C; Holford, Theodore R; Ryczak, Karen; Lesko, Samuel M; Levy, David T; Kong, Chung Yin

    2016-01-01

    Objective While the US Preventive Services Task Force has issued recommendations for lung cancer screening, its effectiveness at reducing lung cancer burden may vary at local levels due to regional variations in smoking behaviour. Our objective was to use an existing model to determine the impacts of lung cancer screening alone or in addition to increased smoking cessation in a US region with a relatively high smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence. Setting Computer-based simulation model. Participants Simulated population of individuals 55 and older based on smoking prevalence and census data from Northeast Pennsylvania. Interventions Hypothetical lung cancer control from 2014 to 2050 through (1) screening with CT, (2) intensified smoking cessation or (3) a combination strategy. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were lung cancer mortality rates. Secondary outcomes included number of people eligible for screening and number of radiation-induced lung cancers. Results Combining lung cancer screening with increased smoking cessation would yield an estimated 8.1% reduction in cumulative lung cancer mortality by 2050. Our model estimated that the number of screening-eligible individuals would progressively decrease over time, indicating declining benefit of a screening-only programme. Lung cancer screening achieved a greater mortality reduction in earlier years, but was later surpassed by smoking cessation. Conclusions Combining smoking cessation programmes with lung cancer screening would provide the most benefit to a population, especially considering the growing proportion of patients ineligible for screening based on current recommendations. PMID:26928026

  13. Programmable 3D silk bone marrow niche for platelet generation ex vivo and modeling of megakaryopoiesis pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Di Buduo, Christian A.; Wray, Lindsay S.; Tozzi, Lorenzo; Malara, Alessandro; Chen, Ying; Ghezzi, Chiara E.; Smoot, Daniel; Sfara, Carla; Antonelli, Antonella; Spedden, Elise; Bruni, Giovanna; Staii, Cristian; De Marco, Luigi; Magnani, Mauro; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    We present a programmable bioengineered 3-dimensional silk-based bone marrow niche tissue system that successfully mimics the physiology of human bone marrow environment allowing us to manufacture functional human platelets ex vivo. Using stem/progenitor cells, megakaryocyte function and platelet generation were recorded in response to variations in extracellular matrix components, surface topography, stiffness, coculture with endothelial cells, and shear forces. Millions of human platelets were produced and showed to be functional based on multiple activation tests. Using adult hematopoietic progenitor cells our system demonstrated the ability to reproduce key steps of thrombopoiesis, including alterations observed in diseased states. A critical feature of the system is the use of natural silk protein biomaterial allowing us to leverage its biocompatibility, nonthrombogenic features, programmable mechanical properties, and surface binding of cytokines, extracellular matrix components, and endothelial-derived proteins. This in turn offers new opportunities for the study of blood component production ex vivo and provides a superior tissue system for the study of pathologic mechanisms of human platelet production. PMID:25575540

  14. Kometen und Asteroiden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgeest, Ulf; Staude, Jakob; Hahn, Gerhard; Harris, Alan W.; Jaumann, Ralf; Köhler, Ulrich; Kührt, Ekkehard; Schulz, Rita; Neukum, Gerhard; Arnold, Gabriele; Keller, Horst Uwe; Denk, Tilmann; Müller, Thomas; Wulff, André; Maruhn, Nicolaus; Fischer, Daniel; Trieloff, Mario; Althaus, Tilmann

    Contents: Die Kleinkörper des Sonnensystems. Kern, Koma und Schweife. Ziele der Planetenforschung. ROSETTA: Naherkundung von Kometen. Asteroiden: Trümmer aus planetarer Urzeit. Kleinkörper im Infrarotweltall. Selbs beobachten! Apocalypse - not now! Meteoriten - Boten aus der Urzeit des Sonnensystems.

  15. Tipps und Tricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häger, Wolfgang; Bauermeister, Dirk

    Hier wollen wir einige uns nützlich erscheinende Hinweise zur Arbeit mit dem Inventor geben. Dabei geht es vor allem darum, das Arbeiten mit dem Inventor zu vereinfachen. Die Beispiele stellen eine unvollständige Aufzählung dar und sollen dazu anregen, nach alternativen Vorgehensweisen zu suchen (hier sei noch einmal ausdrücklich auf das Internet verwiesen).

  16. Arbeitsgestaltung und Mitarbeiterqualifizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Oberdorfer, Werner; Hörner, Barbara; Holm, Ruth; Pirner, Evelin

    Die Wertkette gliedert ein Unternehmen in strategisch relevante Tätigkeiten, um dadurch Kostenverhalten sowie vorhandene und potenzielle Differenzierungsquellen zu verstehen. Wenn ein Unternehmen diese strategisch wichtigen Aktivitäten billiger oder besser als seine Konkurrenten erledigt, verschafft es sich einen Wettbewerbsvorteil." Michael Porter, 1985

  17. Dynamical and Mechanistic Reconstructive Approaches of T Lymphocyte Dynamics: Using Visual Modeling Languages to Bridge the Gap between Immunologists, Theoreticians, and Programmers.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique; Six, Adrien; Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel; Bersini, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic modeling of lymphocyte behavior has primarily been based on populations based differential equations or on cellular agents moving in space and interacting each other. The final steps of this modeling effort are expressed in a code written in a programing language. On account of the complete lack of standardization of the different steps to proceed, we have to deplore poor communication and sharing between experimentalists, theoreticians and programmers. The adoption of diagrammatic visual computer language should however greatly help the immunologists to better communicate, to more easily identify the models similarities and facilitate the reuse and extension of existing software models. Since immunologists often conceptualize the dynamical evolution of immune systems in terms of "state-transitions" of biological objects, we promote the use of unified modeling language (UML) state-transition diagram. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, we present a UML refactoring of two published models on thymocyte differentiation. Originally built with different modeling strategies, a mathematical ordinary differential equation-based model and a cellular automata model, the two models are now in the same visual formalism and can be compared. PMID:24101919

  18. A VLSI field-programmable mixed-signal array to perform neural signal processing and neural modeling in a prosthetic system.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Simeon A; Hogri, Roni; Giovannucci, Andrea; Taub, Aryeh H; Herreros, Ivan; Verschure, Paul F M J; Mintz, Matti; Del Giudice, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    A very-large-scale integration field-programmable mixed-signal array specialized for neural signal processing and neural modeling has been designed. This has been fabricated as a core on a chip prototype intended for use in an implantable closed-loop prosthetic system aimed at rehabilitation of the learning of a discrete motor response. The chosen experimental context is cerebellar classical conditioning of the eye-blink response. The programmable system is based on the intimate mixing of switched capacitor analog techniques with low speed digital computation; power saving innovations within this framework are presented. The utility of the system is demonstrated by the implementation of a motor classical conditioning model applied to eye-blink conditioning in real time with associated neural signal processing. Paired conditioned and unconditioned stimuli were repeatedly presented to an anesthetized rat and recordings were taken simultaneously from two precerebellar nuclei. These paired stimuli were detected in real time from this multichannel data. This resulted in the acquisition of a trigger for a well-timed conditioned eye-blink response, and repetition of unpaired trials constructed from the same data led to the extinction of the conditioned response trigger, compatible with natural cerebellar learning in awake animals. PMID:22481832

  19. Wirkstoffe, Medikamente und Mathematische Bildverarbeitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Günter J.; Lorenz, Dirk A.; Maaß, Peter; Preckel, Hartwig; Trede, Dennis

    Die Entwicklung neuer Medikamente ist langwierig und teuer. Der erste Schritt ist hierbei die Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffkandidaten, die für die Behandlung bislang schwer therapierbarer Krankheiten geeignet sind. Hierfür stehen der Pharma- und Biotechnologieindustrie riesige Substanzbibliotheken zur Verfügung. In diesen Bibliotheken werden die unterschiedlichsten Substanzen gesammelt, die entweder synthetisch hergestellt oder aus Pilzen, Bakterienkulturen und anderen Lebewesen gewonnen werden können.

  20. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  1. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  2. Theory-Based Programme Development and Evaluation in Physiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Theresa; Klinck, Beth

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Programme evaluation has been defined as “the systematic process of collecting credible information for timely decision making about a particular program.” Where possible, findings are used to develop, revise, and improve programmes. Theory-based programme development and evaluation provides a comprehensive approach to programme evaluation. Summary of key points: In order to obtain meaningful information from evaluation activities, relevant programme components need to be understood. Theory-based programme development and evaluation starts with a comprehensive description of the programme. A useful tool to describe a programme is the Sidani and Braden Model of Program Theory, consisting of six programme components: problem definition, critical inputs, mediating factors, expected outcomes, extraneous factors, and implementation issues. Articulation of these key components may guide physiotherapy programme implementation and delivery and assist in the development of key evaluation questions and methodologies. Using this approach leads to a better understanding of client needs, programme processes, and programme outcomes and can help to identify barriers to and enablers of successful implementation. Two specific examples, representing public and private sectors, will illustrate the application of this approach to clinical practice. Conclusions: Theory-based programme development helps clinicians, administrators, and researchers develop an understanding of who benefits the most from which types of programmes and facilitates the implementation of processes to improve programmes. PMID:20145741

  3. "Broadband" Bioinformatics Skills Transfer with the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP): Educational Model for Upliftment and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    Chimusa, Emile R; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Masilela, Velaphi; Kumuthini, Judit

    2015-11-01

    A shortage of practical skills and relevant expertise is possibly the primary obstacle to social upliftment and sustainable development in Africa. The "omics" fields, especially genomics, are increasingly dependent on the effective interpretation of large and complex sets of data. Despite abundant natural resources and population sizes comparable with many first-world countries from which talent could be drawn, countries in Africa still lag far behind the rest of the world in terms of specialized skills development. Moreover, there are serious concerns about disparities between countries within the continent. The multidisciplinary nature of the bioinformatics field, coupled with rare and depleting expertise, is a critical problem for the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. We propose a formalized matchmaking system, which is aimed at reversing this trend, by introducing the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP). Instead of individual researchers travelling to other labs to learn, researchers with desirable skills are invited to join African research groups for six weeks to six months. Visiting researchers or trainers will pass on their expertise to multiple people simultaneously in their local environments, thus increasing the efficiency of knowledge transference. In return, visiting researchers have the opportunity to develop professional contacts, gain industry work experience, work with novel datasets, and strengthen and support their ongoing research. The KTP develops a network with a centralized hub through which groups and individuals are put into contact with one another and exchanges are facilitated by connecting both parties with potential funding sources. This is part of the PLOS Computational Biology Education collection. PMID:26583922

  4. ...und Einstein hatte doch recht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Clifford M.; Leuchs, Anne; Leuchs, Gerd

    Keine wissenschaftliche Theorie ist auf solche Faszination auch außerhalb der Wissenschaft gestoßen wie die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie von Albert Einstein, und keine wurde so nachdrücklich mit den Mitteln der modernen Physik überprüft. Wie hat sie diesen Test mit Raumsonden, Radioastronomie, Atomuhren und Supercomputern standgehalten? Hatte Einstein recht? Mit der Autorität des Fachmanns und dem Flair des unvoreingenommenen Erzählers schildert Clifford Will die Menschen, Ideen und Maschinen hinter den Tests der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. Ohne Formeln und Fachjargon wird der leser mit Einsteins Gedanken vertraut und erfährt von der Bestätigung seiner Vorhersagen, angefangen bei der Lichtablenkung im Schwerefeld der Sonne 1919 bis zu den ausgefeilten Kreiselexperimenten auf dem Space Shuttle. Die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie hat nich nur alle diese Tests bestanden, sie hat darüber hinaus wesentlich beigetragen zu unserem Verständnis von Phänomenen wie Pulsaren, Quasaren, Schwarzen Löchern und Gravitationslinsen. Dieses Buch erzählt lebendig und spannend die Geschichte einer der größten geistigen Leistungen unserer Zeit.

  5. 75 FR 7949 - Airworthiness Directives; Extra Flugzeugproduktions- und Vertriebs- GmbH Models EA-300/200 and EA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Register on November 3, 2009 (74 FR 56748). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... through 1043; and (2) Model EA-300/L airplanes, S/N 01 through 170, 172, 173, 1171, and 1174 through...

  6. Pyropheophorbide und a as a catabolite of ethylene-induced chlorophyll und a degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimokawa, Keishi; Hashizume, Akihito ); Shioi, Yuzo )

    1990-05-01

    An enzyme extract prepared from ethylene-induced degreening Citrus fruits contains chlorophyll (Chl) degrading enzymes. The fate of Chl carbons during an enzymatic degradation was investigated using Chl {und a}-{sup 14}C. Accompanying the disappearance of labelled Chl {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a} appeared and accumulation of pyropheophorbide {und a} was observed. HydroxyChl {und a} was also detected, but this is thought to be an artifact during chromatography. Unlike ethylene-induced Citrus fruits (in vivo), further degradation of pyropheophorbide {und a} did not occur in vitro enzyme system. This suggests that there is a lack of enzyme(s) and/or cofactor(s) for further degradation. It is concluded that Chl {und a} degraded enzymatically by the following order: Chl {und a}, chlorophyllide {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a}.

  7. World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3): Multi-Model Dataset Archive at PCMDI (Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison)

    DOE Data Explorer

    In response to a proposed activity of the WCRP's Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM),PCMDI volunteered to collect model output contributed by leading modeling centers around the world. Climate model output from simulations of the past, present and future climate was collected by PCMDI mostly during the years 2005 and 2006, and this archived data constitutes phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3). In part, the WGCM organized this activity to enable those outside the major modeling centers to perform research of relevance to climate scientists preparing the Fourth Asssessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The IPCC was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environmental Program to assess scientific information on climate change. The IPCC publishes reports that summarize the state of the science. This unprecedented collection of recent model output is officially known as the WCRP CMIP3 multi-model dataset. It is meant to serve IPCC's Working Group 1, which focuses on the physical climate system - atmosphere, land surface, ocean and sea ice - and the choice of variables archived at the PCMDI reflects this focus. A more comprehensive set of output for a given model may be available from the modeling center that produced it. As of November 2007, over 35 terabytes of data were in the archive and over 303 terabytes of data had been downloaded among the more than 1200 registered users. Over 250 journal articles, based at least in part on the dataset, have been published or have been accepted for peer-reviewed publication. Countries from which models have been gathered include Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany and Korea, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Great Britain and the United States. Models, variables, and documentation are collected and stored. Check http://www-pcmdi.llnl.gov/ipcc/data_status_tables.htm to see at a glance the output that is available

  8. Das Pinealorgan der Wirbeltiere: ein Modell für Untersuchungen von Rezeptor-und Effektormechanismen in neuronalen Systemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korf, Horst-W.; Wicht, Helmut

    1991-10-01

    Cell and molecular biological investigations have greatly contributed to our understanding of receptor and effector mechanisms in sensory, neuronal, and endocrine cells. A fascinating aspect of this line of research is how such mechanisms have evolved and how they interact with each other. As shown in this contribution, the vertebrate pineal organ is an interesting model to study these problems, because it undergoes a conspicuous transformation during phylogeny, comprises two well-chraracterized receptor mechanisms (photoreception and adrenoreception), and acts upon its targets via neuronal and neuroendocrine signals.

  9. D Recording, Modelling and Visualisation of the Fortification Kristiansten in Trondheim (norway) by Photogrammetric Methods and Terrestrial Laser Scanning in the Framework of Erasmus Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T.; Lindstaedt, M.; Maziull, L.; Schreyer, K.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Holm, K.

    2015-02-01

    In this contribution the 3D recording, 3D modelling and 3D visualisation of the fortification Kristiansten in Trondheim (Norway) by digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning are presented. The fortification Kristiansten was built after the large city fire in the year 1681 above the city and has been a museum since 1997. The recording of the fortress took place in each case at the end of August/at the beginning of September 2010 and 2011 during two two-week summer schools with the topic "Digital Photogrammetry & Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Cultural Heritage Documentation" at NTNU Trondheim with international students in the context of ERASMUS teaching programs. For data acquisition, a terrestrial laser scanner and digital SLR cameras were used. The establishment of a geodetic 3D network, which was later transformed into the Norwegian UTM coordinate system using control points, ensured a consistent registration of the scans and an orientation of the photogrammetric images. The fortress buildings were constructed in detail from photogrammetric photographs and point clouds using AutoCAD, while the fortress area and walls were modelled by triangle meshing in Geomagic. The visualisation of the fortress was carried out 2013 with the software Cinema 4D in the context of a lecture in the Master study programme Geomatics. The 3D model was textured and afterwards presented in a video. This 3D model was finally transferred into the game engine Unity for an interactive 3D visualisation on 3D monitors.

  10. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  11. Role Models of Australian Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study to Inform Programmes Designed to Increase Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…

  12. Beschallungstechnik, Beschallungsplanung und Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnert, Wolfgang; Goertz, Anselm

    Die primäre Aufgabe einer Lautsprecheranlage ist es, Musik, Sprache oder auch Signaltöne und Geräusche wiederzugeben. Diese können von einem Tonträger kommen (CD, Sprachspeicher), von einem anderen Ort übertragen (Zuspielung über Radio, TV, Telefon) oder vor Ort erzeugt werden. Letzteres umfasst Konzerte, Ansprachen, Durchsagen oder künstlerische Darbietungen, bei denen es meist darum geht, eine bereits vorhandene Quelle einer größeren oder weiter verteilten Anzahl von Personen zugänglich zu machen.

  13. The Physics Programme at Superb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    SuperB is a next generation high luminosity e+e- collider that will be built at the Cabibbo Laboratory, Tor Vergata, in Italy. The physics goals of this experiment are to search for signs of physics beyond the Standard Model through precision studies of rare or forbidden processes. While the name suggests that B physics is the main goal, this experiment is a Super Flavour Factory, and precision measurements of Bu,d,s, D, τ, Υ, and ψ(3770) decays as well as spectroscopy and exotica searches form part of a broad physics programme. In addition to searching for new physics (NP) in the form of heavy particles, or violations of laws of physics, data from SuperB will be able to perform precision tests of the Standard Model. I will briefly review of some highlights of the SuperB physics programme.

  14. What Role for Developmental Theories in Mathematics Study Programmes in French-Speaking Belgium? An Analysis of the Geometry Curriculum's Aspects, Framed by Van Hiele's Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duroisin, Natacha; Demeuse, Marc

    2015-01-01

    One possible way of evaluating set curricula is to examine the consistency of study programmes with students' psycho-cognitive development. Three theories were used to evaluate matching between developmental theories and content proposed in the mathematics programmes (geometry section) for primary and the beginning of secondary education. These…

  15. Space research programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, Per; Englund, Jan; Norberg, Olle

    2001-08-01

    A major highlight of the Swedish national programme was the launch of the Odin Orbital Observatory in February 2001. The atmospheric profiles measured by Odin will be calibrated with rocket and balloon validation flights during the second half of 2001. A continuation of the satellite programme after Odin depends on the outcome of an ongoing assessment and an additional budget. The future ESA microgravity programme will be of high importance for European and Swedish science and applications using weightless conditions, and for the utilisation of the International Space Station (ISS). It should also make sure that the European independent capability for launching efficient sounding rockets is preserved and developed.

  16. Renaturierung und Management von Heiden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten; van Diggelen, Rudy; von Oheimb, Goddert

    Heiden zählen zu den ältesten und besonders reizvollen Kulturlandschaften Nordwesteuropas. Sie sind bezeichnend für nährstoffarme Böden in wintermilden Gebieten mit hohen Sommerniederschlägen. Während Heiden vor wenigen Jahrhunderten noch weit verbreitet und für manche Landschaften sogar prägend waren, hat sich ihr Areal heute auf wenige, meist in Naturschutzgebieten gelegene Restbestände verkleinert. Zu diesem Rückgang haben maßgeblich Änderungen der Landnutzung, aber auch Nährstoffeinträge aus umgebenden Agrarflächen und atmogene Depositionen beigetragen. In den meisten Ländern der Europäischen Union sind Heiden heute gesetzlich geschützte Ökosysteme, da diese, neben ihrem Erholungswert für den Menschen, Pflanzen- und Tierarten beherbergen, die außerhalb von Heiden nicht oder kaum überlebensfähig sind.

  17. User manual and programmer reference manual for the ATS-6 navigation model AOIPS and McIDAS versions, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatters, G. C.; Kuhlow, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Development of a navigation system for a given satellite is reported. An algorithm for converting a satellite picture element location to earth location and vice versa was defined as well as a procedure for measuring the set of constants needed by the algorithm. A user manual briefly describing the current version of the navigation model and how to use the computer programs developed for it is presented.

  18. SOTANCP3 Scientific Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The programme for the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics" which was held at the KGU (Kanto Gakuin University) Kannai Media Center (8th floor of Yokohoma Media Business Center (YMBC))

  19. WORLD WATER ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the World Water Assessment Programme is to support the building of global security - food, environment, economic, social and political security -- through an integrated comprehensive freshwater assessment.The specific objectives within the assessment pr...

  20. A force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis and its applications in the epidemiological evaluation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area.

    PubMed

    Remme, J; Ba, O; Dadzie, K Y; Karam, M

    1986-01-01

    A simple force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis has been developed for a study of the age-specific epidemiological trends during a period of vector control in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area (OCP). The most important factors included in the model are the longevity of an infection, the aspect of super-infection, age-specific exposure, and the intensity of transmission during the pre-control period. The aim of the study was to determine the most appropriate statistics for the epidemiological evaluation in the OCP. There was generally good agreement between the epidemiological trends, predicted by the model, and the observed trends in the prevalence and mean load of microfilariae in skin snips taken from a cohort population from 23 villages in an area with 8 years of successful vector control in the OCP. It is concluded that the epidemiological trends during the control period are not uniform but depend on the initial age and the initial endemicity level of the population. The epidemiological indices for cohorts of children, born before the start of control, will not show a decrease during the first 8 years of interruption of transmission. The prevalence is too insensitive to be useful for the evaluation in hyperendemic villages during most of the control period. The most sensitive and meaningful statistic for a comparative analysis and for the assessment of epidemiological changes is the geometric mean microfilarial load in a cohort of adults. This index, which is called the Community Microfilarial Load (CMFL), is now routinely used in the OCP. The new analytical methodology has enabled a much better appreciation of the significant epidemiological impact of 8 years of vector control in the OCP. Several related aspects of the pre- and post-control dynamics of onchocerciasis infection are also discussed and priorities are formulated for further work on applied modelling of onchocerciasis. PMID:3492300

  1. A force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis and its applications in the epidemiological evaluation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area

    PubMed Central

    Remme, J.; Ba, O.; Dadzie, K. Y.; Karam, M.

    1986-01-01

    A simple force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis has been developed for a study of the age-specific epidemiological trends during a period of vector control in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area (OCP). The most important factors included in the model are the longevity of an infection, the aspect of super-infection, age-specific exposure, and the intensity of transmission during the pre-control period. The aim of the study was to determine the most appropriate statistics for the epidemiological evaluation in the OCP. There was generally good agreement between the epidemiological trends, predicted by the model, and the observed trends in the prevalence and mean load of microfilariae in skin snips taken from a cohort population from 23 villages in an area with 8 years of successful vector control in the OCP. It is concluded that the epidemiological trends during the control period are not uniform but depend on the initial age and the initial endemicity level of the population. The epidemiological indices for cohorts of children, born before the start of control, will not show a decrease during the first 8 years of interruption of transmission. The prevalence is too insensitive to be useful for the evaluation in hyperendemic villages during most of the control period. The most sensitive and meaningful statistic for a comparative analysis and for the assessment of epidemiological changes is the geometric mean microfilarial load in a cohort of adults. This index, which is called the Community Microfilarial Load (CMFL), is now routinely used in the OCP. The new analytical methodology has enabled a much better appreciation of the significant epidemiological impact of 8 years of vector control in the OCP. Several related aspects of the pre- and post-control dynamics of onchocerciasis infection are also discussed and priorities are formulated for further work on applied modelling of onchocerciasis. PMID:3492300

  2. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  3. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.

  4. Two-pool model analysis of data in hemodialysis by means of programmable pocket calculator TI 59.

    PubMed

    Guthke, R; Günther, K; Stein, G; Knorre, W A

    1985-01-01

    Four parameters of a two-pool model are evaluated by an iterative method using the explicit solutions of the linear differential equations. For this it was presumed that the residual renal clearance is sufficiently small. Five data pairs of measured plasma concentrations ci for the time points ti (i = 0 to 4), as well as the dialyzer and residual renal clearances (KD and KR), must be given and put in the calculator. A sample run is shown for urea kinetics. The parameter estimation takes about 10 min. The program is suitable to assist in the individualization of dialysis therapy. PMID:3839735

  5. New observations and models of circumstellar CO line emission of AGB stars in the Herschel SUCCESS programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovich, T.; Teyssier, D.; Justtanont, K.; Olofsson, H.; Cerrigone, L.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Cernicharo, J.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; García-Lario, P.; Marston, A.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are in one of the latest evolutionary stages of low to intermediate-mass stars. Their vigorous mass loss has a significant effect on the stellar evolution, and is a significant source of heavy elements and dust grains for the interstellar medium. The mass-loss rate can be well traced by carbon monoxide (CO) line emission. Aims: We present new Herschel/HIFI and IRAM 30 m telescope CO line data for a sample of 53 galactic AGB stars. The lines cover a fairly large range of excitation energy from the J = 1 → 0 line to the J = 9 → 8 line, and even the J = 14 → 13 line in a few cases. We perform radiative transfer modelling for 38 of these sources to estimate their mass-loss rates. Methods: We used a radiative transfer code based on the Monte Carlo method to model the CO line emission. We assume spherically symmetric circumstellar envelopes that are formed by a constant mass-loss rate through a smoothly accelerating wind. Results: We find models that are consistent across a broad range of CO lines for most of the stars in our sample, i.e., a large number of the circumstellar envelopes can be described with a constant mass-loss rate. We also find that an accelerating wind is required to fit, in particular, the higher-J lines and that a velocity law will have a significant effect on the model line intensities. The results cover a wide range of mass-loss rates (~10-8 to 2 × 10-5 M⊙ yr-1) and gas expansion velocities (2 to 21.5 km s-1) , and include M-, S-, and C-type AGB stars. Our results generally agree with those of earlier studies, although we tend to find slightly lower mass-loss rates by about 40%, on average. We also present "bonus" lines detected during our CO observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A NATURAL GAS SYSTEMS ANALYSIS MODEL (GSAM) VOLUME I - SUMMARY REPORT VOLUME II - USER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIIA - RP PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIIB - SRPM PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIIC - E&P PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIID - D&I PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-02-01

    This report summarizes work completed on DOE Contract DE-AC21-92MC28138, Development of a Natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). The products developed under this project directly support the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in carrying out its natural gas R&D mission. The objective of this research effort has been to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, microcomputer model of the North American natural gas market. GSAM has been developed to explicitly evaluate components of the natural gas system, including the entire in-place gas resource base, exploration and development technologies, extraction technology and performance parameters, transportation and storage factors, and end-use demand issues. The system has been fully tested and calibrated and has been used for multiple natural gas metrics analyses at NETL in which metric associated with NETL natural gas upstream R&D technologies and strategies under the direction of NETL has been evaluated. NETL's Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that R&D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced natural gas. GSAM provides the capability to assess potential and on-going R&D projects using a full fuel cycle, cost-benefit approach. This method yields realistic, market-based assessments of benefits and costs of alternative or related technology advances. GSAM is capable of estimating both technical and commercial successes, quantifying the potential benefits to the market, as well as to other related research. GSAM, therefore, represents an integration of research activities and a method for planning and prioritizing efforts to maximize benefits and minimize costs. Without an analytical tool like GSAM, NETL natural gas upstream R&D activities cannot be appropriately ranked or focused on the most important aspects of natural gas extraction efforts or utilization considerations.

  7. Key principles to improve programmes and interventions in complementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Chessa K; Iannotti, Lora; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Guyon, Agnes; Daelmans, Bernadette; Robert, Rebecca; Haider, Rukhsana

    2013-09-01

    Although there are some examples of successful complementary feeding programmes to promote healthy growth and prevent stunting at the community level, to date there are few, if any, examples of successful programmes at scale. A lack of systematic process and impact evaluations on pilot projects to generate lessons learned has precluded scaling up of effective programmes. Programmes to effect positive change in nutrition rarely follow systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation (PIE) processes to enhance effectiveness over the long term. As a result a set of programme-oriented key principles to promote healthy growth remains elusive. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by proposing a set of principles to improve programmes and interventions to promote healthy growth and development. Identifying such principles for programme success has three requirements: rethinking traditional paradigms used to promote improved infant and young child feeding; ensuring better linkages to delivery platforms; and, improving programming. Following the PIE model for programmes and learning from experiences from four relatively large-scale programmes described in this paper, 10 key principles are identified in the areas of programme planning, programme implementation, programme evaluation, and dissemination, replication, and scaling up. Nonetheless, numerous operational research questions remain, some of which are highlighted in this paper. PMID:24074321

  8. Modelling the cost‐effectiveness of introducing rapid syphilis tests into an antenatal syphilis screening programme in Mwanza, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Vickerman, P; Peeling, R W; Terris‐Prestholt, F; Changalucha, J; Mabey, D; Watson‐Jones, D; Watts, C

    2006-01-01

    Objectives A study found screening (with rapid plasma reagin (RPR)) pregnant women for maternal syphilis was cost‐effective in Mwanza, Tanzania. Recently, four rapid point‐of‐care (POC) syphilis tests were evaluated in Mwanza, and found to have reasonable sensitivity/specificity. This analysis estimates the relative cost‐effectiveness of using these POC tests in the Mwanza syphilis screening intervention. Methods Empirical cost and epidemiological data were used to model the potential benefit of using POC tests instead of RPR. Reductions in costs relating to training, supplies, and equipment were estimated, and any changes in impact due to test sensitivity were included. Additional modelling explored how the results vary with prevalence of past infection, misclassified RPR results, and if not all women return for treatment. Results The cost‐effectiveness of using POC tests is mainly dependent on their cost and sensitivity for high titre active syphilis (HTAS). Savings due to reductions in training and equipment are small. Current POC tests may save more disability‐adjusted life years (DALYs) than the RPR test in Mwanza, but the test cost needs to be

  9. Das Programm Oder 2006. Hochwasserschutz in Polen im Zuge der EU-Osterweiterung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, Olaf

    Hochwasser ist ein natürliches Ereignis: Seit jeher sind die Menschen mit Hochwasser und seinen Auswirkungen konfrontiert. Das Ausmaß von Hochwasser reicht dabei von Straßenüberschwemmungen bis zur Überflutung ganzer Landesteile. Auch im Oderflußsystem waren und sind Überschwemmungen keine Seltenheit, in den letzten 200 Jahren ereigneten sie sich in den Jahren 1813, 1838, 1854, 1870, 1903, 1958, 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1981, 1985 und 1997. Das Hochwasser von 1997 war jedoch das schwerste im genannten Zeitraum. Als Reaktion auf das Hochwasser von 1997 wurde in der betroffenen Region das Programm 〝Oder 2006`` entwickelt. Mit seiner Hilfe sollen die Auswirkungen künftiger Hochwasserereignisse abgeschwächt werden.

  10. Ressourceneinsatzplanung In der Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engell, Sebastian; Handschin, Edmund; Rehtanz, Christian; Schultz, Rüdiger

    Der ökologisch nachhaltige, wirtschaftlich effiziente und politisch faire Umgang mit den Ressourcen der Erde ist eine der größten Herausforderungen an die Menschheit im 21. Jahrhundert und impliziert Paradigmenwechsel in allen Bereichen des gesellschaftlichen Lebens. Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik sind traditionell Bereiche, in denen der optimale Umgang mit kostbaren und beschränkt verfügbaren Ressourcen von erstrangiger Bedeutung ist. Zur Lösung der damit verbundenen komplexen Entscheidungsprobleme sind mathematische Methoden schon seit längerem im Einsatz. Hierbei können aber noch längst nicht alle bislang aufgetretenen Probleme fundiert angegangen werden. Der wachsende wirtschaftliche und ökologische Druck auf die Effizienz der Produktions-und Versorgungssysteme sowie stärkere Schwankungen von Angebot und Nachfrage führen zu neuen Herausforderungen, für die neue mathematische Methoden und Algorithmen entwickelt werden müssen.

  11. An innovative methodological approach in the frame of Marine Strategy Framework Directive: a statistical model based on ship detection SAR data for monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Pieralice, Francesca; Proietti, Raffaele; La Valle, Paola; Giorgi, Giordano; Mazzolena, Marco; Taramelli, Andrea; Nicoletti, Luisa

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) is focused on protection, preservation and restoration of the marine environment by achieving and maintaining Good Environmental Status (GES) by 2020. Within this context, this paper presents a methodological approach for a fast and repeatable monitoring that allows quantitative assessment of seabed abrasion pressure due to recreational boat anchoring. The methodology consists of two steps: a semi-automatic procedure based on an algorithm for the ship detection in SAR imagery and a statistical model to obtain maps of spatial and temporal distribution density of anchored boats. Ship detection processing has been performed on 36 ASAR VV-pol images of Liguria test site, for the three years 2008, 2009 and 2010. Starting from the pointwise distribution layer produced by ship detection in imagery, boats points have been subdivided into 4 areas where a constant distribution density has been assumed for the entire period 2008-2010. In the future, this methodology will be applied also to higher resolution data of Sentinel-1 mission, specifically designed for the operational needs of the European Programme Copernicus. PMID:25096752

  12. The Ensemble/Legacy Chimera extension: standardized user and programmer interface to molecular Ensemble data and Legacy modeling programs.

    PubMed

    Konerding, D E

    2000-01-01

    Ensemble/Legacy is a toolkit extension of the Object Technology Framework (OTF) that exposes an object oriented interface for accessing and manipulating ensembles (collections of molecular conformations that share a common chemical topology) and driving Legacy programs (such as MSMS, AMBER, X-PLOR, CORMA/MARDIGRAS, Dials and Windows, and CURVES). Ensemble/Legacy provides a natural programming interface for running Legacy programs on ensembles of molecules and accessing the resulting data. Using the OTF reduces the time cost of developing a new library to store and manipulate molecular data and also allows Ensemble/Legacy to integrate into the Chimera visualization program. The extension to Chimera exposes the Legacy functionality using a graphical user interface that greatly simplifies the process of modeling and analyzing conformational ensembles. Furthermore, all the C++ functionality of the Ensemble/Legacy toolkit is "wrapped" for use in the Python programming language. More detailed documentation on using Ensemble/Legacy is available online (http:¿picasso.nmr.ucsf.edu/dek/ensemble. html). PMID:10902174

  13. [Evidenzbasierte Leitlinien, Anspruch und Wirklichkeit].

    PubMed

    Gutsch, Johannes; Reif, Marcus; Müller-Hübenthal, Boris; Matthiessen, Peter F

    2016-01-01

    Mit der Konzeption der «Evidenzbasierten Medizin» und den «Evidenzbasierten Leitlinien» soll mithilfe von Formalisierungsprozeduren die ärztliche Irrtumsanfälligkeit kalkulierbar gemacht werden. Quantifizierte objektive Aussagen über die therapeutische Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung sollen die individuelle ärztliche Beurteilung der therapeutischen Wirksamkeit überflüssig machen. Damit kommt der Befolgung von formalen Regeln die entscheidende Rolle bei der Beantwortung der Frage nach dem Wahrheitsgehalt und dem Wirklichkeitsbezug zu. Im Rahmen evidenzbasierter Leitlinien werden vorrangig die Ergebnisse randomisierter kontrollierter Studien (RCT) oder Meta-Analysen solcher Studien herangezogen. Am Beispiel der S3-Leitlinie «Malignes Melanom» wird hier eine evidenzbasierte Urteilsbildung zur Wirksamkeit einer unkonventionellen Therapie - hier mit einem Mistelpräparat - analytisch nachvollzogen. Die für die Beurteilung dieser unkonventionellen Therapie herangezogene randomisierte Studie wird genauer methodisch analysiert. Obwohl sie keine statistisch basierte Aussage zulässt, wurde eine Leitlinienempfehlung auf Basis dieser Studie abgeleitet. Es wird gezeigt, dass 1) allein die Existenz einer einzigen RCT mit hoher Evidenz gleichgesetzt wird, 2) die Ergebnisse trotz beträchtlicher Fehlinterpretationen in eine S3-Leitlinie einfließen und 3) Meinungen anstelle kritischer wissenschaftlicher Analysen verarbeitet werden. Unsere Untersuchung zeigt, dass noch so ausgefeilte epistemologische und methodologische Formalien den Arzt nicht von der Pflicht entbinden, auf Basis seiner ärztlichen Erfahrung und professionellen Kompetenz den Realitätswert der ihm zur Verfügung stehenden Information zu beurteilen. PMID:27161555

  14. [Vegetarische und vegane Ernährung bei Kindern - Stand der Forschung und Forschungsbedarf].

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus; Müller, Stine

    2016-01-01

    Die Praxis vegetarischer Ernährungsformen ist in Deutschland im letzten Jahrzehnt deutlich angestiegen. Allerdings ist der Anteil vegetarischer und veganer Kinder dabei unbekannt. Studien mit Erwachsenen zeigen das präventive Potenzial, aber auch potenzielle Schwachstellen pflanzenbasierter Kostformen. Die Vorteile und Risiken einer vegetarischen bzw. veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter wurden bisher jedoch relativ selten untersucht. Außerdem lassen das unterschiedliche Alter der Kinder, das heterogene Studiendesign sowie die teilweise geringe Probandenzahl der Studien keine verbindlichen Aussagen zu. In dieser Übersichtsarbeit werden die Ergebnisse der wenigen Studien zu vegetarisch und vegan ernährten Kindern (< 12 Jahren) in Nordamerika und Europa zusammengefasst. Demnach lag die Zufuhr von Nahrungsenergie und Makronährstoffen vegetarischer und veganer Kinder meist näher an den Empfehlungen der Fachgesellschaften als die Ernährung gleichaltriger Mischkostkinder. Ebenso wiesen vegetarisch und vegan ernährte Kinder eine höhere Zufuhr von und bessere Versorgung mit verschiedenen Vitaminen und Mineralstoffen auf. Häufiger zeigten sich jedoch Defizite bei Vitamin B12, Zink, Kalzium, Eisen und Vitamin D. Das Wachstum und die Entwicklung vegetarisch und vegan ernährter Kinder entsprachen weitgehend den Referenzstandards, wobei sie dazu tendierten, leichter, schlanker und (< 5 Jahren) auch kleiner zu sein. Aufgrund der unzureichenden Studienlage besteht erheblicher Forschungsbedarf zu den Auswirkungen einer vegetarischen und veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter. PMID:27160086

  15. Programmable, automated transistor test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.; Sundburg, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A programmable, automated transistor test system was built to supply experimental data on new and advanced power semiconductors. The data will be used for analytical models and by engineers in designing space and aircraft electric power systems. A pulsed power technique was used at low duty cycles in a nondestructive test to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors in the 500 to 1000 V, 10 to 100 A range. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software.

  16. Protocol for a process-oriented qualitative evaluation of the Waltham Forest and East London Collaborative (WELC) integrated care pioneer programme using the Researcher-in-Residence model

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Laura; George, Bethan; Marshall, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The integration of health and social care in England is widely accepted as the answer to fragmentation, financial concerns and system inefficiencies, in the context of growing and ageing populations with increasingly complex needs. Despite an expanding body of literature, there is little evidence yet to suggest that integrated care can achieve the benefits that its advocates claim for it. Researchers have often adopted rationalist and technocratic approaches to evaluation, treating integration as an intervention rather than a process. Results have usually been of limited use to practitioners responsible for health and social care integration. There is, therefore, a need to broaden the evidence base, exploring not only what works but also how integrated care can most successfully be implemented and delivered. For this reason, we are carrying out a formative evaluation of the Waltham Forest and East London Collaborative (WELC) integrated care pioneer programme. Our expectation is that this will add value to the literature by focusing on the processes by which the vision and objectives of integrated care are translated through phases of development, implementation and delivery from a central to a local perspective, and from a strategic to an operational perspective. Methods and analysis The qualitative and process-oriented evaluation uses an innovative participative approach—the Researcher-in-Residence model. The evaluation is underpinned by a critical ontology, an interpretive epistemology and a critical discourse analysis methodology. Data will be generated using interviews, observations and documentary gathering. Ethics and dissemination Emerging findings will be interpreted and disseminated collaboratively with stakeholders, to enable the research to influence and optimise the effective implementation of integrated care across WELC. Presentations and publications will ensure that learning is shared as widely as possible. The study has received

  17. Restaurierung von Seen und Renaturierung von Seeufern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüneberg, Björn; Ostendorp, Wolfgang; Leßmann, Dieter; Wauer, Gerlinde; Nixdorf, Brigitte

    Süßwasserseen haben als ökosysteme und Lebensraum für Pflanzen und Tiere eine herausragende Bedeutung für die Artenvielfalt auf der Erde und prägen als Landschaftselemente unsere natürliche Umwelt. Seen fungieren als natürliche Stoffsenken, vor allem für Kohlenstoff und Nährstoffe, aber auch als Senken für in ihren Einzugsgebieten emittierte gelöste und feste Schadstoffe. Darüber hinaus ist Wasser eine wichtige Naturressource. Süßwasserseen stellen in den meisten Regionen der Erde lebenswichtige Quellen für die Versorgung mit Trinkwasser und tierischem Eiweiß (Fischfang) dar. Sie dienen als Wasserspeicher für die landwirtschaftliche und industrielle Nutzung. Auch für Erholungsaktivitäten des Menschen kommt ihnen eine große Bedeutung zu.

  18. Bewegungsapparat: Postcraniales Skelett und Muskulatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Martin S.

    Der Bewegungsapparat bestimmt die Form des Wirbeltierkörpers. So lässt sich z. B. aus der Gestalt eines Fisches auf seine bevorzugt e Schwimmweise schließen (S. 61). Bei den aquatisch en Schädeltieren dominiert die Fortbewegung mit axialem Antrieb; bei den meisten Tetrapoda findet sich eine Kombination aus axialem Antrieb und Bewegung durch Gliedmaßen. Selbst beim höchst spezialisierten Gang, der bipeden Bewegung des Menschen, sind Torsionsbewegungen des Rumpfes noch maßgeblich und bestimmen auch die Grundform des menschlichen Körpers (z. B. die Taille). Obwohl die verschiedenen Antriebsmechanismen eine funktionelle Einheit bilden, werden im Folgenden das Axialskelett sowie der Schulter- und Beckengürtel mit den zugehörigen Extremitäten getrennt besprochen.

  19. A model for integrating strategic planning and competence-based curriculum design in establishing a public health programme: the UNC Charlotte experience

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michael E; Harver, Andrew; Eure, Marquis

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, a doctoral/research-intensive university, is the largest institution of higher education in the Charlotte region. The university currently offers 18 doctoral, 62 master's and 90 baccalaureate programmes. Fall 2008 enrolment exceeded 23 300 students, including more than 4900 graduate students. The university's Department of Health Behavior and Administration was established on 1 July 2002 as part of a transformed College of Health & Human Services. Case description In 2003, the Department initiated a series of stakeholder activities as part of its strategic planning and programmatic realignment efforts. The Department followed an empirically derived top-down/bottom-up strategic planning process that fostered community engagement and coordination of efforts across institutional levels. This process culminated in a vision to transform the unit into a Council on Education for Public Health accredited programme in public health and, eventually, an accredited school of public health. To date, the Department has revised its Master of Science in health promotion into an Master of Science in Public Health programme, renamed itself the Department of Public Health Sciences, launched a Bachelor of Science in Public Health major, laid plans for a doctoral programme, and received accreditation from the Council on Education for Public Health as a public health programme. Furthermore, the campus has endorsed the programme's growth into a school of public health as one of its priorities. Discussion and Evaluation It is only through this rigorous and cyclical process of determining what society needs, designing a curriculum specifically to prepare graduates to meet those needs, ensuring that those graduates meet those needs, and reassessing society's needs that we can continue to advance the profession and ensure the public's health. Community stakeholders should be active contributors to programme innovation. Lessons

  20. LOGSIM programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. L.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A programmer's manual is reported for a Logic Simulator (LOGSIM) computer program that is a large capacity event simulator with the capability to accurately simulate the effects of certain unknown states, rise and fall times, and floating nodes in large scale metal oxide semiconductor logic circuits. A detailed description of the software with flow charts is included within the report.

  1. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  2. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  3. Work Programme, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Cedefop's work programme 2014 constitutes an ambitious attempt to preserve its core activities, respond to new requests and ensure previous quality standards while respecting resource constraints. Nevertheless, it also reflects the risk that the Centre's ability to deliver its mission and increasing demands may be affected by further budgetary…

  4. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  5. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  6. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

  7. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  8. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  9. Lineare und verzweigte Blockcopolymere aus Polypeptiden und synthetischen Polymeren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukula, Hildegard

    2001-07-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von linearen und verzweigten amphiphilen Polypeptid-Blockcopolymeren. Die Frage nach dem Einfluss der Topologie und Konformation der Blockcopolymere auf die supramolekularen und kolloidalen Eigenschaften bildete einen wichtigen Aspekt bei den Untersuchungen. Die Blockcopolymere wurden nach einem mehrstufigen Reaktionsschema durch Kombination von anionischer und ringöffnender Polymerisation von Aminosäuren-N-Carboxyanhydriden (NCA) synthetisiert. Die Untersuchung der Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere hinsichtlich ihres Aggregationsverhaltens in fester Phase sowie in verdünnter wässriger Lösung erfolgte mittels Streumethoden (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) sowie abbildender Methoden (TEM). Durch Einsatz der Blockcopolymere als polymere Stabilisatoren in der Emulsionspolymerisation wurden Oberflächen funktionalisierte Latizes erhalten. Als Beispiel für eine pharmazeutische Anwendung wurden bioverträgliche Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere als Wirkstoff-Trägersysteme in der Krebstherapie eingesetzt. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers having amphiphilic character. The studies focused on the impact of the block copolymers' conformation and architecture on the supramolecular and colloidal properties. The polypeptide block copolymers were prepared in a multi-step process involving the anionic synthesis of (poly)amino-functional polymers (polystyrene and polybutadiene) which where used as macroinitiators for the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCA) of protected a-aminoacids. Supramolecular structures of the block copolymers in the solid state as well as in diluted aqueous solution were investigated using scattering (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) and microscopic (TEM) methods. Both linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers were used as polymeric stabilizers in the emulsion polymerization of styrene to yield polypeptide

  10. Dynamische Motorvermessung mit verschiedenen Methoden und Modellen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Alexander

    Die stark zunehmenden gesetzlichen und wirtschaftlichen Vorgaben zur Senkung von Kraftstoffverbrauch und Abgasemissionen stellen große Anforderungen an die weitere Entwicklung von Benzin- und Dieselmotoren. Hierbei sind grundlegende Fortschritte durch Konstruktion und auslegungsbedingte Maßnahmen im Bereich der Einspritzung, Gemischaufbereitung, Aufladung, Brennverfahren und Abgasnachbehandlung zu erreichen. Ein wesentlicher Teil dieser Verbesserungen wird jedoch durch eine Zunahme von Variabilitäten erreicht wie z.B. verstellbaren Vor-, Haupt- und Nacheinspritzungen, variablem Raildruck, variablen Nockenwellensteuerwinkeln, Ventilhüben, Drall-/Tumbleklappen sowie verstellbaren Abgasturbinen, Abgasrückführströmen und Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen. Dadurch steigt die Zahl der Stellglieder (Aktoren) stark an. Hinzu kommen zusätzliche Sensoren wie z.B. für Luftzahl, NOx, Brennraumdruck, Abgastemperatur und Abgasdruck. Deshalb nimmt der Umfang der Steuerungs-, Regelungs- und Diagnosefunktionen in der Motorelektronik (ECU) stark zu. Bild 7-1 zeigt als Beispiel den Signalfluss für die gesteuerten und geregelten Größen eines Dieselmotors in einer beispielhaften Prüfstandsumgebung.

  11. Optically programmable excitonic traps

    PubMed Central

    Alloing, Mathieu; Lemaître, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Dubin, François

    2013-01-01

    With atomic systems, optically programmed trapping potentials have led to remarkable progress in quantum optics and quantum information science. Programmable trapping potentials could have a similar impact on studies of semiconductor quasi-particles, particularly excitons. However, engineering such potentials inside a semiconductor heterostructure remains an outstanding challenge and optical techniques have not yet achieved a high degree of control. Here, we synthesize optically programmable trapping potentials for indirect excitons of bilayer heterostructures. Our approach relies on the injection and spatial patterning of charges trapped in a field-effect device. We thereby imprint in-situ and on-demand electrostatic traps into which we optically inject cold and dense ensembles of excitons. This technique creates new opportunities to improve state-of-the-art technologies for the study of collective quantum behavior of excitons and also for the functionalisation of emerging exciton-based opto-electronic circuits. PMID:23546532

  12. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  13. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative – Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) – aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  14. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word “PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS” using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  15. Programmable Multizone Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Edmund Y.; Larson, David J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Moving thermal gradients created without mechanical motion. Furnace having multiple, individually programmable heating zones developed for use in experiments on directional solidification. Holds rod specimen and generates thermal gradients moving along specimen. Elimination of translation mechanism makes furnace more compact and reduces vibrations, which disturb experiment. Availability of different temperature profiles through programming makes it versatile tool for research at low thermal gradients traveling at moderate speeds.

  16. Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers.

    PubMed

    Gareau, David; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2016-07-13

    Developing molecules, switches, probes or nanomaterials that are able to respond to specific temperature changes should prove of utility for several applications in nanotechnology. Here, we describe bioinspired strategies to design DNA thermoswitches with programmable linear response ranges that can provide either a precise ultrasensitive response over a desired, small temperature interval (±0.05 °C) or an extended linear response over a wide temperature range (e.g., from 25 to 90 °C). Using structural modifications or inexpensive DNA stabilizers, we show that we can tune the transition midpoints of DNA thermometers from 30 to 85 °C. Using multimeric switch architectures, we are able to create ultrasensitive thermometers that display large quantitative fluorescence gains within small temperature variation (e.g., > 700% over 10 °C). Using a combination of thermoswitches of different stabilities or a mix of stabilizers of various strengths, we can create extended thermometers that respond linearly up to 50 °C in temperature range. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility, robustness, and efficiency of these programmable DNA thermometers by monitoring temperature change inside individual wells during polymerase chain reactions. We discuss the potential applications of these programmable DNA thermoswitches in various nanotechnology fields including cell imaging, nanofluidics, nanomedecine, nanoelectronics, nanomaterial, and synthetic biology. PMID:27058370

  17. Programmable matter by folding

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, E.; An, B.; Benbernou, N. M.; Tanaka, H.; Kim, S.; Demaine, E. D.; Rus, D.; Wood, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to meet the goal. This paper considers achieving programmable sheets that can form themselves in different shapes autonomously by folding. Past approaches to creating transforming machines have been limited by the small feature sizes, the large number of components, and the associated complexity of communication among the units. We seek to mitigate these difficulties through the unique concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns. This approach exploits a single sheet composed of interconnected triangular sections. The sheet is able to fold into a set of predetermined shapes using embedded actuation. To implement this self-folding origami concept, we have developed a scalable end-to-end planning and fabrication process. Given a set of desired objects, the system computes an optimized design for a single sheet and multiple controllers to achieve each of the desired objects. The material, called programmable matter by folding, is an example of a system capable of achieving multiple shapes for multiple functions. PMID:20616049

  18. Smart programmable wireless microaccelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1998-07-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. Programmable accelerometers can be achieved with splitfinger interdigital transducers (IDTs) as reflecting structures. If IDTs are short circuited or capacitively loaded, the wave propagates without any reflection whereas in an open circuit configuration, the IDTs reflect the incoming SAW signal. The programmable accelerometers can thus be achieved by using an external circuitry on a semiconductor chip using hybrid technology. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a `dummy' in automobile crash test.

  19. Optimisation of internal contamination monitoring programme by integration of uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Davesne, E; Casanova, P; Chojnacki, E; Paquet, F; Blanchardon, E

    2011-03-01

    Potential internal contamination of workers is monitored by periodic bioassay measurements interpreted in terms of intake and committed effective dose by the use of biokinetic and dosimetric models. After a prospective evaluation of exposure at a workplace, a suitable monitoring programme can be defined by choosing adequate measurement techniques and frequency. In this study, the sensitivity of a programme is evaluated by the minimum intake and dose, which may be detected with a given level of confidence by taking into account uncertainties on exposure conditions and measurements. This is made for programme optimisation, which is performed by comparing the sensitivities of different alternative programmes. These methods were applied at the AREVA NC reprocessing plant and support the current monitoring programme as the best compromise between the cost of the measurements and the sensitivity of the programme. PMID:21037264

  20. Change in Study Programmes: The Low Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Jeroen; Verhoeven, Jef; De Wit, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Both in the Netherlands and Flanders, the lack of efficiency in the supply of programmes in the university sectors was considered a policy problem in the late 1980s and beginning of the 1990s. This article explores how the institutional context of the university sector (including the governmental steering model and the conflicting interests…

  1. Impact of Entrepreneurship Programmes on University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglesias-Sánchez, Patricia P.; Jambrino-Maldonado, Carmen; Velasco, Antonio Peñafiel; Kokash, Husam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate entrepreneurship in Malaga University based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour model. There are two objectives: to analyse the influence of the main elements of orientation to entrepreneurship and to evaluate the efficiency of education programmes in the university system.…

  2. What Makes a Good Educator? The Relevance of Meta Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nigel

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a qualitative study which explores the relevance of meta programmes to students' perceptions of teaching quality. Meta programmes are a model of personality preferences from the discipline of Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). Research into teaching effectiveness indicates that students rate as important "hygiene…

  3. Flexible programmable logic module

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  4. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  5. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  6. Programmable Electronic Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, R.

    1993-05-01

    Traditionally safety systems intended for protecting personnel from electrical and radiation hazards at particle accelerator laboratories have made extensive use of electromechanical relays. These systems have the advantage of high reliability and allow the designer to easily implement failsafe circuits. Relay based systems are also typically simple to design, implement, and test. As systems, such as those presently under development at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL), increase in size, and the number of monitored points escalates, relay based systems become cumbersome and inadequate. The move toward Programmable Electronic Safety Systems is becoming more widespread and accepted. In developing these systems there are numerous precautions the designer must be concerned with. Designing fail-safe electronic systems with predictable failure states is difficult at best. Redundancy and self-testing are prime examples of features that should be implemented to circumvent and/or detect failures. Programmable systems also require software which is yet another point of failure and a matter of great concern. Therefore the designer must be concerned with both hardware and software failures and build in the means to assure safe operation or shutdown during failures. This paper describes features that should be considered in developing safety systems and describes a system recently installed at the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility of the SSCL.

  7. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  8. The NATA code; theory and analysis. Volume 3: Programmer's manual. [for calculating flow in arc-heated wind tunnels and conditions on models tested in reentry simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bade, W. L.; Yos, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The present, third volume of the final report is a programmer's manual for the code. It provides a listing of the FORTRAN 4 source program; a complete glossary of FORTRAN symbols; a discussion of the purpose and method of operation of each subroutine (including mathematical analyses of special algorithms); and a discussion of the operation of the code on IBM/360 and UNIVAC 1108 systems, including required control cards and the overlay structure used to accommodate the code to the limited core size of the 1108. In addition, similar information is provided to document the programming of the NOZFIT code, which is employed to set up nozzle profile curvefits for use in NATA.

  9. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  10. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Butler, Michael A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  11. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  12. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  13. GCS programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward; Shagnea, Anita M.; Dent, Leslie A.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of instructions to be used in the development of implementations of software for the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project is described. This document fulfills the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCA/DO-178A guidelines, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification' requirements for document No. 4, which specifies the information necessary for understanding and programming the host computer, and document No. 12, which specifies the software design and implementation standards that are applicable to the software development and testing process. Information on the following subjects is contained: activity recording, communication protocol, coding standards, change management, error handling, design standards, problem reporting, module testing logs, documentation formats, accuracy requirements, and programmer responsibilities.

  14. Columbus Programme overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Frederik

    1993-03-01

    The main activities of the Columbus Programme over the last year are examined. The Attached Laboratory, after a successful achievement of the cost target by downsizing and subsystem simplification, progressed to its final configuration review, interface definition, and schedule tuning. The Free-Flyer, after the decision to abandon the complex technical and operational interface associated with servicing at the Space Station Freedom, was baselined for the Hermes servicing, supported, as a backup, by Space Shuttle servicing. Finally, the Polar Platform baseline and costs were confirmed and consolidated for the full development start. Present program activities include the start in the development of the Attached Laboratory, which is linked to space programs of the U.S.A., Japan, and Canada. Other activities investigated include studies of the potential of using Russian orbital elements to augment the Free-Flyer capabilities.

  15. Programmability of nanowire networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellew, A. T.; Bell, A. P.; McCarthy, E. K.; Fairfield, J. A.; Boland, J. J.

    2014-07-01

    Electrical connectivity in networks of nanoscale junctions must be better understood if nanowire devices are to be scaled up from single wires to functional material systems. We show that the natural connectivity behaviour found in random nanowire networks presents a new paradigm for creating multi-functional, programmable materials. In devices made from networks of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires at different length scales, we discover the emergence of distinct behavioural regimes when networks are electrically stressed. We show that a small network, with few nanowire-nanowire junctions, acts as a unipolar resistive switch, demonstrating very high ON/OFF current ratios (>105). However, large networks of nanowires distribute an applied bias across a large number of junctions, and thus respond not by switching but instead by evolving connectivity. We demonstrate that these emergent properties lead to fault-tolerant materials whose resistance may be tuned, and which are capable of adaptively reconfiguring under stress. By combining these two behavioural regimes, we demonstrate that the same nanowire network may be programmed to act both as a metallic interconnect, and a resistive switch device with high ON/OFF ratio. These results enable the fabrication of programmable, multi-functional materials from random nanowire networks.Electrical connectivity in networks of nanoscale junctions must be better understood if nanowire devices are to be scaled up from single wires to functional material systems. We show that the natural connectivity behaviour found in random nanowire networks presents a new paradigm for creating multi-functional, programmable materials. In devices made from networks of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires at different length scales, we discover the emergence of distinct behavioural regimes when networks are electrically stressed. We show that a small network, with few nanowire-nanowire junctions, acts as a unipolar resistive switch, demonstrating very high ON

  16. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  17. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  18. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  19. Mikro- und Nanokapseln aus Funktionspolymeren, Biopolymeren und Proteinen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Corinna

    2001-03-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird die Beschichtung von kolloidalen Templaten mit Hilfe der Layer-by-layer Technik beschrieben. Mit ihr ist es möglich, die Oberfläche der Template mit sehr dünnen und gut definierten Filmen zu versehen. Durch Auflösung der Template werden Kapseln hergestellt, die je nach Zusammensetzung der Beschichtung unterschiedliche Eigenschaften aufweisen. In this thesis the coating of colloid templates using the layer-by-layer technique is described. The surface of the templates is modified with thin, well defined films. After dissolving the templates, hollow capsules with different properties are obtained.

  20. Using the Global Environment Facility for developing Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) models -- Papua New Guinea`s Biodiversity Conservation Management Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, G.; Jefferies, B.

    1995-03-01

    The unprecedented level of support that has been pledged to strengthen Government of Papua New Guinea (GoPNG) biodiversity conservation initiatives has re-identified an important fact that technical and infrastructure support must be complemented by programs that provide realistic opportunities for developing national capacity. Indications are that the next five years will present a range of challenging opportunities for the department to move from the intensive period of planning, which has been the focus of attention during the first phase of the National Forestry and Conservation Action Programme (NFCAP), into a sustained period of policy and project application. This paper examines processes under which strengthening programs contribute to national development objectives and complement accomplishment of the Department of Environment and Conservation Strategic Plan. An overview of the Global Environment Facility-Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) Project and coordination effort that are being made for biodiversity conservation projects in Papua New Guinea, are addressed.

  1. Dentalwerkstoffe und Dentalimplantate - Teil 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltermeier, Andreas

    Wie in allen Bereichen der Medizin findet auch in der Zahnmedizin eine kontinuierliche Weiterentwicklung der verwendeten Werkstoffe statt. Gerade für Zahnersatz werden Werkstoffe gesucht, die zum einen ästhetisch, zum anderen haltbar und darüber hinaus auch körperverträglich sind. Auch steigt immer mehr der Wunsch der Patienten nach ästhetischen und zugleich biokompatiblen Materialien. Wurde früher fast ausschließlich als Füllungsmaterial im Seitenzahngebiet quecksilberhaltiges Amalgam verwendet, hat der Zahnarzt heutzutage eine große Auswahl an verschiedenen zahnfarbenen Materialien: zum einen werden sog. Komposite verwendet, das aus einer Polymermatrix mit eingebetteten Füllstoffen besteht, zum anderen können diverse Dentalkeramiken verwendet werden. Besonders die Verwendung von Hochleistungskeramiken, wie beispielsweise Zirkonoxid, das sich bereits als Bremsscheiben für Sportwägen, Hitzeschilde im Space Shuttle und als Kugelköpfe künstlicher Hüftgelenke bewährt hat, spielt heutzutage eine große Rolle bei der Verdrängung des Metalls aus der Mundhöhle. War es früher nur möglich, einen verloren gegangen Zahn mittels einer Brücke, die ein Beschleifen der Nachbarzähne zur Folge hat, oder durch herausnehmbaren Zahnersatz zu ersetzen, ist es heutzutage mit der modernen Implantologie möglich, Zahnersatz zahnschonend einzugliedern. Auch kann mittels Dentalimplantaten dem Wunsch vieler Patienten nach festem Zahnersatz anstelle eines herausnehmbaren Zahnersatzes entsprochen werden. So kann mit Hilfe neuer biokompatiblen Werkstoffe sowohl der ästhetische Anspruch befriedigt als auch das Selbstwertgefühl vieler Patienten angehoben werden.

  2. RELBET 4.0 programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huysman, B. P.; Kwong, P. S.; Pieniazek, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    The RELBET 4.0 System as implemented on the Hewlett Packard model 9000 computer system is described. The manual is directed toward programmers and system maintenance personnel. It is intended to serve both as a reference and as a introductory guide to the software. The body of the manual provides an overview of major features and indicates where to look for further information. Full details are left to Appendices.

  3. Scientific Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  4. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  5. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  6. Financial aspects of veterinary herd health management programmes.

    PubMed

    Ifende, V I; Derks, M; Hooijer, G A; Hogeveen, H

    2014-09-01

    Veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programmes have been shown to be economically effective in the past. However, no current information is available on costs and benefits of these programmes. This study compared economics and farm performance between participants and non-participants in VHHM programmes in 1013 dairy farms with over 40 cows. Milk Production Registration (MPR) data and a questionnaire concerning VHHM were used. Based on the level of participation in VHHM (as indicated in the questionnaire), costs of the programmes were calculated using a normative model. The economic value of the production effects was similarly calculated using normative modelling based on MPR data. Participants in VHHM had a better performance with regard to production, but not with regard to reproduction. Over 90 per cent of the VHHM participants were visited at least once every six weeks and most participants discussed at least three topics. In most farms, the veterinarian did the pregnancy checks as part of the VHHM programmes. There was a benefit to cost ratio of about five per cow per year for VHHM participants, and a mean difference in net returns of €30 per cow per year after adjusting for the cost of the programme. This portrays that participation in a VHHM programme is cost-efficient. There is, however, much unexplained variation in the net returns, possibly due to diverse approaches by veterinarians towards VHHM or by other factors not included in this analysis, like nutritional quality or management abilities of the farmer. PMID:24934398

  7. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  8. Life skills programmes for chronic mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Most people with schizophrenia have a cyclical pattern of illness characterised by remission and relapses. The illness can reduce the ability of self-care and functioning and can lead to the illness becoming disabling. Life skills programmes, emphasising the needs associated with independent functioning, are often a part of the rehabilitation process. These programmes have been developed to enhance independent living and quality of life for people with schizophrenia. Objectives To review the effects of life skills programmes compared with standard care or other comparable therapies for people with chronic mental health problems. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010). We supplemented this process with handsearching and scrutiny of references. We inspected references of all included studies for further trials. Selection criteria We included all relevant randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials for life skills programmes versus other comparable therapies or standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results We included seven randomised controlled trials with a total of 483 participants. These evaluated life skills programmes versus standard care, or support group. We found no significant difference in life skills performance between people given life skills training and standard care (1 RCT, n = 32, MD −1.10; 95% CI −7.82 to 5.62). Life skills training did not improve or worsen study retention (5 RCTs, n = 345, RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.40 to 3.36). We found no significant difference in PANSS positive, negative or total scores between life skills intervention and

  9. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  10. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  11. Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen (Babelsberg).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)

  12. Satellitenbewegung, band III: Natiirliche und gesteuerte bewegung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochim, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Im dritten Band der Satellitenbewegung werden in fortlaufender Nummerierung einige für Untersuchungen der Bewegung der künstlichen Satelliten wichtige Grundlagen der Astrodynamik mit ausführlichen mathematischen Formelsystemen behandelt. Dazu zählen die unterschiedlichen Aspekte der Bewegung der natürlichen Himmelskörper, die Steuerung und Kontrolle von künstlichen Objekten, und insbesondere die für eine Satellitenbahnanalyse wichtigen physikalischen Beeinflussungen einer Satellitenbewegung. Mathematisch entscheidend ist die Wahl geeigneter Bahnparameter, die ein bestimmtes Bewegungsproblem widerspruchsfrei und singularitätenfrei zu behandeln gestatten. Für die Behandlung routinemäßiger Aufgabenstellungen der Satellitenbewegung, in erster Linie einer präzisen Bahnbestimmung und Bahnverbesserung, kann auf eine Fülle von lehrbuchartigen Monographien verwiesen werden, so dass diese Problematik in der vorliegenden Arbeit nur angedeutet werden soll.

  13. Simulation und virtuelle Realität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Estorff, Otto; Markiewicz, Marian; Özkan, Ali; Zaleski, Olgierd; Blumrich, Reinhard; Genuit, Klaus; Fiebig, André

    Mit Hilfe akustischer Berechnungen ist es möglich, aufwendige Messungen an Fahrzeugprototypen deutlich zu reduzieren. Dieses Kapitel gibt einen kurzen Überblick über die wichtigsten derzeit verfügbaren Methoden. Dabei wird zunächst auf Elementverfahren, wie die Finite-Elemente-Methode (FEM) und die Boundary-Elemente-Methode (BEM), näher eingegangen. Während diese vor allem im tieffrequenten Bereich eingesetzt werden, kommen bei höheren Frequenzen vermehrt Verfahren zum Einsatz, die auf Energieformulierungen beruhen. Exemplarisch wird hier die Funktionsweise und der Einsatz der Statistischen-Energie-Analyse (SEA) erläutert. Anhand von repräsentativen Beispielen werden die Einsatzmöglichkeiten und Grenzen der verschiedenen Verfahren aufgezeigt, wobei vor allem auch auf Vergleiche zwischen Rechnung und Messung eingegangen wird.

  14. Does the HPV vaccination programme have implications for cervical screening programmes in the UK?

    PubMed

    Beer, Helen; Hibbitts, Sam; Brophy, Sinead; Rahman, M A; Waller, Jo; Paranjothy, Shantini

    2014-04-01

    In the UK, a national HPV immunisation programme was implemented in 2008 for girls aged 12-13 years. In addition a catch-up programme was implemented for older girls up to 18 years of age from 2009 to 2011, with an uptake rate of 49.4%. Information about future uptake of cervical screening according to vaccination statistics is important in order to understand the impact of the vaccination programme and implications for a national cervical screening programme. We analysed data on a cohort of women who had been offered the HPV vaccine in the catch-up programme and were invited for cervical screening between 2010 and 2012 in Wales (n=30,882), in a record-linked database study, to describe the cervical screening uptake and clinical outcome according to HPV vaccination status. In our cohort, 48.5% (n=14,966) women had had HPV vaccination and 45.9% (n=14,164) women attended for cervical screening. Women who were unvaccinated were less likely to attend cervical screening (adjusted OR 0.58; 95% CI (0.55, 0.61)). Of those who attended for screening, 13.9% of vaccinated women had abnormal cytology reported compared to 16.7% of women who were unvaccinated. Women who lived in areas with high levels of social deprivation were less likely to be vaccinated (Quintile 5 OR 0.48 95% CI (0.45, 0.52)) or attend cervical screening (Quintile 5 OR 0.70; 95% CI (0.65, 0.75)) compared to those who lived in the least deprived areas. These data highlight the need for new strategies to address inequalities in cervical screening uptake and can inform further mathematical modelling work to clarify the impact of the HPV vaccination programme on future cervical cancer incidence. PMID:24530938

  15. FormBuilder/FBGraphics programmer`s reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    A primary concern in most modern software applications is the development of an attractive, ``friendly`` Graphical User Interface (GUI). Increasingly, that concern is being met through the use of the OSF/Motif widget set. While this software toolset is extremely powerful, the vast knowledge and attention to detail required by the programmer tend to be nearly unmanageable. This translates into an extended learning curve and a large investment of time and effort before the programmer reaches a desirable level of productivity. Even then, developing anything but the most basic GUI often proves to be a tedious and costly undertaking. FormBuilder is an application programmers interface (API) that provides the programmer with a high-level interface to a subset of the ``X`` Window System and the OSF/Motif widget set. Through the use of the FormBuilder data types and procedure calls, the GUI programmer is afforded several distinct advantages over coding directly at the Motif, Xt, and Xlib layers. Among these advantages are a substantially reduced learning curve, more readable/maintainable/modifiable code, smaller, more efficient binaries, and reduced compile/link/debug time during development. Working in concert with the FormBuilder library is the FBGraphics library, a 2-dimensional graphics library that allows the programmer to perform graphical operations within certain FormBuilder ``windows``. The FBGraphics library is based on the Xlib drawing routines, and much like FormBuilder, its purpose is to provide the programmers with a simpler, more productive mechanism for producing the desired graphical output on the screen.

  16. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes. PMID:22081877

  17. Norwegian mastitis control programme.

    PubMed

    Osterås, O; Sølverød, L

    2009-01-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes. PMID:22081877

  18. The programmer`s guide to the software copyright

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrli, J.E.

    1996-06-01

    This booklet was written specifically for anyone who writes computer programs at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is intended to provide basic information on how the law of copyright applies to computer software. It is not intended to be a legal reference for copyright attorneys, but an accessible reference for the people whose creative efforts result in software others want to use. Whether you are a chemist who writes software to help you with your work or a professional Berkeley Lab programmer you should benefit from this booklet. The information in this booklet is written in an informal conversational style, not a legal style. It is simply a direct response to a need for information that I have observed. Since I have written it from a programmer`s viewpoint and for a programmer`s use, it does not cover copyright law in general and focuses only on those areas of copyright law specific to computer software. Moreover, it does not attempt to address other areas of law that may be applicable to computer software. It is certainly not intended to replace the timely legal advice of Berkeley Lab`s Patent Department. However, just as it is helpful to read the computer manual before calling tech support, it will also be helpful to read this booklet before calling the Patent Department, not so much to answer any and all questions, but to give you the vocabulary to better understand and digest the information provided by the Department.

  19. Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

  20. Ein mobiler und offener Kernspintomograph: Kernspintomographie für Medizin und Materialforschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümich, Bernhard; Kölker, Christian; Casanova, Federico; Perlo, Juan; Felder, Jörg

    2005-09-01

    An der RWTH Aachen wurde der erste offene und mobile Kernspintomograph entwickelt. Anders als die normalerweise riesigen und unbeweglichen Geräte besitzt er keine enge Magnetröhre. So kann er auch in große Untersuchungsobjekte hinein schauen, ohne dass diese zerstört werden müssen. Wie eine Lupe erfasst er dabei ein begrenztes Volumen um den Aufsatzpunkt herum. Neben der Medizin ermöglicht der offene Tomograph viele neue Anwendungsgebiete, vor allem in der Materialprüfung und Qualitätskontrolle. Der Aachener Prototyp kann auch das Fließprofil und die Geschwindigkeitsverteilung strömender Flüssigkeiten sichtbar machen. Sein offenes Prinzip erforderte neue technische Komponenten und modifizierte bildgebende Verfahren. Die Messzeit pro Bild kann heute schon unter einer Viertelstunde liegen.

  1. Feasibility and impact of an intensified antibiotic stewardship programme targeting cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone use in a tertiary care university medical center

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    intensified ABS programme targeting cephalosporin und fluoroquinolone use in the setting of a large academic hospital is feasible and effective. The intervention may serve as a model for other services and hospitals with a similar structure and baseline situation. PMID:24731220

  2. The Nature of Study Programmes in Vocational Education: Evaluation of the Model for Comprehensive Competence-Based Vocational Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturing, Lidwien; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Mulder, Martin; de Bruijn, Elly

    2011-01-01

    In a previous series of studies, a model of comprehensive competence-based vocational education (CCBE model) was developed, consisting of eight principles of competence-based vocational education (CBE) that were elaborated for four implementation levels (Wesselink et al. "European journal of vocational training" 40:38-51 2007a). The…

  3. An Integrated Model for the Design of Media in an Educational Context to Ensure Value in the Design of Learning Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, Calvyn

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the necessity for an integrated model for the design of media use in an educational context to ensure value in the design, application, and delivery of learning programs. The model is based on a media design strategy developed at the University of South Africa.(LRW)

  4. The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: New Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, D. E.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme, one of the tree research Programmes of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO/GAW) is the only existing long-term international global programme that coordinates observations and analysis of atmospheric composition changes. The GAW Programme builds on a partnership of more than 100 countries. Within its 25 years of existence WMO/GAW has matured to the system that provides reliable long-term high quality observations in support of international policy making. WMO/GAW includes globally coordinated observational network, complemented by a comprehensive quality assurance system and capacity development. In spite of the fact that GAW has embraced the IGACO strategy (Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations), the programme in its current form still has a strong observational bias. Future development of WMO/GAW requires the further evolution of the programme concept toward "science for services". New challenges call for the changes in the GAW station requirements and data managements, for new approaches to collaboration with the contributing networks and better involvement of the modelling community. The programme structure is evolving to streamline better to user requirements with the move from precipitation chemistry to total deposition and from near-real-time data delivery to applications (modeling) requiring such data delivery. The updated concept of GAW will include more cross-cutting applications. A new category of local station is introduced to help with the verification of some applications including those related to urban areas and the impacts of urban complexes regionally and globally. The evolution of the GAW Programme towards user driven cross-cutting applications provides a new opportunity to the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services in partnership with other science - based institutions to increase their relevance to society.

  5. Anreicherung von Webinhalten mit Semantik - Microformats und RDFa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausenblas, Michael

    Semantik in Webinhalten wird heftig diskutiert. Teilweise wird es auch schon praktiziert. Dieser Beitrag geht auf semantisches HTML, Microformats und RDFa näher ein und zeigt anhand von praktischen Beispielen, wie und wo diese verwendet werden können.

  6. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  7. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

  8. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  9. The ESO Observing Programmes Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerlund, B. E.

    1982-06-01

    Since 1978 the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC) has "the function to inspect and rank the proposals made for observing programmes at La Silla, and thereby to advise the Director General on the distribution of observing time". The members (one from each member country) and their alternates are nominated by the respective national committees for five-year terms (not immediately renewable). The terms are staggered so that each year one or two persons are replaced. The Chairman is appointed annually by the Council. He is invited to attend Council meetings and to report to its members.

  10. NMG documentation. Part II. Programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the 2nd of a 3-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. This part is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, how it works. (Part I is aimed at the user of the system; Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and will receive only limited distribution.)

  11. Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien für die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland. Entwicklungs-, Umsetzungs- und Fortschreibungsprozess der Bund-Länder-Strategie für Städte und Regionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issaoui, Mariam; Sinz, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Die Ministerkonferenz für Raumordnung stellte im Mai 2010 fest, dass sich die „Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien für die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland“ (2006) bewährt haben und bei der Gestaltung der räumlichen Entwicklung umgesetzt werden. Um die Leitbilder den sich verändernden wirtschaftlichen, sozialen und naturräumlichen Rahmenbedingungen anzupassen und die Erkenntnisse aus dem bisherigen Diskussions- und Umsetzungsprozess in Politik und Praxis einzubeziehen, sind sie zu ergänzen und weiterzuentwickeln. Im Mittelpunkt der Fortschreibung werden die Themen „Partnerschaften und Strategien für Stadtregionen und ländliche Räume“, „Mobilität und Logistik“ sowie „Klimaschutz und Energieversorgung“ stehen.

  12. Principles of Development of Model Health Care Programmes. Report on a WHO Meeting. (Turku, Finland, May 3-6, 1982). EURO Reports and Studies 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    A report is given of the work of a group convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) to address the issues related to the development of Model Health Care Programs (MHCPs), and to apply the principles thus identified to the case of a specific health problem--low back pain. A discussion of the principles of the development of MHCPs includes…

  13. Evaluating Effective School Improvement: Case Studies of Programmes in Eight European Countries and Their Contribution to the Effective School Improvement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikeley, Felicity; Stoll, Louise; Murillo, Javier; De Jong, Rob

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the empirical research that contributed to the development of the model of "effective school improvement". The focus is mainly on the findings of that research but the problematic nature of designing a methodology that is applicable in 8 very different education systems is also discussed. The 4 key factors to emerge from the…

  14. The Family Festival Prevention Model: Findings from a Pilot of a Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programme Conceptualised by and for Mexican American Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Stauss, Kim; Koh, Eun

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall reduction in teenage pregnancy rates in the USA, the decrease for young women of Mexican heritage in the USA has been less significant than the decrease for their White and African-American peers. Furthermore, the availability of teenage pregnancy prevention models that are conceptualised specifically for people of Mexican…

  15. Classification of Staff Development Programmes and Effects Perceived by Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Rijdt, Catherine; Dochy, Filip; Bamelis, Sofie; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Educational institutions offer diverse staff development programmes to allow staff members to keep up with educational innovations and to guarantee educational quality. The current study investigates by means of a survey and semi-structured interviews whether the teacher perceives staff development as a management model, a shop-floor model or a…

  16. Simulation of Population Processes with a Programmable Pocket Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, N. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a set of simulation models for use in teaching population dynamics. These models are designed specifically for use with a programmable pocket calculator, and can be used to demonstrate growth of populations with discrete or overlapping generations and also to explore effects of density-dependent and -independent mortality. (Author/CS)

  17. STALK programmers guide

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.; Hallstrom, P.; Reeder, G.; Walenz, B.; Stevens, F.; Facello, M.

    1996-07-01

    STALK is a system that models molecular docking between two proteins. A problem is posed as an optimization problem where the objective is to minimize the intermolecular interaction energy between the two molecules. The possible number of conformations between the two molecules can be very large. A parallel genetic algorithm (GA) is used to explore the conformation space and identify the low-energy molecular configurations. The CAVE, a virtual reality environment, can be used to visualize and interact with the system while it is executing. STALK consists of two programs: stalk.ga, the docking program that runs the GA, and stalk. cave, the visualization program. The visualization component is optional.

  18. Optische und schwingungsspektroskopische Hochdruckuntersuchungen von Ladungsträgereigenschaften in herkömmlich und nach der Template-Methode synthetisierten leitfähigen Polypyrrolschichten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikat, Jürgen E. R.

    2001-07-01

    . Das Ladungsträger-gleichgewicht verschiebt sich dadurch mit steigendem Druck zu Zuständen mit höherem Anteil an polaronischen Ladungsträgern. Die Template-Synthese bewirkt gegenüber herkömmlich synthetisierten Proben einen höheren Anteil an Polaronen bereits bei Normaldruck, und eine Lage des Systems näher bei einem Isolator-Metall-Übergang. Die Dissoziationsrate der Bipolaronen ist für Template- und herkömmlich synthetisierte Proben vergleichbar groß und unabhängig vom Initialzustand nach der Synthese. Dieses Verhalten der Ladungsträger wird weitergehend im Rahmen eines Modells untersucht, bei dem der Einfluß benachbarter Polymerketten und der Dotandionen berücksichtigt wird. Dementsprechend können sich die Wellenfunktionen der Ladungsträger unter bestimmten Bedingungen auch auf benachbarte Ketten erstrecken (transversale Polaronen bzw. Bipolaronen). Eine solche Ausdehnung der Wellenfunktionen unter Mitwirkung der Dotandionen wurde in den untersuchten Proben nicht festgestellt. Die Wellenfunktionen der Ladungsträger besitzen demnach hauptsächlich Komponenten entlang der Polymerkette (longitudinale Polaronen bzw. Bipolaronen). Aus der Änderungsrate druckabhängiger spektraler Charakteristiken lassen sich Aussagen über den Ordnungszustand der Probe ableiten. Diese auf experimentellem Wege gefundenen Ergebnisse liefern somit Hinweise für die bisher kontrovers diskutierte Koexistenz der beiden Ladungsträgerarten Polaronen und Bipolaronen und die Größe ihrer jeweiligen Bindungsenergien. Druckerhöhung und Template-Synthese bewirken analoge Änderungen der Polymerstruktur. Sowohl höherer Druck wie auch die Template-Synthese lassen sich mit einem höheren Ordnungsgrad in den Template-Proben korrelieren. Der Ladungstransport in den Proben kann durch ein Mott Variable Range Hopping-Modell mit druckabhängiger charakteristischer Dimension beschrieben werden. Die Erhöhung des Drucks bewirkt einen Anstieg der Dimension, eine bessere Überlappung der

  19. Toward Understanding the Cognitive Processes of Software Design in Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Kuo-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    This study provides insights with regard to the types of cognitive processes that are involved in the formation of mental models and the way those models change over the course of a semester in novice programmers doing a design task. Eight novice programmers participated in this study for three distinct software design sessions, using the same…

  20. Environmental protection during animal disease eradication programmes.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, H A

    1991-09-01

    This paper identifies animal disease eradication (ADE) programme activities which may have a negative impact on the environment. It suggests ways to lessen the impact of such activities without compromising the programme objectives. Reducing losses from livestock and poultry diseases with prevention, control and eradication programmes produces a net positive impact on the environment. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) should be integrated into the planning of any ADE programme. Decision-makers should give due consideration to the environmental effects of ADE programme activities, together with cost, personnel needs and other, more traditional, management concerns. A better environment will be a supplemental benefit from ADE programmes. PMID:1782433

  1. An update on EUMETSAT programmes and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaes, K. D.; Holmlund, Kenneth

    2015-09-01

    EUMETSAT supports operational meteorology and climate monitoring with its mandatory programmes, in the geostationary and polar sun-synchronous orbits. Optional programmes support further tasks like altimetry and oceanography. Satellite data from other agencies' satellites which are of interest to the user community are provided through third party programmes. This paper provides an overview over current EUMETSAT programmes, and the status and plans of future systems. This includes the mandatory geostationary and polar systems, as well as third party and Oceanography missions. Programmes currently under development are the Meteosat Third Generation and EPS Second Generation programmes and also the Oceanography missions related to Jason and Copernicus. Related services are addressed as well.

  2. Designing Individualised Leadership Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Christine; McMahon, Margery; Gronn, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The recruitment of sufficient numbers of suitably qualified teachers into headship is an international issue and to address this in Scotland alternative headship preparation programmes were trialled to provide greater flexibility in order to better match the individual development needs and circumstances of the aspirant head teachers. Drawing from…

  3. Evaluation of quality improvement programmes.

    PubMed

    Øvretveit, J; Gustafson, D

    2002-09-01

    In response to increasing concerns about quality, many countries are carrying out large scale programmes which include national quality strategies, hospital programmes, and quality accreditation, assessment and review processes. Increasing amounts of resources are being devoted to these interventions, but do they ensure or improve quality of care? There is little research evidence as to their effectiveness or the conditions for maximum effectiveness. Reasons for the lack of evaluation research include the methodological challenges of measuring outcomes and attributing causality to these complex, changing, long term social interventions to organisations or health systems, which themselves are complex and changing. However, methods are available which can be used to evaluate these programmes and which can provide decision makers with research based guidance on how to plan and implement them. This paper describes the research challenges, the methods which can be used, and gives examples and guidance for future research. It emphasises the important contribution which such research can make to improving the effectiveness of these programmes and to developing the science of quality improvement. PMID:12486994

  4. The Massey Kiwi Friend Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Philip; Ramsey, Deborah; Mason, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Like many institutions, Massey University has experienced growth in enrolments of international students. Increasing numbers of international students has led to frustrations for international and domestic students, and for staff. This paper describes an innovative programme designed to help with the orientation of international students. Domestic…

  5. Global Geospace Science Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George; Shawhan, Stanley; Calabrese, Michael; Alexander, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    The Global Geospace Science (GGS) Program, an element of the international Solar Terrestrial Physics Program dedicated to the study of the global plasma dynamics of the solar-terrestrial environment, is discussed. Past research on the injection of solar wind ions into the magnetosphere and on the detection of ions in the terrestrial ring current of both solar wind and ionospheric origins is reviewed, showing its relevance for the GGS program. Research on the interplanetary magnetic field, the auroral electrojet, the outer magnetosphere, the geomagnetic tail, the ionospheric electric field and the related electron precipitation is also addressed. The results demonstrate that the solar wind and the ionsophere both contribute to the magnetospheric particle population. Unanswered questions regarding hot plasma sources, transport processes, energy storage in the magnetic field, and energization of plasmas are discussed. The relevant mission strategy, instrumentation, theory and modeling, and data collection are addressed.

  6. Anti-bullying interventions at school: aspects of programme adaptation and critical issues for further programme development.

    PubMed

    Stevens, V; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Van Oost, P

    2001-06-01

    Recently, a growing interest in problems at school of peer aggression and victimization was observed. As a result, intervention strategies appropriate for this kind of problem were required. The Norwegian anti-bullying intervention that was developed and evaluated by Olweus (1992) in the region of Bergen was considered to be a good model for other countries to implement interventions against peer aggression within the school environment. It was therefore adapted to the educational settings of other countries. This paper aims to discuss the adaptation processes of the Bergen anti-bullying programme and to give guidelines to advance further programme development. For this, the DFE Sheffield Bullying Project (Smith and Sharp, 1994), the Anti-bullying Intervention in Toronto schools (Pepler et al., 1994) and the Flemish anti-bullying project (Stevens and Van Oost, 1994) were considered in the analyses. Discussion of the adaptation processes of the Bergen model programme revealed that the adapted interventions largely succeeded in incorporating the core components of the Bergen model programme, taking into account the characteristics of the implementation environment. This suggests that for bully/victim interventions, the dilemma of programme fidelity and programme adaptation could be solved adequately. However, from a health promotion perspective, some critical issues for programme improvement were observed. Three suggestions for change were made, indicating that anti-bullying actions at schools may benefit from: (i) a clear overview of the learning objectives, specified per target population; (ii) more attention to parental involvement and family interventions; and (iii) additional information about the adoption processes of the anti-bullying interventions within schools. PMID:11356754

  7. Methodologies for optimal resource allocation to the national space program and new space utilizations. Volume 2: Resource allocation and smoothing model, programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Appendixes are presented that provide model input requirements, a sample case, flow charts, and a program listing. At the beginning of each appendix, descriptive details and technical comments are provided to indicate any special instructions applicable to the use of that appendix. In addition, the program listing includes comment cards that state the purpose of each subroutine in the complete program and describe operations performed within that subroutine. The input requirements includes details on the many options that adapt the program to the specific needs of the analyst for a particular problem.

  8. Adult Learners' Perceptions of An Undergraduate HRD Degree Completion Programme: Reasons for Entering, Attitudes towards Programme and Impact of Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Dan; Thompson, Dale Edward; Thompson, Cecelia K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate an undergraduate distance education (DE) programme based upon adult learners' perceptions. The study investigated the value of the Human Resource Development programme at the University of Arkansas by examining the students' reasons for returning to college, their attitudes towards the programme and the…

  9. What do community football players think about different exercise-training programmes? Implications for the delivery of lower limb injury prevention programmes

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F; Doyle, Tim LA; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Elliott, Bruce C; Twomey, Dara M; White, Peta E; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Young, Warren; Lloyd, David G

    2014-01-01

    Background Players are the targeted end-users and beneficiaries of exercise-training programmes implemented during coach-led training sessions, and the success of programmes depends upon their active participation. Two variants of an exercise-training programme were incorporated into the regular training schedules of 40 community Australian Football teams, over two seasons. One variant replicated common training practices, while the second was an evidence-based programme to alter biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to risk of knee injuries. This paper describes the structure of the implemented programmes and compares players’ end-of-season views about the programme variants. Methods This study was nested within a larger group-clustered randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of two exercise-training programmes (control and neuromuscular control (NMC)) for preventing knee injuries. A post-season self-report survey, derived from Health Belief Model constructs, included questions to obtain players’ views about the benefits and physical challenges of the programme in which they participated. Results Compared with control players, those who participated in the NMC programme found it to be less physically challenging but more enjoyable and potentially of more benefit. Suggestions from players about potential improvements to the training programme and its future implementation included reducing duration, increasing range of drills/exercises and promoting its injury prevention and other benefits to players. Conclusions Players provide valuable feedback about the content and focus of implemented exercise-training programmes, that will directly inform the delivery of similar, or more successful, programmes in the future. PMID:24047571

  10. The Use of Tools, Modelling Methods, Data Types, and Endpoints in Systems Medicine: A Survey on Projects of the German e:Med-Programme.

    PubMed

    Gietzelt, Matthias; Höfer, Thomas; Knaup-Gregori, Petra; König, Rainer; Löpprich, Martin; Poos, Alexandra; Ganzinger, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Systems medicine is the consequent continuation of research efforts on the road to an individualized medicine. Thereby, systems medicine tries to offer a holistic view on the patient by combining different data sources to highlight different perspectives on the patient's health. Our research question was to identify the main data types, modelling methods, analysis tools, and endpoints currently used and studied in systems medicine. Therefore, we conducted a survey on projects with a systems medicine background. Fifty participants completed this survey. The results of the survey were analyzed using histograms and cross tables, and finally compared to results of a former literature review with the same research focus. The data types reported in this survey were widely diversified. As expected, genomic and phenotype data were used most frequently. In contrast, environmental and behavioral data were rarely used in the projects. Overall, the cross tables of the data types in the survey and the literature review showed overlapping results. PMID:27577469

  11. The JOSHUA (J80) system programmer`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smetana, A.O.; McCort, J.T.; Westmoreland, B.W.

    1993-08-01

    The JOSHUA system routines (JS routines) can be used to manage a JOSHUA data base and execute JOSHUA modules on VAX/VMS and IBM/MVS computer systems. This manual provides instructions for using the JS routines and information about the internal data structures and logic used by the routines. It is intended for use primarily by JOSHUA systems programmers, however, advanced applications programmers may also find it useful. The JS routines are, as far as possible, written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 so that they are easily maintainable and easily portable to different computer systems. Nevertheless, the JOSHUA system provides features that are not available in ANSI FORTRAN 77, notably dynamic module execution and a data base of named, variable length, unformatted records, so some parts of the routines are coded in nonstandard FORTRAN or assembler (as a last resort). In most cases, the nonstandard sections of code are different for each computer system. To make it easy for programmers using the JS routines to avoid naming conflicts, the JS routines and common block all have six character names that begin with the characters {open_quotes}JS.{close_quotes} Before using this manual, one should be familiar with the JOSHUA system as described in {open_quotes}The JOSHUA Users` Manual,{close_quotes} ANSI FORTRAN 77, and at least one of the computer systems for which the JS routines have been implemented.

  12. Technology transfer trends in Indian space programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Shoba, T. S.

    2010-10-01

    Indian space programme, whose objectives involve acceleration of economic and social development through applications of space technology, has been engaged in the development of state-of-the-art satellite systems, launch vehicles and equipment necessary for applications. Even during the early phase of evolution of this Programme, deliberate policies have been adopted by the national space agency, namely, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), to promote spin-off benefit from the technologies developed for the use of space projects. Consistently adhering to this policy, ISRO has transferred over 280 technologies till date, spanning a wide spectrum of disciplines. This has resulted in a fruitful two-way cooperation between a number of SMEs and the ISRO. In order to make the technology transfer process effective, ISRO has adopted a variety of functional and organizational policies that included awareness building measures, licensee selection methods, innovative contract systems, diverse transfer processes, post licencing services and feedback mechanisms. Besides analyzing these policies and their evolution, the paper discusses various models adopted for technology transfer and their impact on assessment. It also touches upon relevant issues relating to creating interface between public funded R&D and the private commercial enterprises. It suggests few models in which international cooperation could be pursued in this field.

  13. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to noninvasively change one or more...

  14. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to noninvasively change one or more...

  15. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  16. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  17. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  18. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  19. Stakeholder Perspectives: CLIL Programme Management in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehisto, Peeter; Asser, Hiie

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, Estonia launched a voluntary Estonian language CLIL programme for seven year-olds in four Russian-medium schools. The programme has expanded rapidly to a total of 48 kindergartens and schools. This paper reports on research into stakeholder perspectives on programme management. In addition to surveying parents, teachers, vice-principals…

  20. Smart Lipids for Programmable Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Matthew P.; Chien, Miao-Ping; Ku, Ti-Hsuan; Rush, Anthony M.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Novel, responsive liposomes are introduced, assembled from DNA-programmed lipids allowing sequence selective manipulation of nanoscale morphology. Short, single stranded DNA sequences form polar head groups conjugated to hydrophobic tails. The morphology of the resulting lipid aggregates depends on sterics and electronics in the polar head groups and therefore, is dependent on the DNA hybridization state. The programmability, specificity and reversibility of the switchable system are demonstrated via dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. PMID:20518544

  1. Programmable Grit-Blasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1988-01-01

    In programmable grit-blasting system undergoing design, controller moves blasting head to precise positions to shape or remove welding defects from parts. Controller holds head in position for preset dwell time and moves head to new position along predetermined path. Position of articulated head established by pair of servomotors according to programmed signals from controller. Head similar to video borescope. Used to remove welding defects in blind holes. Suited for repetitive production operations in grit-blast box.

  2. Programmable data collection platform study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study incorporating microprocessors in data collection platforms in described. An introduction to microcomputer hardware and software concepts is provided. The influence of microprocessor technology on the design of programmable data collection platform hardware is discussed. A standard modular PDCP design capable of meeting the design goals is proposed, and the process of developing PDCP programs is examined. A description of design and construction of the UT PDCP development system is given.

  3. Volkszählung und Mikrozensus1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohmann, Heinz

    Die Volkszählung (Zensus) ist seit langem weltweit eine statistische Erhebung über Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit. In vielen Ländern wird sie heute in etwa 10jährigem Abstand durchgeführt. In Deutschland wurde sie in den 80er Jahren zum Politikum. Datenschutzängste, verbunden mit politischen Vorgängen (Friedensbewegung), erregten die Menschen, und das Bundesverfassungsgericht steckte neue Grenzen ab. Nach kontroversen Auseinandersetzungen, an denen die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) konstruktiv beteiligt war, kam es zur Volkszählung 1987. Den nachfolgenden Paradigmenwechsel hin zu einem registergestützten Zensus 2011 hat die DStatG ebenfalls kreativ mitgestaltet. Im Beitrag wird dieser Weg nachgezeichnet. Das neue Konzept wird vorgestellt und kritisch gewürdigt. Betroffen war auch der Mikrozensus als größte Bevölkerungs- und Arbeitsmarktstichprobe zwischen den Zensen. Nicht zuletzt durch das Wirken eines wissenschaftlichen Beirats, dessen Mitglieder von der DStatG vorgeschlagen wurden, blieb diese Erhebung in ihrem Kern für die Zukunft erhalten.

  4. Static impedance behavior of programmable metallization cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, S.; Saremi, M.; Barnaby, H. J.; Edwards, A.; Kozicki, M. N.; Mitkova, M.; Mahalanabis, D.; Gonzalez-Velo, Y.; Mahmud, A.

    2015-04-01

    Programmable metallization cell (PMC) devices work by growing and dissolving a conducting metallic bridge across a chalcogenide glass (ChG) solid electrolyte, which changes the resistance of the cell. PMC operation relies on the incorporation of metal ions in the ChG films via photo-doping to lower the off-state resistance and stabilize resistive switching, and subsequent transport of these ions by electric fields induced from an externally applied bias. In this paper, the static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film with active Ag and inert Ni electrodes is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.

  5. `Discover, Understand, Implement, and Transfer': Effectiveness of an intervention programme to motivate students for science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütte, Kerstin; Köller, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Considerable research has focused on how best to satisfy modern societies' needs for skilled labour in the field of science. The present study evaluated an intervention programme designed to increase secondary school students' motivation to pursue a science career. Students from 3 schools of the highest educational track participated for up to 2 years in the intervention programme, which was implemented as an elective in the school curriculum. Our longitudinal study design for evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention programme included all students at the grade levels involved in the programme with students who did not participate serving as a control group. Mixed-model analyses of variance showed none of the intended effects of the intervention programme on science motivation; latent growth models corroborated these results. When the programme began, students who enrolled in the science elective (n = 92) were already substantially more motivated than their classmates (n = 228). Offering such an intervention programme as an elective did not further increase the participating students' science motivation. It seems worthwhile to carry out intervention programmes with talented students who show (comparatively) little interest in science at the outset rather than with highly motivated students who self-select into the programme.

  6. The Lombardy Rare Donor Programme

    PubMed Central

    Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Paccapelo, Cinzia; Manera, Maria Cristina; Rebulla, Paolo; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Marconi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2005, the government of Lombardy, an Italian region with an ethnically varied population of approximately 9.8 million inhabitants including 250,000 blood donors, founded the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, a regional network of 15 blood transfusion departments coordinated by the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory of the Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan. During 2005 to 2012, Lombardy funded LORD-P with 14.1 million euros. Materials and methods During 2005–2012 the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme members developed a registry of blood donors and a bank of red blood cell units with either rare blood group phenotypes or IgA deficiency. To do this, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory performed extensive serological and molecular red blood cell typing in 59,738 group O or A, Rh CCDee, ccdee, ccDEE, ccDee, K− or k− donors aged 18–55 with a record of two or more blood donations, including both Caucasians and ethnic minorities. In parallel, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory implemented a 24/7 service of consultation, testing and distribution of rare units for anticipated or emergent transfusion needs in patients developing complex red blood cell alloimmunisation and lacking local compatible red blood cell or showing IgA deficiency. Results Red blood cell typing identified 8,747, 538 and 33 donors rare for a combination of common antigens, negative for high-frequency antigens and with a rare Rh phenotype, respectively. In June 2012, the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme frozen inventory included 1,157 red blood cell units. From March 2010 to June 2012 one IgA-deficient donor was detected among 1,941 screened donors and IgA deficiency was confirmed in four previously identified donors. From 2005 to June 2012, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory provided 281 complex red blood cell alloimmunisation consultations and distributed 8,008 Lombardy Rare Donor Programme red blood cell units within and outside the region

  7. Programmable hardware for reconfigurable computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen

    1996-10-01

    In 1945 the work of J. von Neumann and H. Goldstein created the principal architecture for electronic computation that has now lasted fifty years. Nevertheless alternative architectures have been created that have computational capability, for special tasks, far beyond that feasible with von Neumann machines. The emergence of high capacity programmable logic devices has made the realization of these architectures practical. The original ENIAC and EDVAC machines were conceived to solve special mathematical problems that were far from today's concept of 'killer applications.' In a similar vein programmable hardware computation is being used today to solve unique mathematical problems. Our programmable hardware activity is focused on the research and development of novel computational systems based upon the reconfigurability of our programmable logic devices. We explore our programmable logic architectures and their implications for programmable hardware. One programmable hardware board implementation is detailed.

  8. Generative Adaptation and Reuse of Competence Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodero, Juan Manuel; Zarraonandia, Telmo; Fernandez, Camino; Diez, David

    2007-01-01

    Instructional engineering provides methods to conduct the design and adaptation of competence development programmes by the combination of diverse learning components (i.e. units of learning, learning activities, learning resources and learning services). It occurs through an established process workflow in which models with diverse levels of…

  9. Sustaining and Scaling up the Impact of Professional Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehetmeier, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a crucial topic: which factors influence the sustainability and scale-up of a professional development programme's impact? Theoretical models and empirical findings from impact research (e.g. Zehetmeier and Krainer, "ZDM Int J Math" 43(6/7):875-887, 2011) and innovation research (e.g. Cobb and Smith,…

  10. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face workshops, an…

  11. Evaluation of Formal Training Programmes in Greek Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantidis, Anastasios D.; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to highlight the training factors that mostly affect trainees' perception of learning and training usefulness. Design/methodology/approach: A new research model is proposed exploring the relationships between a trainer's performance, training programme components, outcomes of the learning process and training…

  12. Evaluating Doctoral Programmes in Africa: Context and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Michael; Backhouse, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Models of doctoral education in Africa remained similar to those in European universities, well into the 2000s. However, there has been an increasing realisation that such programmes are ill-suited for the African realities. With recent efforts to revitalise higher education in Africa, considerable attention has been placed on the need to explore…

  13. Teaching Advocacy in Early Years Initial Teacher Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebovich, Betty J.; Matoba Adler, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Teacher education programmes in the United States and in England with early childhood certification usually include courses with topics such as early childhood theory and curriculum, child development, model programs, and history of early childhood education but less often include courses with content focused specifically on advocacy. This article…

  14. Programmable Analog Memory Resistors For Electronic Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Thakoor, Sarita; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, Anilkumar P.

    1990-01-01

    Electrical resistance of new solid-state device altered repeatedly by suitable control signals, yet remains at steady value when control signal removed. Resistance set at low value ("on" state), high value ("off" state), or at any convenient intermediate value and left there until new value desired. Circuits of this type particularly useful in nonvolatile, associative electronic memories based on models of neural networks. Such programmable analog memory resistors ideally suited as synaptic interconnects in "self-learning" neural nets. Operation of device depends on electrochromic property of WO3, which when pure is insulator. Potential uses include nonvolatile, erasable, electronically programmable read-only memories.

  15. Diving in and Exploring Curricular Frameworks: The New Zealand Marine Studies Centre Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracy; MacIntyre, Bill; Bicknell, Brenda; Cutler, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand Marine Studies Centre has developed a programme for secondary gifted and talented students offering hands-on science in the real world. These programmes are designed to include elements of the Enrichment Triad Model (ETM), specifically the three types of enrichment, and, to a lesser degree, some aspects of the Schoolwide Enrichment…

  16. Using Epidemiological Survey Data to Examine Factors Influencing Participation in Parent-Training Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Dyah Ramadewi, Mikha; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based parent-training programmes aim to reduce child behaviour problems; however, the effects of these programmes are often limited by poor participation rates. This study proposes a model of parent, child and family factors related to parental participation in parenting interventions. A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to…

  17. Child development programme in Singapore 1988 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lai-Yun

    2007-11-01

    Early childhood intervention programmes can shift the odds toward more favourable outcomes in development, especially for children at risk. However, there is no quick fix in the world for early childhood interventions. Programmes that work are rarely simple, inexpensive, or easy to implement. Each country must decide its own model and strategies and develop its resources based on existing infrastructures. Since its independence to become a sovereign nation in 1965, Singapore has undergone significant socio-economic changes. The infant and under-5 childhood mortality rates are among the lowest in the world. A number of "new morbidities" have been identified to pose major challenges to child health in the next decades. They are chronic medical illnesses, developmental disabilities, learning problems, injuries and neglect, behavioural disturbances and disorders, sequelae associated with unhealthy life-styles, and social and emotional disorders. The need for a comprehensive child development programme is therefore obvious. The main objectives are identification and treatment of children with developmental and behavioural problems so as to correct developmental dysfunctions, minimise the impact of a child's disability or of prevailing risk factors, strengthen families, and establish the foundations for subsequent development. A child development programme has evolved in Singapore over the last 20 years. The programme is multi-disciplinary, community-based, family-focused, and child-centric, with partnership and integration between government and voluntary community organisations. PMID:18071596

  18. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  19. Qualitative findings in a long-term disordered eating prevention programme follow-up with school-going girls.

    PubMed

    González, Marcela L; Mora, Marisol; Penelo, Eva; Goddard, Elizabeth; Treasure, Janet; Raich, Rosa M

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of eating disorder prevention-programmes has mainly been addressed quantitatively excluding complexity that may improve prevention. We compared perceptions of eating, female and male aesthetic-models, media influences, prevention-programmes and emerging topics among 12 young females who received a media literacy programme (N = 4), media literacy plus nutrition awareness programme (N = 4) or were assigned to a control condition (N = 4). Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis highlighted ego-syntonic eating-patterns and signs of internalization of the thin ideal. Findings provide invaluable and rich information to improve future iterations of the programme. PMID:22850973

  20. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne; André, François

    2015-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  1. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissebrat, Guillaume; Albert-Aguilar, Alexandre; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Cloché, Sophie; Darras, Sabine; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  2. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Labatut, Laurent; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, many disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity, and Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, like Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, qualitative field surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by different data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with varied data sharing cultures, specific expectations, and using

  3. Vom Urknall zum Zerfall. Die Welt zwischen Anfang und Ende.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsch, H.

    Contents: Der Tanz mit dem Ozean. Galaktische Landkarte. Das Maß der Dinge. Der würfelnde Gott der Quantenphysik. Geheimnisvolle Felder. Materie und Antimaterie. Quarks - Urstoff unserer Welt. Zerfallende Protonen und die Einheit der Physik. Der Zauberofen. Das überschaubare Universum. Das explodierende Universum. Nachhall der Schöpfung. Der achtfache Weg der kosmischen Entwicklung. Das Ende der Welt. Einheit in der Vielfalt. Das geistige Universum. Gott und das absurde Universum.

  4. Developing a generic, individualised adherence programme for chronic medication users

    PubMed Central

    Herborg, Hanne; Haugbølle, Lotte S.; Sørensen, Lene; Rossing, Charlotte; Dam, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    Objective The scope of this article is to describe the background for and content of an adherence counselling programme with a specific focus on an individualised, multi-dimensional adherence model for patients with a potential adherence problem (a so-called ‘individualised systems model’). Methods An intervention programme based on WHO’s systems model for adherence was developed for implementation in primary health care and tested in a development project in Danish pharmacies in 2004-2005 in three pharmacies and 4 GP practices by 27 patients. Data were collected from the participants by registration forms, questionnaires, and focus groups. Since the programme was to support patients in the self-management process regarding choice and implementation of medication treatment, various strategies were used and different theoretical assumptions and choices made prior to setting up the study. These strategies include distinguishing between different types of non-adherence, a model for stages of change, self-efficacy, narratives, motivating interviewing strategies and coaching techniques. These strategic and theoretical choices are described in the article. Results The strategies and theoretical reflections formed the platform for the creation of a counselling programme, which was tested in two forms, a basic and an extended version - provided by either a pharmaconomist or a pharmacist. The result section also describes a toolbox of instruments to enable pharmacy staff and GPs to tailor a counselling programme for patients individually called ‘Safe and effective use of medicines’. Besides, the results include a description of how the WHO-model is transformed into an individualised counselling model. PMID:25177406

  5. Das menschliche Gehör und Grundlagen der Psychoakustik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Sottek, Roland

    Das menschliche Gehör ist ein äußerst komplexes Empfangs- und Signalverarbeitungssystem. Es ist als Schallanalysator in Leistungsfähigkeit und Vielseitigkeit von technisch-analytischen Verfahren nach wie vor unerreicht. Die Signalverarbeitung läuft auf Grundlage komplexer Prozesse ab, die in ihrer Gesamtheit bislang nicht vollständig erfasst sind. Verschiedene Modelle zur gehörgerechten Zeit- und Frequenzanalyse ahmen jene komplexen Prozesse und Verarbeitungsmechanismen nach, die im menschlichen Gehör vollzogen werden.

  6. Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    An ambitious project to develop an advanced, automated welding system is being funded as part of the Navy Joining Center with Babcock & Wilcox as the prime integrator. This program, the Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS), involves the integration of both planning and real-time control activities. Planning functions include the development of a graphical decision support system within a standard, portable environment. Real-time control functions include the development of a modular, intelligent, real-time control system and the integration of a number of welding process sensors. This paper presents each of these components of the PAWS and discusses how they can be utilized to automate the welding operation.

  7. Programmable multi-chip module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-03-02

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  8. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2005-05-24

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  9. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-11-16

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  10. Certain aspects of the psychological analysis of programmer activity. [selection of computer programmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bondarovskaya, V. M.

    1975-01-01

    The psychological analysis of programmer activity showed that one of its basic characteristics is the need to employ formal languages. In determining ways of effectively mastering the capacity to write algorithms in the algorithmic language, it is expedient to proceed from its similarity to the living languages and the language of mathematical formulas, and to choose certain psychological principles of mastering foreign languages and mathematical symbols in teaching the algorithmic language. General models of the input language significantly increase the effectiveness of its mastery and permit the development of thinking on the part of the students.

  11. A programmable image compression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrelle, Paul M.

    1989-01-01

    A programmable image compression system which has the necessary flexibility to address diverse imaging needs is described. It can compress and expand single frame video images (monochrome or color) as well as documents and graphics (black and white or color) for archival or transmission applications. Through software control, the compression mode can be set for lossless or controlled quality coding; the image size and bit depth can be varied; and the image source and destination devices can be readily changed. Despite the large combination of image data types, image sources, and algorithms, the system provides a simple consistent interface to the programmer. This system (OPTIPAC) is based on the TITMS320C25 digital signal processing (DSP) chip and has been implemented as a co-processor board for an IBM PC-AT compatible computer. The underlying philosophy can readily be applied to different hardware platforms. By using multiple DSP chips or incorporating algorithm specific chips, the compression and expansion times can be significantly reduced to meet performance requirements.

  12. Supraleitung und Interkontinentalraketen „On-line computing“ zwischen Militär, Industrie und Wissenschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knolle, Johannes; Joas, Christian

    Der zweite Weltkrieg und der Kalte Krieg veränderten nicht nur das Verhältnis zwischen Militär, Industrie und Wissenschaft, sondern auch die wissenschaftliche Praxis von Physikern und anderen Wissenschaftlern. In den 1950er Jahren stellte die Entwicklung von Interkontinentalraketen die Auftragnehmer des Militärs in der Industrie vor komplexe Fragestellungen, zu deren Lösung sie auf die Expertise von Wissenschaftlern angewiesen waren. Industrieunternehmen gründeten eigene Forschungseinheiten zur Lösung technischer und wissenschaftlicher Probleme.

  13. GMES Space Component: Programme overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, J.; Milagro-Perez, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new satellites called Sentinels that are being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the first of which to be launched in 2013. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. In addition, access to data from the so-called Contributing Missions guarantees that European space infrastructure is fully used for GMES. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. The in-situ component, under the coordination of the European Environment Agency (EEA), is composed of atmospheric and Earth based monitoring systems, and based on established networks and programmes at European and international levels. The European Commission is in charge of implementing the services component of GMES and of leading GMES overall. GMES services, fed with data from the Space and In-situ components, will provide essential information in five main domains, atmosphere, ocean and land monitoring as well as emergency response and security. Climate change has been added

  14. Darwin, Engels und die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen und kulturellen Evolution des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichholf, Josef H.

    Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen und die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet und vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit und der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.

  15. A new programmable calculator procedure for individualizing phenytoin dosage.

    PubMed

    Messori, A; Valenza, T; Zaccara, G; Arnetoli, G; Bartoli, C; Donati-Cori, G; Tendi, E; Zappoli, R

    1983-12-01

    A programmable calculator procedure allowing nonlinear least-squares fit to pharmacokinetic data conforming to the Michaelis-Menten model is described. Model parameter estimation is performed according to the iterative Gauss-Newton technique as modified by Hartley. This procedure thus employs the same theoretical approach used by most pharmacokinetic computer programs. No programming skill is needed to run the program described. The proposed procedure is discussed in detail and applied to some sets of pharmacokinetic data. PMID:6653404

  16. Haptische Modellierung und Deformation einer Kugelzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippritt, Darius; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

    Haptische Simulationsmodelle dienen in der Medizin in erster Linie dem Training operativer Eingriffe. Sie basieren zumeist auf physikalischen Gewebemodellen, welche eine sehr genaue Simulation der biomechanischen Eigenschaften des betreffenden Gewebes erlauben, aber gleichzeitig sehr rechenintensiv und damit zeitaufwändig in der Ausführung sind. Die menschliche Wahrnehmung kann allerdings auch eine ungenaue haptische Modellierung psychooptisch ausgleichen. Daher kann es sinnvoll sein, haptische Simulationen auch mit nicht vollständig physikalisch definierten Deformationsmodellen durchzuführen. Am Beispiel der haptischer Simulation einer in-vitro Fertilisation wird gezeigt, dass durch die Anwendung eines geometrischen Deformationsmodells eine künstliche Befruchtung unter realistischen experimentellen Bedingungen in Echtzeit haptisch simuliert und damit trainiert werden kann.

  17. Newtons Principia Mathematica Philosophia und Plancks Elementarkonstanten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompe, R.; Treder, H.-J.

    Die Newtonschen Prinzipien, zusammen mit den Planckschen Elementarkonstanten, erweisen sich als gesichertes Fundament der Physik und der exakten Wissenschaften aller Richtungen.Der Begriffsfundus der Physik ist ausreichend für alle physikalischen aber auch weiterreichenden Probleme anderer Naturwissenschaften und Technik. Es zeigt sich, daß die klassische Physik von vornherein so angelegt wurde, daß sie über die Physik der makroskopischen Körper weit hinaus-greifen kann.Translated AbstractNewton's Principia Mathematica Philosophia and Planck's Elementary ConstantsTogether with Planck's elementary constants Newton's principles prove a guaranteed basis of physics and exact sciences of all directions.The conceptions in physics are competent at all physical problems as well as technology too. Classical physics was founded in such a way to reach far beyond the physics of macroscopic bodies.

  18. Biochips und ihr Einsatz in der Lebensmittelanalytik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Ingrid; Zeltz, Patric

    Mit der Verbreitung des Begriffes "Biochip“ in den biotechnologischen Medien wurde Ende der 1990er-Jahre zunächst der Eindruck erweckt, dass die Computerelektronik in die molekularbiologischen Anwendungen eingestiegen ist [18]. In nur wenigen Jahren hat sich die Biochiptechnologie zu einem Verfahren entwickelt, das aus der molekularbiologischen Grundlagenforschung nicht mehr wegzudenken ist und über eine Vielzahl von Einsatzbereichen verfügt. Die Biochiptechnologie ermöglicht die Miniaturisierung von DNA-, RNA- bzw. Proteinanalytik in hochparallelen Formaten. Dieser hohe Parallelisierungsgrad ist einer der wesentlichen Vorteile dieser Technik gegenüber klassischen molekularbiologischen Methoden. Sie wird heutzutage vor allem in der Genomforschung eingesetzt, für Genexpressionsstudien, zum Screening von single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in der pharmakogenetischen Forschung sowie in der Erforschung von Erbkrankheiten und in der Krebsforschung [1, 7, 19]. Neben vielen weiteren Bereichen finden Biochips auch spezielle Anwendungen in der Lebensmittelanalytik.

  19. The 25-foot telescope of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter in Lilienthal - Construction, operation, and its model-size replica. (German Title: Johann Hieronymus Schroeters 25füßiges Teleskop in Lilienthal - Bau, Funktion und seine Nachbildung im Modell)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühning, Felix

    In 2000, the author built a to-scale-reconstruction of the famous 25-foot-reflector of J.H. Schroeter. This article shows not only the problems and results of that work, but also how the building of a model led to a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. The model is now on diplay in the exhibition of the local museum in Lilienthal.

  20. Mol-Gastronomie Vinaigrettes und Benetzung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilgis, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Dass wir Salatblätter mit einer Vinaigrette übergießen, hat natürlich einen kulinarischen Grund: Die Kombination von Essig und Öl verleiht Salat erheblich an Geschmack. Nicht nur durch deren Eigengeschmack, sondern auch durch die Lösungseigenschaften von Geschmacksstoffen. Allerdings liefern Salatsaucen auch einen physikalischen Grund für ihre Beliebtheit: die Benetzungsfähigkeit der Blätter.

  1. Building a global business continuity programme.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Business continuity programmes provide an important function within organisations, especially when aligned with and supportive of the organisation's goals, objectives and organisational culture. Continuity programmes for large, complex international organisations, unlike those for compact national companies, are more difficult to design, build, implement and maintain. Programmes for international organisations require attention to structural design, support across organisational leadership and hierarchy, seamless integration with the organisation's culture, measured success and demonstrated value. This paper details practical, but sometimes overlooked considerations for building successful global business continuity programmes. PMID:24854730

  2. Ethical Issues for Community College Student Programmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Discusses examples of unique ethical issues faced by community college student programmers: member commitment, poor program attendance and lack of programming board diversity, and conflicts of interest (EV)

  3. National tuberculosis programme review: experience over the period 1990-95.

    PubMed Central

    Pio, A.; Luelmo, F.; Kumaresan, J.; Spinaci, S.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990 the WHO Global Tuberculosis Programme (GTB) has promoted the revision of national tuberculosis programmes to strengthen the focus on directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) and close monitoring of treatment outcomes. GTB has encouraged in-depth evaluation of activities through a comprehensive programme review. Over the period 1990-95, WHO supported 12 such programme reviews. The criteria for selection were as follows: large population (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand); good prospects of developing a model programme for a region (Nepal, Zimbabwe); or at advanced stage of implementation of a model programme for a region (Guinea, Peru). The estimated combined incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 82 per 100,000 population, about 43% of the global incidence. The prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was variable, being very high in Ethiopia and Zimbabwe, but negligible in Bangladesh, China, Nepal and Peru. The programme reviews were conducted by teams of 15-35 experts representing a wide range of national and external institutions. After a 2-3-month preparatory period, the conduct of the review usually lasted 2-3 weeks, including a first phase of meetings with authorities and review of documents, a second phase for field visits, and a third phase of discussion of findings and recommendations. The main lessons learned from the programme reviews were as follows: programme review is a useful tool to secure government commitment, reorient the tuberculosis control policies and replan the activities on solid grounds; the involvement of public health and academic institutions, cooperating agencies, and nongovernmental organizations secured a broad support to the new policies; programme success is linked to a centralized direction which supports a decentralized implementation through the primary health care services; monitoring and evaluation of case management functions

  4. Instandhaltung und Plant Asset Management - zwei Welten?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horch, Alexander

    Der Begriff des Asset Management wird nicht mehr nur in der Finanzwelt gebraucht, sondern seit einigen Jahren auch zunehmend in der produzierenden Industrie, insbesondere in der Prozessindustrie. Die Interessengemeinschaft Automatisierungstechnik der Prozessindustrie, NAMUR, hat bereits im Jahr 2001 eine entsprechende Empfehlung zum Thema anlagennahes Asset Management (Plant Asset Management) vorgelegt. In dieser Empfehlung (NAMUR NE 91) taucht der Begriff 'Instandhaltung' in verschiedener Verwendung 15 Mal auf. Die klassische Instandhaltung ist seit vielen Jahren wohl etabliert und definiert, was die große Anzahl Richtlinien, Beschreibungen und Standards belegt (DIN 31051, VDI 2884, VDI 2888, VDI 2889, VDI 2890). Eine oft geäußerte Kritik dem Plant Asset Management gegenüber ist, dass im Grunde nichts Neues angeboten wird, über die Instandhaltung hinaus. Auf der anderen Seite wird das Plant Asset Management seit über zehn Jahren vermehrt gebraucht und etabliert. Dieser scheinbare Widerspruch soll in diesem Beitrag ausgeräumt werden. Als Motivation sollen drei Beispiele kurz beschrieben werden.

  5. Therapeutisches Management kutaner und genitaler Warzen.

    PubMed

    Ockenfels, Hans Michael

    2016-09-01

    Mindestens 10 % der Bevölkerung erkranken während ihres Lebens an einer Infektion mit humanen Papillomaviren (HPV), welche sich klinisch anhand der Ausbildung kutaner oder genitaler Warzen manifestiert. Obwohl Warzen ubiquitär sind, existieren keine definierten Behandlungen. Warzen zeigen, insbesondere in den ersten sechs Monaten, eine erhöhte Selbstheilungsrate. Dieser Umstand erschwert die Interpretation von Studien, da häufig Patienten mit Neuinfektionen zusammen mit Patienten mit Altinfektionen behandelt werden. Lokalisationen, Größe und Dicke der Warzen sind ebenfalls in den meisten Fällen nicht berücksichtigt. Ziel dieses Übersichtsartikels ist eine Analyse des vorliegenden Studienmaterials, unter der für den klinischen Alltag so wichtigen Berücksichtigung von Subtypen und Lokalisationen. Insbesondere die Abgrenzung zwischen frischen und chronisch-therapieresistenten Verrucae vulgares spiegelt sich in einem Therapiealgorithmus wider. Bei genitalen Warzen wird der Therapiealgorithmus deutlicher durch das Ausmaß der infizierten Fläche als durch das Alter der Warzen bestimmt. Bei immunkompetenten Personen muss es mit den hier aufgezeigten therapeutischen Methoden immer das Ziel sein, eine komplette Abheilung zu erzielen. PMID:27607029

  6. Elektronische Citizen Cards in Deutschland und Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Bernd

    Meine sehr geehrten Damen und Herren, der Bedarf an elektronischen Identitäten entsteht durch die wachsende Mobilität der Gesellschaft bei einem gleichzeitig steigenden Bedarf an Onlinepräsenz. Diese elektronischen Identitäten machen natürlich auch vor den staatlichen Ausweisen nicht halt, wie zum Beispiel dem Reisepass, aber auch dem Personalausweis und weiteren Ausweisdokumenten. Wobei es bei den staatlich herausgegebenen oder kontrollierten Ausweisen immer um zwei verschiedene Dinge geht: Einmal um die hoheitliche Funktion, wie zum Beispiel beim Reisepass. Hier geht es zum Beispiel darum, in einem Europa mit gefallenen Grenzen und bei freiem Reiseverkehr für alle Personen, die in diesem Raum wohnen, insbesondere auch im Schengener Raum, die Möglichkeit zu schaffen, auch künftig noch Personenkontrollen durchzuführen. Auch der Reiseverkehr über die europäischen Grenzen hinaus ist insofern ein Problem, da die Identitätenprüfung an den Grenzkontrollen immer schwieriger wird. Deswegen braucht man an dieser Stelle Möglichkeiten, um eine Personenüberprüfung durchzuführen, um feststellen zu können, dass diese Person auch zum Dokument gehört.

  7. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  8. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

  9. Mol-Gastronomie Granulare Fleischgerichte und molekulares Kleben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilgis, Thomas A.

    2005-09-01

    Buletten, Fleischküchle oder Kebabs, Köstlichkeiten aus gehacktem Fleisch bestimmter Körnung, finden sich in allen Kulturen. Physikalisch ein großes Problem, denn zu Tisch dürfen diese Gebilde nicht auseinander brechen und zerfallen. Für ausreichend Bindung und Klebung muss also gesorgt werden.

  10. Der neue Kosmos. Einführung in die Astronomie und Astrophysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsöld, Albrecht; Baschek, Bodo

    Der neue Kosmos bietet in überschaubarem Umfang eine zusammenhängende Einführung in das Gesamtgebiet der Astronomie und Astrophysik. Aus den Bereichen: Klassische Astronomie und Planetensystem, Instrumente und Beobachtungsverfahren, Sonne und Sterne, Milchstraße und Galaxien, Kosmologie, Entstehung des Planetensystems, Entwicklung der Erde und des Lebens werden die Beobachtungsmethoden und die Ergebnisse astronomischer Forschung sowie deren theoretische Grundlagen und wechselseitigen Zusammenhänge vermittelt. Die aktualisierte 7. Auflage berücksichtigt den raschen Fortschritt astronomischer Forschung der letzten drei Jahre von unserem Planetensystem und den Entdeckungen zahlreicher Planeten bei anderen Sternen, über die fernsten Galaxien und Quasare bis zur Entwicklung der modernen Kosmologie.

  11. HP-25 PROGRAMMABLE POCKET CALCULATOR APPLIED TO AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT STUDIES: STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report should be useful to persons concerned with Air Pollution Measurement Studies of Stationary Industrial Sources. It gives detailed descriptions of 22 separate programs, written specifically for the Hewlett Packard Model HP-25 manually programmable pocket calculator. Each...

  12. The Use of Programmable Calculators in the Teaching of Economics, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addis, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the use of programmable calculators to perform classroom controlled experiments on economic models. The complete program for exploring the dynamics of the Harrod-Domar equation is given. Some difficulties encountered and statistical uses are mentioned. (BC)

  13. Renaturierung von subalpinen und alpinen Ökosystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautzer, B.; Klug, Brigitte

    Die große Vielfalt an alpinen und subalpinen Ökosystemen auf waldfreien Standorten stellt besonders hohe Anforderungen an Planung und Durchführung von Renaturierungsmaßnahmen. Zunehmende Meereshöhe, starke Hangneigungen und extreme klimatische Verhältnisse im Gebirge bedingen zudem seit jeher natürliche Erosionsprozesse. Die zahllosen menschlichen Aktivitäten der letzten Jahrzehnte, gepaart mit unzureichenden Begrünungsmaßnahmen, erhöhen dieses Risiko noch um ein Vielfaches: Geländekorrekturen im Zuge von Skipistenbauten, Almrevitalisierungen, Forst- und Almwegebauten, Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der touristischen Infrastruktur oder Wildbach- und Lawinenverbauungen. Nur durch Verwendung von hochwertigem, dem Standort angepasstem Pflanzen-oder Saatgutmaterial in Kombination mit der passenden Begrünungstechnik kann dieser Bedrohung dauerhaft entgegengewirkt werden. Dabei sind folgende limitierende Faktoren besonders zu beachten.

  14. Intelligent produzieren - Prozesse verstehen und mit innovativen Werkzeugen verbessern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Dieter

    Im Umfeld der stetig fortschreitenden Globalisierung und der damit verbundenen Verlagerung von Produktionsstätten und dem Transfer bekannter Technologien ist eine stetige Weiterentwicklung der Fertigungstechnik unumgänglich, um auch zukünftig am Standort Deutschland einen Technologievorsprung zu halten und Produkte zu fertigen, die weltweit konkurrenzfähig sind. Die Notwendigkeit zur permanenten Innovation ist unbestritten. Das Ziel muss es dabei sein, die Produktivität zu erhöhen, die Qualität der Produkte auf stets hohem Niveau zu halten bzw. die Qualität noch weiter zu steigern und gleichzeitig die Kosten stetig zu senken. Dies erfordert intelligente und innovative Werkzeugkonzepte für die Hochleistungsfertigung.

  15. Biokompatible Implantate und Neuentwicklungen in der Gynäkologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Volker R.; Kiechle, Marion

    Für den Einsatz in der Gynäkologie stehen heute eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher, biokompatibler Materialien und Implantate zur Verfügung. Auf eine Auswahl soll hier näher eingegangen werden, die die verschiedenen Materialien und Bauweisen repräsentieren. So sind Brustimplantate seit fast vier Jahrzehnten im Gebrauch für die Brustvergrösserung und den Brustwiederaufbau. Material, Bauweisen und medizinische Aspekte einschliesslich der kontroversen Diskussion um Silikon werden im folgenden erläutert. Neuere Entwicklungen von Verhütungstechniken für permanente Sterilisation wie den Filshie ClipTM für transabdominalen und den STOPTM für intraluminalen Verschluss der Eileiter oder die intrauterin plazierte Hormonspirale MirenaTM für zeitlich begrenzte Verhütung werden beschrieben. Eine neue Perspektive zur Verhinderung postoperativer intraabdominaler Adhäsionen stellt Spray-GelTM, ein Zweikomponenten Hydrogel aus Polyethylenglykol, dar.

  16. Students' Perception of Industrial Internship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi; Karim, Zainal Ambri Bin Abdul; Li, Chong Su

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: An important aspect of an academic curriculum in higher learning institutions for technical disciplines is the industrial internship programme for students. The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perception of the effectiveness of an industrial internship programme offered by a private technological university in Malaysia.…

  17. Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

  18. Evaluating Large-Scale Interactive Radio Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles; Naidoo, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges involved in conducting evaluations of interactive radio programmes in South Africa with large numbers of schools, teachers, and learners. It focuses on the role such large-scale evaluation has played during the South African radio learning programme's development stage, as well as during its subsequent…

  19. Using Programmable Calculators to Evaluate Complicated Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snover, Stephen L.; Spikell, Mark A.

    The application of the programmable calculator to evaluating complicated formulas is illustrated by considering the formula for finding the area of any triangle when only the lengths of the three sides are known. Other advantages of the programmable calculator are discussed such as freeing the student to explore more challenging problems and…

  20. Handwashing Programme in Kindergarten: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, W. H.; Suen, L. K. P.; Kwok, Y. L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured programme on handwashing which has taken into account of the developmental stage of children. Design/methodology/approach: This is a pilot study using a structured handwashing programme as intervention. The intervention group (n=15) receives the structured…

  1. The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative for public health programmes.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, A; Harries, A D; Zachariah, R; Bissell, K; Hinderaker, S G; Edginton, M; Enarson, D A; Satyanarayana, S; Kumar, A M V; Hoa, N B; Tweya, H; Reid, A J; Van den Bergh, R; Tayler-Smith, K; Manzi, M; Khogali, M; Kizito, W; Ali, E; Delaunois, P; Reeder, J C

    2014-06-21

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins sans Frontières Brussels-Luxembourg (MSF) began developing an outcome-oriented model for operational research training. In January 2013, The Union and MSF joined with the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) at the World Health Organization (WHO) to form an initiative called the Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT). This integrates the training of public health programme staff with the conduct of operational research prioritised by their programme. SORT IT programmes consist of three one-week workshops over 9 months, with clearly-defined milestones and expected output. This paper describes the vision, objectives and structure of SORT IT programmes, including selection criteria for applicants, the research projects that can be undertaken within the time frame, the programme structure and milestones, mentorship, the monitoring and evaluation of the programmes and what happens beyond the programme in terms of further research, publications and the setting up of additional training programmes. There is a growing national and international need for operational research and related capacity building in public health. SORT IT aims to meet this need by advocating for the output-based model of operational research training for public health programme staff described here. It also aims to secure sustainable funding to expand training at a global and national level. Finally, it could act as an observatory to monitor and evaluate operational research in public health. Criteria for prospective partners wishing to join SORT IT have been drawn up. PMID:26399203

  2. The Scientific Return of VLT Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterzik, M.; Dumas, C.; Grothkopf, U.; Kaufer, A.; Leibundgut, B.; Marteau, S.; Meakins, S.; Patat, F.; Primas, F.; Rejkuba, M.; Romaniello, M.; Stoehr, F.; Tacconi-Garman, L.; Vera, I.

    2015-12-01

    An in-depth analysis of the publications from 8414 distinct scheduled VLT observing programmes between April 1999 and March 2015 (Periods 63 to 94) is presented. The productivity by mode (Visitor or Service Mode) and type (Normal and Large, Guaranteed Time, Target of Opportunity, Director's Discretionary Time) are examined through their publication records. We investigate how Service Mode rank classes impact the scientific return. Several results derive from this study: Large Programmes result in the highest productivity, whereas only about half of all scheduled observing programmes produce a refereed publication. Programmes that result in a publication yield on average two refereed papers. B rank class Service Mode Programmes appear to be slightly less productive. Follow-up studies will investigate in more detail the parameters that influence the productivity of the Observatory.

  3. XML does Real Programmers a Service

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian

    2008-09-01

    As the sun slowly sets of this first decade of the new millenium, it seems appropriate to update the sojourn of the real programmers as they adapt to their ever changing technical and business environment. Real Programmers were perfectly characterized and differentiated from their quiche-eating, Pascal programming brethren in Ed Post’s seminal “Real Programmers Don’t Use Pascal” (Datamation, 1983). My follow-up ("Real programmers do use Delphi," Software, IEEE , vol.12, no.6, pp.8, 10, 12-, Nov 1995) charted their evolution from FORTRAN-only programmers to embracing a wider range of mainstream languages and tools that still afforded ample opportunity for creativity, game-playing, irregular work hours, and importantly, long-term job security.

  4. A modularized pulse programmer for NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wenping; Bao, Qingjia; Yang, Liang; Chen, Yiqun; Liu, Chaoyang; Qiu, Jianqing; Ye, Chaohui

    2011-02-01

    A modularized pulse programmer for a NMR spectrometer is described. It consists of a networked PCI-104 single-board computer and a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The PCI-104 is dedicated to translate the pulse sequence elements from the host computer into 48-bit binary words and download these words to the FPGA, while the FPGA functions as a sequencer to execute these binary words. High-resolution NMR spectra obtained on a home-built spectrometer with four pulse programmers working concurrently demonstrate the effectiveness of the pulse programmer. Advantages of the module include (1) once designed it can be duplicated and used to construct a scalable NMR/MRI system with multiple transmitter and receiver channels, (2) it is a totally programmable system in which all specific applications are determined by software, and (3) it provides enough reserve for possible new pulse sequences.

  5. Strahlen-und kinetische Waffen: Neue Waffentechniken und Rüstungskontrolle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuneck, Götz

    Laserstrahlen, Mikrowellen oder elektromagnetische Beschleuniger lassen sich nicht nur für zivile, sondern für militärische Zwecke einsetzen. Die Aufgabe einer vorbeugenden Rüstungskontrolle wäre es, diese wie andere künftige Waffentechnologien auf ihren destabilisierenden Charakter hin zu untersuchen und ihre Stationierung zu beschränken oder zu verhindern.

  6. Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A.; Iuzzolino, H.J.

    1993-05-01

    CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

  7. SILEX: Overview on the European optical communications programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, B.

    1995-10-01

    SILEX (Semi-Conducteur Intersatellite Link Experiment) is the first civilian optical communications programme (in the frame of ESA DRTM). It will demonstrate in 1997 high data rate transmission between a Low Earth Orbit Satellite (SPOT IV, built by MMS for CNES) and a Geostationnary spacecraft (ARTEMIS, realized by ALENIA for ESA). After the opto/mechanical/thermal qualification obtained mid of 1994, the SILEX programme is entered in an intensive phase with: — the integration/validation for the LEO flight model (PASTEL)— the preparation of integration of the GEO qualification STM and electrical/SW models (OPALE) The article describes the overall development status including the major terminal validation steps as well as the significant technological progress obtained through the qualification at equipment/terminal level.

  8. Multiple comparisons and nonparametric statistical tests on a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, A

    1987-03-01

    Calculator programs are provided for statistical tests for comparing groups of data. These tests can be applied when t-tests are inappropriate, as for multiple comparisons, or for evaluating groups of data that are not distributed normally or have unequal variances. The programs, designed to run on the least expensive Hewlett-Packard programmable scientific calculator, Model HP-11C, should place these statistical tests within easy reach of most students and investigators. PMID:3560983

  9. Advanced space system analysis software. Technical, user, and programmer guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.; Zimbelman, H. F.

    1981-01-01

    The LASS computer program provides a tool for interactive preliminary and conceptual design of LSS. Eight program modules were developed, including four automated model geometry generators, an associated mass properties module, an appendage synthesizer module, an rf analysis module, and an orbital transfer analysis module. The existing rigid body controls analysis module was modified to permit analysis of effects of solar pressure on orbital performance. A description of each module, user instructions, and programmer information are included.

  10. A Monte Carlo FORTRAN 200 programme for the determination of static properties of liquids vectorized to run on the CYBER 205 vector processing computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelsang, R.; Hoheisel, C.

    1987-08-01

    We present a Monte Carlo programme version written in Vector-FORTRAN 200 which allows a fast computation of thermodynamic properties of dense model fluids on the CYBER 205 vector processing computer. A comparison of the execution speed of this programme, a scalar version and a vectorized molecular dynamics programme showed the following: (i) the vectorized form of the Monte Carlo programme runs about a factor of 8 faster on the CYBER 205 than the scalar version on the conventional computer CYBER 855; (ii) for small ensembles of 32-108 particles, the Monte Carlo programme is of about the velocity as the molecular dynamics one. However, for larger numbers of particles, the molecular dynamics programme is vastly faster executed on the CYBER 205 than the Monte Carlo programme, particularly when neighbour tables are used. We propose a technique to accelerate the Monte Carlo programme for larger ensembles.

  11. Southern African AIDS Training Programme.

    PubMed

    Dafoe, G H

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), in a little over 2 years, have established a Southern African AIDS Training Programme (SAT) that is effective in developing community-based responses to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Based in Harare, Zimbabwe, the program provides financial assistance, training, monitoring, and advice and information to 120 project partners. The average grant size is $40,000. In a second phase of the project, SAT will attempt to meet the requests of its partners for more services. Currently, to meet needs for rapid, responsive training, and novel approaches to skill building, SAT has developed a collaborative nongovernmental organization (NGO) initiative, "The School Without Walls". This program identifies and amplifies what has worked effectively for organizations and programs. Other similar organizations and programs learn from these experiences. Site visits, apprenticeships, mentor organizations, and skills-building based on shared problem-diagnosis and resolution are some of the techniques employed. A draft report of the CIDA midterm external evaluation of SAT recommends renewal of the program, resourcing of the program to meet its regional responsibilities, and adoption of "The School Without Walls" as a central strategy for southern Africa. PMID:8180923

  12. National and regional asthma programmes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Selroos, Olof; Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr; Łacwik, Piotr; Bousquet, Jean; Brennan, David; Palkonen, Susanna; Contreras, Javier; FitzGerald, Mark; Hedlin, Gunilla; Johnston, Sebastian L; Louis, Renaud; Metcalf, Leanne; Walker, Samantha; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Rosado-Pinto, José; Powell, Pippa; Haahtela, Tari

    2015-09-01

    This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorsed by political and governmental bodies. When the national problems have been identified, the goals of the programme have to be clearly defined with measures to evaluate progress. An action plan has to be developed, including defined re-allocation of patients and existing resources, if necessary, between primary care and specialised healthcare units or hospital centres. Patients should be involved in guided self-management education and structured follow-up in relation to disease severity. The three evaluated programmes show that, thanks to rigorous efforts, it is possible to improve patients' quality of life and reduce hospitalisation, asthma mortality, sick leave and disability pensions. The direct and indirect costs, both for the individual patient and for society, can be significantly reduced. The results can form the basis for development of further programme activities in Europe. PMID:26324809

  13. The challenges and successes of implementing a sustainable antimicrobial resistance surveillance programme in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    isolates demonstrated increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin. Additionally, the performance of the participating laboratories improved as shown by annual EQA data evaluation. Conclusions This Nepalese AMR programme continues and serves as a model for sustainable surveillance of AMR monitoring in resource limited settings. PMID:24650008

  14. Expertise bewerben und finden im Social Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polleres, Axel; Mochol, Malgorzata

    Im vorliegenden Beitrag diskutieren wir Rahmenbedingungen zur Kombination, Wiederverwendung und Erweiterung bestehender RDFVokabulare im Social Semantic Web. Hierbei konzentrieren wir uns auf das Anwendungsszenario des Auffindens und Bewerbens von Experten im Web oder Intranet. Wir präsentieren, wie RDF-Vokabulare einerseits und de facto Standardformate andererseits, die von täglich verwendeten Applikationen benutzt werden (z. B. vCard, iCal oder Dublin Core), kombiniert werden können, um konkrete Anwendungsfälle der Expertensuche und zum Management von Expertise zu lösen. Unser Fokus liegt darauf aufzuzeigen, dass für praktische Anwendungsszenarien nicht notwendigerweise neue Ontologien entwickelt werden müssen, sondern der Schlüssel vielmehr in der Integration von bestehenden, weit verbreiteten und sich ergänzenden Formaten zu einem kohärenten Netzwerk von Ontologien liegt. Dieser Ansatz garantiert sowohl direkte Anwendbarkeit von als auch niedrige Einstiegsbarrieren in Semantic Web-Technologien sowie einfache Integrierbarkeit in bestehende Applikationen. Die im Web verfügbaren und verwendeten RDFFormate decken zwar einen großen Bereich der Aspekte zur Beschreibung von Personen und Expertisen ab, zeigen aber auch signifikante Überlappungen. Bisher gibt es wenig systematische Ansätze, um diese Vokabulare zu verbinden, sei es in Form von allgemeingültigen Praktiken, die definieren, wann welches Format zu benutzen ist, oder in Form von Regeln, die Überlappungen zwischen einzelnen Formaten formalisieren. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert, wie bestehende Formate zur Beschreibung von Personen, Organisationen und deren Expertise kombiniert und, wo nötig, erweitert werden können. Darüber hinaus diskutieren wir Regelsprachen zur Beschreibung von Formatüberlappungen sowie deren praktische Verwendbarkeit zur Erstellung eines Ontologie-Netzwerks zur Beschreibung von Experten.

  15. Programmable Pulse-Position-Modulation Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, David; Farr, William

    2006-01-01

    A programmable pulse-position-modulation (PPM) encoder has been designed for use in testing an optical communication link. The encoder includes a programmable state machine and an electronic code book that can be updated to accommodate different PPM coding schemes. The encoder includes a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) that is programmed to step through the stored state machine and code book and that drives a custom high-speed serializer circuit board that is capable of generating subnanosecond pulses. The stored state machine and code book can be updated by means of a simple text interface through the serial port of a personal computer.

  16. Software Safety Assurance of Programmable Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berens, Kalynnda

    2002-01-01

    Programmable Logic (PLC, FPGA, ASIC) devices are hybrids - hardware devices that are designed and programmed like software. As such, they fall in an assurance gray area. Programmable Logic is usually tested and verified as hardware, and the software aspects are ignored, potentially leading to safety or mission success concerns. The objective of this proposal is to first determine where and how Programmable Logic (PL) is used within NASA and document the current methods of assurance. Once that is known, raise awareness of the PL software aspects within the NASA engineering community and provide guidance for the use and assurance of PL form a software perspective.

  17. Gender differences found in a qualitative study of a disordered eating prevention programme: What do boys have to say?

    PubMed

    González, Marcela L; Mora, Marisol; Penelo, Eva; Goddard, Elizabeth; Treasure, Janet; Raich, Rosa M

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative studies examining gender differences of eating disorder prevention programmes are scarce. We aimed to evaluate gender differences in adolescents who participated in a larger study on effectiveness of a disordered eating prevention programme. Perceptions of eating, female and male aesthetic models, media influences, prevention programmes and emerging topics from 12 school-going boys who received a media-literacy programme (n = 4), media-literacy plus nutrition-awareness programme (n = 4) or neither (n = 4) were explored using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and compared with previous results in girls. Findings suggest that the prevention programme is effective for both genders. Gender differences and consumer-culture influences may be considered in future interventions. PMID:26032802

  18. Diagnose und Therapie einer Depression im höheren Lebensalter – Einflüsse von Patienten- und Arztmerkmalen

    PubMed Central

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Bönte, Markus; Siegrist, Johannes; Marceau, Lisa; Link, Carol; McKinlay, John

    2013-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Studienergebnissee aus dem englischsprachigen Raum zeigen, dass diagnostische und therapeutische Entscheidungen von Hausärzten bei der Versorgung von depressiven Patienten systematischen Einflüssen unterliegen, und dass sowohl Merkmale des Arztes als auch des Patienten unabhängig vom Krankheitsbild Einfluss auf diese Entscheidungen haben. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden Ergebnisse einer deutschen Studie präsentiert, in der die Einflüsse von Patienten- und Arztmerkmalen auf diagnostische und therapeutische ärztliche Entscheidungen bei einer Depression untersucht wurden. Unter Anwendung eines faktoriellen Experimentaldesigns spielten professionelle Schauspieler in Videofilmen die Rolle von Patienten, die Symptome für eine depressive Erkrankung äußern. In den Videofilmen, die alle auf einem identischen Skript basieren, wurden systematisch die Patientenmerkmale Alter (55 vs. 75 Jahre), Geschlecht und sozialer Status (Hausmeister vs. Lehrer) variiert. Die randomisierte Ärztestichprobe wurde nach dem Arztgeschlecht und professioneller Erfahrung (< 5 vs. > 15 Jahre) geschichtet. Der Videofilm wurde insgesamt 128 niedergelassenen Ärzten für Allgemeinmedizin und hausärztlich tätigen Internisten in ihrer Praxis vorgespielt. Danach wurden die Ärzte zu unterschiedlichen Aspekten von Diagnose und Therapie befragt. Es wurde erhoben, ob der Arzt dem Patienten über das gezeigte Gespräch hinausgehende Fragen stellen würde, welche Diagnosen er für wahrscheinlich hält, wie sicher er sich mit seiner Diagnose ist, welche diagnostischen Tests er anordnen würde, ob er den Patienten überweisen würde oder ob er Medikamente verordnen oder ihm Empfehlungen zur Änderung seines Lebensstils geben würde. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass sowohl die Diagnose als auch die Therapie einer Depression durch niedergelassene Hausärzte in Deutschland nur geringfügig durch die untersuchten Merkmale der Patienten und der behandelnden Ärzte beeinflusst wird

  19. METAPHOR: Programmer's guide, Version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furchtgott, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The internal structure of the Michigan Evaluation Aid for Perphormability (METAPHOR), an interactive software package to facilitate performability modeling and evaluation is described. Revised supplemented guides are prepared in order to maintain an up-to-date documentation of the system. Programmed tools to facilitate each step of performability model construction and model solution are given.

  20. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  1. Report recommends new 'customer care programme'.

    PubMed

    2014-07-15

    Nurses and other front line health workers in Wales should be sent on customer care training programmes to reduce the number of patient complaints, an independent review has recommended. PMID:25005374

  2. A training programme for rural general practice.

    PubMed

    Hays, R B

    1990-11-01

    An improvement in methods of training graduates for general practice has been recommended as a result of several investigations into the problems faced by rural medical practitioners. This paper describes a rural vocational training programme conducted by the Family Medicine Programme in North Queensland. The programme combines educational support, professional support and mentorship with a medical educator experienced in rural practice. The educational support is partly chosen by members of the rural group, and is designed to meet needs of group members and the communities they serve. The cost of such a programme is high, due to travel and communication over long distances, but is justifiable if it improves recruitment and retention of rural practitioners. PMID:2233478

  3. Accessibility Programme and School Restoration in Lisbon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gouveia, Pedro Homem; Morais, Nuno; Miranda, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The City of Lisbon, Portugal, is working to better integrate children with disabilities at primary school level. It recently has undertaken an accessible school programme and has restored an historic building as part of this effort.

  4. Evaluation of a nurse leadership development programme.

    PubMed

    West, Margaret; Smithgall, Lisa; Rosler, Greta; Winn, Erin

    2016-03-01

    The challenge for nursing leaders responsible for workforce planning is to predict the knowledge, skills and abilities required to lead future healthcare delivery systems effectively. Succession planning requires a constant, competitive pool of qualified nursing leader candidates, and retention of those interested in career growth. Formal nursing leadership education in the United States is available through graduate education and professional nursing organisation programmes, such as the Emerging Nurse Leader Institute of the American Organization of Nurse Executives. However, there is also a need for local development programmes tailored to the needs of individual organisations. Leaders at Geisinger Health System, one of the largest rural health systems in the US, identified the need for an internal professional development scheme for nurses. In 2013 the Nurses Emerging as Leaders programme was developed to prepare nurse leaders for effective leadership and successful role transition. This article describes the programme and an evaluation of its effectiveness. PMID:26927790

  5. The Case for Programmable Calculators in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Norman J.

    1981-01-01

    Programmable calculators are useful tools in the classroom that are often overlooked. This report gives examples of problems and activities that can be brought within the scope of such calculators. (MP)

  6. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    antigenpräsentierender Zellen verantwortlich sein. Durch die Modifikation einer Methode zur intrazellulären IFN-gamma Färbung konnten in vakzinierten Mäusen tumorantigenspezifische CTL sensitiv und quantitativ detektiert werden. Die so bestimmte CTL-Frequenz, nicht jedoch die humorale Antwort, korrelierte mit der in vivo Wirksamkeit der verschiedenen Vakzinen: DNA vakzinierte Tiere entwickeln starke tumorantigenspezifische CTL-Antworten, wohingegen in MVA-vakzinierten Tieren überwiegend gegen virale Epitope gerichtete CD4 und CD8-T-Zellen detektiert wurden. Die Wirksamkeit der pCI-DNA-Vakzine spricht für die Weiterentwicklung in weiteren präklinischen Mausmodellen, beispielsweise unter Verwendung von MUC1 oder HLA-A2 transgenen Mäusen. Die Methoden zur Detektion Tumorantigen-spezifischer CTL in 96-Loch-Mikrotiterplatten können dabei zur systematischen Suche nach im Menschen immundominanten T-Zell-Epitopen im Muzin-Molekül genutzt werden. Der durchgeführte Vergleich der auf den Vektoren pCI und MVA basierenden Vakzinen und die Analyse neuerer Publikationen führen zu dem Ergebniss, daß vor allem DNA-Vakzinen in Zukunft eine wichtige Rolle bei der Entwicklung von aktiven Tumorimpfstoffen spielen werden. Rekombinante MVA-Viren, eventuell in Kombination mit DNA- oder anderen Vektoren, haben sich dagegen in zahlreichen Studien als wirksame Impfstoffe zur Kontrolle von durch Pathogene hervorgerufenen Infektionserkrankungen erwiesen. In this study, tumor vaccines based on the plasmid pCI, the attenuated vaccinia virus strain modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and MVA-infected dendritic cells were constructed and characterized by sequencing, Western blot and flow cytometric analysis. The efficiency to induce tumor immunity in vivo was compared in several C57BL/6 mouse tumor models. Naked DNA Vaccination based on the eukaryotic expression vector pCI did induce very effective, antigen-specific and long-term protection against tumor cell lines expressing mucin, CEA or

  7. Paper pump for passive and programmable transport

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Hagen, Joshua A.; Papautsky, Ian

    2013-01-01

    In microfluidic systems, a pump for fluid-driving is often necessary. To keep the size of microfluidic systems small, a pump that is small in size, light-weight and needs no external power source is advantageous. In this work, we present a passive, simple, ultra-low-cost, and easily controlled pumping method based on capillary action of paper that pumps fluid through conventional polymer-based microfluidic channels with steady flow rate. By using inexpensive cutting tools, paper can be shaped and placed at the outlet port of a conventional microfluidic channel, providing a wide range of pumping rates. A theoretical model was developed to describe the pumping mechanism and aid in the design of paper pumps. As we show, paper pumps can provide steady flow rates from 0.3 μl/s to 1.7 μl/s and can be cascaded to achieve programmable flow-rate tuning during the pumping process. We also successfully demonstrate transport of the most common biofluids (urine, serum, and blood). With these capabilities, the paper pump has the potential to become a powerful fluid-driving approach that will benefit the fielding of microfluidic systems for point-of-care applications. PMID:24403999

  8. Design of programmable intelligent cell phone jammer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Divya; Ravi, Aswin

    2011-12-01

    The usage of cell phones has increased enormously; at present silence and security is the need of the hour in many places. This can be done by using cell phone jammer, which blocks all the signals. This paper describes the design of an enhanced technique for jamming the cell phone signals. Our main objective is to concentrate on a specific band of frequency, which makes communication possible, by jamming this frequency we block out the specific signal that are responsible for making the call. This method enables the jammer to be more precise and effective, so precise that it can focus on specific area and allowing the programmer to define the area. The major advancement will be that emergency services can be availed which is very crucial in case of any calamity, they are intelligent devices as they act only after they receive signals and also it has a lesser power consumption than existing models. This technique has infinite potentials and sure can this be modified to match all our imaginations.

  9. Design of a Ferroelectric Programmable Logic Gate Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    2003-01-01

    A programmable logic gate array has been designed utilizing ferroelectric field effect transistors. The design has only a small number of gates, but this could be scaled up to a more useful size. Using FFET's in a logic array gives several advantages. First, it allows real-time programmability to the array to give high speed reconfiguration. It also allows the array to be configured nearly an unlimited number of times, unlike a FLASH FPGA. Finally, the Ferroelectric Programmable Logic Gate Array (FPLGA) can be implemented using a smaller number of transistors because of the inherent logic characteristics of an FFET. The device was only designed and modeled using Spice models of the circuit, including the FFET. The actual device was not produced. The design consists of a small array of NAND and NOR logic gates. Other gates could easily be produced. They are linked by FFET's that control the logic flow. Timing and logic tables have been produced showing the array can produce a variety of logic combinations at a real time usable speed. This device could be a prototype for a device that could be put into imbedded systems that need the high speed of hardware implementation of logic and the complexity to need to change the logic algorithm. Because of the non-volatile nature of the FFET, it would also be useful in situations that needed to program a logic array once and use it repeatedly after the power has been shut off.

  10. Evaluating Environmental Knowledge Dimension Convergence to Assess Educational Programme Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liefländer, Anne K.; Bogner, Franz X.; Kibbe, Alexandra; Kaiser, Florian G.

    2015-03-01

    One aim of environmental education is fostering sustainable environmental action. Some environmental behaviour models suggest that this can be accomplished in part by improving people's knowledge. Recent studies have identified a distinct, psychometrically supported environmental knowledge structure consisting of system, action-related and effectiveness knowledge. Besides system knowledge, which is most often the focus of such studies, incorporating the other knowledge dimensions into these dimensions was suggested to enhance effectiveness. Our study is among the first to implement these dimensions together in an educational campaign and to use these dimensions to evaluate the effectiveness of a programme on water issues. We designed a four-day environmental education programme on water issues for students at an educational field centre. We applied a newly developed multiple-choice instrument using a pre-, post-, retention test design. The knowledge scales were calibrated with the Rasch model. In addition to the commonly assessed individual change in knowledge level, we also measured the change in knowledge convergence, the extent to which the knowledge dimensions merge as a person's environmental knowledge increases, as an innovative indicator of educational success. Following programme participation, students significantly improved in terms of amount learned in each knowledge dimension and in terms of integration of the knowledge dimensions. The effectiveness knowledge shows the least gain, persistence and convergence, which we explain by considering the dependence of the knowledge dimensions on each other. Finally, we discuss emerging challenges for educational researchers and practical implications for environmental educators.

  11. Creating global networks through an online engineering graduate programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, M. H.

    2011-03-01

    Internationally, the railway industry is facing a severe shortage of engineers with high-level, relevant, professional and technical knowledge and abilities, in particular amongst engineers involved in the design, construction and maintenance of railway infrastructure. A unique graduate level programme has been created to meet that global need via a fully online, distance education format. The development and operation of this Master of Engineering degree is proposed as a model of the process needed for industry-relevance, flexible delivery, international networking and professional development required for a successful graduate engineering programme in the twenty-first century. In particular, this paper demonstrates how a mix of new and more familiar technologies are utilised through a variety of tasks to overcome the huge distances and multiple time zones that separate the participants across a growing number of countries, successfully achieving close and sustained interaction amongst the participants and railway experts.

  12. Dragon 2 Programme Achievements and Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Li, Zengyuan; Zmuda, Andy; Gao, Zhihai

    2013-01-01

    The cooperation between ESA and National Remote Sensing Center of China (NRSCC) / Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST) in the development of Earth Observation (EO) applications started 17 years ago. In 2004, a new phase in cooperation began with the start of the Dragon Programme which focused on science and application using ESA ERS and Envisat satellite data. The programme was completed in 2008. Following on, the cooperation took on greater momentum with the start of a four-year EO science and exploitation programme called “Dragon 2”. The programme formally closed in June at the 2012 Beijing Symposium. The programme brought together joint Sino-European teams to investigate land, ocean and atmospheric applications in P.R. China using EO data from ESA, Third Party Mission (TPM) and Chinese satellites. The teams were led by principal EO scientists. Young European and Chinese scientists were also engaged on the projects. Advanced training courses in land, ocean and atmospheric applications were held in each year of the programme in China. Altogether, two courses on land, one course on atmospheric applications and one course on oceanographic applications were held. Here-in provided is an overview of the achievements, cooperation, reporting and training activities at the completion of the programme. The Sino-European teams have delivered world-class scientific results across a wide range of disciplines. The programme provided a platform for the joint exploitation of ESA, TPM and Chinese EO data from optical, thermal and microwave sensors for geo-science application and development in China.

  13. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, J. L.; Makhija, L. K.; Bajaj, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme. PMID:21321659

  14. Paramedir: A Tool for Programmable Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    Performance analysis of parallel scientific applications is time consuming and requires great expertise in areas such as programming paradigms, system software, and computer hardware architectures. In this paper we describe a tool that facilitates the programmability of performance metric calculations thereby allowing the automation of the analysis and reducing the application development time. We demonstrate how the system can be used to capture knowledge and intuition acquired by advanced parallel programmers in order to be transferred to novice users.

  15. National programme for prevention of burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J L; Makhija, L K; Bajaj, S P

    2010-09-01

    The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme. PMID:21321659

  16. The impact of perfusionist education programme characteristics on programme directors' responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, P F

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of four programme characteristics (curriculum design, type of degree offered, length of programme and number of students per class) on perfusionist education programme directors (PDs) in the USA in terms of the number of hours worked per week, number of cases pumped per year and workload mix. Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed on the responses to questionnaires sent to all perfusionist programmes between March 1993 and April 1994. PDs reported working an average of 51.8 h/week and pumping an average of 68.8 cases per year. All but one respondent reported spending more than 50% of his/her time (mean 74.5% +/- 19%) on programme-related issues such as administration, classroom teaching and clinical instruction. This level of commitment, as well as the total number of hours worked per week, were not found to be influenced by the programme's length, duration, class size or type of degree awarded. However, PDs of baccalaureate programmes, and programmes with more than nine students spent a significantly greater proportion of their time on administrative issues than their colleagues in other types of programmes. The bureaucratic demands of baccalaureate and large programmes require PDs to devote an average of 39.5% of their time to administration, compared to 27.2% in the other programmes. The results of this study show that the operation of all perfusionist education programmes requires a major commitment of time on the part of the individual designated as PD. PMID:8888058

  17. Parents' Reports of Their Involvement in an Iranian Parent-Based Early Intervention Programme for Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; Mahmoodizadeh, Ameneh

    2013-01-01

    Based on the findings of several preliminary studies on support and services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents in Iran, an early intervention programme called Omid was established. This programme is based on the social model of disability. To promote the Omid resource kit, which is a component of the "Omid…

  18. Parents Plus Programme 1: Evaluation of Its Effectiveness for Pre-School Children with Developmental Disabilities and Behavioural Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Mark; Carr, Alan; Carroll, Louise; O'Sullivan, David

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Parents Plus programme with families of pre-school children with developmental disabilities and significant behavioural problems in the Irish health service. The Parents Plus programme is a group-based parent training package involving video modelling, which was designed to be…

  19. The Australian National University Music Education Programme: Developing a New Approach to Ongoing Engagement in Music Making for All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Music Education Programme at the Australian National University has developed a new, system-wide model in music education, focusing on peer and inter-generational social engagement through music making during and beyond the school years. One aim of the programme is to find alternative ways of fostering lifelong engagement in music making. A…

  20. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648

  1. Methodik und Qualität statistischer Erhebungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Walter; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wiegert, Rolf

    Kapitel 8 wirft einen Blick hinter die Kulissen statistischer Arbeit und ihrer Methoden, insbesondere auch hinter die der amtlichen Statistik: Wie kommen die Myriaden von Zahlen zustande, die heute aus statistischen Quellenwerken aller Art und aus Datenbanken abgerufen werden können? Dabei wird deutlich, welche Schwierigkeiten bei Erhebungen, insbesondere bei Stichprobenerhebungen, zu überwinden sind, wie man Antwortverweigerer kooperativer stimmt, wie sich auch aus kleinen Stichproben auf intelligente Weise verlässliche Ergebnisse erzielen lassen und wie Großstichproben auf europäischer Ebene harmonisiert werden. Am Beispiel des Zensus 2011 wird gezeigt, wie sich eine Kombination von Stichproben und Registerauswertungen als Ersatz für eine Volkszählung nutzen lässt. Mitglieder der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft waren daran kooperativ beteiligt.

  2. The Women of "Kabale und Liebe": A Teaching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Naomi I.

    1976-01-01

    The three female characters in Schiller's "Kabale und Liebe" are analyzed. The article questions the value of using this play in a college curriculum because of the oppressive and unenlightened roles of the female characters. (TL)

  3. Einstein. Ein Genie und sein überfordertes Publikum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. P.

    Dieses Buch ist keine herkömmliche Biographie von Albert Einstein - vielmehr untersucht der Autor anhand charakteristischer Stationen in Einsteins Leben, dessen Denken und die Reaktionen seiner Zeitgenossen.

  4. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  5. Physik gestern und heute Von der Metallstange zum Hochenergielaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Im Mai 1752 wurde in Marly bei Paris auf Anregung des amerikanischen Forschers und Politikers Benjamin Franklin erstmals die elektrische Natur des Blitzes nachgewiesen. Damals beschrieb Franklin auch eine technische Vorrichtung, die als Schutz von Gebäuden vor Blitzschlägen dienen sollte: den Blitzableiter. Diese aus heutiger Sicht scheinbar triviale Vorrichtung wurde aber keineswegs unmittelbar akzeptiert. Und bis heute ist die Forschung zum Schutz von Einrichtungen vor Blitzschlägen nicht abgeschlossen.

  6. Evolution: Treibende Kräfte in Natur und Kultur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuketits, Franz M.

    Vorbemerkung Der vorliegende Text ist sozusagen die Nachschrift meines im Dezember 2007 in Dresden gehaltenen Vortrags. Ich hielt den Vortrag im Wesentlichen in freier Rede, nur auf der Basis einiger Notizen, und schrieb den vollen Text danach. Dabei habe ich den Vortragsstil beibehalten. Allerdings habe ich nachträglich manches hinzugefügt, den Beitrag mit ein paar Anmerkungen versehen und einiges an zwischenzeitlich erschienener Literatur berücksichtigt.

  7. Rapid climate change: scientific challenges and the new NERC programme.

    PubMed

    Srokosz, M A

    2003-09-15

    In this paper the scientific challenges of observing, modelling, understanding and predicting rapid changes in climate are discussed, with a specific focus on the role of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. The palaeo and present-day observational and modelling studies being carried out to meet these challenges, under the aegis of a new NERC Rapid Climate Change thematic programme (RAPID), are outlined. In particular, the paper describes the work being done to monitor changes in the meridional overturning circulation of the North Atlantic. The paper concludes with some speculative comments about potential mechanisms for rapid changes. PMID:14558909

  8. A Programmable Preprocessor for Parallelizing Fortran-90

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, Matthew; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    1999-07-01

    A programmable preprocessor that generates portable and efficient parallel Fortran-90 code has been successfully used in the development of a variety of environmental transport simulators for the Department of Energy. The tool provides the basic functionality of a traditional preprocessor where directives are embedded in a serial Fortran program and interpreted by the preprocessor to produce parallel Fortran code with MPI calls. The unique aspect of this work is that the user can make additions to, or modify, these directives. The directives reside in a preprocessor library and changes to this library can range from small changes to customize an existing library, to larger changes for porting a library, to completely replacing the library. The preprocessor is programmed with a library of directives written in a C-like language, called DL, that has added support for manipulating Fortran code fragments. The primary benefits to the user are twofold: It is fairly easy for any user to generate efficient, parallel code from Fortran-90 with embedded directives, and the long term viability of the user?s software is guaranteed. This is because the source code will always run on a serial machine (the directives are transparent to standard Fortran compilers), and the preprocessor library can be modified to work with different hardware and software environments. A 4000 line preprocessor library has been written and used to parallelize roughly 50,000 lines of groundwater modeling code. The programs have been ported to a wide range of parallel architectures. Performance of these programs is similar to programs explicitly written for a parallel machine. Binaries of the preprocessor core, as well as the preprocessor library source code used in our groundwater modeling codes are currently available.

  9. Cold Fronts Research Programme: Progress, Future Plans, and Research Directions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, B. F.; Wilson, K. J.; Garratt, J. R.; Smith, R. K.

    1985-09-01

    Following the analysis of data collected during Phases land II of the Cold Fronts Research Programme (CFRP) a conceptual model for the Australian summertime "cool change" has been proposed. The model provides a focus and a framework for the design of Phase III.The model is based on data gathered from a mesoscale network centered on Mount Gambier, South Australia, and includes the coastal waters to the west and relatively flat terrain to the east. The first objective of Phase III is to generalize the model so that it is applicable to the ocean waters to the far west of Mount Gambier and to the more rugged terrain farther to the east in the vicinity of Melbourne, Victoria. The remaining objectives concentrate on resolving unsatisfactory aspects of the model such as the evolution of convective lines and the relationship between the surface cold front and the upper-tropospheric cold pool and its associated jet stream.The integrated nature of the Cold Fronts Research Programme has meant that it has stimulated a wide range of research activities that extend beyond the field observations. The associated investigations include climatological, theoretical, and numerical modeling studies.

  10. S1-Leitlinie zur UV-Phototherapie und Photochemotherapie.

    PubMed

    Herzinger, Thomas; Berneburg, Mark; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Gollnick, Harald; Hölzle, Erhard; Hönigsmann, Herbert; Lehmann, Percy; Peters, Thorsten; Röcken, Martin; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Schwarz, Thomas; Simon, Jan; Tanew, Adrian; Weichenthal, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Die heilsame Wirkung des Sonnenlichts war teilweise schon im Altertum bekannt und fand in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts wieder zunehmend Beachtung. Den Beginn der modernen Phototherapien markiert die Entwicklung einer Apparatur zur ultravioletten Bestrahlung der Hauttuberkulose durch Finnsen zu Beginn des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Zur Therapie von Hauterkrankungen finden beinahe ausschließlich die spektralen Bereiche unterhalb des sichtbaren Lichtes (ultraviolett) Anwendung. Seit den 1970er Jahren stehen zunehmend leistungsfähige künstliche Strahlenquellen bereit für die Therapie mit UVB, UVA und die Kombination von UVA mit Photosensibilisatoren (Photochemotherapie). Hohe strukturelle und prozedurale Qualitätsstandards sind unabdingbare Voraussetzung für die Durchführung einer gleichermaßen wirkungsvollen wie auch sicheren Phototherapie. Die Leitlinie formuliert den aktuellen Konsens führender Experten auf dem Gebiet der Phototherapie in Bezug auf die Indikationen für die jeweiligen Therapieverfahren, deren Gegenanzeigen und Nebenwirkungen und insbesondere für die Wahl der korrekten Dosis zu Beginn und im Verlauf einer Therapie sowie das Management von Nebenwirkungen. PMID:27509439

  11. Zahlen und Rechenvorgänge auf unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsniveaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödler, Klaus

    "Das Verständnis geht langsam vor sich!" Diesen wichtigen Satz hörte ich bei einem Vortrag von Martin Lowsky. Auf die hier behandelte Fragestellung übertragen heißt das: Was eine Zahl ist und wie ich sie im Rechenvorgang einsetzen und interpretieren kann, das erschließt sich erst allmählich. Die Zahl des Rechenanfängers ist nicht dieselbe wie die des kompetenten Rechners und es ist nicht die Zahl des Lehrers oder der Lehrerin. Die Zahlen sind nur auf der Oberfläche der Worte und Zeichen gleich. Im Innern, im Verständnis, sind sie völlig verschieden! Ich glaube, dass die Missachtung dieser Divergenz dazu führt, dass manche Kinder in für den Lehrer und Lehrerin nicht nachvollziehbaren Routinen stecken bleiben, einfachste Informationen nicht wirklich integrieren. Die auf beiden Seiten wachsende Verunsicherung durch die nicht erkannte und daher nicht kommunizierbare Diskrepanz im inneren Zahlkonzept stört den allmählichen Aufbau strukturierter Zahlvorstellungen.

  12. The Evaluation of Foreign-Language-Teacher Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new procedure for the evaluation of EFL teacher-training programmes based on principles of programme evaluation and foreign-language-teacher (FLT) education. The procedure focuses on programme strengths and weaknesses and how far the programme meets the needs of students. I tested the procedure through an evaluation of a…

  13. Anwendung von Methoden der Logistik und Netzplantechnik zur präzedenz- und ressourcenbeschränkten Ablaufplanung von Echtzeitsystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumzej, Roman; Lipičnik, Martin

    Grundlegende Zusammenhänge zwischen Logistik, Netzplantechnik und Echtzeit sowie den zugehörigen Arten der Ablaufplanung und ihrer Nutzung werden dargestellt. Das Echtzeitprinzip beinhaltet Rechtzeitigkeit von Abläufen, wobei es für eine frühzeitige Beendigung eines Ablaufs keinen Bonus gibt; im Gegensatz zum verspäteten Ablauf, dessen Konsequenzen in der Regel negativ und unabschätzbar sind. Das Just-in-Time-Prinzip gleicht dem der Echtzeit und wird vor allem in der Logistik zur Bezeichnung reibungsloser Abläufe in Beschaffungsketten verwendet. In der Netzplantechnik werden die kritischen Aktivitäten binnen eines Projektes bestimmt, die nicht verzögert werden dürfen, um das Projekt rechtzeitig zu beenden. Außerdem haben die drei Bereiche noch eine Gemeinsamkeit: um realistische Ablaufszenarien darzustellen, müssen in den Analysen auch begrenzte Ressourcen angemessen berücksichtigt werden.

  14. The WHO national diabetes programme initiative.

    PubMed

    Gruber, W; King, H

    1996-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that diabetes is a highly prevalent disease, with developing countries and minority populations now facing the highest risk. This places a strain on the health authorities, and consequently, has attracted increasing attention from the World Health Organization (WHO). The social and economic burden of diabetes is high, due to the seriousness of the complication of the disease. Many of these complications may be delayed or prevented, offering considerable opportunities for both reduction in costs to the authorities and improvements in quality of life for those affected. Following a resolution on the prevention and control of diabetes, adopted by the Forty-second World Health Assembly in 1989, the WHO diabetes programme prepared guidelines for the development of national diabetes programmes. Goals, targets and supporting materials have also been developed at the regional level by the WHO Regional Offices for Europe and for the Eastern Mediterranean. In 1994, WHO organized a meeting on the implementation of national diabetes programmes at its headquarters in Geneva. There were 70 participants and 32 counties were represented. The purposes of the meeting were to exchange information, motivate, consider evaluation, stimulate new programmes, define educational needs and prepare a written report. WHO plays a major role in the development of national diabetes programmes. In co-operation, WHO Headquarters and Regional Offices can act as clearing houses/information centres for data collection, programme monitoring and evaluation and the exchange of experience and technical information. The national diabetes programme initiative should result in improvements in diabetes control and care worldwide. PMID:9015663

  15. Programmer's Apprentice For A Special-Purpose Robotics Dataflow Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Alan J.; Lamont, Gary B.; Rogers, Steven K.

    1985-12-01

    The motivation for this development is a need to construct a robot simulation facility which will assist in the development of effective algorithms to plan and control robot movements. It was thought that a system that presented robot's movements with an animated graphic display would be useful in the design and testing of robot planning and control programs. In this research a "programmer's apprentice", called the Graph Design Assistant (GDA), has been designed to help researchers construct robot simulation models on an Evans and Sutherland PS 300 graphic workstation. A programmer's apprentice is an expert system with knowledge about a programming task. It guides and advises a programmer as he interactively builds a program. This article describes how the system allows a researcher to develop a program on the PS 300 without having to learn the intricacies of the PS 300's dataflow language. In this system, plans are templates for portions of a graph in the functional graph network. The plans are similar to the macros used in the Evans and Sutherland Functional Graph Network Editor. The difference is that plans have slots which can be expanded to arbitrary structures. Some of the other aspects of the GDA are the development of an interactive interface, a library of plans, a user controlled agenda, consistency checker, and plan creation and editing capability.

  16. VDI-Richtlinien - mit Technischen Regeln Wirtschaftlichkeit erhöhen und Standards setzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelartz, Johannes

    Der Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e.V. (VDI) ist ein gemeinnütziger, wirtschaftlich und politisch unabhängiger, technisch-wissenschaftlicher Verein von Ingenieuren und Naturwissenschaftlern. Mit über 137 000 persönlich zugeordneten Mitgliedern ist er eine der größten Ingenieur-Vereinigungen Europas und gilt in Deutschland als führender Sprecher der Technik und der Ingenieure. 1856 gegründet, hat er viele für die Technik wesentliche Entwicklungen in Gang gesetzt, so im Bereich der technischen Überwachung, der technischen Regelsetzung und Normung, der Arbeitsstudien, im gewerblichen Rechtsschutz und im Patentwesen. Seit seiner Gründung sieht es der VDI als seine Aufgabe, "das Zusammenwirken aller geistiger Kräfte der Technik im Bewusstsein ethischer Verantwortung zu fördern“ und die Lebensmöglichkeiten aller Menschen durch Entwicklung und sinnvoller Anwendung technischer Mittel zu verbessern.

  17. Regelungen im Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen in Deutschland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gundula; Freund, Astrid; Gründig, Friedrich

    Im Zuge der Globalisierung von Produktion und Handel ändert sich auch der Charakter der Vorschriften im Lebensmittelrecht. Zunehmend treten internationale Rechtsbestimmungen, Abkommen, Standards und andere Normen an die Stelle nationaler Regelungen.

  18. Meeting Teacher Expectations in a DL Professional Development Programme--A Case Study for Sustained Applied Competence as Programme Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Cornè Gerda; Van Rensburg, Ona Janse; De Witt, Marike W.

    2016-01-01

    Meeting teacher expectations for a professional development programme (PDP) is expected to strengthen sustainable applied competence as programme outcome since teachers will be more motivated to apply the programme content in practice. A revised distance learning (DL) programme was augmented by a practical component comprising a work-integrated…

  19. Implementation of Adolescent Family-Based Substance Use Prevention Programmes in Health Care Settings: Comparisons across Conditions and Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalborg, Annette E.; Miller, Brenda A.; Husson, Gail; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl E.; Spoth, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine factors that influence the effectiveness and quality of implementation of evidence-based family-focused adolescent substance use prevention programmes delivered in health care settings and to assess the effects of programme choice versus programme assignment on programme delivery. Design: Strengthening Families Program: For…

  20. Evaluation of national malaria control programmes in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, J.; Roungou, J. B.; Nguyen-Dinh, P.; Naimoli, J. F.; Breman, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation is an essential management tool for the improvement of public health programmes or projects. As malaria morbidity and mortality continue to increase in most countries in Africa, international agencies and malaria control programme managers have identified the strengthening of programme evaluation as an important strategy for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of malaria control programmes. Managers can develop an evaluation strategy only after they have defined programme objectives and planned specific programme activities. Indicators should be directly related to programme objectives and should be selected on the basis of the following criteria: their validity; reliability; ability to detect change within a reasonable time period and as a result of successful programme implementation; ability to be interpreted; and usefulness in guiding programme change. Only those indicators that can be measured with available programme resources should be selected. Managers will also need to identify the sources of indicator data and to determine how often each indicator will be measured. Programme managers should develop criteria or indicators for the following: programme policies and plans; the process of programme implementation; the outcomes of malaria control interventions in disease management and prevention; and programme impact in terms of reductions in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Key issues related to the management of evaluation activities within a national programme include the need to begin with available resources and build incrementally; to explore options for administering evaluation activities; to select, train and supervise staff who carry out evaluation activities; to develop quality control strategies; and to ensure that data are managed and communicated in ways that support effective programme decision-making. For evaluation to lead to improvements in malaria control programmes it must be clearly defined as a part of the

  1. A new surgical education and training programme.

    PubMed

    Collins, John P; Gough, Ian R; Civil, Ian D; Stitz, Russell W

    2007-07-01

    Educating and training tomorrow's surgeons has evolved to become a sophisticated and expensive exercise involving a wide range of learning methods, opportunities and stakeholders. Several factors influence this process, prompting those who provide such programmes to identify these important considerations and develop and implement appropriate responses. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons embarked on this course of action in 2005, the outcome of which is the new Surgical Education and Training programme with the first intake to be selected in 2007 and commence training in 2008. The new programme is competency based and shorter than any designed previously. Implicitly, it recognizes in the curriculum and assessment development and processes, the nine roles and their underpinning competencies identified as essential for a surgeon. It is an evolution of the previous programme retaining that which has been found to be satisfactory. There will be one episode of selection directly into the candidate's specialty of choice and those accepted will progress in an integrated and seamless fashion, provided they meet the clinical and educational requirements of each year. The curriculum and assessment in the basic sciences include both generic and specially aligned components from the commencement of training in each of the nine surgical specialties. Born of necessity and developed through extensive research, discussion and consensus, the implementation of this programme will involve many challenges, particularly during the transition period. Through cooperation, commitment and partnerships, a more efficient and better outcome will be achieved for trainees, their trainers and their patients. PMID:17610679

  2. Planning environmental sanitation programmes in emergencies.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Peter A; Reed, Robert A

    2005-06-01

    Environmental sanitation programmes are vital for tackling environmental-related disease and ensuring human dignity in emergency situations. If they are to have maximum impact they must be planned in a rapid but systematic manner. An appropriate planning process comprises five key stages: rapid assessment and priority setting; outline programme design; immediate action; detailed programme design; and implementation. The assessment should be based on carefully selected data, which are analysed via comparison with suitable minimum objectives. How the intervention should be prioritised is determined through objective ranking of different environmental sanitation sector needs. Next, a programme design outline is produced to identify immediate and longer-term intervention activities and to guarantee that apposite resources are made available. Immediate action is taken to meet acute emergency needs while the detailed programme design takes shape. This entails in-depth consultation with the affected community and comprehensive planning of activities and resource requirements. Implementation can then begin, which should involve pertinent management and monitoring strategies. PMID:15910646

  3. ESA to unveil its new science programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The science community, European industry, the ESA Executive and cooperating space agencies in Europe and elsewhere have been consulted, and sometimes challenged, to find the best ways to maximise science value for money. The exercise is now over following intensive consultations with ESA's Space Science Advisory Committee (SSAC) and the Member States represented by the Science Programme Committee (SPC). After final SPC approval at the meeting on 22/23 May there will be a new programme and a new implementation plan. The results of this meeting will then be presented to the press on 27 May, in Paris, by the ESA Director of Science, in the presence of the chairmen of the SSAC and SPC. Media representatives wishing to attend the press breakfast are kindly requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations, Fax: +33.(0)1.5369.7690 For more information, please contact: ESA - Communication Department Media Relations Office Tel: +33 (0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33 (0)1.53.69.76.90 ESA's Science Programme Agenda Monday 27 May 2002 - 08:30-10:00 ESA Headquarters, 8/10 rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris 08:30 Registration & breakfast 08:45 Introduction , by Hugo Marée, Science Programme Coordination Office 08:50 Presentation of the new ESA Science Programme, by Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science 09:10 Question &Answer session

  4. Nurse leadership in sustaining programmes of change.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Ursula; Marks-Maran, Diane

    With a dearth of literature on sustaining new programmes in the NHS, a service evaluation was undertaken following the implementation of the Productive Ward (PW) programme in an acute hospital environment. It was hoped that areas would emerge that could help to sustain the programme following disbanding of the PW facilitation team. The service evaluation gathered data from 11 wards that were part of the PW programme. Data were collected on actual sustainability results, absenteeism over the 6 months prior to the sustainability score taken, changes to ward environments, changes to senior sister roles and attendance at the PW launch day or other PW activities. Themes from the literature and analysis of the data gathered were then developed into a discussion surrounding the factors that appeared to be conducive to sustaining this programme of change.Results indicate that change is difficult to sustain in au ever-changing environment. However, there appears to be a strong link between sustainability and the leadership skills and qualities of the ward sister. PMID:24809151

  5. The Herschel DUNES Open Time Key Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.

    2009-01-01

    We will use the unique photometric capabilities provided by Herschel to perform a deep and systematic survey for faint, cold debris disks around nearby stars. Our sensitivity-limited Open Time Key Programme (OTKP) aims at finding and characterizing faint extrasolar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB) in an unbiased, statistically significant sample of nearby FGK main-sequence stars. Our target set spans a broad range of stellar ages (from 0.1 to 10 Gyr) and is volume-limited (distances < 20 pc). All stars with known extrasolar planets within this distance are included; additionally, some M- and A-type stars will be observed in collaboration with the Herschel DEBRIS OTKP, so that the entire sample covers a decade in stellar mass, from 0.2 to 2 solar masses. We will perform PACS and SPIRE photometric observations covering the wavelength range from 70 to 500 microns. The PACS observations at 100 microns have been designed to detect the stellar photospheres down to the confusion limit with a signal-to-noise ratio > 5. The observations in the other Herschel bands will allow us to characterize, model, and constrain the disks. As a result, it will be possible for us to reach fractional dust luminosities of a few times 10-7, close to the EKB level in the Solar System. This will provide an unprecedented lower limit to the fractional abundance of planetesimal systems and allow us to assess the presence of giant planets, which would play dynamical roles similar to those played by Jupiter and Neptune in the Solar System. The proposed observations will provide new and unique evidence for the presence of mature planetary systems in the solar neighbourhood and, in turn, will address the universality of planet/planetary system formation in disks around young stars.

  6. Implementing neural nets with programmable logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Networks of Boolean programmable logic modules are presented as one purely digital class of artificial neural nets. The approach contrasts with the continuous analog framework usually suggested. Programmable logic networks are capable of handling many neural-net applications. They avoid some of the limitations of threshold logic networks and present distinct opportunities. The network nodes are called dynamically programmable logic modules. They can be implemented with digitally controlled demultiplexers. Each node performs a Boolean function of its inputs which can be dynamically assigned. The overall network is therefore a combinational circuit and its outputs are Boolean global functions of the network's input variables. The approach offers definite advantages for VLSI implementation, namely, a regular architecture with limited connectivity, simplicity of the control machinery, natural modularity, and the support of a mature technology.

  7. The Schome Park Programme: Exploring Educational Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Peter; Footring, Shri

    The Schome Park Programme set out to extend thinking about what the education system for the information age (Schome) should be like. The first three phases of the programme spanned 13 months and involved the use of Schome Park, our "closed" island(s) in Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) virtual world alongside a wiki and forum. During this time approximately two hundred 13-17 year olds and around 50 adults were given access to Schome Park. Having explained the context in which this work took place the paper outlines the initial educational design underpinning the programme and describes some of the activities which took place. It goes on to explore some dimensions of practice which emerged from the data analysis towards the end of Phase 3, focusing on learner experiences of experimentation, playfulness, curriculum, choice, participation and the expression of the learner voice.

  8. The SAS-3 programmable telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    Basic concept, system design and operation principles of the telemetry system developed for the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3) are analyzed. The concept of programmable format selected for the SAS-3 represents an optical combination of the fixed format system of SAS-1 and SAS-2, and the adaptive format concept. The programmable telemetry system permits a very wide range of changes in the data sampling order by a ground control station, depending on the experimental requirements, so that the maximal amount of useful data can be returned from orbit. The programmable system also allows the data format to differ from one spacecraft to another without changing hardware. Attention is given to the command requirements and redundancy of the SAS-3 telemetry system.

  9. Evaluating a nurse mentor preparation programme.

    PubMed

    Gray, Olivia; Brown, Donna

    Following the introduction of a regional nurse mentor preparation programme, research was undertaken within a health and social care trust to explore both the trainee mentors' and their supervisors' perception of this new programme. A qualitative study involving focus groups was undertaken. The focus groups comprised a total of twelve participants including five trainee mentors and seven supervisors (experienced mentors) who had recently completed a mentor preparation programme. Data were analysed using Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis. Three themes were identified from the data: personal investment (including the emotional impact of mentoring) contextual perceptions (environmental factors such as time) and intellectual facets (related to personal and professional growth). Comprehensive preparation for mentors appears to be effective in developing mentors with the ability to support nursing students in practice. However, further study is required to explore how to support mentors to balance the demands of the mentoring role with the delivery of patient care. PMID:26911167

  10. Radiation Effects on Current Field Programmable Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; LaBel, K.; Wang, J. J.; Cronquist, B.; Koga, R.; Penzin, S.; Swift, G.

    1997-01-01

    Manufacturers of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAS) take different technological and architectural approaches that directly affect radiation performance. Similar y technological and architectural features are used in related technologies such as programmable substrates and quick-turn application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). After analyzing current technologies and architectures and their radiation-effects implications, this paper includes extensive test data quantifying various devices total dose and single event susceptibilities, including performance degradation effects and temporary or permanent re-configuration faults. Test results will concentrate on recent technologies being used in space flight electronic systems and those being developed for use in the near term. This paper will provide the first extensive study of various configuration memories used in programmable devices. Radiation performance limits and their impacts will be discussed for each design. In addition, the interplay between device scaling, process, bias voltage, design, and architecture will be explored. Lastly, areas of ongoing research will be discussed.

  11. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-02-24

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted.

  12. Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe. Band VI/1. Documenta Copernicana: Briefe (Texte und Übersetzungen).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, A.

    Im Auftrage der Kommission für die Copernicus-Gesamtausgabe, herausgegeben von H. M. Nobis und M. Folkerts. Band VI/1 wurde bearbeitet von A. Kühne unter Mitarbeit von F. Boockmann und S. Kirschner und Verwendung der Vorarbeiten von H. M. Nobis.

  13. Ferrofluide - ihre Grundlagen und Anwendungen: Magnetische Flüssigkeiten kontrollieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenbach, Stefan

    Strömung und Eigenschaften von Suspensionen kleiner magnetischer Teilchen, so genannten Ferrofluiden, lassen sich durch laborübliche Magnetfelder wesentlich beeinflussen. Dies ergibt neue Möglichkeiten in der Grundlagenforschung und erlaubt die Entwicklung interessanter technischer Anwendungen. So werden Ferrofluide beispielsweise im Dämpfungs- und Dichtungsbereich, in jüngerer Zeit auch im biomedizinischen Bereich eingesetzt.

  14. Wageningen Evaluating Programmes for Analytical Laboratories (WEPAL).

    PubMed

    van Dijk, D; Houba, V J

    1999-03-01

    The paper describes three of the Wageningen Evaluating Programmes for Analytical Laboratories (WEPAL). These include the analyses of numerous compounds and elements and different parameters such as inorganic chemical composition, organic matter, polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine pesticides, some herbicides, heavy metals, particle size, and so on in soil, sediment, compost, manure, and sludge. One programme includes the analysis of inorganic chemical composition, nutritional values, and selected vitamins and amino acids in plant samples. Finally, the paper describes how the results are reported and statistically evaluated. PMID:10457652

  15. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-01

    Background The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Methods Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. Conclusion With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual. Increased relational resources

  16. Programmability of Chemical Reaction Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Matthew; Soloveichik, David; Winfree, Erik; Bruck, Jehoshua

    Motivated by the intriguing complexity of biochemical circuitry within individual cells we study Stochastic Chemical Reaction Networks (SCRNs), a formal model that considers a set of chemical reactions acting on a finite number of molecules in a well-stirred solution according to standard chemical kinetics equations. SCRNs have been widely used for describing naturally occurring (bio)chemical systems, and with the advent of synthetic biology they become a promising language for the design of artificial biochemical circuits. Our interest here is the computational power of SCRNs and how they relate to more conventional models of computation. We survey known connections and give new connections between SCRNs and Boolean Logic Circuits, Vector Addition Systems, Petri nets, Gate Implementability, Primitive Recursive Functions, Register Machines, Fractran, and Turing Machines. A theme to these investigations is the thin line between decidable and undecidable questions about SCRN behavior.

  17. Enhancing health programme efficiency: a Cambodian case study.

    PubMed

    Stuer, F

    1998-09-01

    In 1995, the Cambodian Urban Health Care Association (CUHCA) was set up as facilitator between private health care providers and patients, guaranteeing good quality health care and fair pricing to patients and providing training and logistic support to providers. Providers were engaged on a fee-for-service basis and competition encouraged. CUHCA's objectives followed the same line of thought as the 1993 World Development Report, aiming at influencing the unregulated private health care market through competition mechanisms. But soon after the start of the project the basic problem was recognized to be not the absence of effective government regulation but rather that consumers lack the requisite knowledge to make good choices in the market for health services. CUHCA had not adequately addressed the demand for health services. The original supply-side strategy of improving health services by increasing competition was a failure. In order to improve CUHCA's health programme efficiency the association's objectives were subsequently redefined and its functioning reorganized. CUHCA now tries to educate consumers and provides good quality services so that consumers will be able to act on the basis of their newly acquired knowledge. CUHCA's health centres serve as model clinics for first-line health care. Community educators organize information, education and communication (IEC) activities. Staff help school teachers to improve formal health education in schools and CUHCA assists local leaders in sanitation development. Only full-time personnel are employed, encouraging team spirit and communication with the target population. Salaries are based on team performance. The CUHCA programme demonstrates that, depending on the market situation, health programme models need to address both the supply and the demand for services in order to be efficient. Where consumers lack essential knowledge to make appropriate choices in the health service market, interventions should focus

  18. Assessing the evidence for organised cancer screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Madlensky, L; Goel, V; Polzer, J; Ashbury, F D

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the evidence in the literature for organised cancer screening programmes. A Medline search for publications related to organised cancer screening programmes and their components was done. While there is a broad descriptive literature on various cancer screening programmes, there are few published studies that evaluate the impact of organised cancer screening. Most of the evidence to date is from Scandinavian cervical and breast cancer screening programmes. There is a moderate amount of literature that evaluates specific components of cancer screening programmes (such as quality control and recruitment). There is a substantial body of literature on organised cancer screening programmes. However, the studies tend to describe organised screening programmes rather than evaluate their effectiveness relative to opportunistic screening. Furthermore, most studies focus on individual components of organised screening programmes, rather than on the programmes as a whole. More research is needed that directly compares organised with opportunistic cancer screening. PMID:12888358

  19. Synthesis of Programmable Reaction-Diffusion Fronts Using DNA Catalyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorin, Anton S.; Rondelez, Yannick; Galas, Jean-Christophe; Estevez-Torres, André

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a DNA-based reaction-diffusion (RD) system in which reaction and diffusion terms can be precisely and independently controlled. The effective diffusion coefficient of an individual reaction component, as we demonstrate on a traveling wave, can be reduced up to 2.7-fold using a self-assembled hydrodynamic drag. The intrinsic programmability of this RD system allows us to engineer, for the first time, orthogonal autocatalysts that counterpropagate with minimal interaction. Our results are in excellent quantitative agreement with predictions of the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piscunov model. These advances open the way for the rational engineering of pattern formation in pure chemical RD systems.

  20. Active-Pixel Image Sensors With Programmable Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemeny, Sabrina E.; Fossum, Eric R.; Pain, Bedabrata; Nakamura, Junichi; Matthies, Larry H.

    1996-01-01

    Active-pixel image sensors with programmable resolution proposed for use in applications in which speed and efficiency of processing of image data enhanced by providing those data at varying resolutions. Such applications include modeling of biological vision, stereoscopic range-finding, recognition of patterns, tracking targets, and progressive transmission of compressed images. In target-tracking application, sensor initially forms low-resolution image from which area of interest identified, then sensor set at high resolution for examination of identified area. Outputs of contiguous pixels combined. Sensor of this type made to act as though it comprised fewer and larger pixels.

  1. Table-top mirror based parallel programmable optical logic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2014-12-01

    Light rays can easily be reflected to different path by mechanical movement of mirrors. Using this basic operational principle we can design parallel programmable optical logic device (PPOLD) by arranging mirrors on a table. The ‘table-top mirror' models of this proposed circuit have been shown here. We can program it to design all the two input 16-Boolean logical expressions from a single design. The design is based on only plane mirrors. No active optical material is used in this design. Not only that the proposed circuit is optically reversible in nature. Moreover this design is very simple in sense. It can be fabricated in MEMS based optical switches.

  2. Integrating genomic selection into dairy cattle breeding programmes: a review.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, A; Juga, J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However

  3. 'Triangulating' AMPATH: demonstration of a multi-perspective strategic programme evaluation method.

    PubMed

    Inui, T S; Sidle, J E; Nyandiko, W M; Yebei, V N; Frankel, R M; Mossbarger, D L; Ayuku, D; Ballidawa, J; Ayikukwei, R

    2009-11-01

    Clinical programmes are typically evaluated on operational performance metrics of cost, quality and outcomes. Measures of patient satisfaction are used to assess the experience of receiving care, but other perspectives, including those of staff and communities, are not often sought or used to assess and improve programmes. For strategic planning, the Kenyan HIV/AIDS programme AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) sought to evaluate its performance in 2006. The method used for this evaluation was termed 'triangulation', because it used information from three different sources--patients, communities, and programme staff. From January to August 2006, Indiana University external evaluators and AMPATH staff gathered information on strengths, weaknesses and suggestions for improvement of AMPATH. Activities included in-depth key-informant semi-structured interviews of 26 AMPATH clinical and support staff, 56 patients at eight clinic sites, and seven village health dialogues (mabaraza) at five sublocations within the AMPATH catchment area. Data sources included field notes and transcripts of translated audio recordings, which were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Eighteen recommendations for programme improvement emerged, including ten from all three respondent perspectives. Three recommendations were cited by patients and in mabaraza, but not by staff. Triangulation uncovered improvement emphases that an internal assessment would miss. AMPATH and Kenyan Ministry of Health leadership have deliberated these recommendations and accelerated strategic change actions, including rural satellite programmes, collaboration with village-based workers, and door-to-door village-based screening and counselling. PMID:20485850

  4. Building the capacity of nursing professionals in Cambodia: Insights from a bridging programme for faculty development.

    PubMed

    Koto-Shimada, Kyoko; Yanagisawa, Satoko; Boonyanurak, Puangrat; Fujita, Noriko

    2016-04-01

    To upgrade nursing instruction capacity in Cambodia, two bridging programmes were opened for the Bachelor of Science in Nursing simultaneously in-country and out-of-country (Thailand). A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to assess effectiveness of both programmes jointly and to explore needs concerning the further development of nursing education. This study included interviews with 34 current or previous programme participants (nursing instructors or hospital preceptors) and 10 managers of collaborating institutions. New learning content, personal outcomes, challenges and obstacles and future needs were qualitatively coded to create categories and subcategories of data. Findings show that programme participants were most influenced by the new content areas (e.g. nursing theory and professionalism), active teaching-learning strategies and the full-time educational immersion afforded by the out-of-country programme. Programme participants who had returned to their workplaces also identified on-going needs for employing new active teaching-learning approaches, curriculum revision, national standardization of nursing curricula and improvements in the teaching-learning infrastructure. Another outcome of this study is the development of a theoretical model for Nursing Capacity Building in Developing Countries that describes the need for intermediate and long-term planning as well as using both Bottom-Up and Edge-Pulling strategies. PMID:27184699

  5. Searching for the mechanisms of change: a protocol for a realist review of batterer treatment programmes

    PubMed Central

    Cheff, Rebecca; Finn, Debbie; Davloor, Whitney; O'Campo, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Conflicting results reported by evaluations of typical batterer intervention programmes leave many judicial officials and policymakers uncertain about the best way to respond to domestic violence, and whether to recommend and fund these programmes. Traditional evaluations and systematic reviews tend to focus predominantly on whether the programmes ‘worked’ (eg, reduced recidivism) often at the exclusion of understanding for whom they may or may not have worked, under what circumstances, and why. Methods and analysis We are undertaking a realist review of the batterer treatment programme literature with the aim of addressing this gap. Keeping with the goals of realist review, our primary aims are to identify the theory that underlies these programmes, highlight the mechanisms that trigger changes in participant behaviour and finally explain why these programmes help some individuals reduce their use of violence and under what conditions they are effective or not effective. We begin by describing the process of perpetrator treatment, and by proposing an initial theoretical model of behaviour change that will be tested by our review. We then describe the criteria for inclusion of an evaluation into the review, the search strategy we will use to identify the studies, and the plan for data extraction and analysis. Ethics and dissemination The results of this review will be written up using the RAMESES Guidelines for Realist Synthesis, and disseminated through peer-reviewed publications aimed at the practitioner community as well as presented at community forums, and at violence against women conferences. Ethics approval was not needed. PMID:27053268

  6. Willingness to pay for telecare programmes to support independent living: results from a contingent valuation study.

    PubMed

    Callan, Aoife; O'Shea, Eamon

    2015-01-01

    An ageing population provokes an economic interest in the resource allocation questions posed by long-term care and critically, the development of sustainable community-based health and social care models that support independent living. This paper explores Irish citizens preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for a range of community-based care programmes, including different telecare programmes that support older people to continue living at home. The paper reports on a cross-sectional multi-good contingent valuation survey conducted between April and September 2009 with three representative samples of the Irish population (N = 1214) to identify rankings and preferences for different community care programmes including: family care programme, a state-provided care programme and three different telecare programmes. The survey design permits the identification of strength, direction and relative preferences of different forms of community care provision. We also investigate convergent validity between ranking and willingness to pay results. We find that while people place significant value on formal state care provision and on telecare programmes, willingness to pay (WTP) estimates continue to highlight the importance of family care, which remains the strongest preference of the Irish population for the provision of community-based care for older people in the country. Respondents weakened their ranking preferences in the WTP exercise. However, both the direction of ranking and WTP estimates confirm the importance of family care. While all telecare programmes generated some economic value, telecare associated with social connection had much stronger support than telecare used to support physical or cognitive care needs. This paper offers unique information on societal values for different forms of community care provision, and in particular, the direction of preferences for technology-based approaches. PMID:25461866

  7. Programmable Verifiers in Imperative Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yifeng

    This paper studies the relation between execution and verification. A simple imperative language called VerExec with execution and verification commands is introduced. A machine only executes execution commands of a program, while the compiler only performs the verification commands. Common commands in other languages can be defined as a combination of execution and verification commands. Design of verifiers then becomes program design using verification commands. It is shown that type checking, abstract interpretation, modeling checking and Hoare Logic are all special verification programs, so are many of their combinations.

  8. The cost-effectiveness of primary care referral to a UK commercial weight loss programme.

    PubMed

    Meads, D M; Hulme, C T; Hall, P; Hill, A J

    2014-12-01

    Primary care referral to commercial weight loss programmes that follow best practice is included in current UK guidance on the management of adult obesity. This study investigated whether such a programme was cost-effective compared with usual care. A decision-analytical Markov model was developed to estimate the lifetime costs and benefits of the referral programme compared with usual care and enable a cost-utility analysis. The model cohort transited between body mass index classifications and type 2 diabetes, stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) with risk, cost and effect parameter values taken from published literature. The cost per incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was calculated. Extensive deterministic and scenario sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were conducted. At 12 months, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £6906, indicating that programme referral was cost-effective. Over a lifetime, referral to the commercial programme was dominant as it led to a cost saving of £924 and conferred incremental benefit (0.22 QALY) over usual care. Model simulations estimated lower lifetime rates of type 2 diabetes, stroke and MI as a result of the weight loss achieved. The results were robust to extensive sensitivity analyses. The PSA indicated that programme referral had a 68% chance of being cost-effective at a willingness to pay per incremental QALY threshold of £20,000. Referral to the programme dominated usual care, being both cheaper and more effective. These results compare favourably with economic evaluations of other obesity interventions and add to a growing evidence base on the cost-effectiveness of commercial weight loss providers and practices. PMID:25826162

  9. Anaesthetic training programmes in the UK: the role of the programme director.

    PubMed

    Barker, I

    1998-02-01

    Schools of anaesthesia provide anaesthetic training in the UK. Each school has at least one programme director undertaking some or all of the management duties. Most programme directors appears to be unresourced volunteers whose roles have developed in response to local requirements. A postal questionnaire was sent to all anaesthetic training programme directors in the UK, asking about their role. Respondents had a wide variation in duties and responsibilities towards anaesthetic training schemes. Few had terms of reference, clear lines of responsibility, remuneration or resources to undertake the role. PMID:9797894

  10. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  11. Einfluss des Internets auf das Informations-, Einkaufs- und Verkehrsverhalten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter

    Mit Daten aus eigenen Erhebungen können das einkaufsbezogene Informations- und Einkaufsverhalten im Zusammenhang mit den verkehrlichen Aspekten (Distanzen, Verkehrsmittel, Wegekopplungen) dargestellt werden. Die Differenzierung in die drei Produktkategorien des täglichen, mittelfristigen und des langfristigen Bedarfs berücksichtigt in erster Linie die Wertigkeit eines Gutes, die seine Erwerbshäufigkeit unmittelbar bestimmt. Der Einsatz moderner IKT wie das Internet eröffnet dem Endverbraucher neue Möglichkeiten bei Information und Einkauf. Die verkehrliche Relevanz von Online-Shopping wird deutlich, wenn man berücksichtigt, dass im Mittel rund 17% aller Online-Einkäufe, die die Probanden durchgeführt haben, Einkäufe in Ladengeschäften ersetzen. Dies gilt in verstärktem Maße für Online-Informationen: etwa die Hälfte hätte alternativ im stationären Einzelhandel stattgefunden. Da der Erwerb von Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs häufig nahräumlich und in relevantem Anteil nicht-motorisiert erfolgen kann, sind in diesem Segment - im Gegensatz zum mittel- und langfristigen Bedarf - nur geringe Substitutionseffekte zu beobachten.

  12. Informationsqualität - Definitionen, Dimensionen und Begriffe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohweder, Jan Philipp; Kasten, Gerhard; Malzahn, Dirk; Piro, Andrea; Schmid, Joachim

    Die Verbesserung und Sicherstellung der Informationsqualität wird in immer mehr Unternehmen als eigenständige Managementaufgabe von großer Wichtigkeit begriffen. IQ-Management ist ein elementarer Baustein in Systemintegrationsprojekten. Aber auch in bestehenden Prozessen mit heterogenen Datenquellen und Informationsnutzern ist eine hohe Informationsqualität die Grundvoraussetzung für funktionierende betriebliche Abläufe. Voraussetzung für ein effektives IQ-Management ist die Bewertung der Informationsqualität [Lee et al. 2006, S. 13 und S. 27]. In vielen Unternehmen ist Informationsqualität nur ein gefühlter Wert. Die meisten Anwender bringen ein gewisses Misstrauen den Daten gegenüber zum Ausdruck, dies jedoch ohne genaue Angabe der Fehlerart und -häufigkeit. Nicht selten werden kostspielige Projekte angestoßen, um die Informationsqualität zu verbessern, ohne sich vor einer IQ-Maßnahme durch eine Analyse ein genaues Bild über die tatsächlichen Probleme zu verschaffen. Nur auf der Basis einer umfassenden Bewertung der Informationsqualität können die notwendigen Ressourcenentscheidungen herbeigeführt, Ziele gesetzt und der Erfolg des IQ-Management beurteilt werden.

  13. Economic analysis of outreach assessment clinics in breast screening programmes.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, M M; Cairns, J A; Gilbert, F J; Hendry, P J

    1999-01-01

    A model is developed for the economic evaluation of outreach assessment clinics following screening and used to identify the cost-minimizing strategy for assessing women from three island communities in the Scottish Breast Screening Programme (SBSP). There are four options of interest depending on: whether the women are assessed on the mainland or at outreach assessment clinics; and whether all women have two view screening rather than only those being screened for the first time. The benefits of outreach assessment are assumed to be solely in terms of convenience to women and reductions in the time and travel costs of women recalled for assessment. The costs are modelled in order to compare outreach and no outreach options. The results show that for the numbers of women currently screened outreach assessment is the cost-minimizing strategy. The model provides useful guidance with respect to screening policy and is readily applied to the case of outreach assessment in mainland communities outwith major population centres and to breast and other screening programmes in other countries. PMID:10351680

  14. Outcomes of a community-based lifestyle programme for adults with diabetes or pre-diabetes.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Chris; Skinner, Margot; Hale, Leigh

    2016-06-01

    INTRODUCTION Diabetes, a long-term condition increasing in prevalence, requires ongoing healthcare management. Exercise alongside lifestyle education and support is effective for diabetes management. AIM To investigate clinical outcomes and acceptability of a community-based lifestyle programme for adults with diabetes/prediabetes at programme completion and 3-month follow-up. METHODS The 12-week community programme included twice-weekly sessions of self-management education and exercise, supervised by a physiotherapist, physiotherapy students and a nurse. Clinical outcomes assessed were cardiorespiratory fitness, waist circumference, exercise behaviour and self-efficacy. A standardised evaluation form was used to assess programme acceptability. RESULTS Clinically significant improvements were found from baseline (n = 36) to programme completion (n = 25) and 3-months follow-up (n = 20) for the six minute walk test (87 m (95%CI 65-109; p ≤ 0.01), 60 m (95%CI 21-100; p ≤ 0.01)), waist circumference (-3 cm (95%CI -6 to -1), -3 cm (95%CI -6 to 1)), exercise behaviour (aerobic exercise 53 min/week (95%CI 26 to 81; p ≤ 0.01), 71 min/week (95%CI 25 to 118; p ≤ 0.01)) and self-efficacy (0.7 (95%CI -0.2 to 1.6), 0.8 (95%CI 0.04 to 1.5)). Good programme acceptability was demonstrated by themes suggesting a culturally supportive, motivating, friendly, informative atmosphere within the programme. The attrition rate was 30% but there were no adverse medical events related to the programme. DISCUSSION The programme was safe and culturally acceptable and outcomes demonstrated clinical benefit to participants. The attrition rate was largely due to medical reasons unrelated to the programme. This model of a community-based lifestyle programme has the potential to be reproduced in other regions and in adults with similar long-term conditions. KEYWORDS Diabetes Mellitus Type II; Prediabetic state; Co-morbidity; Exercise; Self-management. PMID:27477555

  15. String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-01-01

    In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found that 8% of all the…

  16. Implementing Biosecurity Education: Approaches, Resources and Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Minehata, Masamichi; Sture, Judi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Whitby, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to present possible approaches, resources and programmes to introduce the topic of biosecurity to life scientists and engineers at the higher education level. Firstly, we summarise key findings from a number of international surveys on biosecurity education that have been carried out in the United States, Europe, Israel and the Asia–Pacific region. Secondly, we describe the development of our openly-accessible education resource, illustrating the scope and content of these materials. Thirdly, we report on actual cases of biosecurity education that have been implemented. These include achievements in and lessons derived from the implementation of biosecurity education at the National Defense Medical College in Japan. These experiences are followed by presentation of the expert-level “Train-the-Trainer” programmes subsequently launched by the University of Bradford in the United Kingdom. These examples will help readers to understand how educators can enhance their own understanding about biosecurity issues and how they can then disseminate their knowledge through development of their own customised, relevantly-targeted and stage-tailored education programmes within their own life science communities. By providing these examples, we argue that education for life scientists, policy-makers and other stakeholders about social responsibility on dual-use issues is easily achievable and need not be expensive, time-consuming or over-burdening. We suggest that recurring classes or courses be held at appropriate times during educational programmes to accommodate the developing expertise and advancing learning stages of students. PMID:22038099

  17. The Northland fluoridation advocacy programme: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Sunitha; Thomas, David R

    2008-12-01

    On 20 July 2006, the Far North District Council resolved to fluoridate Kaitaia and Kaikohe. This was the first such initiative by any Territorial Local Authority (TLA) in New Zealand for 23 years, and resulted from a fluoridation advocacy programme. This paper describes the programme implementation, assesses its consistency with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi, and critically examines the collaboration between the fluoride advocate and the key stakeholders. Process evaluation identified three main categories of programme implementation: policy advocacy, community action projects, and media advocacy. The collaboration of iwi, Maori health providers and the community suggests that the programme was consistent with the principles (partnership, participation and protection) ofthe Treaty ofWaitangi. Media advocacy played an important role in reflecting and engaging community views on fluoridation, and it influenced decision-making by the Far North District Council. The simultaneous, combined 'top-down and bottom-up' approach was an effective and successful strategy for fluoridation advocacy in the community. Less integrated approaches implemented on their own (such as the 'top down' approach in Whangarei and the 'bottom-up' approach in Dargaville) were not effective. PMID:19180864

  18. About the Scottish Microelectronics Development Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scottish Microelectronics Development Programme, Glasgow.

    Activities of the Scottish Microelectronics Development Programme (SMDP) related to the introduction and coordination of educational microcomputing in Scotland from 1980 to February 1984 are described. The background of the program is outlined, and it is noted that SMDP has become a division of the Scottish Council for Educational Technology…

  19. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  20. Report of Programme Commission II (Natural Sciences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Conference.

    As the first part of the report of the Programme Commission II, a summary of discussions on plans for natural sciences and their applications is presented in this document. The two agenda items are: (1) detailed consideration of the 1973-74 draft program and budget and of the 1973-78 draft medium-term outline, and (2) desirability of adopting an…

  1. Evaluation of the 1981 Vocational Preparation Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailstone, D. L.; Grosvenor, J. S.

    An evaluation project investigated the Vocational Preparation Programme conducted in 1981 by the South Australian Department of Technical and Further Education (TAFE). The vocational preparation program was designed to increase the employability of young unemployed people aged 15 to 19 by providing them with an understanding of a family of related…

  2. Improved Programmable High-Voltage Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen; Rutberg, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Improved dc-to-dc converter functions as programmable high-voltage power supply with low-power-dissipation voltage regulator on high-voltage side. Design of power supply overcomes deficiencies of older designs. Voltage regulation with low power dissipation provided on high-voltage side.

  3. The Responsive College Programme: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Geoffrey; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The Responsive College Programme is a centrally funded and organized activity encompassing a varied range of 10 local projects in England from whose experience it is hoped to obtain lessons for public sector education and training. The central/local nature of the enterprise imposes both the necessity of operating within broad, general constraints…

  4. Russian Universities Educate World's Top Student Programmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Reports that student computer programmers from Russian universities, despite outdated equipment, poor facilities, and meager salaries, recently dominated the International Collegiate Programming Contest World Finals with the team from St. Petersburg State University winning first place. Western companies are developing arrangements with Russian…

  5. Using Programmable Calculators to Solve Electrostatics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerian, Stephen C.; Denker, Dennis A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a simple routine which allows first-year physics students to use programmable calculators to solve otherwise complex electrostatic problems. These problems involve finding electrostatic potential and electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring. Modest programing skills are required of students. (DH)

  6. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  7. Development of the Microelectronic Education Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development of the Microelectronics Education Programme for England, Northern Ireland and Wales, including funding, aims, and relationships of the national program with local organizations. The program focuses on incorporating uses/effects of microelectronic technology into the total school curriculum and ways of using this…

  8. The Legacy of the Microelectronics Education Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Microelectronics Education Programme (MEP), a plan developed to help British secondary school students learn about microcomputers and the role of technology in society, and its successor, the Microelectronics Support Unit (MESU). Highlights include curriculum development, teacher training, computer assisted instruction and the…

  9. Empathy among students in engineering programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasoal, Chato; Danielsson, Henrik; Jungert, Tomas

    2012-10-01

    Engineers face challenges when they are to manage project groups and be leaders for organisations because such positions demand skills in social competence and empathy. Previous studies have shown that engineers have low degrees of social competence skills. In this study, the level of empathy as measured by the four subscales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, perspective taking, fantasy, empathic distress and empathic concern, among engineering students was compared to students in health care profession programmes. Participants were undergraduate students at Linköping University, 365 students from four different health care profession programmes and 115 students from two different engineering programmes. When the empathy measures were corrected for effects of sex, engineering students from one of the programmes had lower empathy than psychology and social worker students on the fantasy and perspective-taking subscales. These results raise questions regarding opportunities for engineering students to develop their empathic abilities. It is important that engineering students acquire both theoretical and practical knowledge and skills regarding empathy.

  10. Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397

    SciTech Connect

    Pether, Colin; Carrol, Phil; Birkett, Eddie; Kibble, Matthew

    2012-07-01

    Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

  11. The hepatitis B immunization programme in Singapore.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, K. T.; Doraisingham, S.; Tan, K. L.; Oon, C. J.; Ho, M. L.; Chen, A. J.; Chan, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    A voluntary immunization programme to prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Singapore was implemented on 1 October 1985 as an integral component of the national childhood immunization programme. Up to April 1988, a total of 68,845 mothers who attended government maternal and child health clinics were screened for the disease. Of these, 2432 (3.5%) were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 904 (1.3%) for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Virtually all the babies born to carrier mothers completed the full immunization schedule; and in addition, those of HBeAg-positive mothers were given a dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth. The hepatitis B immunization programme was extended on 1 September 1987 to cover all newborns. About 90% of the 15,943 babies delivered in government institutions from September 1987 to April 1988 were immunized at birth, with the subsequent doses being administered at maternal and child health clinics at 4-6 weeks and 5 months later. More than 85% of the children given the full course of plasma-derived and yeast-derived hepatitis B vaccine from birth continued to have protective antibody to HBV two years after immunization. The programme is being closely monitored to assess the duration of immunity and the need for booster doses, while seronegative adults are also being encouraged to be vaccinated. PMID:2523251

  12. Programmable Calculators: Uses in Freshman Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Clark, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Suggests two uses for the programmable calculator in the freshman chemistry laboratory: as a means of determining whether or not a student's raw data from a laboratory experiment fall within acceptable tolerance limits; and as a means of checking the reliability of unknowns and grading on quantitative experiments. (MLH)

  13. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Review 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This edition of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) annual report is structured in three parts. Part 1 focuses on three contemporary problems (ground water, toxic chemicals and human food chains and environmental economics) and attempts to solve them. Also included is a modified extract of "The Annual State of the Environment Report"…

  14. Voyageur Wilderness Programme: A Different Educational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoie, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Back in 1958, environmental clubs were few, organizations that considered eco-practices were almost non-existent, and the concept of environmental studies at any level in their educational system was in its infancy. It was in this environment that Voyageur Wilderness Programme (VWP) was founded on Voyageur Island, Nym Lake, Quetico, Ontario,…

  15. The Early Development of Programmable Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Programmable equipment innovations, precursors of today's technology, are examined, including the development of the binary code and feedback control systems, such as temperature sensing devices, interchangeable parts, punched cards carrying instructions, continuous flow oil refining process, assembly lines for mass production, and the…

  16. EPAs Virtual Embryo: Modeling Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryogenesis is regulated by concurrent activities of signaling pathways organized into networks that control spatial patterning, molecular clocks, morphogenetic rearrangements and cell differentiation. Quantitative mathematical and computational models are needed to better unde...

  17. Evaluation of physical activity programmes for elderly people - a descriptive study using the EFQM' criteria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past years, there has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people, because evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Quality is an important issue when designing a PA programme for older people. Some studies support the Excellence Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) as an operational framework for evaluating the quality of an organization. Within this context, the aim of this study was to characterize the quality management models of the PA programmes developed by Portuguese Local Administration to enhance quality of life for elderly people, according to the criteria of the EFQM Excellence Model. Methods A methodological triangulation was conducted in 26 PA programmes using questionnaire surveys, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. We used standard approaches to the statistical analysis of data including frequencies and percentages for the categorical data. Results Results showed that Processes (65,38%), Leadership (61,03%), Customer results (58,46) and People (51,28%) had high percentage occurrences of quality practices. In contrast, Partnerships and resources (45,77%), People results (41,03%), Policy and strategy (37,91%), Key performance results (19,23%) and Society results (19,23%) had lower percentage occurrences. Conclusions Our findings suggest that although there are some good practices in PA programmes, there are still relevant areas that require improvement. PMID:21338497

  18. Endoskopie, minimal invasive chirurgische und navigierte Verfahren in der Urologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Joachim; von Walter, Matthias; Jakse, Gerhard

    Betrachtet man die letzten 100 Jahre der Urologie in Deutschland seit Gründung ihrer Fachgesellschaft 1906 in Stuttgart, so sind sicherlich die letzten 25 Jahre von umfassenden Entwicklungen mit z. T. vollständigen Umwälzungen bisheriger Therapien und Methoden auf urologischen Fachgebiet gekennzeichnet. In erster Linie handelte es sich dabei um minimal invasive endoskopische Techniken wie perkutane Nierenchirurgie, Ureterorenoskopie, videoendoskopisch unterstütze transurethrale Elektroresektionen der Prostata und von Blasentumore sowie die Laparoskopie. Sie führten zu besseren operativen Ergebnissen und einer deutlichen Senkung der Morbidität der entsprechenden Behandlung urologischer Krankheitsbilder, mit der Konsequenz, dass einige bisher als Standard gültige offene Operationsverfahren abgelöst wurden.

  19. Advanced earth observation spacecraft computer-aided design software: Technical, user and programmer guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.; Krauze, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The IDEAS computer of NASA is a tool for interactive preliminary design and analysis of LSS (Large Space System). Nine analysis modules were either modified or created. These modules include the capabilities of automatic model generation, model mass properties calculation, model area calculation, nonkinematic deployment modeling, rigid-body controls analysis, RF performance prediction, subsystem properties definition, and EOS science sensor selection. For each module, a section is provided that contains technical information, user instructions, and programmer documentation.

  20. Twelve tips for running teaching programmes for newly qualified doctors.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Deborah; Baker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A teaching programme for newly qualified doctors is necessary for their continuing professional development and education. However, guidelines for the logistics and content of such teaching programmes are limited. These 12 tips provide advice and guidance for the creation and development of a successful programme. This article is intended for readers who are involved in teaching; programme directors, administrators, tutors and trainee doctors themselves. The principles included will also be useful for those involved in developing other types of teaching programmes. Engagement of trainees, the education department and other staff in the hospital is crucial for the success of teaching programmes. A culture of attendance and feedback may take time and effort to establish but is absolutely essential for long-term programme viability. Innovative approaches to teaching, a range of teaching staff and coverage of varied clinical and non-clinical topics, all contribute to a strong programme. PMID:22509893

  1. Towards a theory-based positive youth development programme.

    PubMed

    Brink, Andrea Jw; Wissing, Marié P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and describe an intervention programme for young adolescents, guided by the Positive Youth Development Intervention (PYDI) model, which provides a perspective on the facilitation of development in a more positive trajectory. The key concepts and processes suggested by the PYDI model were further analysed and broadened using existing literature for operationalisation and application purposes. Self-regulation is the central process effectuating developmental change, within the contexts of: a) the navigation of stressors; and b) the formulation and effective pursuit of relevant personal goals. Self-regulation, together with a developmental perspective, provided guidelines regarding the relevant skills and knowledge. These are facilitating: a) identity development; b) formulation of goals congruent with the latter; c) decision-making skills; d) coping skills; e) regulation of affect and cognition; and f) socialisation skills. The relevant content areas and the manner of the facilitation of these are indicated. The theory-based programme can be implemented and its effect empirically evaluated. Levels of hope, problem-solving efficacy and social efficacy may serve as, inter alia, indicators of developmental change. PMID:25860303

  2. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.

    2006-01-01

    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  3. Some innovative programmes in Astronomy education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, G. S. D.; Sujatha, S.

    In order to inculcate a systematic scientific awareness of the subject of Astronomy among the students and to motivate them to pursue careers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, various innovative educational programmes have been designed at MPBIFR. Among them, the main programme is termed as the ``100-hour Certificate Course in Astronomy and Astrophysics'' which has been designed basically for the students of the undergraduate level of B.Sc. and B.E. streams. The time duration of the 100 hours in this course is partitioned as 36 hours of classroom lectures, 34 hours of practicals and field trips and the remaining 30 hours being dedicated to dissertation writing and seminar presentations by the students. In addition, after the 100-hour course, the students have the option to take up specialized advance courses in the topics of Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, Radio Astronomy, Solar Astronomy and Cosmology as week-end classes. These courses are at the post graduate level and are covered in a span of 18 to 20 hours spread over a period of 9 to 10 weeks. As a preparatory programme, short-term introductory courses in the same subject are conducted for the high school students during the summer vacation period. Along with this, a three-week programme in basic Astronomy is also designed as an educational package for the general public. The students of these courses have the opportunity of being taken on field trips to various astronomical centers as well as the Radio, Solar and the Optical Observatories as part of their curriculum. The guided trips to the ISRO’s Satellite Centre at Bangalore and the Satellite Launching Station at SHAR provide high degree of motivation apart from giving thrilling experiences to the students. Further, the motivated students are encouraged to involve themselves in regular research programmes in Astronomy at MPBIFR for publishing research papers in national and international journals. The teaching and mentoring faculty for all these programmes

  4. A novel design of a fully programmable switched current filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhfakh, Mourad; Loulou, Mourad

    2010-06-01

    In this study, the design of a programmable infinite impulse response switched current (SI) filter is presented. The characteristics of the filter are fully programmable by simply varying the values of out-of-chip DC current sources. The programmable switched current filter mainly consists of SI delay cells and SI multipliers. A high-performance class AB grounded gate SI memory cell is used as a basic building block. Spice simulation results are presented to show the functionality of the programmable filter.

  5. Generating Quitline calls during Australia's National Tobacco Campaign: effects of television advertisement execution and programme placement

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, T; Rock, B

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The study sought to measure the relative efficiency of different television advertisements and types of television programmes in which advertisements were placed, in generating calls to Australia's national Quitline. Design: The study entailed an analysis of the number of calls generated to the Quitline relative to the weight of advertising exposure (in target audience rating points (TARPs) for particular television advertisements and for placement of these advertisements in particular types of television programmes. A total of 238 television advertisement placements and 1769 calls to the Quitline were analysed in Sydney and Melbourne. Results: The more graphic "eye" advertisement conveying new information about the association between smoking and macular degeneration leading to blindness was more efficient in generating quitline calls than the "tar" advertisement, which reinforced the message of tar in a smoker's lungs. Combining the health effects advertisements with a quitline modelling advertisement tended to increase the efficiency of generating Quitline calls. Placing advertisements in lower involvement programmes appears to provide greater efficiency in generating Quitline calls than in higher involvement programmes. Conclusions: Tobacco control campaign planners can increase the number of calls to telephone quitlines by assessing the efficiency of particular advertisements to generate such calls. Pairing of health effect and quitline modelling advertisements can increase efficiency in generating calls. Placement of advertisements in lower involvement programme types may increase efficiency in generating Quitline calls. PMID:12878772

  6. Objects prompt authentic scientific activities among learners in a museum programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Kramer Lindow, Bent Erik

    2016-04-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science education as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme at a natural history museum to identify how palaeontological objects prompt scientific activity among upper secondary school students. We first construct a theoretical framework based on an analysis of the programme's palaeontological content. From this, we build our reference model, which considers the specimens used in the programme, possible palaeontological interpretations of these specimens, and the conditions inherent in the programme. We use the reference model to analyse the activities of programme participants, and illustrate how these activities are palaeontologically authentic. Finally, we discuss our findings, examining the mechanism by which the specimens prompt scientific activities. We also discuss our discipline-based approach, and how it allows us to positively identify participants' activities as authentic. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings.

  7. Evaluation of a school-based programme of universal eating disorders prevention: is it more effective in girls at risk?

    PubMed

    Raich, R M; Portell, M; Peláez-Fernández, M A

    2010-01-01

    There is currently controversy surrounding the effectiveness of universal versus selective prevention in eating disorders (ED). The present study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of universal school-based ED prevention administered to female secondary school students (n = 349). Students received either the full prevention programme (learning basic concepts of nutrition, criticism of aesthetic models of beauty emphasising extreme thinness, media literacy (ML)), a partial version of the programme (without nutritional education), or no prevention programme. Students were also classified on the presence or absence of distinct risk factors for ED: Early menarche, overweight, dieting, negative attitudes to food and perceived pressure to be thin. Pre-test data were collected 1 week prior to implementation of the prevention programme, and post-test data were collected on the last day of the programme. Results suggested that both the full and partial prevention programmes reduced perceived pressure to be thin and improved eating attitudes and knowledge of nutrition in all the participants (regardless of risk); however, greater effect sizes were found among particular high-risk groups (early menarche, overweight and highly influenced by aesthetic models of beauty emphasising extreme thinness). School-based programmes of universal intervention may have an important role to play in the prevention of ED. PMID:19827013

  8. Poverty alleviation programmes in India: a social audit.

    PubMed

    K Yesudian, C A

    2007-10-01

    The review highlights the poverty alleviation programmes of the government in the post-economic reform era to evaluate the contribution of these programmes towards reducing poverty in the country. The poverty alleviation programmes are classified into (i) self-employment programmes; (ii) wage employment programmes; (iii) food security programmes; (iv) social security programmes; and (v) urban poverty alleviation programmes. The parameter used for evaluation included utilization of allocated funds, change in poverty level, employment generation and number or proportion of beneficiaries. The paper attempts to go beyond the economic benefit of the programmes and analyzes the social impact of these programmes on the communities where the poor live, and concludes that too much of government involvement is actually an impediment. On the other hand, involvement of the community, especially the poor has led to better achievement of the goals of the programmes. Such endeavours not only reduced poverty but also empowered the poor to find their own solutions to their economic problems. There is a need for decentralization of the programmes by strengthening the panchayat raj institutions as poverty is not merely economic deprivation but also social marginalization that affects the poor most. PMID:18032811

  9. Programmes of Educational Technology in China: Looking Backward, Thinking Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuyin, Xu; Jianli, Jiao

    2010-01-01

    There is a history of programmes in educational technology in colleges and universities in China going back about 70 years. This paper briefly reviews the developmental history of the educational technology programme in China, elaborates the status-quo of the programme and looks ahead into the future trends of educational technology development in…

  10. "We Are Family": Maori Success in Foundation Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the question: What constitutes an optimal learning environment for Maori learners in foundation programmes? Using Kaupapa Maori methodology, nearly 100 adult Maori (Indigenous) students in Aotearoa/New Zealand were interviewed from a range of tertiary providers of foundation programmes. State-funded foundation programmes that…

  11. A Mathematics Support Programme for First-Year Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillock, Poh Wah; Jennings, Michael; Roberts, Anthony; Scharaschkin, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a mathematics support programme at the University of Queensland, targeted at first-year engineering students identified as having a high risk of failing a first-year mathematics course in calculus and linear algebra. It describes how students were identified for the programme and the main features of the programme. The…

  12. Silos to Symphonies? Hopes and Challenges Implementing Multicultural Programme Infusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Laura B.; Milman, Natalie B.

    2013-01-01

    The need to infuse multicultural education (ME) across teacher preparation programmes is well documented by research, yet institutions are at very different stages in this endeavour. While most programmes demonstrate a segregated approach to ME, confining diversity to specialty courses, ME programme infusion places diversity, equity and social…

  13. Informing New String Programmes: Lessons Learned from an Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Fintan; Rickard, Nikki; Gill, Anneliese; Grimmett, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many examples of notable string programmes there has been relatively little comparative analysis of these programmes. This paper examines three benchmark string programmes (The University of Illinois String Project, The Tower Hamlets String Teaching Project and Colourstrings) alongside Music4All, an innovative string programme…

  14. Conceptualising Transformation and Interrogating Elitism: The Bale Scholarship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botsis, Hannah; Dominguez-Whitehead, Yasmine; Liccardo, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the extent to which a scholarship programme at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) engages with the challenges of transformation. This scholarship programme highlights the transformative potential of a programme that focuses on excellence for a previously under-represented group, but also demonstrates how this…

  15. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the context of…

  16. Socio-Emotional Programme Promotes Positive Behaviour in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickens, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated an early childhood socio-emotional programme aimed at promoting preschooler's social skills and reducing behaviour problems. The Peace Education Foundation (PEF) socio-emotional development programme was provided in English and Spanish to preschool teachers, parents and children in Miami, Florida. The programme instructs…

  17. The Role of Programme Directors as Academic Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the academic leadership roles and responsibilities performed by programme directors in higher education (also known as programme leaders or course leaders). It will be argued there has been a lack of recognition and research into the leadership role for programme directors, attention instead focusing on…

  18. Diploma Disease in Ghanaian Distance Education Upgrading Programmes for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mereku, Damian Kofi

    2014-01-01

    This research explores manifestations of "diploma disease" in distance education (DE) upgrading programmes for basic school teachers in Ghana. A survey design which included document analysis was used to explore the emphasis in the contents of the DE programme and the experiences of teachers who took the programmes. The study involved a…

  19. An Analysis of Ethical Considerations in Programme Design Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govers, Elly

    2014-01-01

    Ethical considerations are inherent to programme design decision-making, but not normally explicit. Nonetheless, they influence whose interests are served in a programme and who benefits from it. This paper presents an analysis of ethical considerations made by programme design practitioners in the context of a polytechnic in Aotearoa/New Zealand.…

  20. Learning in and beyond Small Business Advisory Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rachel Louise; Hine, Damian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how participants learn in small business advisory programmes and to explore the impact of these learning programmes on the development of reflective learning dispositions in participants. The research involves two case studies of small business advisory programmes in Queensland, a state of Australia. One…

  1. Providing a Flexible, Learner-Centred Programme: Challenges for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Sarah; Gordon, Carole

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the implementation of a flexible learner-centred programme of study which blends face-to-face and online learning. The programme was developed to be flexible in terms of content and study strategies, whilst remaining within more rigid organisational structures and processes. This paper outlines the programme and…

  2. A Programmable Calculator Activity, x = 1/x + 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snover, Stephen L.; Spikell, Mark A.

    An activity for secondary schools is presented and discussed which may be explored with a programmable calculator. The activity is non-standard and could not be easily explored without the use of a programmable calculator. Related activities are also discussed. Flow charts and programs for different programmable calculators are presented. (MP)

  3. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  4. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  6. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  7. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  8. The Rainbow Reading Programme: A Review 20 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Emma

    2013-01-01

    It has been 20 years since the Rainbow Reading programme was developed and trialled by its New Zealand creator, Meryl-Lynn Pluck. Rainbow Reading is an audio-facilitated reading programme, and is based on the method of assisted repeated reading. The programme is designed to provide older students reading below their chronological age with the…

  9. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    als bei V79-r1B1/A. Die zytosolische Fraktion aus V79-r1B1/B-Zellen enthielt in etwa die dreifache Menge an r1B1-Protein wie die aus Colonmucosa der Ratte. Da zumindest für die humane Mukosa gezeigt wurde, da die 1B1 nur im einschichtigen Epithel, nicht aber in allen Zellen der Mukosa exprimiert wird, repräsentiert die zytosolische Fraktion aus der Mukosa nur bedingt die Expression in den Epithelzellen und der Vergleich mit den V79-1B1-Zellen ist grob. Im Gegensatz zu V79-r1B1/B war die Zellinie V79-h1B1, die ebenfalls nur mit Darm und Leber vergleichbare Mengen an h1B1 exprimierte, in der Lage, beide benzylischen Alkohole zu aktivieren. Der Erhöhung der Mutantenfrequenz im Vergleich zur KontrollZellinie war ähnlich wie bei der stark exprimierenden Zellinie V79-r1B1/A, erforderte aber 10fach höhere Konzentrationen. Somit unterscheiden sich Mensch und Ratte nicht nur insgesamt in ihrer Ausstattung des Gastrointestinaltrakts mit Sulfotransferasen, auch bei Betrachtung einer einzelnen Form zeigten sich deutliche Unterschiede in der Aktivierung von zwei Promutagenen. Die Ratte ist daher ein ungeeignetes Modell, um die Rolle von Sulfotransferasen bei tumorinitiierenden Prozessen im Darm zu untersuchen. Dies unterstreicht die Bedeutung von rekombinanten in-vitro-Systemen für die Erfassung des humanen Metabolismus von Fremdstoffen. Insgesamt kennt man nur eine geringe Anzahl von Substanzen, die im Tierexperiment Colontumore erzeugen, und mit Ausnahme der heterozyklischen aromatischen Amine sind diese lediglich von experimenteller Bedeutung. Dies spricht für effiziente Schutzmechanismen der Darmmukosa gegenüber Mutagenen und lät die Frage nach der hohen Inzidenz des Kolorektalkarzinoms offen. Cytosolic fractions of human and rat gastro-intestinal mucosa were electrophoresed, blotted and probed with six antibodies with differing specificities for sulfotransferase (SULT) forms. Using SULTs heterologously expressed in bacteria for comparison of electrophoretic and

  10. Promoting Interdisciplinary Education: The Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöschl, Günter; Bucher, Christian; Carr, Gemma; Farnleitner, Andreas; Rechberger, Helmut; Wagner, Wolfgang; Zessner, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    An interdisciplinary approach is often described as a valuable strategy to assist in overcoming the existing and emerging challenges to water resource management. The development of educational approaches to instil a culture of interdisciplinarity in the future generation of water resource professionals will help to meet this strategic need. The Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems demonstrates how the adoption of an interdisciplinary education framework has been applied to a graduate programme in the water sciences. The interdisciplinary approach aims to provide doctoral research students with an understanding of the wide spectrum of processes relevant to water resource systems. This will enable them to bring together a range of ideas, strategies and methods to their current research and future careers. The education programme also aims to teach the softer skills required for successful interdisciplinary work such as the ability to communicate clearly with non-specialist professionals and the capacity to listen to and accommodate suggestions from experts in different disciplines, which have often not traditionally been grouped together. The Vienna Doctoral Programme achieves these aims through teaching an appreciation for a wide variety of approaches including laboratory analysis, field studies and numerical methods across the fields of hydrology, remote sensing, hydrogeology, structural mechanics, microbiology, water quality and resource management. Teaching takes the form of a detailed study programme on topics such as socio-economic concepts, resource and river basin management, modelling and simulation methods, health related water quality targets, urban water management, spatial data from remote sensing and basics for stochastic mechanics. Courses are also held by internationally recognised top scientists, and a guest scientist seminar series allows doctoral researchers to profit from the expertise of senior researchers from around the world

  11. An evaluation of programmer/analyst workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerner, K.; Mital, R.; Card, D.; Maione, A.

    1984-01-01

    Very few automated tools were available to support software requirements analysis and design even though improvements in quality during these phases appear to offer the greatest leverage for improving the quality and productivity of the overall software development process. Recently, however, some such tools have appeared on the market. An industry survey, and an in-house evaluation of two commercial products by programmers and analysts was undertaken to determine which tool is the best to support programmers and analysts through life cycle development. A tool was selected for full implementation on a project, where complete analysis of software statistics over the system life cycle will determine whether or not quality and productivity improvements have actually occurred. The results of the industry survey and in-house evaluation are summarized.

  12. Digitally programmable signal generator and method

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1989-11-14

    Disclosed is a digitally programmable waveform generator for generating completely arbitrary digital or analog waveforms from very low frequencies to frequencies in the gigasample per second range. A memory array with multiple parallel outputs is addressed; then the parallel output data is latched into buffer storage from which it is serially multiplexed out at a data rate many times faster than the access time of the memory array itself. While data is being multiplexed out serially, the memory array is accessed with the next required address and presents its data to the buffer storage before the serial multiplexing of the last group of data is completed, allowing this new data to then be latched into the buffer storage for smooth continuous serial data output. In a preferred implementation, a plurality of these serial data outputs are paralleled to form the input to a digital to analog converter, providing a programmable analog output. 6 figs.

  13. Digitally programmable signal generator and method

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    A digitally programmable waveform generator for generating completely arbitrary digital or analog waveforms from very low frequencies to frequencies in the gigasample per second range. A memory array with multiple parallel outputs is addressed; then the parallel output data is latched into buffer storage from which it is serially multiplexed out at a data rate many times faster than the access time of the memory array itself. While data is being multiplexed out serially, the memory array is accessed with the next required address and presents its data to the buffer storage before the serial multiplexing of the last group of data is completed, allowing this new data to then be latched into the buffer storage for smooth continuous serial data output. In a preferred implementation, a plurality of these serial data outputs are paralleled to form the input to a digital to analog converter, providing a programmable analog output.

  14. Auto-programmable impulse neural circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watula, D.; Meador, J.

    1990-01-01

    Impulse neural networks use pulse trains to communicate neuron activation levels. Impulse neural circuits emulate natural neurons at a more detailed level than that typically employed by contemporary neural network implementation methods. An impulse neural circuit which realizes short term memory dynamics is presented. The operation of that circuit is then characterized in terms of pulse frequency modulated signals. Both fixed and programmable synapse circuits for realizing long term memory are also described. The implementation of a simple and useful unsupervised learning law is then presented. The implementation of a differential Hebbian learning rule for a specific mean-frequency signal interpretation is shown to have a straightforward implementation using digital combinational logic with a variation of a previously developed programmable synapse circuit. This circuit is expected to be exploited for simple and straightforward implementation of future auto-adaptive neural circuits.

  15. Programmable synaptic chip for electronic neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, A.; Langenbacher, H.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    A binary synaptic matrix chip has been developed for electronic neural networks. The matrix chip contains a programmable 32X32 array of 'long channel' NMOSFET binary connection elements implemented in a 3-micron bulk CMOS process. Since the neurons are kept off-chip, the synaptic chip serves as a 'cascadable' building block for a multi-chip synaptic network as large as 512X512 in size. As an alternative to the programmable NMOSFET (long channel) connection elements, tailored thin film resistors are deposited, in series with FET switches, on some CMOS test chips, to obtain the weak synaptic connections. Although deposition and patterning of the resistors require additional processing steps, they promise substantial savings in silicon area. The performance of synaptic chip in a 32-neuron breadboard system in an associative memory test application is discussed.

  16. String formatting considered harmful for novice programmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-09-01

    In Java, System.out.printf and String.format consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found that 8% of all the compilation errors and 100% of the exceptional, run-time behaviour they encountered were due to the improper construction of format strings. Format strings are a language unto themselves embedded within Java, and they are difficult for novice programmers to master when learning to program. In this article, we present exemplars of students' problematic interactions with the Java compiler and run-time environment when dealing with format strings, discuss these interactions, and recommend possible instructional interventions based on our observations.

  17. "Cosmic Vision": the new ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The outcome of the ESA Council at Ministerial level held in Edinburgh in November 2001 was not as positive as expected for the Agency's Science Programme. It appeared that the money made available would not be sufficient to carry out the Long Term Programme approved by the Science Programme Committee in October 2000, based on financial assumptions approved by the same Committee in Bern in May 1999. The resources granted in Edinburgh taken at their face value meant the cancellation of a mission (e.g. GAIA). At the conclusion of the exercise, following extensive consultations with all its partners, the Executive could propose a revised plan, which not only maintained the missions approved in October 2000, but added the Eddington mission in addition. The new plan, strongly endorsed by the Science Programme Committee on the occasion of its 99th meeting, contains the following missions, listed by production groups: Astrophysics Group 1: XMM-Newton (1999), INTEGRAL (2002). X and Gamma Ray Observatories (studying the 'violent' universe) Group 2: Herschel, exploring the infrared and microwave universe; Planck, to study the cosmic microwave background; Eddington, searching for extra-solar planets and studying the stellar seismology. (The three missions will be launched in the 2007-2008 timeframe.) Group 3: GAIA, the ultimate galaxy mapper (to be launched no later than 2012). Missions will follow in the same group after 2012. Solar System Science: Group 1:Rosetta, a trip to a comet (2003); Mars Express, a Mars orbiter carrying the Beagle2 lander (2003); (Venus Express, a Venus orbiter, would have been in this group.) Group 2: SMART-1, which will demonstrate solar propulsion technology while on its way to the Moon (2003); BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, Solar Orbiter, a mission to take a closer look at the Sun (missions to be launched in 2011-2012). Fundamental Physics missions: (one group only) STEP (2005) the 'equivalence principle' test, SMART2, a technology

  18. Voltage-programmable liquid optical interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. V.; Wells, G. G.; Newton, M. I.; McHale, G.

    2009-07-01

    Recently, there has been intense interest in photonic devices based on microfluidics, including displays and refractive tunable microlenses and optical beamsteerers that work using the principle of electrowetting. Here, we report a novel approach to optical devices in which static wrinkles are produced at the surface of a thin film of oil as a result of dielectrophoretic forces. We have demonstrated this voltage-programmable surface wrinkling effect in periodic devices with pitch lengths of between 20 and 240 µm and with response times of less than 40 µs. By a careful choice of oils, it is possible to optimize either for high-amplitude sinusoidal wrinkles at micrometre-scale pitches or more complex non-sinusoidal profiles with higher Fourier components at longer pitches. This opens up the possibility of developing rapidly responsive voltage-programmable, polarization-insensitive transmission and reflection diffraction devices and arbitrary surface profile optical devices.

  19. Questions and remarks to the Langlands programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshin, Aleksei N.

    2012-06-01

    A brief survey is given of the classical Langlands programme to construct a correspondence between n-dimensional representations of Galois groups of local and global fields of dimension 1 and irreducible representations of the groups GL(n) connected with these fields and their adelic rings. A generalization of the Langlands programme to fields of dimension 2 is considered and the corresponding version for 1-dimensional representations is described. A conjecture on the direct image of automorphic forms is stated which links the Langlands correspondences in dimensions 2 and 1. In the geometric case of surfaces over a finite field the conjecture is shown to follow from Lafforgue's theorem on the existence of a global Langlands correspondence for curves. The direct image conjecture also implies the classical Hasse-Weil conjecture on the analytic behaviour of the zeta- and L-functions of curves defined over global fields of dimension 1. Bibliography: 57 titles.

  20. Undergraduate medical education programme renewal: a longitudinal context, input, process and product evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Mirzazadeh, Azim; Gandomkar, Roghayeh; Hejri, Sara Mortaz; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Koochak, Hamid Emadi; Golestani, Abolfazl; Jafarian, Ali; Jalili, Mohammad; Nayeri, Fatemeh; Saleh, Narges; Shahi, Farhad; Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) evaluation model as a comprehensive framework to guide initiating, planning, implementing and evaluating a revised undergraduate medical education programme. The eight-year longitudinal evaluation study consisted of four phases compatible with the four components of the CIPP model. In the first phase, we explored the strengths and weaknesses of the traditional programme as well as contextual needs, assets, and resources. For the second phase, we proposed a model for the programme considering contextual features. During the process phase, we provided formative information for revisions and adjustments. Finally, in the fourth phase, we evaluated the outcomes of the new undergraduate medical education programme in the basic sciences phase. Information was collected from different sources such as medical students, faculty members, administrators, and graduates, using various qualitative and quantitative methods including focus groups, questionnaires, and performance measures. The CIPP model has the potential to guide policy makers to systematically collect evaluation data and to manage stakeholders' reactions at each stage of the reform in order to make informed decisions. However, the model may result in evaluation burden and fail to address some unplanned evaluation questions. PMID:26820748

  1. Highly flexible pulse programmer for NMR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dart, J.; Burum, D. P.; Rhim, W. K.

    1980-01-01

    A pulse generator for NMR application is described. Eighteen output channels are provided to allow use in single and double resonance experiments. Complex pulse sequences may be generated by loading instructions into a 256-word by 16-bit program memory. Features of the pulse generator include programmable time delays from 0.5 micros to 1000 s, branching and looping instructions, and the ability to be loaded and operated either manually or from a PDP-11/10 computer.

  2. The Swedish Space Science programme - technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, Kaj

    2003-08-01

    The Swedish Space Science programme comprises sounding rockets, balloons and satellites. The investigations relate to geophysical disciplines, astrophysics and microgravity research. Current and future scientific projects using sounding rockets, balloons and satellites are planned for investigation of the Earth's atmosphere, the aurora and its origin, sub-millimeter observations of interstellar medium and fluid physics. These investigations require increased technical capabilities with respect to playload and spacecraft design and ground based equipment.

  3. The Swedish Space Research Programme - technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, Kaj

    2005-08-01

    The Swedish Space Research Programme compries sounding rockets, balloons and satellites. The investigations relate to geophysical disciplines, astrophysics and microgravity research. Current and future scientific projects using sounding rockets, balloons and satellites are planned for investigation of the Earth's atmosphere, the aurora and its origin, submillimeter observations of interstellar medium and fluid physics. These investigations require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload and spacecraft design and ground based equipment.

  4. Screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in France.

    PubMed

    Thulliez, P

    1992-01-01

    The high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in France led to the establishment of a national screening programme. Preventive measures were progressively introduced, and these became compulsory in 1978 with the result that the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis is now markedly reduced. Further improvements may include more systematic sampling from women before pregnancy, better and adequate health education and centralized notification of both maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis. PMID:1290073

  5. Programmable atom-photon quantum interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Christoph; Eich, Pascal; Schug, Michael; Müller, Philipp; Eschner, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    We present the implementation of a programmable atom-photon quantum interface, employing a single trapped +40Ca ion and single photons. Depending on its mode of operation, the interface serves as a bidirectional atom-photon quantum-state converter, as a source of entangled atom-photon states, or as a quantum frequency converter of single photons. The interface lends itself particularly to interfacing ions with spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based single-photon or entangled-photon-pair sources.

  6. A high voltage programmable ramp generator

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, J.; Joshi, M. J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P.

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, a ramp generator with programmable slope is presented. It consists of a high voltage step generator, followed by integrator. The capacitor and inductor in the integrator are designed such that they can be varied by a microcontroller. This circuit generates two bipolar ramps with fastest speed <1 ns and provides continuous speed variation from 6 to 30 ns for a ramp of 500 V. This is being developed as a part of automated streak camera for deflection of electron beam.

  7. Temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-12-23

    A temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column enables more efficient chemical separation of chemical analytes in a gas mixture by the integration of a resistive heating element and temperature sensing on the microfabricated column. Additionally, means are provided to thermally isolate the heated column from their surroundings. The small heat capacity and thermal isolation of the microfabricated column improves the thermal time response and power consumption, both important factors for portable microanalytical systems.

  8. Programmable near-infrared ranging system

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Jr., Hobart R.

    1989-01-01

    A high angular resolution ranging system particularly suitable for indoor plications involving mobile robot navigation and collision avoidance uses a programmable array of light emitters that can be sequentially incremented by a microprocessor. A plurality of adjustable level threshold detectors are used in an optical receiver for detecting the threshold level of the light echoes produced when light emitted from one or more of the emitters is reflected by a target or object in the scan path of the ranging system.

  9. Programmable diffractive lens for ophthalmic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, María S.; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Romero, Lenny A.; Ramírez, Natalia

    2014-06-01

    Pixelated liquid crystal displays have been widely used as spatial light modulators to implement programmable diffractive optical elements, particularly diffractive lenses. Many different applications of such components have been developed in information optics and optical processors that take advantage of their properties of great flexibility, easy and fast refreshment, and multiplexing capability in comparison with equivalent conventional refractive lenses. We explore the application of programmable diffractive lenses displayed on the pixelated screen of a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator to ophthalmic optics. In particular, we consider the use of programmable diffractive lenses for the visual compensation of refractive errors (myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism) and presbyopia. The principles of compensation are described and sketched using geometrical optics and paraxial ray tracing. For the proof of concept, a series of experiments with artificial eye in optical bench are conducted. We analyze the compensation precision in terms of optical power and compare the results with those obtained by means of conventional ophthalmic lenses. Practical considerations oriented to feasible applications are provided.

  10. ASPIRE - the first British student rocket programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Adam M.; Murray, J.; Osborne, R.; Macfarlane, J.

    ASPIRE is the first British programme aiming to create and develop a small scale, hybrid engine powered launch vehicle. The project is also unique because it is a wholly amateur effort, volunteer team members having little or no professional experience in launch vehicle design, manufacture and operations; and being a mix of students and young professionals. Participants have the opportunity to develop their experience in the engineering/scientific, operational and management areas which ASPIRE encompasses. This experience will then be validated through the launching of a series of test vehicles, culminating in a demonstration of the orbital insertion of a payload by the year 2000. ASPIRE aims to eventually return an independent orbital launch capability to Britain, for the first time since 1971. This paper outlines the technical details of the ASPIRE rockets, including: airframe design and manufacture, hybrid motor design and testing, avionics development, guidance and recovery techniques, range safety practise and marketing and fund-raising. It will also cover the organisation and ethos of the programme in general. A timeline for the ASPIRE programme will be detailed, from the original ASPIRE 1 construction and launch in 1991/1992, evolving through the current series of ASPIRE Development Vehicles (ADVs), to ASPIRE 2 and 3, where the hybrid motor and other engineering subsystems are to be integrated on an increasing scale. The proposed union of an ASPIRE 3 vehicle with an Australian AUSROC launcher to achieve the 2000 orbital goal will also be covered.

  11. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme

    PubMed Central

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) States which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these States. A rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users’ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

  12. Multicopy programmable discrimination of general qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Sentis, G.; Bagan, E.; Calsamiglia, J.; Munoz-Tapia, R.

    2010-10-15

    Quantum state discrimination is a fundamental primitive in quantum statistics where one has to correctly identify the state of a system that is in one of two possible known states. A programmable discrimination machine performs this task when the pair of possible states is not a priori known but instead the two possible states are provided through two respective program ports. We study optimal programmable discrimination machines for general qubit states when several copies of states are available in the data or program ports. Two scenarios are considered: One in which the purity of the possible states is a priori known, and the fully universal one where the machine operates over generic mixed states of unknown purity. We find analytical results for both the unambiguous and minimum error discrimination strategies. This allows us to calculate the asymptotic performance of programmable discrimination machines when a large number of copies are provided and to recover the standard state discrimination and state comparison values as different limiting cases.

  13. Studying large-scale programmes to improve patient safety in whole care systems: challenges for research.

    PubMed

    Benn, Jonathan; Burnett, Susan; Parand, Anam; Pinto, Anna; Iskander, Sandra; Vincent, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Large-scale national and multi-institutional patient safety improvement programmes are being developed in the health care systems of several countries to address problems in the reliability of care delivered to patients. Drawing upon popular collaborative improvement models, these campaigns are ambitious in their aims to improve patient safety in macro-level systems such as whole health care organisations. This article considers the methodological issues involved in conducting research and evaluation of these programmes. Several specific research challenges are outlined, which result from the complexity of longitudinal, multi-level intervention programmes and the variable, highly sociotechnical care systems, with which they interact. Organisational-level improvement programmes are often underspecified due to local variations in context and organisational readiness for improvement work. The result is variable implementation patterns and local adaptations. Programme effects span levels and other boundaries within a system, vary dynamically or are cumulative over time and are problematic to understand in terms of cause and effect, where concurrent external influences exist and the impact upon study endpoints may be mediated by a range of organisational and social factors. We outline the methodological approach to research in the United Kingdom Safer Patients Initiative, to exemplify how some of the challenges for research in this area can be met through a multi-method, longitudinal research design. Specifically, effective research designs must be sensitive to complex variation, through employing multiple qualitative and quantitative measures, collect data over time to understand change and utilise descriptive techniques to capture specific interactions between programme and context for implementation. When considering the long-term, sustained impact of an improvement programme, researchers must consider how to define and measure the capability for continuous safe and

  14. Development of a training programme for primary care providers to counsel patients with risky lifestyle behaviours in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Bob; Everett-Murphy, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background We are facing a global epidemic of non-communicable disease (NCDs), which has been linked with four risky lifestyle behaviours. It is recommended that primary care providers (PCPs) provide individual brief behaviour change counselling (BBCC) as part of everyday primary care, however currently training is required to build capacity. Local training programmes are not sufficient to achieve competence. Aim This study aimed to redesign the current training for PCPs in South Africa, around a new model for BBCC that would offer a standardised approach to addressing patients’ risky lifestyle behaviours. Setting The study population included clinical nurse practitioners and primary care doctors in the Western Cape Province. Methods The analyse, design, develop, implement and evaluate (ADDIE) model provided a systematic approach to the analysis of learning needs, the design and development of the training programme, its implementation and initial evaluation. Results This study designed a new training programme for PCPs in BBCC, which was based on a conceptual model that combined the 5As (ask, alert, assess, assist and arrange) with a guiding style derived from motivational interviewing. The programme was developed as an eight-hour training programme that combined theory, modelling and simulated practice with feedback, for either clinical nurse practitioners or primary care doctors. Conclusion This was the first attempt at developing and implementing a best practice BBCC training programme in our context, targeting a variety of PCPs, and addressing different risk factors. PMID:26245608

  15. Historisches Rätsel Physik mit Gewehr und Eiern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Andreas

    2003-11-01

    Es fing schon gut an: Mit zehn Jahren saß der begabte Junge bereits in der Universität, wo ihn kein Geringerer als sein Vater persönlich unterrichtete. Damit schlug dieser zwei Fliegen mit einer Klappe: Sein Sohn lernte etwas Gescheites, und er war zugleich in sicherer Obhut.

  16. The Herschel/planck Programme Planck Pfm Testing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reix, Jean-Michel; Rideau, Pascal; Gavila, Emmanuel; Chambelland, Jean-Philippe; Collaudin, Bernard; Passvogel, Thomas; Guillaume, Bernard

    2010-04-01

    The two science missions Herschel, an observatory-type mission, and Planck, a survey mission, are combined in one programme within ESAs long-term science programme. The objective for Planck is to image systematically the whole sky simultaneously with two scientific instruments in nine frequency channels between 30 and 900 GHz to unravel the temperature fluctuations, the anisotropy, of the cosmic background radiation. For both satellites, which have now been launched from the European Space Port in Kourou, French Guiana, on a single Ariane 5 launcher, the orbits will be Lissajous orbits around the 2nd Lagrange Point L2 of the Earth-Sun system. Having surpassed the technological problems and more generally the development phase, this paper focuses on the extensive assembly, integration and tests undertaken for the Proto-Flight Model (PFM) of the Planck Satellite. The paper details the early stages of the integration of the PFM until completeness of the assembly. It then describes the logic and the various tests implemented for the acceptance verification of the Planck PFM. It finally depicts the Launch campaign activities up to the launch from Kourou in the first half of May 2009.

  17. Status of national diabetes programmes in the Americas.

    PubMed Central

    White, F.; Nanan, D.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the responses in the latter half of 1997 of all ministries of health in the Region of the Americas to the Declaration of the Americas on Diabetes, which was adopted by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 1996 as a basis for national programme development in diabetes. The short-term targets were the designation of national focal points, the preparation of national estimates of the disease burden, and the development and implementation of national strategies and plans to deal with diabetes. The survey found that most countries recognized diabetes as a significant public health problem. In terms of global relevance, a number of lessons have been learned from this exercise: the role of broadly based participation in gaining recognition at the national health policy level; the wide acceptance of an integrated programme model; the relevance of process-related targets to achieve short-term success; and the critical role of having a designated focal point within the managerial approach. PMID:10680245

  18. Sharing Singapore's experience in dietetic practice and school nutrition programmes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yen-Peng

    2008-01-01

    Dietetic practice in Singapore is mainly applied at the clinical settings, such as hospitals. The main scope of practice is in providing medical nutrition therapy to patients in a multidisciplinary team approach at both inpatient and outpatient clinics. This is delivered in the form of nutrition counseling and nutrition support. Dietitians are also involved in other areas such as conducting nutrition workshops and talks and provide consultation to the hospital's food service department. They set dietary guidelines for inpatient meal services and equip the food service personnel with the knowledge to plan and prepare healthier menus and therapeutic diets. In the schools, all the students are taught the basic principles of nutrition in the school curriculum. Healthy eating messages are reinforced through various interesting activities in schools. Nutrition guidelines on creating healthy and nutritious menus in the school tuckshops are available for schools to implement the Model School Tuckshop Programme. This programme is aimed at cultivating healthy eating habits among school children. For overweight students, they are referred to the students health centre for medical screening, assessment and for regular nutrition counseling at the Nutrition Clinic. PMID:18296379

  19. Scaling up breastfeeding programmes in a complex adaptive world.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Hall Moran, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    The 2016 Breastfeeding Lancet Series continues to provide unequivocal evidence regarding the numerous benefits that optimal breastfeeding practices offer to children and women worldwide and the major savings that improving these practices can have as a result of their major public health benefits. Unfortunately, this knowledge remains underutilized as there has been little progress scaling up effective breastfeeding programmes globally. Improving the uptake and scaling up of effective national breastfeeding programmes that are potent enough to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration should be a top priority for all countries. Complex analysis systems longitudinal research is needed to understand how best to empower decision makers to achieve this goal through well-validated participatory decision-making tools to help their countries assess baseline needs, including costs, as well as progress with their scaling-up efforts. Sound systems thinking frameworks and scaling-up models are now available to guide and research prospectively future scaling-up efforts that can be replicated, with proper adaptations, across countries. PMID:27161881

  20. Experiences from 10 years of school programmes at GEOMAR Kiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengg, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany, started a programme of cooperations with secondary schools in 2003, which has been expanding continually since that time. By active involvement of teachers and students, the Centre's research topics are communicated to schools, and young people are encouraged to develop their interest for biogeosciences. The portfolio of activities includes: project work with schools over periods from one day to several months, individual student theses at the research centre, internships, a weekly "Research Club" allowing individual experiments, summer school programmes, teacher training courses, joint activities with international partners and a video-project in which students portray scientific aspects of oceanic oxygen minimum zones (in the context of the Collaborative Research Center SFB 754) to other students. Essential prerequisites for these activities are the direct involvement of the Centre's researchers who contribute their expertise and act as role-models for the students, dedicated staff for coordination and continuity, and financial and structural support both at the research centre and the schools.