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Sample records for modern day conditions

  1. The second modern condition? Compressed modernity as internalized reflexive cosmopolitization.

    PubMed

    Kyung-Sup, Chang

    2010-09-01

    Compressed modernity is a civilizational condition in which economic, political, social and/or cultural changes occur in an extremely condensed manner in respect to both time and space, and in which the dynamic coexistence of mutually disparate historical and social elements leads to the construction and reconstruction of a highly complex and fluid social system. During what Beck considers the second modern stage of humanity, every society reflexively internalizes cosmopolitanized risks. Societies (or their civilizational conditions) are thereby being internalized into each other, making compressed modernity a universal feature of contemporary societies. This paper theoretically discusses compressed modernity as nationally ramified from reflexive cosmopolitization, and, then, comparatively illustrates varying instances of compressed modernity in advanced capitalist societies, un(der)developed capitalist societies, and system transition societies. In lieu of a conclusion, I point out the declining status of national societies as the dominant unit of (compressed) modernity and the interactive acceleration of compressed modernity among different levels of human life ranging from individuals to the global community. PMID:20840427

  2. The Wounded Bear: A Modern Day Medicine Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagleheart, Shianne

    2002-01-01

    In Native American culture, medicine stories are used to teach important lessons that have healing effects on the listener. Following is an excerpt from "The Wounded Bear", a modern day medicine story. The story offers a blueprint for healing the heartbreak and violence in our communities. (Author)

  3. Water chlorination: An enigma for modern-day environmental chemists

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Jolley, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The challenge of modern-day water chlorination is to reap the benefits of chlorine's excellent disinfection efficacy while minimizing its environmental impacts and byproduct toxicity. Chemists, biologists, and engineers need to work together to identify, quantify, and use most effectively the disinfectant forms of chlorine to maximize disinfection, while at the same time they also need to identify, quantify, and minimize the toxic forms of by-products produced by chlorine's reactions with the organic compounds found in water. To the extent that this is possible, we can enjoy the benefits of chlorine disinfection and minimize the human and environmental impacts of chlorination by-products. 22 refs.

  4. Zidovudine as Modern Day Salvage Therapy for HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, James W.; Barroso, Luis F.; Wrenn, Rebekah H.; Williamson, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Resistance to the first-line NRTIs, tenofovir and emtricitabine, does not generally confer resistance to zidovudine. The objective of this study was to describe the efficacy of zidovudine as modern day salvage antiretroviral therapy. This was a single-center, retrospective, observational, cohort study. Adult HIV-positive patients prescribed a zidovudine-containing regimen between 2005 and 2010 were identified from a computer database. All patients had failed at least one prior antiretroviral regimen before zidovudine. The primary outcome measure was virologic success at 24 weeks. Other efficacy and safety outcomes were determined, including virologic success at 48 and 96 weeks, CD4 count change from baseline, and incidence of adverse effects. Sixty-nine subjects were enrolled. The mean age was 43 years, 70% were male, and 85.5% were black. Most patients were highly antiretroviral experienced. At 24 weeks, 63.8% and 72.5% of patients achieved HIV RNA less than 50 and 400 c/mL, respectively. The median change in CD4 count from baseline to week 24 was +70 cells/mm3. The percent of patients who discontinued zidovudine due to adverse effects was 10%. In this highly treatment-experienced population, zidovudine as part of a salvage regimen appeared effective. Gastrointestinal adverse effects were reported, but zidovudine-associated metabolic effects were uncommon, suggesting zidovudine was generally well tolerated. PMID:25365419

  5. Zidovudine as modern day salvage therapy for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Kupiec, Katherine E; Johnson, James W; Barroso, Luis F; Wrenn, Rebekah H; Williamson, John C

    2014-11-01

    Resistance to the first-line NRTIs, tenofovir and emtricitabine, does not generally confer resistance to zidovudine. The objective of this study was to describe the efficacy of zidovudine as modern day salvage antiretroviral therapy. This was a single-center, retrospective, observational, cohort study. Adult HIV-positive patients prescribed a zidovudine-containing regimen between 2005 and 2010 were identified from a computer database. All patients had failed at least one prior antiretroviral regimen before zidovudine. The primary outcome measure was virologic success at 24 weeks. Other efficacy and safety outcomes were determined, including virologic success at 48 and 96 weeks, CD4 count change from baseline, and incidence of adverse effects. Sixty-nine subjects were enrolled. The mean age was 43 years, 70% were male, and 85.5% were black. Most patients were highly antiretroviral experienced. At 24 weeks, 63.8% and 72.5% of patients achieved HIV RNA less than 50 and 400 c/mL, respectively. The median change in CD4 count from baseline to week 24 was +70 cells/mm(3). The percent of patients who discontinued zidovudine due to adverse effects was 10%. In this highly treatment-experienced population, zidovudine as part of a salvage regimen appeared effective. Gastrointestinal adverse effects were reported, but zidovudine-associated metabolic effects were uncommon, suggesting zidovudine was generally well tolerated. PMID:25365419

  6. Modern Languages and Distance Education: Thirteen Days in the Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dona, Elfe; Stover, Sheri; Broughton, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This research study documents the journey of two modern language faculty (Spanish and German) from their original beliefs that teaching foreign languages can only be conducted in a face-to-face format to their eventual development of an online class using Web 2.0 technologies to encourage their students' active skills of reading and speaking…

  7. Modern Day Explorers--The Way to a Wider World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    A study addressed the impact of the travel experience on the older traveler and when such experiences may be transformative. It explored the experiences of four older and experienced travelers. Research questions were: What types of experiences travelers identified? In what ways transformative experience was manifested? What conditions seemed to…

  8. How well would modern-day oceanic property distributions be known with paleoceanographic-like observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbie, Geoffrey; Streletz, Gregory J.; Spero, Howard J.

    2016-04-01

    Compilations of paleoceanographic observations for the deep sea now contain a few hundred points along the oceanic margins, mid-ocean ridges, and bathymetric highs, where seawater conditions are indirectly recorded in the chemistry of buried benthic foraminiferal shells. Here we design an idealized experiment to test our predictive ability to reconstruct modern-day seawater properties by considering paleoceanographic-like data. We attempt to reconstruct the known, modern-day global distributions by using a state estimation method that combines a kinematic tracer transport model with observations that have paleoceanographic characteristics. When a modern-like suite of observations (Θ, practical salinity, seawater δ18O, δ13CDIC, PO4, NO3, and O2) is used from the sparse paleolocations, the state estimate is consistent with the withheld data at all depths below 1500 m, suggesting that the observational sparsity can be overcome. Physical features, such as the interbasin gradients in deep δ13CDIC and the vertical structure of Atlantic δ13CDIC, are accurately reconstructed. The state estimation method extracts useful information from the pointwise observations to infer distributions at the largest oceanic scales (at least 10,000 km horizontally and 1500 m vertically) and outperforms a standard optimal interpolation technique even though neither dynamical constraints nor constraints from surface boundary fluxes are used. When the sparse observations are more realistically restricted to the paleoceanographic proxy observations of δ13C, δ18O, and Cd/Ca, however, the large-scale property distributions are no longer recovered coherently. At least three more water mass tracers are likely needed at the core sites in order to accurately reconstruct the large-scale property distributions of the Last Glacial Maximum.

  9. Skin manifestations of nutritional deficiency disease in children: modern day contexts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lara Wine; Yan, Albert C

    2012-12-01

    Nutritional deficiency syndromes, such as scurvy, pellagra, and beriberi are of historical significance but have largely disappeared from modern society. However, certain populations of children in modern society are at risk of severe nutritional complications. The rarity of these syndromes and lack of understanding about modern-day risk factors for nutritional deficiency often delays diagnosis. Dermatologists must maintain an appropriate index of suspicion for these characteristic syndromes as many of the deficiency states present with cutaneous manifestations. Here we review the cutaneous manifestations of macronutrient and micronutrient deficiency syndromes as well as those populations of children that remain at risk for developing severe disease. PMID:23171006

  10. Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Torsten; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malmström, Helena; Ureña, Irene; Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo; Sverrisdóttir, Óddny Osk; Daskalaki, Evangelia A.; Skoglund, Pontus; Naidoo, Thijessen; Svensson, Emma M.; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald; Dunn, Michael; Storå, Jan; Iriarte, Eneko; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carretero, José-Miguel; Götherström, Anders; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of the Neolithic transition in Europe—one of the most important cultural changes in human prehistory—is a subject of great interest. However, its effect on prehistoric and modern-day people in Iberia, the westernmost frontier of the European continent, remains unresolved. We present, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide sequence data from eight human remains, dated to between 5,500 and 3,500 years before present, excavated in the El Portalón cave at Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. We show that these individuals emerged from the same ancestral gene pool as early farmers in other parts of Europe, suggesting that migration was the dominant mode of transferring farming practices throughout western Eurasia. In contrast to central and northern early European farmers, the Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals additionally mixed with local southwestern hunter–gatherers. The proportion of hunter–gatherer-related admixture into early farmers also increased over the course of two millennia. The Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals showed greatest genetic affinity to modern-day Basques, who have long been considered linguistic and genetic isolates linked to the Mesolithic whereas all other European early farmers show greater genetic similarity to modern-day Sardinians. These genetic links suggest that Basques and their language may be linked with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic. Furthermore, all modern-day Iberian groups except the Basques display distinct admixture with Caucasus/Central Asian and North African groups, possibly related to historical migration events. The El Portalón genomes uncover important pieces of the demographic history of Iberia and Europe and reveal how prehistoric groups relate to modern-day people. PMID:26351665

  11. Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques.

    PubMed

    Günther, Torsten; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malmström, Helena; Ureña, Irene; Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo; Sverrisdóttir, Óddny Osk; Daskalaki, Evangelia A; Skoglund, Pontus; Naidoo, Thijessen; Svensson, Emma M; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald; Dunn, Michael; Storå, Jan; Iriarte, Eneko; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carretero, José-Miguel; Götherström, Anders; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2015-09-22

    The consequences of the Neolithic transition in Europe--one of the most important cultural changes in human prehistory--is a subject of great interest. However, its effect on prehistoric and modern-day people in Iberia, the westernmost frontier of the European continent, remains unresolved. We present, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide sequence data from eight human remains, dated to between 5,500 and 3,500 years before present, excavated in the El Portalón cave at Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. We show that these individuals emerged from the same ancestral gene pool as early farmers in other parts of Europe, suggesting that migration was the dominant mode of transferring farming practices throughout western Eurasia. In contrast to central and northern early European farmers, the Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals additionally mixed with local southwestern hunter-gatherers. The proportion of hunter-gatherer-related admixture into early farmers also increased over the course of two millennia. The Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals showed greatest genetic affinity to modern-day Basques, who have long been considered linguistic and genetic isolates linked to the Mesolithic whereas all other European early farmers show greater genetic similarity to modern-day Sardinians. These genetic links suggest that Basques and their language may be linked with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic. Furthermore, all modern-day Iberian groups except the Basques display distinct admixture with Caucasus/Central Asian and North African groups, possibly related to historical migration events. The El Portalón genomes uncover important pieces of the demographic history of Iberia and Europe and reveal how prehistoric groups relate to modern-day people. PMID:26351665

  12. Modern techniques for condition monitoring of railway vehicle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngigi, R. W.; Pislaru, C.; Ball, A.; Gu, F.

    2012-05-01

    A modern railway system relies on sophisticated monitoring systems for maintenance and renewal activities. Some of the existing conditions monitoring techniques perform fault detection using advanced filtering, system identification and signal analysis methods. These theoretical approaches do not require complex mathematical models of the system and can overcome potential difficulties associated with nonlinearities and parameter variations in the system. Practical applications of condition monitoring tools use sensors which are mounted either on the track or rolling stock. For instance, monitoring wheelset dynamics could be done through the use of track-mounted sensors, while vehicle-based sensors are preferred for monitoring the train infrastructure. This paper attempts to collate and critically appraise the modern techniques used for condition monitoring of railway vehicle dynamics by analysing the advantages and shortcomings of these methods.

  13. The role of the Standard Days Method in modern family planning services in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mere availability of family planning (FP) services is not sufficient to improve reproductive health; services must also be of adequate quality. The introduction of new contraceptive methods is a means of improving quality of care. The Standard Days Method (SDM) is a new fertility-awareness-based contraceptive method that has been successfully added to reproductive health care services around the world. Content Framed by the Bruce-Jain quality-of-care paradigm, this paper describes how the introduction of SDM in developing country settings can improve the six elements of quality while contributing to the intrinsic variety of available methods. SDM meets the needs of women and couples who opt not to use other modern methods. SDM providers are sensitised to the potential of fertility-awareness-based contraception as an appropriate choice for these clients. SDM requires the involvement of both partners and thus offers a natural entry point for providers to further explore partner communication, intimate partner violence, condoms, and HIV/STIs. Conclusion SDM introduction broadens the range of FP methods available to couples in developing countries. SDM counselling presents an opportunity for FP providers to discuss important interpersonal and reproductive health issues with potential users. PMID:22681177

  14. Tobacco use in silent film: precedents of modern-day substance use portrayals.

    PubMed

    St Romain, Theresa; Hawley, Suzanne R; Ablah, Elizabeth; Kabler, Bethany S; Molgaard, Craig A

    2007-12-01

    Much research has been done into tobacco use portrayals in film since the mid-twentieth century, but the earlier years of Hollywood history have been overlooked. Yet the first decades of the twentieth century saw annual per capita cigarette consumption increase from under 100 in 1900 upto 1,500 in 1930. The current study looks at frequency and context (gender, age range, socioeconomic status, type of portrayal) of tobacco use in 20 top-grossing silent films spanning the silent feature era (1915-1928). The sample averaged 23.31 tobacco uses per hour. Tobacco use was most often associated with positive characterizations, working/middle class status, masculinity, and youth. Previous research has verified the influence of the film industry on tobacco consumption in modern years, and this potential connection should not be ignored for the silent film era. Top-grossing silent films set a precedent for positive media portrayals of substance use that have persisted to the present day. PMID:17940872

  15. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS IN MODERN PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY].

    PubMed

    Badamshina, G G; Karimova, L K; Timasheva, G V

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are reported the results of the performance of hygiene assessment of working conditions in petrochemical industry. The studies have shown that workers' body is exposed to a complex of hazardous occupational factors including a chemical factor, noise, the severity and intensity of the working process. An overall assessment of working conditions corresponds to Class 3.3. PMID:26302562

  16. Recent Advances in Developing Insect Natural Products as Potential Modern Day Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, Norman; Azambuja, Patricia; Mello, Cicero Brasileiro

    2014-01-01

    Except for honey as food, and silk for clothing and pollination of plants, people give little thought to the benefits of insects in their lives. This overview briefly describes significant recent advances in developing insect natural products as potential new medicinal drugs. This is an exciting and rapidly expanding new field since insects are hugely variable and have utilised an enormous range of natural products to survive environmental perturbations for 100s of millions of years. There is thus a treasure chest of untapped resources waiting to be discovered. Insects products, such as silk and honey, have already been utilised for thousands of years, and extracts of insects have been produced for use in Folk Medicine around the world, but only with the development of modern molecular and biochemical techniques has it become feasible to manipulate and bioengineer insect natural products into modern medicines. Utilising knowledge gleaned from Insect Folk Medicines, this review describes modern research into bioengineering honey and venom from bees, silk, cantharidin, antimicrobial peptides, and maggot secretions and anticoagulants from blood-sucking insects into medicines. Problems and solutions encountered in these endeavours are described and indicate that the future is bright for new insect derived pharmaceuticals treatments and medicines. PMID:24883072

  17. The use of fossil benthic foraminifera to define reference conditions for present-day marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, V. M. P.; Hess, S.; Dolven, J. K.; Alve, E.

    2012-04-01

    The implementation of legislations is generating a fruitful debate amongst marine scientists about how to define efficient and reliable bio-assessment tools to monitor the ecological quality status (EcoQS) of marine waters. According to those legislations, EcoQS assessment needs a "reference condition" with which to compare the present-day condition at a site. The fossil record has a potential to reconstruct PaleoEcoQS and thereby establish in situ reference conditions from pre-impact times. Unlike most macrofaunal groups which are the most commonly used biological quality indicator in these environments, benthic foraminifera leave a fossil record and therefore allow the reconstruction of human-induced environmental disturbance over decades to centuries. Foraminifera have the potential to serve as ecosystem characterization tools in modern and past marine environments. We compared the response of benthic foraminifera, macrofauna and selected environmental parameters from the same sites in areas with relatively stable salinity and temperature conditions but otherwise contrasting environmental properties (e.g., varying degree of anthropogenic impact). In August 2008, replicate samples for living (stained) benthic foraminifera and macrofauna from 27 stations in 11 silled fjords along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast were examined. Environmental data (bottom-water dissolved-oxygen, TOC, TN and pigments) were analysed for each station. The same kind of data were analysed from 2 recolonisation sites in the inner Oslofjord. In addition, the PaleoEcoQS during the past century was reconstructed using benthic foraminifera and selected environmental parameters from 11 stations in the inner Oslofjord. Results show that living benthic foraminifera are at least as reliable to define present-day EcoQS as conventional methods. Fossil benthic foraminifera can also define ecological status of reference conditions from pre-impacted times. This is not possible using conventional methods. Consequently, benthic foraminifera are excellent bioindicators of human-induced environmental impacts over time.

  18. Resistance to sap-sucking insects in modern-day agriculture.

    PubMed

    Vandoorn, Arjen; de Vos, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Plants and herbivores have co-evolved in their natural habitats for about 350 million years, but since the domestication of crops, plant resistance against insects has taken a different turn. With the onset of monoculture-driven modern agriculture, selective pressure on insects to overcome resistances has dramatically increased. Therefore plant breeders have resorted to high-tech tools to continuously create new insect-resistant crops. Efforts in the past 30 years have resulted in elucidation of mechanisms of many effective plant defenses against insect herbivores. Here, we critically appraise these efforts and - with a focus on sap-sucking insects - discuss how these findings have contributed to herbivore-resistant crops. Moreover, in this review we try to assess where future challenges and opportunities lay ahead. Of particular importance will be a mandatory reduction in systemic pesticide usage and thus a greater reliance on alternative methods, such as improved plant genetics for plant resistance to insect herbivores. PMID:23818892

  19. A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selig, M.; Shi, Z.; Ball, A.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-05-01

    An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

  20. Resistance to sap-sucking insects in modern-day agriculture

    PubMed Central

    VanDoorn, Arjen; de Vos, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Plants and herbivores have co-evolved in their natural habitats for about 350 million years, but since the domestication of crops, plant resistance against insects has taken a different turn. With the onset of monoculture-driven modern agriculture, selective pressure on insects to overcome resistances has dramatically increased. Therefore plant breeders have resorted to high-tech tools to continuously create new insect-resistant crops. Efforts in the past 30 years have resulted in elucidation of mechanisms of many effective plant defenses against insect herbivores. Here, we critically appraise these efforts and – with a focus on sap-sucking insects – discuss how these findings have contributed to herbivore-resistant crops. Moreover, in this review we try to assess where future challenges and opportunities lay ahead. Of particular importance will be a mandatory reduction in systemic pesticide usage and thus a greater reliance on alternative methods, such as improved plant genetics for plant resistance to insect herbivores. PMID:23818892

  1. Sunwatchers Across Time: Sun-Earth Day from Ancient and Modern Solar Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, I.; Vondrak, R.

    Humans across all cultures have venerated, observed, and studied the Sun for thousands of years. The Sun, our nearest star, provides heat and energy, is the cause of the seasons, and causes space weather effects that influence our technology-dependent society. The Sun is also part of indigenous tradition and culture. The Inca believed that the Sun had the power to make things grow, and it does, providing us with the heat and energy that are essential to our survival. From a NASA perspective, Sun-Earth Connection research investigates the effects of our active Sun on the Earth and other planets, namely, the interaction of the solar wind and other dynamic space weather phenomena with the solar system. We present plans for Sun-Earth Day 2005, a yearly celebration of the Sun-Earth Connection sponsored by the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF). SECEF is one of four national centers of space science education and public outreach funded by NASA Office of Space Science. Sun-Earth Day involves an international audience of schools, science museums, and the general public in activities and events related to learning about the Sun-Earth Connection. During the year 2005, the program will highlight cultural and historical perspectives, as well as NASA science, through educational and public outreach events intended to involve diverse communities. Sun-Earth Day 2005 will include a series of webcasts from solar observatories produced by SECEF in partnership with the San Francisco Exploratorium. Webcasts from Chaco Culture National Historical Park in New Mexico, USA, and from Chichen Itza, Mexico, will be accessed by schools and the public. Sun-Earth Day will also feature NASA Sun-Earth Connection research, missions, and the people who make it possible. One of the goals of this talk is to inform and engage COSPAR participants in these upcoming public events sponsored by NASA. Another goal is to share best practices in public event programming, and present impact results from evaluation research conducted during previous similar events. For more information see http://solarevents.org or http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/sunearthday

  2. A Genome-Wide Study of Modern-Day Tuscans: Revisiting Herodotus's Theory on the Origin of the Etruscans

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Amigo, Jorge; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Background The origin of the Etruscan civilization (Etruria, Central Italy) is a long-standing subject of debate among scholars from different disciplines. The bulk of the information has been reconstructed from ancient texts and archaeological findings and, in the last few years, through the analysis of uniparental genetic markers. Methods By meta-analyzing genome-wide data from The 1000 Genomes Project and the literature, we were able to compare the genomic patterns (>540,000 SNPs) of present day Tuscans (N = 98) with other population groups from the main hypothetical source populations, namely, Europe and the Middle East. Results Admixture analysis indicates the presence of 25–34% of Middle Eastern component in modern Tuscans. Different analyses have been carried out using identity-by-state (IBS) values and genetic distances point to Eastern Anatolia/Southern Caucasus as the most likely geographic origin of the main Middle Eastern genetic component observed in the genome of modern Tuscans. Conclusions The data indicate that the admixture event between local Tuscans and Middle Easterners could have occurred in Central Italy about 2,600–3,100 years ago (y.a.). On the whole, the results validate the theory of the ancient historian Herodotus on the origin of Etruscans. PMID:25230205

  3. Three days in October of 1630: detailed examination of mortality during an early modern plague epidemic in Venice.

    PubMed

    Ell, S R

    1989-01-01

    The epidemiology of medieval and early modern European plague remains highly controversial. It now seems likely that the epidemiology was not uniform throughout either the geographic or temporal boundaries of the plague in Western Europe. The Venetian plague of 1630 was extensively documented; day-by-day records were kept, and each mortality in the city was recorded in a set format. The days 23-25 October 1630, representing a period when mortality was beginning to increase sharply, are examined. In all, 1,163 deaths were recorded. They show a large preponderance of women; a mean age of 28, but a majority of cases clumped between ages 0 and 25 years; and an unequal sex ratio among children. Further, there was an identifiable smallpox epidemic raging simultaneously with plague, and more than one-quarter of all the deaths in this period of high mortality were clearly due to nonplague causes. Deaths due to wounds and associated with violence were prominent in one parish, which suggests that in times of plague the breakdown in the normal machinery of government, in everyday patterns of life, and possibly of mental well being resulted in an even more exaggerated death toll. These factors--violence, accidents, and other epidemics--have never been so definitively tied to a European plague epidemic. In addition, there are hints that plague has a marked proclivity to kill pregnant women--their deaths far outnumber those anticipated--and that plague was very localized at a given moment within Venice itself, even during times of peak mortality. PMID:2644686

  4. High-mortality days during the winter season: comparing meteorological conditions across 5 US cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael J.; Sheridan, Scott C.

    2014-03-01

    While the relationship between weather and human health has been studied from various perspectives, this study examines an alternative method of analysis by examining weather conditions on specific high-mortality days during the winter season. These high-mortality days, by definition, represent days with dramatic increases in mortality and the days with the highest mortality. By focusing solely on high-mortality days, this research examines the relationship between weather variables and mortality through a synoptic climatology, environment-to circulation approach. The atmospheric conditions during high-mortality days were compared to the days prior and the days not classified as high-mortality days. Similar patterns emerged across all five locations despite the spatial and temporal variability. Southern locations had a stronger relationship with temperature changes while northern locations showed a greater relationship to atmospheric pressure. Overall, all high-mortality days were associated with warmer temperatures, decreased pressure, and a greater likelihood of precipitation when compared to the previous subset of days. While the atmospheric conditions were consistent across all locations, the importance of the lag effect should not be overlooked as a contributing factor to mortality during the winter season. Through a variety of diverse, methodological approaches, future studies may build upon these results and explore in more detail the complex relationship between weather situations and the impact of short-term changes in weather and health outcomes.

  5. Carbon and nitrogen allocation and partitioning in traditional and modern wheat genotypes under pre-industrial and future CO₂ conditions.

    PubMed

    Aljazairi, S; Arias, C; Nogués, S

    2015-05-01

    The results of a simultaneous (13)C and (15)N labelling experiment with two different durum wheat cultivars, Blanqueta (a traditional wheat) and Sula (modern), are presented. Plants were grown from the seedling stage in three fully controllable plant growth chambers for one growing season and at three different CO₂ levels (i.e. 260, 400 and 700 ppm). Short-term isotopic labelling (ca. 3 days) was performed at the anthesis stage using (13)CO₂ supplied with the chamber air and (15)NH₄₋(15)NO₃ applied with the nutrient solution, thereby making it possible to track the allocation and partitioning of (13)C and (15) N in the different plant organs. We found that photosynthesis was up-regulated at pre-industrial CO₂ levels, whereas down-regulation occurred under future CO₂ conditions. (13)C labelling revealed that at pre-industrial CO₂ carbon investment by plants was higher in shoots, whereas at future CO₂ levels more C was invested in roots. Furthermore, the modern genotype invested more C in spikes than did the traditional genotype, which in turn invested more in non-reproductive shoot tissue. (15)N labelling revealed that the modern genotype was better adapted to assimilating N at higher CO₂ levels, whereas the traditional genotype was able to assimilate N more efficiently at lower CO₂ levels. PMID:25353972

  6. Why did the meerkat cross the road? Flexible adaptation of phylogenetically-old behavioural strategies to modern-day threats.

    PubMed

    Perony, Nicolas; Townsend, Simon W

    2013-01-01

    Risk-sensitive adaptive spatial organisation during group movement has been shown to efficiently minimise the risks associated with external ecological threats. Whether animals can draw on such behaviours when confronted with man-made threats is generally less clear. We studied road-crossing in a wild, but habituated, population of meerkats living in the Kalahari Desert, South Africa. We found that dominant females, the core member in meerkat social systems, led groups to the road significantly more often than subordinates, yet were consistently less likely to cross first. Our results suggest that a reshuffling occurs in progression order when meerkat groups reach the road. By employing a simple model of collective movement, we have shown that risk aversion alone may be sufficient to explain this reshuffling, but that the risk aversion of dominant females toward road crossing is significantly higher than that of subordinates. It seems that by not crossing first, dominant females avoid occupying the most risky, exposed locations, such as at the front of the group--a potential selfish strategy that also promotes the long-term stability and hence reproductive output of their family groups. We argue that our findings support the idea that animals can flexibly apply phylogenetically-old behavioural strategies to deal with emerging modern-day problems. PMID:23441144

  7. Diminished brain resilience syndrome: A modern day neurological pathology of increased susceptibility to mild brain trauma, concussion, and downstream neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Morley, Wendy A.; Seneff, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The number of sports-related concussions has been steadily rising in recent years. Diminished brain resilience syndrome is a term coined by the lead author to describe a particular physiological state of nutrient functional deficiency and disrupted homeostatic mechanisms leading to increased susceptibility to previously considered innocuous concussion. We discuss how modern day environmental toxicant exposure, along with major changes in our food supply and lifestyle practices, profoundly reduce the bioavailability of neuro-critical nutrients such that the normal processes of homeostatic balance and resilience are no longer functional. Their diminished capacity triggers physiological and biochemical ‘work around’ processes that result in undesirable downstream consequences. Exposure to certain environmental chemicals, particularly glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup®, may disrupt the body's innate switching mechanism, which normally turns off the immune response to brain injury once danger has been removed. Deficiencies in serotonin, due to disruption of the shikimate pathway, may lead to impaired melatonin supply, which reduces the resiliency of the brain through reduced antioxidant capacity and alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid, reducing critical protective buffering mechanisms in impact trauma. Depletion of certain rare minerals, overuse of sunscreen and/or overprotection from sun exposure, as well as overindulgence in heavily processed, nutrient deficient foods, further compromise the brain's resilience. Modifications to lifestyle practices, if widely implemented, could significantly reduce this trend of neurological damage. PMID:25024897

  8. Diminished brain resilience syndrome: A modern day neurological pathology of increased susceptibility to mild brain trauma, concussion, and downstream neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Morley, Wendy A; Seneff, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The number of sports-related concussions has been steadily rising in recent years. Diminished brain resilience syndrome is a term coined by the lead author to describe a particular physiological state of nutrient functional deficiency and disrupted homeostatic mechanisms leading to increased susceptibility to previously considered innocuous concussion. We discuss how modern day environmental toxicant exposure, along with major changes in our food supply and lifestyle practices, profoundly reduce the bioavailability of neuro-critical nutrients such that the normal processes of homeostatic balance and resilience are no longer functional. Their diminished capacity triggers physiological and biochemical 'work around' processes that result in undesirable downstream consequences. Exposure to certain environmental chemicals, particularly glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup(®), may disrupt the body's innate switching mechanism, which normally turns off the immune response to brain injury once danger has been removed. Deficiencies in serotonin, due to disruption of the shikimate pathway, may lead to impaired melatonin supply, which reduces the resiliency of the brain through reduced antioxidant capacity and alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid, reducing critical protective buffering mechanisms in impact trauma. Depletion of certain rare minerals, overuse of sunscreen and/or overprotection from sun exposure, as well as overindulgence in heavily processed, nutrient deficient foods, further compromise the brain's resilience. Modifications to lifestyle practices, if widely implemented, could significantly reduce this trend of neurological damage. PMID:25024897

  9. Work-Family Balance and Energy: A Day-Level Study on Recovery Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz-Vergel, Ana Isabel; Demerouti, Evangelia; Moreno-Jimenez, Bernardo; Mayo, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines whether daily recovery inhibiting and enhancing conditions predict day-levels of work-family conflict (WFC), work-family facilitation (WFF), exhaustion and vigor. Forty-nine individuals from various professional backgrounds in Spain provided questionnaire and daily survey measures over a period of five working days.…

  10. A simple modern correctness condition for a space-based high-performance multiprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probst, David K.; Li, Hon F.

    1992-01-01

    A number of U.S. national programs, including space-based detection of ballistic missile launches, envisage putting significant computing power into space. Given sufficient progress in low-power VLSI, multichip-module packaging and liquid-cooling technologies, we will see design of high-performance multiprocessors for individual satellites. In very high speed implementations, performance depends critically on tolerating large latencies in interprocessor communication; without latency tolerance, performance is limited by the vastly differing time scales in processor and data-memory modules, including interconnect times. The modern approach to tolerating remote-communication cost in scalable, shared-memory multiprocessors is to use a multithreaded architecture, and alter the semantics of shared memory slightly, at the price of forcing the programmer either to reason about program correctness in a relaxed consistency model or to agree to program in a constrained style. The literature on multiprocessor correctness conditions has become increasingly complex, and sometimes confusing, which may hinder its practical application. We propose a simple modern correctness condition for a high-performance, shared-memory multiprocessor; the correctness condition is based on a simple interface between the multiprocessor architecture and a high-performance, shared-memory multiprocessor; the correctness condition is based on a simple interface between the multiprocessor architecture and the parallel programming system.

  11. [The perspective technologies of treatment-and-evacuation support in conditions of modern military conflicts].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Zhidik, V V; Chernyĭ, A Zh

    2007-02-01

    One of the urgent directions in improvement of the system of RF AF medical support is the use of automation means, the final aim of which is the improvement of troops (forces) medical support quality under conditions of modern military conflicts. Robotization of medical service activities (of those aspects where it is possible and reasonable) will allow improving the labor productivity and efficiency of medical staff, reducing the risk of combat injury, protecting the medical service personnel from extreme factors of physical, chemical and biological nature. PMID:17508604

  12. Gruber, Gradenigo, Dorello, and Vail: key personalities in the historical evolution and modern-day understanding of Dorello's canal.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Renuka K; Reddy, Rohit K; Jyung, Robert W; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2016-01-01

    A century ago an ambitious young anatomist in Rome, Primo Dorello, who sought to understand the cause of abducent nerve palsy that often occurred in patients with severe middle ear infections, conducted intricate studies on the intracranial course of the nerve. In his findings, he identified that the abducent nerve passes through a narrow sinus near the apex of the petrous bone, which formed an osteofibrous canal. Dorello suggested that in this enclosed region the abducent nerve may be particularly vulnerable to compression due to the vascular edema accompanying the infection. Although his work was widely appreciated, it was not well received by all. Interestingly, Giuseppe Gradenigo, one of the most prominent Italian otologists of the early 20th century, who was known for his work on a triad of symptoms (Gradenigo's syndrome) that accompanies petrous apicitis, a result of severe middle ear infections, was obstinate in his criticism of Dorello's findings. Thus a scientific duel began, with a series of correspondence between these two academics-one who was relatively new to the otological community (Dorello) and one who was well reputed in that community (Gradenigo). The disagreement ultimately ebbed in 1909, when Dorello published a report in response to Gradenigo's criticisms and convinced Gradenigo to change his views. Today Dorello's canal is widely recognized as a key landmark in skull base surgery of the petroclival region and holds clinical significance due to its relation to the abducent nerve and surrounding vascular structures. Yet, although academics such as Dorello and Gradenigo are recognized for their work on the canal, it is important not to forget the others throughout history who have contributed to the modern-day understanding of this anatomical structure. In fact, although the level of anatomical detail found in Dorello's work was previously unmatched, the first description of the canal was made by the experienced Austrian anatomist Wenzel Leopold Gruber in 1859, almost 50 years prior to Dorello's landmark publication. Another critical figure in building the understanding of Dorello's canal was Harris Holmes Vail, a young otolaryngologist from Harvard Medical School, who in 1922 became the first person to describe Dorello's canal in the English language. Vail conducted his own detailed anatomical studies on cadavers, and his publication not only reaffirmed Dorello's findings but also immortalized the eponym used today-"Dorello's canal." In this article the authors review the life and contributions of Gruber, Dorello, Gradenigo, and Vail, four men who played a critical role in the discovery of Dorello's canal and paved the way toward the current understanding of the canal as a key clinical and surgical entity. PMID:26115474

  13. 78 FR 69704 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Conditional Commitment/Statement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Conditional Commitment/Statement..., HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HUD is seeking approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for the information collection described below. In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act, HUD...

  14. CFD Sensitivity Analysis of a Modern Civil Transport Near Buffet-Onset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Allison, Dennis O.; Biedron, Robert T.; Buning, Pieter G.; Gainer, Thomas G.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Rivers, S. Melissa; Mysko, Stephen J.; Witkowski, David P.

    2001-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) sensitivity analysis is conducted for a modern civil transport at several conditions ranging from mostly attached flow to flow with substantial separation. Two different Navier-Stokes computer codes and four different turbulence models are utilized, and results are compared both to wind tunnel data at flight Reynolds number and flight data. In-depth CFD sensitivities to grid, code, spatial differencing method, aeroelastic shape, and turbulence model are described for conditions near buffet onset (a condition at which significant separation exists). In summary, given a grid of sufficient density for a given aeroelastic wing shape, the combined approximate error band in CFD at conditions near buffet onset due to code, spatial differencing method, and turbulence model is: 6% in lift, 7% in drag, and 16% in moment. The biggest two contributers to this uncertainty are turbulence model and code. Computed results agree well with wind tunnel surface pressure measurements both for an overspeed 'cruise' case as well as a case with small trailing edge separation. At and beyond buffet onset, computed results agree well over the inner half of the wing, but shock location is predicted too far aft at some of the outboard stations. Lift, drag, and moment curves are predicted in good agreement with experimental results from the wind tunnel.

  15. How demanding is the brain on a reversal task under day and night conditions?

    PubMed

    Arias, N; Fidalgo, C; Méndez, M; Arias, J L

    2015-07-23

    Reversal learning has been studied as the process of learning to inhibit previously rewarded actions. These behavioral studies are usually performed during the day, when animals are in their daily period rest. However, how day or night affects spatial reversal learning and the brain regions involved in the learning process are still unknown. We conducted two experiments using the Morris Water Maze under different light-conditions: naïve group (CN, n=8), day group (DY, n=8), control DY group (CDY, n=8) night group (NG, n=8), and control NG group (CNG, n=7). Distance covered, velocity and latencies to reach the platform were examined. After completing these tasks, cytochrome c-oxidase activity (CO) in several brain limbic system structures was compared between groups. There were no behavioral differences in the time of day when the animals were trained. However, the metabolic brain consumption was higher in rats trained in the day condition. This CO increase was supported by the prefrontal cortex, thalamus, dorsal and ventral striatum, hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, revealing their role in the performance of the spatial reversal learning task. Finally, the orbitofrontal cortex has been revealed as a key structure in reversal learning execution. PMID:26071902

  16. [The main ways of improvement of medical support of the Air Forces in modern conditions].

    PubMed

    Blaginin, A A; Grebeniuk, A N; Lizogub, I N

    2014-02-01

    Blaginin A.A., Grebenyuk A.N., Lizogub LN. - The main ways of improvement of medical support of the Air Forces in modern conditions. Aircrew conducting active hostilities suffers from the whole spectrum of factors and conditions of the combat situation. The main task for the medical service of the Air Force is to carry out preventive and curative action for aviation specialists who are responsible for the combat capability of aircraft formations. The medical service of the Air Force must have forces and facilities for planning, organization and implementation of the treatment of lightly wounded and sick aviation professionals with short periods of recovery, medical rehabilitation of aircrew qfter suffering injuries, diseases, sanatorium therapy of aircrew with partial failure of health, outpatient and inpatient medical examination aircrew - flight commissions, preventive rest of aviation specialists with symptoms of chronic fatigue. Should be trained aviation physicians, including both basic military medical education and in-depth study of the medical aspects of various fields of personnel of the Air Force. PMID:25046924

  17. Adaptation of an Antarctic lichen to Martian niche conditions can occur within 34 days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Khan, Afshin; Lorek, Andreas; Koncz, Alexander; Möhlmann, Diedrich; Spohn, Tilman

    2014-08-01

    Stresses occurring on the Martian surface were simulated in a Mars Simulation Chamber (MSC) and included high UV fluxes (Zarnecki and Catling, 2002), low temperatures, low water activity, high atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and an atmospheric pressure of about 800 Pa (Kasting, 1991; Head et al., 2003). The lichen Pleopsidium chlorophanum is an extremophile that lives in very cold, dry, high-altitude habitats, which are Earth's best approximation of the Martian surface. Samples with P. chlorophanum were exposed uninterruptedly to simulated conditions of the unprotected Martian surface (i.e. 6344 kJ m-2) and protected niche conditions (269 kJ m-2) for 34 days. Under unprotected Martian surface conditions the fungal symbiont decreases its metabolic activity and it was unclear if the algal symbiont of the lichen was still actively photosynthesizing. However, under "protected site" conditions, the entire lichen not only survived and remained photosynthetically active, it even adapted physiologically by increasing its photosynthetic activity over 34 days.

  18. Response of Thermohaline Circulation to Freshwater Forcing under Present Day and LGM Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, A.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Meehl, G. A.; Han, W.; Morrill, C.; Brady, E. C.; Briegleb, B.

    2007-12-01

    Responses of the thermohaline circulation (THC) to freshwater forcing (hosing) in the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean under present day and the last glacial maximum (LGM) conditions are investigated using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model versions 2 and 3. Three sets of simulations are analyzed, with each set including a control run and a freshwater hosing run. The first two sets are under present day conditions with an open and closed Bering Strait. The third one is under LGM conditions, which has a closed Bering Strait. Results show that the THC nearly collapses in all three hosing runs when the freshwater forcing is turned on. The full recovery of the THC, however, is at least a century earlier in the open Bering Strait run than the closed Bering Strait and LGM runs. This is because the excessive freshwater is diverged almost equally towards north and south from the subpolar North Atlantic when the Bering Strait is open. A significant portion of the freshwater flowing northward into the Arctic exits into the North Pacific via a reversed Bering Strait throughflow, which accelerates the THC recovery. When the Bering Strait is closed, this Arctic to Pacific transport is absent and freshwater can only be removed through the southern end of the North Atlantic. Together with the surface freshwater excess due to precipitation, evaporation, river runoff, and melting ice in the closed Bering Strait experiments after the hosing, the removal of the excessive freshwater takes longer, and this slows the recovery of the THC. Although the background conditions are quite different between the present day closed Bering Strait run and the LGM run, the THC responds to the freshwater forcing added in the North Atlantic in a very similar manner.

  19. The influence of demographics and working conditions on self-reported injuries among Latino day laborers

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Atkinson, John A; Montano, Cecilia F

    2015-01-01

    Background: The majority of day laborers in the USA are Latinos. They are engaged in high-risk occupations and suffer high occupational injury rates. Objectives: To describe on-the-job injuries reported by Latino day laborers, explore the extent that demographic and occupational factors predict injuries, and whether summative measures for total job types, job conditions, and personal protective equipment (PPE) predict injuries. Methods: A community survey was conducted with 327 participants at 15 corners in Houston, Texas. Hierarchical and multiple logistic regressions explored predictors of occupational injury odds in the last year. Results: Thirty-four percent of respondents reported an occupational injury in the previous year. Education, exposure to loud noises, cold temperatures, vibrating machinery, use of hard hats, total number of job conditions, and total PPE significantly predicted injury odds. Conclusion: Risk for injury among day laborers is not only the product of a specific hazard, but also the result of their exposure to multiple occupational hazards. PMID:25291983

  20. Nontraditional three-ray description of long-wave propagation in day-night transition conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remenets, G. F.; Khidekel, V. A.

    Long-wave propagation is examined on the basis of a multiray (multipath) model for the propagation of an ionospheric signal generated by an irregularity with respect to the effective height of the waveguide path in day-night transition conditions. A numerical analysis shows that not one but three extremal paths can exist for rays multiply reflected from the ionosphere during a certain time interval at the beginning of sunrise. The interference of these rays can generate nonmonotonic variations of the long-wave signal at the beginning of sunrise for sufficiently long paths (greater than 600 km).

  1. Time-of-day effect on a food-induced conditioned place preference task in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Monclaro, Antonielle V; Sampaio, Ana Cristhina; Ribeiro, Natália B; Barros, Marilia

    2014-02-01

    Time can be an important contextual cue for cognitive performance, with implications for reward-associated learned behaviors such as (drug and food) addiction. So, we analyzed: (1) if marmoset monkeys develop a place preference that is conditioned to previous pairings with a highly-palatable food reward; (2) if the response is strongest when training and testing times match - time stamp effect; and (3) if there is an optimal time of the day (morning vs. afternoon) when this preference occurs - time-of-day effect. Subjects were first habituated to a two-compartment conditioned-place-preference (CPP) box. Then, during six training sessions held either in the morning or afternoon, a mixture of jellybeans and live mealworms was made available in a specific compartment. Marmosets were subsequently tested for preferring the food-paired context at the circadian time that either matched or was different from that of training. Compared to baseline levels, only subjects trained and tested in the afternoon made significantly longer and more frequent visits to the food-paired context and with a shorter latency to first entry. Thus, highly-palatable food rewards induced a CPP response. This behavior was exhibited only when training and testing times overlapped and during a restricted circadian timeframe (afternoon), consistent with a time-stamp and time-of-day effect, respectively. In this case, time may have been an internal circadian contextual cue. Whether due to circadian-mediated oscillations in memory and/or reward processes, such findings may be applied to addiction and other learned behaviors. PMID:24280121

  2. Effect of conditioning horses every third day at v10 on measures of fitness.

    PubMed

    Lindner, A; López, R A; Durante, E; Hernandez, H; Botta, V; Sadaba, S; Boffi, F M

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the effect of exercising horses five times per fortnight with two bouts of 5 min duration at their v(10) with 2 days between consecutive exercise sessions. Five Anglo-Arabian horses were treadmill-conditioned for 6 weeks. A standardized exercise test (SET) was performed at the beginning of the conditioning period (CP) to determine the blood lactate-running speed (BLRS) and the heart rate-running speed (HRRS) relationship and the SET was repeated every 2 weeks. After each SET, the BLRS relation was used to calculate the horse's speed (v = velocity), which produced a blood lactate concentration (LA) of 10 mmol/l (v(10) ) and 4 mmol/l (v(4) ). From the HRRS was calculated the speed at which the horses had a heart rate of 180 b/min (v(180) ). Each horse was then conditioned for the next 2 weeks five times at its individual v(10) for two 5-min bouts. Exercise speed was individually adapted to the new v(10) every 2 weeks. In addition, horses were submitted to another SET prescription to determine the peak oxygen consumption (VO(2 peak) ) before, after 3 weeks and at the end of CP. The v(4) of horses increased during the CP (p < 0.05). v(180) did not change (p > 0.05). VO(2 peak) increased in the first 3 weeks of CP (p < 0.05) and levelled off afterwards (p > 0.05). The conclusion drawn was that exercising horses five times per fortnight at their v(10) for two 5-min bouts with 2 days between consecutive exercise sessions improved v(4) and VO(2 peak) but not v(180). PMID:20880285

  3. [Numerical variation in synaptic ribbons of rat pinealocytes under magnetic storm conditions and on calm days].

    PubMed

    Bardasano, J L; Cos, S; Picazo, M L

    1989-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis of the magnetoreceptor function of the pineal gland, a comparative study has been made, with electronic microscopy, of the numerical variations of the synaptic ribbons of the pinealocytes (indicating the cellular metabolic activity) of the groups of rats, under magnetic storm conditions and in calm days. In this quantitative study it was established that the incidence of synaptic ribbons per each 20,000 microns 2 of pineal tissue was smaller in the group of animals sacrificed during geomagnetic storms, as compared with the other group of animals sacrificed in calm periods (P less than 0.001). It was suggested that the synaptic ribbons may be morphological indicators of the pineal activity, with respect to the variations of the geomagnetic field. PMID:2628484

  4. [Sleep structure instability in healthy men under conditions of 105-day isolation experiment "Mars-105"].

    PubMed

    Kovrov, G V; Posokhov, S I; Posokhov, S S; Zavalko, I M; Ponomareva, I P

    2013-01-01

    Night-to-night stability of falling asleep and duration of wakefulness in the sleep was studied in six healthy male subjects under conditions of 105-day isolation experiment "Mars-105". Polysomnography records were carried out in each subject during five nights taken in regular intervals within the experiment. Three subjects demonstrated high stability of falling asleep and wakefulness in sleep (group I), whereas in the remaining three subjects stability of these characteristics was low (group [I). Delta-sleep was shown to be deepened in subjects of group II (significant prevalence of stage 4 (47.3 min) over stage 3 (32.9 min)). In subjects of group I, the duration of stage 3 was 44.9 min and that of stage 4 was 26.6 min. We suggest that night-to-night instability of falling asleep and duration of wakefulness in sleep in combination with delta sleep is the special individual form of sleep adaptation to conditions of chronic isolation stress. PMID:23697229

  5. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during the first minutes of the cycle, before the light-off of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Less ammonia has been emitted with ethanol fuel, in particular in low ambient condition (E75 versus E5). Ammonia is a harmful compound for human health and vegetation, and is a precursor of secondary aerosol. Even if agricultural activities are the main source of anthropogenic ammonia, the contribution from the transport sector increases significantly during the cold season. Consequently, using high concentrated ethanol as fuel may have a positive impact on ammonia emission in urban area. However, ethanol fuel had a negative impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The latter together with methane was notably emitted in low ambient temperature, in comparison with gasoline fuel (E5). Moreover, the OFP at -7°C was influenced by the amount of ethanol in gasoline, mainly because of the increase of ozone precursors linked to ethanol (ethylene, acetylene, and acetaldehyde). Even if ozone concentration levels are generally lower during the cold seasons these results show that the issue should be considered globally before promoting the use of high concentrated ethanol fuel in a large scale.

  6. NO FLOWERING IN SHORT DAY (NFL) is a bHLH transcription factor that promotes flowering specifically under short-day conditions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nidhi; Xin, Ruijiao; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Sung, Sibum; Lange, Theo; Huq, Enamul

    2016-02-15

    Flowering in plants is a dynamic and synchronized process where various cues including age, day length, temperature and endogenous hormones fine-tune the timing of flowering for reproductive success. Arabidopsis thaliana is a facultative long day (LD) plant where LD photoperiod promotes flowering. Arabidopsis still flowers under short-day (SD) conditions, albeit much later than in LD conditions. Although factors regulating the inductive LD pathway have been extensively investigated, the non-inductive SD pathway is much less understood. Here, we identified a key basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor called NFL (NO FLOWERING IN SHORT DAY) that is essential to induce flowering specifically under SD conditions in Arabidopsis. nfl mutants do not flower under SD conditions, but flower similar to the wild type under LD conditions. The no-flowering phenotype in SD is rescued either by exogenous application of gibberellin (GA) or by introducing della quadruple mutants in the nfl background, suggesting that NFL acts upstream of GA to promote flowering. NFL is expressed at the meristematic regions and NFL is localized to the nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR assays using apical tissues showed that GA biosynthetic genes are downregulated and the GA catabolic and receptor genes are upregulated in the nfl mutant compared with the wild type, consistent with the perturbation of the endogenous GA biosynthetic and catabolic intermediates in the mutant. Taken together, these data suggest that NFL is a key transcription factor necessary for promotion of flowering under non-inductive SD conditions through the GA signaling pathway. PMID:26758694

  7. Flower bud formation in short-day strawberry cultivar under non-photo inductive conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A scheme for producing short-day type strawberry cultivars that initiate flowers under long-day photoperiod was used to investigate the flower bud induction. When runner tips of short-day type ‘Carmine’ were started as plug plants in early July and field planted 1 September 86 percent of transplant...

  8. Using conditional probability to identify trends in intra-day high-frequency equity pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechenthin, Michael; Street, W. Nick

    2013-12-01

    By examining the conditional probabilities of price movements in a popular US stock over different high-frequency intra-day timespans, varying levels of trend predictability are identified. This study demonstrates the existence of predictable short-term trends in the market; understanding the probability of price movement can be useful to high-frequency traders. Price movement was examined in trade-by-trade (tick) data along with temporal timespans between 1 s to 30 min for 52 one-week periods for one highly-traded stock. We hypothesize that much of the initial predictability of trade-by-trade (tick) data is due to traditional market dynamics, or the bouncing of the price between the stock’s bid and ask. Only after timespans of between 5 to 10 s does this cease to explain the predictability; after this timespan, two consecutive movements in the same direction occur with higher probability than that of movements in the opposite direction. This pattern holds up to a one-minute interval, after which the strength of the pattern weakens.

  9. Modern-Day Child Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Glind, Hans; Kooijmans, Joost

    2008-01-01

    Child slavery is a contemporary global problem existing since ancient times. The concept of slavery and practices similar to it are defined in a range of international instruments. Children are particularly vulnerable to slavery-like practices, and their special plight is addressed by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC-in particular

  10. Modern-Day Child Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Glind, Hans; Kooijmans, Joost

    2008-01-01

    Child slavery is a contemporary global problem existing since ancient times. The concept of slavery and practices similar to it are defined in a range of international instruments. Children are particularly vulnerable to slavery-like practices, and their special plight is addressed by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC-in particular…

  11. Liquid Water Lakes on Mars Under Present-Day Conditions: Sustainability and Effects on the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldspiel, Jules M.

    2015-11-01

    Decades of Mars exploration have produced ample evidence that aqueous environments once existed on the surface. Much evidence supports groundwater emergence as the source of liquid water on Mars [1-4]. However, cases have also been made for rainfall [5] and snow pack melts [6].Whatever the mechanism by which liquid water is emplaced on the surface of Mars, whether from groundwater seeps, atmospheric precipitation, or some combination of sources, this water would have collected in local topographic lows, and at least temporarily, would have created a local surface water system with dynamic thermal and hydrologic properties. Understanding the physical details of such aqueous systems is important for interpreting the past and present surface environments of Mars. It is also important for evaluating potential habitable zones on or near the surface.In conjunction with analysis of surface and core samples, valuable insight into likely past aqueous sites on Mars can be gained through modeling their formation and evolution. Toward that end, we built a 1D numerical model to follow the evolution of small bodies of liquid water on the surface of Mars. In the model, liquid water at different temperatures is supplied to the surface at different rates while the system is subjected to diurnally and seasonally varying environmental conditions. We recently simulated cases of cold (275 K) and warm (350 K) water collecting in a small depression on the floor of a mid southern latitude impact crater. When inflows create an initial pool > 3 m deep and infiltration can be neglected, we find that the interior of the pool can remain liquid over a full Mars year under the present cold and dry climate as an ice cover slowly thickens [7]. Here we present new results for the thermal and hydrologic evolution of surface water and the associated subsurface region for present-day conditions when infiltration of surface water into the subsurface is considered.[1] Pieri (1980) Science 210.[2] Carr (2006) The Surface of Mars.[3] Wray et al. (2011) J. Geophys. Res. 116.[4] Michalski et al. (2013) Nature Geosci. 6.[5] Craddock and Howard (2002) J. Geophys. Res. 107.[6] Clow (1987) Icarus 72.[7] Goldspiel (2015) Astrobio. Sci. Conf. Abs. 7110.

  12. Dietary Lysine Responses of Male Broilers From 14 to 28 Days of Age Subjected to Different Environmental Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary amino acid requirements are influenced by environmental conditions. Two experiments examined growth responses of Ross × Ross TP 16 male broilers fed diets varying in digestible (dig) Lys concentrations from 14 to 28 days of age under different environmental conditions. Experiment 1 was condu...

  13. GENETIC CORRELATION ESTIMATES AMONG BODY CONDITION SCORE, DAIRY FORM, DAYS OPEN AND PRODUCTION TRAITS FOR US HOLSTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic correlations among body condition score (BCS), dairy form (DF), days open (DO), ME milk, ME fat and ME protein production. Body condition score and DF obtained from the Holstein Association USA Inc. were merged with DO and production data from th...

  14. The Present Conditions of the Advances in Modernizing Scientific and Technical Information Processing in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Written By Tongbao; Li, Translated By Guohua

    The trends of modernization (computerization) in information activities were outlined in focussing on the national computer-based information retrieval system, which was pushed by the State Science and Technology Commission in the 6th National Five-Year Plan. Secondary, the Plan to be promoted by the Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC) as a central and integrated information center in China was also described for the 7th National Five-Year Plan on the occasion of the movement to the new ISTIC building. Finally, author's views on information programs to be further stressed were introduced, which include the production of reference and fact databases in Chinese and English, the consolidation of online network, standardization, etc.

  15. FLOWER BUD FORMATION IN SHORT-DAY CULTIVARS UNDER NON-PHOTOINDUCTIVE CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the mid-Atlantic coast region (39 degrees Latitude N, 77 degrees Longitude W), the main strawberry harvest season is from early May to late June. Out-of-season fruit production in the region is low. We developed a simple propagation scheme for short-day type strawberry cultivars to produce frui...

  16. Days Out of Role Due to Mental and Physical Conditions: Results from the Singapore Mental Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdin, Edimansyah; Ong, Clarissa; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relative contributions of mental and physical conditions to days out of role among adults aged 18 years and above in Singapore. Methods The Singapore Mental Health Study was a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of a nationally representative sample of residents aged 18 years or older. Diagnosis of mental disorders was established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview; while chronic physical conditions were established using a checklist. Days out of role were assessed using a WHO Disability Assessment Schedule item. Multivariate regression analyses were used to estimate individual-level and societal-level effects of disorders. Results Overall, 8.7% of respondents reported at least one day out of role, with a mean of 5.8 days. The most disabling conditions at the individual level were cancer (118.9 additional days), cardiovascular diseases (93.5), and bipolar disorder (71.0). At the societal level, cardiovascular diseases contributed the highest population attributable risk proportion (45%), followed by cancer (39.3%), and hypertension (13.5%). Conclusions Mental and physical conditions are linked to significant losses in productivity for society as well as role disability for individuals, underscoring the need to enhance prevention and intervention efforts to increase overall productivity and improve individual functioning. PMID:26840741

  17. A review of skin conditions in modern warfare and peacekeeping operations.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Ari B; Norton, Scott A; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the most exposed organ of the body, and military personnel face many external skin threats. As a result, skin disease is an important source of morbidity among military personnel deployed on combat or peacekeeping operations. This article reviews the most common conditions seen by deployed military dermatologists. A PubMed search was used to identify articles in English, written between 1965 and 2014, using medical subject headings "military medicine" AND "skin disease" or "military personnel" AND "skin disease." The five most common reasons for physician consultation for skin conditions in wartime since the Vietnam War were warts (10.7%), fungal infections (10.4%), acne (9.0%), nonspecific eczematous conditions (7.1%), and sexually transmitted diseases (6.1%). There was a significant difference in the skin conditions seen in the hot and humid climates of Vietnam and East Timor, where bacterial and fungal infections were more common reasons for consultation, and the dry climates of Bosnia and Iraq, where eczematous conditions made up a larger part of the dermatologic caseload. PMID:25562855

  18. [The physiological hygiene characteristics of the working conditions on modern sowing machinery].

    PubMed

    Cherniuk, V I; Riabtseva, V P; Shkliar, N F; Meshcheriakov, G V

    1990-02-01

    It was found that in sowing machine operators their work was class II hard (permissible conditions) and class III strenuous (grade I hazard). By air dust contamination their work corresponded to grade III hazard, by noise--to grade I hazard. The operators showed signs of functional overstrain of the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, the severity of which depended on the type of sowing machine and tractor. PMID:2339537

  19. Reliability of Undergraduate Student in a Research on the Relations between Behavior and Days of the Week or Atmospheric Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, Jean

    The influence of atmospheric conditions and the day of the week on school children's behavior was investigated by undergraduates. The college students were told either that their participation in the research was compulsory and would be graded, or that their participation was voluntary and ungraded. Fifty teachers observed their pupils' behavior

  20. Reliability of Undergraduate Student in a Research on the Relations between Behavior and Days of the Week or Atmospheric Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, Jean

    The influence of atmospheric conditions and the day of the week on school children's behavior was investigated by undergraduates. The college students were told either that their participation in the research was compulsory and would be graded, or that their participation was voluntary and ungraded. Fifty teachers observed their pupils' behavior…

  1. Chronic kidney disease is associated with a higher 90-day mortality than other chronic medical conditions in patients with sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Mansur, Ashham; Mulwande, Evelyn; Steinau, Maximilian; Bergmann, Ingo; Frederik Popov, Aron; Ghadimi, Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Bauer, Martin; Hinz, José

    2015-01-01

    According to previous studies, the clinical course of sepsis could be affected by preexisting medical conditions, which are very common among patients with sepsis. This observational study aimed at investigating whether common chronic medical conditions affect the 90-day mortality risk in adult Caucasian patients with sepsis. A total of 482 patients with sepsis were enrolled in this study. The ninety-day mortality was the primary outcome; organ failure was the secondary outcome. Sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores and the requirements for organ support were evaluated to assess organ failure. A multivariate Cox regression model for the association between the 90-day mortality risk and chronic preexisting medical conditions adjusted for all relevant confounders and mortality predictors revealed the highest hazard ratio for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (hazard ratio, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.46-3.46; p = 0.0002). Patients with CKD had higher SOFA scores than patients without CKD (8.9 ± 4.0 and 6.5 ± 3.4, respectively; p < 0.0001). Additionally, an analysis of organ-specific SOFA scores revealed higher scores in three organ systems (kidney, cardiovascular and coagulation). Patients with CKD have the highest 90-day mortality risk compared with patients without CKD or with other chronic medical conditions. PMID:25995131

  2. The Prescribed Pediatric Center: A Medical Day Treatment Program for Children with Complex Medical Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppert, Elizabeth S.; Karst, Thomas O.; Brogan, Mark G.

    1998-01-01

    The Prescribed Pediatric Center (Toledo, Ohio) is a community-based, multidisciplinary program for infants and children with chronic, complex medical conditions. This article describes program beginnings; the planning process; and the program's growth, development, and components. Initial program evaluation indicates positive effects on some…

  3. [Rat behavior in the "open field" next day after haloperidol injection: dependence on experimental conditions].

    PubMed

    Orlova, N V; Folomkina, A A; Bazian, A S

    2003-01-01

    Wistar rats were injected with haloperidol (3.5 mg/kg) that resulted in a high level of cataplexy. Next day after haloperidol injection rat behavior was studied in the open field. The animals were divided in two groups. The first group of animals was tested in the daylight without additional illumination of the open-field chamber. The second group was tested in a darkened room with additional intense illumination of the open-field center with a 60W bulb. The testing time was 240 s. The high level of the open-field locomotor activity in the first group was attributed to anxiety. The low level of locomotor activity in the second group was qualified as depressive state. PMID:12754853

  4. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  5. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and

  6. [Rationale for differentiated sanitary protection zones for battery recycling enterprises in modern conditions].

    PubMed

    Pinigin, M A; Popov, B A; Sabirova, Z F; Budarina, O V; Ul'ianova, A V

    2013-01-01

    In the paper there is presented the rationale for differentiated sanitary protective zones in the present conditions both of the increase of volumes of production and introduction of various technological solutions on the example of battery recycling enterprise. It is established that the in acting regulations the classification of enterprises recycling of non-ferrous metals, fails to take into account such the hazard risks criteria of the enterprise, as volume of emissions of priority substances, the height of their arrival in the atmosphere, etc., and also does not take into account increased significantly in the current time processing volumes. The results of the performed research allowed to offer new positions in the classification of production of secondary lead from used batteries (I to IV class), depending on the volume of production (from 20 000 to 160 000 tons per year), the amount of emissions of lead (0.2 to 1, 6 tons per year) and release height (15 to 60 m). PMID:24624832

  7. Metabolomic analysis of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultivated under day/night conditions.

    PubMed

    Willamme, Rémi; Alsafra, Zouheir; Arumugam, Rameshkumar; Eppe, Gauthier; Remacle, Françoise; Levine, R D; Remacle, Claire

    2015-12-10

    Biomass composition of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was studied during two consecutive cycles of 12h light/12h dark. As in our experimental conditions the two synchronized divisions were separated by 20h, it was possible to show that accumulation of dry weight, proteins, chlorophyll and fatty acids mainly depends on cell division, whereas starch accumulation depends on a circadian rhythm as reported previously. Our metabolomics analyses also revealed that accumulation of five (Ser, Val, Leu, Ile and Thr) of the nine free amino acids detected displayed rhythmicity, depending on cell division while Glu was 20-50 times more abundant than the other ones probably because this free amino acid serves not only for protein synthesis but also for biosynthesis of nitrogen compounds. In addition, we performed a thermodynamic-motivated theoretical approach known as 'surprisal analysis'. The results from this analysis showed that cells were close to a steady state all along the 48h of the experiment. In addition, calculation of free energy of cellular metabolites showed that the transition point, i.e. the state which immediately precedes cell division, corresponds to the most unstable stage of the cell cycle and that division is identified as the greatest drop in the free energy of metabolites. PMID:25941156

  8. Comparison of working efficiency of terrestrial laser scanner in day and night conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, A. E.; Kalkan, K.

    2013-10-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanning is a popular and widely used technique to scan existing objects, document historical sites and items, and remodel them if and when needed. Their ability to collect thousands of point data per second makes them an invaluable tool in many areas from engineering to historical reconstruction. There are many scanners in the market with different technical specifications. One main technical specification of laser scanners is range and illumination. In this study, it is tested to be determined the optimal working times of a laser scanner and the scanners consistency with its specifications sheet. In order to conduct this work, series of GNSS measurements in Istanbul Technical University have been carried out, connected to the national reference network, to determine precise positions of target points and the scanner, which makes possible to define a precise distance between the scanner and targets. Those ground surveys has been used for calibration and registration purposes. Two different scan campaigns conducted at 12 am and 11 pm to compare working efficiency of laser scanner in different illumination conditions and targets are measured with a handheld spectro-radiometer in order to determine their reflective characteristics. The obtained results are compared and their accuracies have been analysed.

  9. A comparison of modern and fossil ostracods from Frasassi Cave system (northeastern Apennines, Italy) to infer past environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iepure, S.; Namiotko, T.; Montanari, A.; Brugiapaglia, E.; Mainiero, M.; Mariani, S.; Fiebig, M.

    2012-04-01

    Cave water and sediments from an extensive sulfidic, chemioautotrophic subterranean ecosystem in the hypogenic karst complex of Frasassi (northeastern Apennines of Italy) was analysed for modern and fossil ostracode assemblages. 22 extant and 16 extinct ostracode species make of this continental sulphidic ecosystem one of the richest worldwide. Both modern and fossil assemblages show the expected pattern of species diversity after the simulation procedure for taxonomic distinctness, which indicates no major extinction events since the Pleistocene. Extant species display patchy distribution according to habitat heterogeneity within the sulphidic environment. Fossil assemblages from a 3 m thick fluvial deposit trapped near the entrance of the Caverna del Carbone (CDC) at about 30 m above present river level, and a fine sand deposit resting at about the same elevation in Sala Duecento (SDS) within the Grotta Grande del Vento preliminarily dated with OSL at 111±17 ka are being investigated. The former deposit has yet to be dated but it represents probably a normal stratigraphic succession spanning a few tens of kyr, which was deposited when the cave entrance was at the reach of fluvial flooding, potentially recording the transition from the last interglacial Riss-Würm to the glacial Würm. Sediment samples from the SDS site yielded an ostracode assemblage represented by 12 species with a d18O signature of -5‰ and a well-diversified palinoflora assemblage indicating a transitional condition between steppe and temperate forest. The top sediment from the CDC site is characterized by a less diversified ostracode assemblage represented by 8 species, d18O of -3‰, and a poorly diversified palinoflora dominated by herbaceous plants and lesser pines, indicating a colder environment in the early stage of the last glacial. Additional information on the geometric morphometry approach of B-splines method applied to extant and fossil specimens of the hypogean Mixtacandona ostracode was used to identify microevolutionary patterns and environmentally cued variation. Analyses indicate the presence of one morphotype of a new species A of the group Mixtacandona riongessa, and three distinctive morphotypes of a species B of the group M. laisi-chappuisi occurring in stratigraphically distinct fluvial-cave sediments. Apparent difference in the disparity level between these species could be associated with their survival in different environmental conditions. Species A is found nowadays living exclusively in sulphidic cave waters, and was present in the system since at least the end of the last interglacial. The extraordinary high taxonomic and morphological diversity of ostracods reflects in situ evolutionary processes that have occurred under the cumulative effect of high environmental energy availability of subterranean sulphidic ecosystems, heterogeneous environmental conditions, and spatial and temporal isolation.

  10. Vegetation types and climate conditions reflected by the modern phytolith assemblages in the subalpine Dalaoling Forest Reserve, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traoré, Djakanibé Désiré; Gu, Yansheng; Liu, Humei; Shemsanga, Ceven; Ge, Jiwen

    2015-06-01

    This research describes modern phytolith records and distributions from subalpine surface soils in the Dalaoling Forest Reserve, and reveals its implications for local climate conditions with respect to the altitude gradient. Well-preserved phytolith morpho-types, assemblages, and climatic indices were used to study the relationship between local vegetation and climate conditions. The phytolith classification system is mainly based on the characteristics of detailed morpho-types described for anatomical terms, which are divided into seven groups: long cells, short cells, bulliform cells, hair cells, pteridophyte type, broad-leaved type, and gymnosperm type. Phytoliths originating from the Poaceae are composed of Pooideae (rondel and trapeziform), Panicoideae (bilobate, cross, and polylobate), Chloridoideae (short/square saddle), and Bambusoideae (oblong concave saddle). Based on the altitudinal distribution of the phytolith assemblages and the indices of aridity (Iph), climate (Ic), and tree cover density (D/P), five phytolith assemblage zones have revealed the five types of climatic conditions ranging from 1,169 m to 2,005 m in turn: warm-wet, warm-xeric to warm-mesic, warm-xeric to cool-mesic, cool-xeric, and cool-mesic to cool-xeric. The Bambusoideae, Panicoideae, and Chloridoideae are the dominant vegetation at the lower-middle of the mountains, while Pooideae is mainly distributed in the higher mountains. The close relationship between phytolith assembleages and changes of altitude gradient suggest that vegetation distribution patterns and plant ecology in the Dalaoling mountains are controlled by temperature and humidity conditions. Our results highlight the importance of phytolith records as reliable ecoclimatic indicators for vegetation ecology in subtropical regions.

  11. A comparison of spent fuel shipping cask response to 10 CFR 71 normal conditions and realistic hot day extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Manson, S.J.; Gianoulakis, S.E.

    1994-04-01

    An examination of the effect of a realistic (though conservative) hot day environment on the thermal transient behavior of spent fuel shipping casks is made. These results are compared to those that develop under the prescribed normal thermal condition of 10 CFR 71. Of specific concern are the characteristics of propagating thermal waves, which are set up by diurnal variations of temperature and insolation in the outdoor environment. In order to arrive at a realistic approximation of these variations on a conservative hot day, actual temperature and insolation measurements have been obtained from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) for representatively hot and high heat flux days. Thus, the use of authentic meteorological data ensures the realistic approach sought. Further supporting the desired realism of the modeling effort is the use of realistic cask configurations in which multiple laminations of structural, shielding, and other materials are expected to attenuate the propagating thermal waves. The completed analysis revealed that the majority of wall temperatures, for a wide variety of spent fuel shipping cask configurations, fall well below those predicted by enforcement of the regulatory environmental conditions of 10 CFR 71. It was found that maximum temperatures at the cask surface occasionally lie above temperatures predicted under the prescribed regulatory conditions. However, the temperature differences are small enough that the normal conservative assumptions that are made in the course of typical cask evaluations should correct for any potential violations. The analysis demonstrates that diurnal temperature variations that penetrate the cask wall all have maxima substantially less than the corresponding regulatory solutions. Therefore it is certain that vital cask components and the spent fuel itself will not exceed the temperatures calculated by use of the conditions of 10 CFR 71.

  12. A comparison of spent fuel shipping cask response to 10 CFR 71 normal conditions and realistic hot day extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Manson, S.J.; Gianoulakis, S.E.

    1994-02-01

    The structural properties of spent nuclear fuel shipping containers vary as a function of the cask wall temperature. An analysis is performed to determine the effect of a realistic, though bounding, hot day environment on the thermal behavior of spent fuel shipping casks. These results are compared to those which develop under a steady-state application of the prescribed normal thermal conditions of 10CFR71. The completed analysis revealed that the majority of wall temperatures, for a wide variety of spent fuel shipping cask configurations, fall well below those predicted by using the steady-state application of the regulatory boundary conditions. It was found that maximum temperatures at the cask surface occasionally lie above temperatures predicted under the regulatory condition. This is due to the conservative assumptions present in the ambient conditions used. The analysis demonstrates that diurnal temperature variations which penetrate the cask wall have maxima substantially less than the corresponding temperatures obtained when applying the steady-state regulatory boundary conditions. Therefore, it is certain that vital cask components and the spent fuel itself will not exceed the temperatures calculated by use of the steady-state interpretation of the 10CFR71 normal conditions.

  13. Sensor Fish Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through John Day Dam Spillbay 20 with a Modified Flow Deflector

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2011-04-29

    Fish passage conditions over a modified deflector in Spillbay 20 at John Day Dam were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objectives of the study were to describe and compare passage exposure conditions at two spill discharges, 2.4 and 4.0 thousand cubic feet per second (kcfs), identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes, and to evaluate a low-tailwater condition at the 2.4-kcfs discharge. The study was performed in April 2010 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events; 2) differences in passage conditions between treatments; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Nearly all Sensor Fish significant events were classified as collisions; the most severe occurred at the gate, on the spillbay chute, or at the deflector transition. Collisions in the gate region were observed only during the 2.4-kcfs discharge, when the tainter gate was open 1.2 ft. One shear event was observed during the evaluation, occurring at the deflector transition during passage at the 2.4-kcfs discharge at low tailwater. Flow quality, computed using the Sensor Fish turbulence index, was best for passage at the low-flow low-tailwater condition as well. The worst flow quality was observed for the 4.0-kcfs test condition. Contrasting the passage exposure conditions, the 2.4-kcfs low-tailwater treatment would be most deleterious to fish survival and well-being.

  14. EVALUATION OF A SHORT-DAY ADAPTED TETRAPLOID POTATO POPULATION WITH HORIZONTAL RESISTANCE TO PHYTHPHORA INFESTANS UNDER LONG-DAY CONDITIONS IN NORTHERN MAINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora infestans, the cause of late blight, has rapidly overcome major (R) gene resistance in potatoes. A population of short-day adapted tetraploid potatoes with horizontal resistance to late blight was developed at the International Potato Center in Lima, Peru. True seed from this populati...

  15. [Dynamics of the body composition, neurohumoral and psychophysiological status of humans in the conditions of 105-day isolation and confinement].

    PubMed

    Nichiporuk, I A; Vasil'eva, G Iu; Noskov, V B; Morukov, B V

    2011-01-01

    Before, in and after the experiment with 105-day isolation and confinement, 6 male volunteers from 25 to 40 years of age rationed NaCl and performed integral impedancimetric, psychological and hormonal investigations. Every 30 days blood collection for hormonal measurements was combined with filling of Cattell's 16 personal factor questionnaire. Parameters of total body fluid, body mass, basic exchange, specific hydration and basic exchange were determined. The results showed that the experimental conditions did not affect significantly body composition, metabolism or neurohumoral regulation; the metabolic variations were largely associated with motivation for and value orientation in accommodation, to the permissible extent, of the controlled diet and work/rest schedule to personal needs. In addition, it was found that evolution of the psychophysiological status of humans in isolation and confinement is governed primnarily by personality characteristics and, to a less degree, specifics and length of exposure to the artificial environment; thus, in the opinion of the volunteers normoxic, normobaric and slightly hypercapnic (0.15-0.65% CO2) atmosphere was comfortable and harmless to health. Analysis of the whole data array verified the expressed interrelation of neuroendocrine and psychophysiological parameters as well as shifts in body basic exchange and mass, salt intake and hydration rate in the conditions of isolation and confinement. PMID:21848214

  16. Oxidation of dissolved iron under warmer, wetter conditions on Mars: Transitions to present-day arid environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    The copious deposits of ferric-iron assemblages littering the surface of bright regions of Mars indicate that efficient oxidative weathering reactions have taken place during the evolution of the planet. Because the kinetics of atmosphere-surface (gas-solid) reactions are considerably slower than chemical weathering reactions involving an aqueous medium, most of the oxidation products now present in the martian regolith probably formed when groundwater flowed near the surface. This paper examines how chemical weathering reactions were effected by climatic variations when warm, wet environments became arid on Mars. Analogies are drawn with hydrogeochemical and weathering environments on the Australian continent where present-day oxidation of iron is occurring in acidic ground water under arid conditions.

  17. UV hazard on a summer's day under Mediterranean conditions, and the protective role of a beach umbrella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Sabatini, F.; Zipoli, G.

    2005-11-01

    Mediterranean beaches are very crowded during summer and, because of the high values of solar UV radiation, the potential risk for human health is relevant. In this study, all-day measurements of biologically effective global and diffuse UV radiation for skin (UVBEeryt) and eye (UVBEpker, UVBEpconj, UVBEcat) disorders were carried out on differently tilted surfaces on a summer’s day on a Mediterranean beach. The role played by beach umbrellas in protection from excessive sun exposure was also investigated. Erythema, photokeratitis and cataract seem to require almost the same exposure time to reach the risk threshold dose. Under full sunlight, the highest global and diffuse UV values are reached on surfaces normally oriented towards sunlight and on horizontal surfaces, respectively. Over vertical surfaces, at this northern hemisphere site, global and diffuse UV radiation reaches maxima values in the south-facing direction around noon, while maxima values are reached early in the morning and late in the afternoon over surfaces facing east and west, respectively. The quality of the beach umbrella’s protection (efficiency in blocking solar UV radiation) varies with surface orientation; the highest efficiency for our specific site and geometrical conditions occurs over horizontal surfaces, with efficiency being least over vertical surfaces when incident radiation values are still relevant.

  18. Regional Meteorology-Chemistry Simulations For Europe and Southern Germany Under Present Day And Future Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel, R.; Knoche, R.

    2006-12-01

    In order to investigate possible effects of global climate change on the concentrations of photochemical compounds in Europe and in particular in southern Germany nested regional simulations with the coupled climate-chemistry model MCCM were carried out. MCCM is based on the NCAR / Penn State University mesoscale model MM5, which was coupled with a detailed land-surface-model, the RADM2 chemistry module, and a photolysis model. The simulations for Europe with a horizontal resolution of 60 km were driven by meteorological boundary conditions provided by a long term simulation of the global climate model ECHAM4. For Central Europe a horizontal resolution of 20 km was achieved in a second nesting step. Two time slices of about 10 years were compared, one representing the 90ths of the previous century and one representing the 30ths of this century. For Central Europe the simulations show in the summer months for future climate conditions a regionally different increase of the mean temperature between by 1.5 and 2.4 degrees along with a decrease of cloud water and ice and a corresponding increase of photolysis frequencies and emissions of biogenic hydrocarbons. Under the model assumption of unchanged anthropogenic emissions this leads to an average increase of the mean values of most photooxidants. Due to the complex topography and due to the heterogeneous distribution of precursor emissions all parameters show pronounced regional patterns. For the region of southern Germany the increase of the mean daily ozone maximum ranges between 2 and 6 ppb, which corresponds to an increase by about 10 %. For polluted regions in northern Italy and southern France an average increase by 10 ppb was found. As a consequence the number of days when the target value of 120 μg m-3 for the 8 hour average of the ozone concentration is exceeded increases by 3 to 20 days per year.

  19. Aboveground activity rhythm in Arctic black-capped marmot ( Marmota camtschatica bungei Katschenko 1901) under polar day conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Youri; Ramousse, Raymond; Le Berre, Michel; Vassiliev, Vladimir; Solomonov, Nikita

    2001-04-01

    Daily aboveground activity of wild black-capped marmots of Yakutia ( Marmota camtschatica bungei) was recorded under 'polar day' conditions at 71°56' N and 127°19' E (north of the Polar Circle). From the beginning of May until the end of August, the sun was permanently above or close to the horizon. However under this condition of continuous lighting, the aboveground activity of these arctic hibernating mammals was periodic. Onset and end of activity showed marked changes throughout the seasons. Activity time increased strongly from hibernation emergence until the end of July and then decreased slowly until onset of hibernation. Below daily mean temperatures of 5 °C, activity started when the sun was 35° above the horizon, and ended when it dropped below 28°. When daily mean temperatures were above 5 °C, activity onset was synchronised with a solar altitude around 17-18° and activity ended at 10°. Activity onset was more precise relative to the solar altitude than the end of activity. This may be explained by late feeding bouts, following a midday thermal stress. In absence of rapid natural light-dark (LD) transitions that occur at civil twilight, our results suggest that the activity pattern of black-capped marmots may be synchronised by the light cycle through the solar altitude and ambient temperature.

  20. A new coupled ice sheet-climate model: description and sensitivity to model physics under Eemian, Last Glacial Maximum, late Holocene and modern climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyke, J. G.; Weaver, A. J.; Pollard, D.; Eby, M.; Carter, L.; Mackintosh, A.

    2010-08-01

    The need to better understand long-term climate/ice sheet feedback loops is motivating efforts to couple ice sheet models into Earth System models which are capable of long-timescale simulations. In this paper we describe a coupled model, that consists of the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM) and the Pennsylvania State University Ice model (PSUI). The climate model generates a surface mass balance (SMB) field via a sub-gridded surface energy/moisture balance model that resolves narrow ice sheet ablation zones. The ice model returns revised elevation, surface albedo and ice area fields, plus coastal fluxes of heat and moisture. An arbitrary number of ice sheets can be simulated, each on their own high-resolution grid and each capable of synchronous or asynchronous coupling with the overlying climate model. The model is designed to conserve global heat and moisture. In the process of improving model performance we developed a procedure to account for modelled surface air temperature (SAT) biases within the energy/moisture balance surface model and improved the UVic ESCM snow surface scheme through addition of variable albedos and refreezing over the ice sheet. A number of simulations for late Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and Eemian climate boundary conditions were carried out to explore the sensitivity of the coupled model and identify model configurations that best represented these climate states. The modelled SAT bias was found to play a significant role in long-term ice sheet evolution, as was the effect of refreezing meltwater and surface albedo. The bias-corrected model was able to reasonably capture important aspects of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, including modern SMB and ice distribution. The simulated northern Greenland ice sheet was found to be prone to ice margin retreat at radiative forcings corresponding closely to those of the Eemian or the present-day.

  1. A new coupled ice sheet/climate model: description and sensitivity to model physics under Eemian, Last Glacial Maximum, late Holocene and modern climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyke, J. G.; Weaver, A. J.; Pollard, D.; Eby, M.; Carter, L.; Mackintosh, A.

    2011-03-01

    The need to better understand long-term climate/ice sheet feedback loops is motivating efforts to couple ice sheet models into Earth System models which are capable of long-timescale simulations. In this paper we describe a coupled model that consists of the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM) and the Pennsylvania State University Ice model (PSUI). The climate model generates a surface mass balance (SMB) field via a sub-gridded surface energy/moisture balance model that resolves narrow ice sheet ablation zones. The ice model returns revised elevation, surface albedo and ice area fields, plus coastal fluxes of heat and moisture. An arbitrary number of ice sheets can be simulated, each on their own high-resolution grid and each capable of synchronous or asynchronous coupling with the overlying climate model. The model is designed to conserve global heat and moisture. In the process of improving model performance we developed a procedure to account for modelled surface air temperature (SAT) biases within the energy/moisture balance surface model and improved the UVic ESCM snow surface scheme through addition of variable albedos and refreezing over the ice sheet. A number of simulations for late Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and Eemian climate boundary conditions were carried out to explore the sensitivity of the coupled model and identify model configurations that best represented these climate states. The modelled SAT bias was found to play a significant role in long-term ice sheet evolution, as was the effect of refreezing meltwater and surface albedo. The bias-corrected model was able to reasonably capture important aspects of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, including modern SMB and ice distribution. The simulated northern Greenland ice sheet was found to be prone to ice margin retreat at radiative forcings corresponding closely to those of the Eemian or the present-day.

  2. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ginkgo biloba in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: From Ancient Tradition to Modern-Day Medicine

    PubMed Central

    De Silvestri, Annalisa; Lanati, Niccolò; Thiemann, Pia; Verna, Anna; Emanuele, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba (Gb) has demonstrated antioxidant and vasoactive properties as well as clinical benefits in several conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy, and peripheral nerve damage. Additionally, Gb is supposed to act as potential cognitive enhancer in dementia. So far, several trials have been conducted to investigate the potential effectiveness of Gb in neuropsychiatric conditions. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of three randomised controlled trials in patients with schizophrenia and eight randomised controlled trials in patients with dementia. Gb treatment reduced positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and improved cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with dementia. No effect of Gb on negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients was found. The general lack of evidence prevents drawing conclusions regarding Gb effectiveness in other neuropsychiatric conditions (i.e., autism, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and addiction). Our data support the use of Gb in patients with dementia and as an adjunctive therapy in schizophrenic patients. PMID:23781271

  3. Effects of mixed-method cooling on recovery of medium-fast bowling performance in hot conditions on consecutive days.

    PubMed

    Minett, Geoffrey M; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Portus, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined physiological and performance effects of cooling on recovery of medium-fast bowlers in the heat. Eight, medium-fast bowlers completed two randomised trials, involving two sessions completed on consecutive days (Session 1: 10-overs and Session 2: 4-overs) in 31 ± 3°C and 55 ± 17% relative humidity. Recovery interventions were administered for 20 min (mixed-method cooling vs. control) after Session 1. Measures included bowling performance (ball speed, accuracy, run-up speeds), physical demands (global positioning system, counter-movement jump), physiological (heart rate, core temperature, skin temperature, sweat loss), biochemical (creatine kinase, C-reactive protein) and perceptual variables (perceived exertion, thermal sensation, muscle soreness). Mean ball speed was higher after cooling in Session 2 (118.9 ± 8.1 vs. 115.5 ± 8.6 km · h⁻¹; P = 0.001; d = 0.67), reducing declines in ball speed between sessions (0.24 vs. -3.18 km · h⁻¹; P = 0.03; d = 1.80). Large effects indicated higher accuracy in Session 2 after cooling (46.0 ± 11.2 vs. 39.4 ± 8.6 arbitrary units [AU]; P = 0.13; d = 0.93) without affecting total run-up speed (19.0 ± 3.1 vs. 19.0 ± 2.5 km · h⁻¹; P = 0.97; d = 0.01). Cooling reduced core temperature, skin temperature and thermal sensation throughout the intervention (P = 0.001-0.05; d = 1.31-5.78) and attenuated creatine kinase (P = 0.04; d = 0.56) and muscle soreness at 24-h (P = 0.03; d = 2.05). Accordingly, mixed-method cooling can reduce thermal strain after a 10-over spell and improve markers of muscular damage and discomfort alongside maintained medium-fast bowling performance on consecutive days in hot conditions. PMID:22867101

  4. [Characteristics of acupoint application for the sub-healthy condition treated with ancient and modern acupuncture based on data mining exploration].

    PubMed

    Cai, Liyan; Wu, Jie; Ma, Tingting; Yang, Lijie

    2015-10-01

    The acupoint selection was retrieved from the ancient and modern literature on the treatment of sub-healthy condition with acupuncture. The law of acupoint application was analyzed so as to provide a certain reference to the determination of acupoint prescription in clinical acupuncture. The ancient literature was retrieved from Chinese basic ancient literature database. The modern literature was retrieved from Cochrane Library, Medline, PubMed, Ovid evidence-based medicine database, Chinese biomedical literature database, China journal full-text database, VIP journal full-text database and Wanfang database. The database mining software was adopted to explore the law of acupoint application in treatment of sub-healthy conditions with ancient and modern acupuncture. The acupoint use frequency, compatibility association rule, law for meridian use and the use regularity of specific points were analyzed. In the ancient treatment for sub-healthy condition, the top five commonly used acupoints are Shenmen (HT 7), Zhaohai (KI 6), Taibai (SP 3), Daling (PC 7) and Taixi (KI 3). The most commonly combined points are Zhangmen (LR 13), Taibai (SP 3) and Zhaohai (KI 6). The most commonly used meridians are the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, kidney meridian of foot-shaoyin and liver meridian of foot-jueyin. The most commonly used specific points are the five-shu points. The most commonly used acupoints are located in the lower limbs. In the modern treatment, the top five commonly used acupoints are Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Baihui (GV 20), Shenshu (BL 23) and Guanyuan (CV 4). The most commonly supplemented points are Hegu (LI 4) and Taichong (LR 3). The most commonly used meridians are the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, the conception vessel and the governor vessel. The most commonly used specific points are the back-shu points. The most commonly used acupoints are located in the lower limbs. After the systematic comprehension of the relevant ancient and modern literature, the most commonly used acupoints are selected along the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, and the most commonly used specific points are the back-shu points, the five-shu points and the front-mu-points. the acupoints are mostly located in the lower limbs. PMID:26790229

  5. Modern day pirates. Software users and abusers.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, L H

    1994-01-01

    Although the use of computers for word processing and spreadsheet analysis is widespread, other less well-known uses can also increase efficiency and productivity. In this bimonthly column, Dr. Nicoll discusses a variety of computer applications to help the nurse executive catch up, keep up, and get ahead. PMID:8308553

  6. Medieval Latin for Modern Day Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Richard V.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a curriculum design and anthology of Latin readings for high school students developed by a recipient of a National Endowment for the Humanities/Readers' Digest Teacher-Scholar Fellowship. Maintains that correspondence between authors Dorothy Sayers and C.S. Lewis provided inspiration for the anthology development project. (CFR)

  7. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  8. Addition of 10-Day Decitabine to Fludarabine/Total Body Irradiation Conditioning is Feasible and Induces Tumor-Associated Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Cruijsen, Marjan; Hobo, Willemijn; van der Velden, Walter J F M; Bremmers, Manita E J; Woestenenk, Rob; Bär, Brigitte; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Kester, Michel; Schaap, Nicolaas P M; Jansen, Joop; Blijlevens, Nicole N M; Dolstra, Harry; Huls, Gerwin

    2016-06-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) offers the possibility of curative therapy for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, post-HCT relapse remains a major problem, particularly in patients with high-risk cytogenetics and in patients who cannot tolerate consolidation chemotherapy (eg, due to previous toxicity). We assessed the toxicity and efficacy of 10-day decitabine (Dec), fludarabine (Flu), and 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) as a new conditioning regimen for allogeneic HCT in patients with MDS, CMML, or AML. Thirty patients were enrolled, including 11 with MDS, 2 with CMML, and 17 with AML. Patients received 20 mg/m(2)/day Dec on days -11 to -2, 30 mg/m(2)/day Flu on days -4 to -2, and 2 Gy TBI on day -1, followed by infusion of a donor stem cell graft on day 0. Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporin A and mycophenolate mofetil. At a median follow-up of 443 days, the overall survival was 53%, relapse incidence was 27%, and nonrelapse mortality was 27%. The incidence of severe acute (grade III/IV) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 27%, and that of (predominantly mild) chronic GVHD was 60%. Immunomonitoring studies revealed that specific CD8(+) T cell responses against epigenetically silenced tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), including cancer-testis antigens (MAGE-A1/A2/A3 and PRAME) and RHAMM, occurred more frequently in patients who had received Dec/Flu/TBI conditioning (8 of 11 patients) compared with a control group of patients who had received only Flu/TBI conditioning (2 of 9 patients). In summary, Dec/Flu/TBI conditioning proved feasible and effective and enhanced the induction of TAA-reactive CD8(+) T cell responses in vivo, which may contribute to disease control post-transplantation. PMID:26860635

  9. EARLY CEREBELLAR LESIONS IMPAIR EYEBLINK CONDITIONING IN DEVELOPING RATS: DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF UNILATERAL LESIONS ON POSTNATAL DAY 10 OR 20

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study attempted to evaluate the role of the cerebellum in the acquisition of eyeblink conditioning in developing rats, Experiment 1 demonstrated that the ipsilateral cerebellar hemispheric cortex and deep nuclei are essential for the acquisition of eyeblink conditioning in d...

  10. Digestible Lysine Requirements of Male Broilers From 14 to 28 Days of Age Subjected to Different Environmental Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary amino acid requirements are influenced by environmental conditions. Two experiments examined growth responses of Ross × Ross TP 16 male broilers fed diets varying in digestible (dig) Lys concentrations from 14 to 28 d of age under different environmental conditions. Experiment 1 was conduc...

  11. Die another day: Fate of heat-treated Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 spores during storage under growth-preventing conditions.

    PubMed

    Mtimet, Narjes; Trunet, Clément; Mathot, Anne-Gabrielle; Venaille, Laurent; Leguérinel, Ivan; Coroller, Louis; Couvert, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores are recognized as one of the most wet-heat resistant among aerobic spore-forming bacteria and are responsible for 35% of canned food spoilage after incubation at 55 °C. The purpose of this study was to investigate and model the fate of heat-treated survivor spores of G. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 in growth-preventing environment. G. stearothermophilus spores were heat-treated at four different conditions to reach one or two decimal reductions. Heat-treated spores were stored in nutrient broth at different temperatures and pH under growth-preventing conditions. Spore survival during storage was evaluated by count plating over a period of months. Results reveal that G. stearothermophilus spores surviving heat treatment lose their viability during storage under growth-preventing conditions. Two different subpopulations were observed during non-thermal inactivation. They differed according to the level of their resistance to storage stress, and the proportion of each subpopulation can be modulated by heat treatment conditions. Finally, tolerance to storage stress under growth-preventing conditions increases at refrigerated temperature and neutral pH regardless of heat treatment conditions. Such results suggest that spore inactivation due to heat treatment could be completed by storage under growth-preventing conditions. PMID:26919821

  12. Pedagogical Staff in Children's Day Care Centres in Germany--Links between Working Conditions, Job Satisfaction, Commitment and Work-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreyer, Inge; Krause, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates links between staff working conditions in children's day care centres ("Kindertageseinrichtungen"--known as "Kitas" in Germany), job satisfaction, commitment and perceived stress at work. Data are based on the nationwide, representative questionnaire survey AQUA ("Arbeitsplatz und Qualität in…

  13. Expression of Flowering-Time Genes in Soybean E1 Near-isogenic Lines Under Short and Long Day Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of soybean flowering time is important for geographic adaptation, and maximizing yield. Plant breeders have identified a series of genes (E genes) that condition time to flowering, however, the molecular basis in the control of flowering by these E genes, in conjunction with canonical flowe...

  14. Whole genome expression analysis of near isogenic lines for the soybean E1 gene under short and long day conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of soybean flowering time is important for geographic adaptation, and maximizing yield and has been shown in soybean be to be controlled by a series of genes (E genes) that condition time to flowering. The E genes are available as near isogenic lines (NILs) making them an excellent model sys...

  15. Biology, Temperature Thresholds, and Degree-Day Requirements for Development of the Cucumber Moth, Diaphania indica, under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzade, Sareh; Izadi, Hamzeh; Namvar, Pyman; Samih, Mohamad Amin

    2014-01-01

    The cucumber moth, Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a tropical and sub-tropical cucurbits pest and a key greenhouse pest in the Jiroft region of Iran. In this study, the effect of different temperatures on the development of this pest was investigated on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), leaves in a growth chamber at various constant temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35°C). The results indicated that the development period from egg to adult death at the decreased with increasing temperature. Mortality was greatest at 35°C. Based on a linear model, the highest and lowest temperature thresholds were recorded for male insects and pupal stage as 16°C and 9.04°C with thermal constants of 100 and 144.92 degree days, respectively. PMID:25373208

  16. [Character and speed of recovery of psychophysiological functions after application of various kinds of anesthesia in conditions of a "one-day" stationary].

    PubMed

    Polinchuk, I S

    2009-09-01

    The frequency of operative interventions, performed according to the "one-day" stationary technology is raising every day. The patients are choosed in accordance with conventional methods, while somatic state of a patient and the further operation volume playing the leading role. But in 30% of patients in the early postoperative period and in 10.4% in the late postopeartive period the high psychic functions disorders occur, which are called postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The investigation is devoted to studying of character and speed of restoration of psychophysiologic functions after application of various general anaesthesy in conditions of the "one-day" stationary. There was proved, that apart of general anaesthesy scheme applied, in all the patients the cognitive functions defect was noted in postoperative period. These functions are restored most quickly in application of propofol in the scheme and most slower in mononarcosis with ketamin. PMID:20218404

  17. A whole-genome microarray study of Arabidopsis thaliana semisolid callus cultures exposed to microgravity and nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions for 5 days on board of Shenzhou 8.

    PubMed

    Fengler, Svenja; Spirer, Ina; Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Nieselt, Kay; Hampp, Rdiger

    2015-01-01

    The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1?g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production. PMID:25654111

  18. A Whole-Genome Microarray Study of Arabidopsis thaliana Semisolid Callus Cultures Exposed to Microgravity and Nonmicrogravity Related Spaceflight Conditions for 5 Days on Board of Shenzhou 8

    PubMed Central

    Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Hampp, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1 g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production. PMID:25654111

  19. The reliability of the quantitative timed up and go test (QTUG) measured over five consecutive days under single and dual-task conditions in community dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Erin; Walsh, Lorcan; Doyle, Julie; Greene, Barry; Blake, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The timed up and go (TUG) test is a commonly used assessment in older people with variations including the addition of a motor or cognitive dual-task, however in high functioning older adults it is more difficult to assess change. The quantified TUG (QTUG) uses inertial sensors to detect test and gait parameters during the test. If it is to be used in the longitudinal assessment of older adults, it is important that we know which parameters are reliable and under which conditions. This study aims to examine the relative reliability of the QTUG over five consecutive days under single, motor and cognitive dual-task conditions. Twelve community dwelling older adults (10 females, mean age 74.17 (3.88)) performed the QTUG under three conditions for five consecutive days. The relative reliability of each of the gait parameters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC 3,1) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Five of the measures demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC>0.70) under all three conditions (time to complete test, walk time, number of gait cycles, number of steps and return from turn time). Measures of variability and turn derived parameters demonstrated weak reliability under all three conditions (ICC=0.05-0.49). For the most reliable parameters under single-task conditions, the addition of a cognitive task resulted in a reduction in reliability suggesting caution when interpreting results under these conditions. Certain sensor derived parameters during the QTUG test may provide an additional resource in the longitudinal assessment of older people and earlier identification of falls risk. PMID:26526223

  20. OsBBX14 delays heading date by repressing florigen gene expression under long and short-day conditions in rice.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bo; Zhao, Jie; Li, Yaping; Zhang, Fang; Zhou, Jinjun; Chen, Fan; Xie, Xianzhi

    2016-06-01

    B-box (BBX) proteins are zinc finger proteins containing B-box domains, which have roles in Arabidopsis growth and development. However, little is known concerning rice BBXs. Herein, we identified a rice BBX protein, Oryza sativa BBX14 (OsBBX14). OsBBX14 is highly expressed in flag leaf blades. OsBBX14 expression shows a diurnal rhythm under photoperiodic conditions and subsequent continuous white light. OsBBX14 is located in the nucleus and has transcriptional activation potential. OsBBX14-overexpression (OsBBX14-OX) lines exhibited delayed heading date under long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions, whereas RNAi lines of OsBBX14 lines had similar heading dates to the WT. The florigen genes, Hd3a and RFT1, were downregulated in the OsBBX14-OX lines under LD and SD conditions. Under LD conditions, Hd1 was expressed higher in the OsBBX14-OX lines than in the wild type (WT), and the rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes, OsLHY and OsPRR1, was changed in OsBBX14-OX lines. Thus, OsBBX14 acts as a floral repressor by promoting Hd1 expression under LD conditions, probably because of crosstalk with the circadian clock. Under SD conditions, Ehd1 expression was reduced in OsBBX14-OX lines, but Hd1 and circadian clock gene expressions were unaffected, indicating that OsBBX14 acts as a repressor of Ehd1. Our findings suggested that OsBBX14 regulates heading date differently under LD and SD conditions. PMID:27095397

  1. Effect of 8 days of a hypergravity condition on the sprinting speed and lower-body power of elite rugby players.

    PubMed

    Barr, Matthew J; Gabbett, Tim J; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    -Sprinting speed and lower-body power are considered to be key physical abilities for rugby players. A method of improving the lower-body power of athletes is simulated hypergravity. This method involves wearing a weighted vest at all times during the day for an extended period of time. There are no studies that have examined the effect of hypergravity on speed or the benefit for rugby players. An experimental group (n = 8) and a control group (n = 7) of national team rugby players took part in the study, which consisted of rugby, conditioning, speed, and strength sessions. The experimental group wore a weighted vest equating to 12% of their body mass for 8 days. All players were tested for speed and lower-body power before, 2 days after, and 9 days after the intervention. Speed testing involved the athletes completing 40-m sprints with timing lights and high-speed video cameras assessing acceleration and maximal velocity sprinting kinematics. Lower-body power was assessed using weighted countermovement jumps (CMJs). No group differences were found for sprinting speed at any point. The experimental group displayed a large decrease in acceleration ground contact time (-0.01 ± 0.005 s, d = 1.07) and a moderate increase in 15-kg CMJ velocity (0.07 ± 0.11 m·s, d = 0.71). Individual responses showed that players in the experimental group had both negative and positive speed and power responses to the training intervention. Simulated hypergravity for 8 days is likely ineffective at improving sprinting speed while undergoing standard rugby training. PMID:25226329

  2. Triple oxygen and sulfur isotope analyses of sulfate extracted from voluminous volcanic ashes in the Oligocene John Day Formation: insight into dry climate conditions and ozone contribution to supereruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, J.; Bindeman, I. N.; Martin, E.; Retallack, G.; Palandri, J. L.; Weldon, N.

    2014-12-01

    Large volume pyroclastic silicic eruptions emit hundreds of megatons of SO2 into the troposphere and stratosphere that is oxidized into sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by a variety of reactions with mass independent oxygen signatures (MIF), Δ17O>0. Sulfuric acid is then preserved as gypsum in parental volcanic deposits. Diagenic effects are mass dependent and can dilute, but otherwise do not affect MIF ratios. Pleistocene Yellowstone and Bishop tuffs and modern volcanic eruptions preserved under arid climate conditions in North American playa lakes, preserve small amounts of volcanic sulfate as gypsum. This gypsum's Δ17O>0, in combination with isotopic variations of δ18O, δ33S and δ34S is distinct from sedimentary sulfate and reveals its original MIF sulfate isotopic signal and the effect of super eruptions on the atmosphere, and ozone consumption in particular. We use linear algebraic equations to resolve volcanic versus sedimentary (MIF=0) sources. We have found that many large volume ignimbrites have very high initial Δ17O in volcanic sulfate that can only be acquired from reaction with stratospheric ozone. We here investigate nine thick (>2 m) ash beds ranging in age from ~33-23 Ma in the John Day Formation of central Oregon, including massive 28.6 Ma Picture Gorge tuff of newly identified Crooked River supercaldera. The 28.6 Ma Picture Gorge tuff (PGT) has the highest measured Δ17O of 3.5‰, and other tuffs (Tin Roof, Biotite, Deep Creek) have +1.3 to 3.4‰ Δ17O excesses. Sulfate from modern smaller tropospheric eruptions studied for comparison have a resolvable 0.4‰ range consistent with liquid-phase based H2O2 oxidation. The PGT is coeval with the ignimbrite flare-up in western N. America, the 28-29 Ma eruption of the 5000 km3 Fish Canyon tuff and the 28 Ma Never Summer Field eruption in Nebraska-Colorado that have the highest measured Δ17O of 6‰ (Bao et al. 2003). We speculate on the climatic/atmospheric effects of these multiple ~28 Ma supereruptions in the N America semiarid paleoclimate. The strong mass independent signal of the 28-29 Ma ignimbrite flare-up suggests these super eruptions must have reached well into the stratosphere to record interactions with ozone and peroxide or created dry fog tropospheric conditions.

  3. [Hygienic features of working conditions and their impact on the health of women engaged in the present-day manufacture of paper wallpaper].

    PubMed

    Pichugina, N N

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to comprehensively assess working conditions and their impact on the health of female workers engaged in the manufacture of present-day paper wallpaper. A complex of sanitary-and-hygienic, clinical-and-physiological, sociomedical, and statistical studies was used to tackle the tasks set in the investigation. Stage 1 made a sanitary-and-hygienic assessment of industrial factors (microclimate, noise, vibration, the content of toxicants and dust) in the workplaces of female workers from the papering shops using an Elita rolling automatic machine. The following stage analyzed morbidity among the workers and identified a number of functional parameters. A combination of poor factors characterizing their parameters and exceeding the sanitary standards influenced on the workers engaged in the manufacture of paper wallpaper. The leading harmful industrial factors are heating microclimate, production noise, and the working air level of harmful chemical substances in the working air. The production process under such microclimatic conditions causes the body's thermal changes characterized by the senses of total warm discomfort and the tension of thermoregulatory mechanisms, as confirmed by weighed mean skin temperature studies and decreased working capacity. The working conditions in the manufacture of wallpaper products are shown to result in an increase in female morbidity. PMID:21842734

  4. Predictors and Impact of Thirty-Day Readmission on Patient Outcomes and Health Care Costs after Reduced-Toxicity Conditioning Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rauenzahn, Sherri; Truong, Quoc; Cumpston, Aaron; Goff, Londia; Leadmon, Sonia; Evans, Kim; Zhang, Jianjun; Wen, Sijin; Craig, Michael; Hamadani, Mehdi; Kanate, Abraham S.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-day readmission (30-DR) has become an important quality-of-care measure. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) presents a medical setting with higher readmission rates. We analyzed factors affecting 30-DR and its impact on patient outcomes and on health care costs in 91 patients who underwent reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) allo-HCT with fludarabine and busulfan. The patient cohort was divided into 2: the readmission group (R-gp) or the no-readmission group (NR-gp). Overall, 38% (n = 35) required readmission with a median time to readmission of 14 days. In multivariate analysis, only documented infection during the index admission predicted 30-DR, P =.01. With a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 1 to 69) for surviving patients, the 2-year overall survival was 49% and 58% in the R-gp and NR-gp respectively, P =.48. The 1-year nonrelapse mortality in R-gp and NR-gp was 18% and 13% respectively, P =.43. The median post-transplantation hospital charges in the R-gp and NR-gp were $85,115 (range, $32,015 to $242,519) and $45,083 (range, $10,715 to $485,456), P = .0002. In conclusion, only documented infections during the index hospitalization influenced 30-DR after RTC allo-HCT. Although 30-DR did not adversely affect mortality or survival, it was associated with significantly increased 100-day post-transplantation hospital charges, thus supporting its role as a quality-of-care measure in allo-HCT patients. PMID:24361913

  5. Predictors and impact of thirty-day readmission on patient outcomes and health care costs after reduced-toxicity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rauenzahn, Sherri; Truong, Quoc; Cumpston, Aaron; Goff, Londia; Leadmon, Sonia; Evans, Kim; Zhang, Jianjun; Wen, Sijin; Craig, Michael; Hamadani, Mehdi; Kanate, Abraham S

    2014-03-01

    Thirty-day readmission (30-DR) has become an important quality-of-care measure. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) presents a medical setting with higher readmission rates. We analyzed factors affecting 30-DR and its impact on patient outcomes and on health care costs in 91 patients who underwent reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) allo-HCT with fludarabine and busulfan. The patient cohort was divided into 2: the readmission group (R-gp) or the no-readmission group (NR-gp). Overall, 38% (n = 35) required readmission with a median time to readmission of 14 days. In multivariate analysis, only documented infection during the index admission predicted 30-DR, P = .01. With a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 1 to 69) for surviving patients, the 2-year overall survival was 49% and 58% in the R-gp and NR-gp respectively, P = .48. The 1-year nonrelapse mortality in R-gp and NR-gp was 18% and 13% respectively, P = .43. The median post-transplantation hospital charges in the R-gp and NR-gp were $85,115 (range, $32,015 to $242,519) and $45,083 (range, $10,715 to $485,456), P = .0002. In conclusion, only documented infections during the index hospitalization influenced 30-DR after RTC allo-HCT. Although 30-DR did not adversely affect mortality or survival, it was associated with significantly increased 100-day post-transplantation hospital charges, thus supporting its role as a quality-of-care measure in allo-HCT patients. PMID:24361913

  6. Simulations of the HDO and H2O-18 atmospheric cycles using the NASA GISS general circulation model - The seasonal cycle for present-day conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jouzel, J.; Russell, G. L.; Suozzo, R. J.; Koster, R. D.; White, J. W. C.

    1987-01-01

    The cycles of the water isotopic species (HDO and H2O-18) have been incorporated into the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). The results of a three-year simulation for present-day conditions are discussed, with special emphasis on the comparison between predicted and observed isotopic distributions for both the seasonal and annual time scales. The observed seasonal cycles are generally well simulated. For the annual scale the observed linear relationship between delta O-18 and the surface temperature at middle and high latitudes, as well as the absence of any correlation between these fields in tropical and equatorial regions, are properly obeyed by the GCM simulation. In the tropical and equatorial regions the delta O-18 patterns for both observations and the GCM are influenced by the amount of rainfall. There is excellent agreement between the simulated and observed delta D-delta O-18 relationship throughout the world.

  7. Vectortine's Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, Frank

    1998-11-01

    Holidays at Lemon Bay High are days of unusual activities, as they well may be at other high schools. One of our special days is Valentine's Day. In order to maintain some academic focus in the physics department, while allowing my students to participate in the celebration, we've developed a physics version of the hearts-and-flowers February celebration. It's Vectortine's Day in physics class.

  8. GmCOL1a and GmCOL1b Function as Flowering Repressors in Soybean Under Long-Day Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dong; Li, Ying; Lu, Sijia; Wang, Jialin; Nan, Haiyang; Li, Xiaoming; Shi, Danning; Fang, Chao; Zhai, Hong; Yuan, Xiaohui; Anai, Toyoaki; Xia, Zhengjun; Liu, Baohui; Kong, Fanjiang

    2015-12-01

    CONSTANS (CO) has a central role in the photoperiod response mechanism in Arabidopsis. However, the functions of legume CO genes in controlling flowering remain unknown. Here, we analyze the expression patterns of E1, E2 and GmCOL1a/1b using near-isogenic lines (NILs), and we further analyze flowering-related genes in gmcol1b mutants and GmCOL1a-overexpressing plants. Our data showed that both E3 and E4 up-regulate E1 expression, with the effect of E3 on E1 being greater than the effect of E4 on E1. E2 was up-regulated by E3 and E4 but down-regulated by E1. GmCOL1a/1b were up-regulated by E1, E2, E3 and E4. Although the spatial and temporal patterns of GmCOL1a/1b expression were more similar to those of AtCOL2 than to those of AtCO, gmcol1b mutants flowered earlier than wild-type plants under long-day (LD) conditions, and the overexpression of GmCOL1a caused late flowering under LD or natural conditions. In addition, GmFT2a/5a, E1 and E2 were down-regulated in GmCOL1a-overexpressing plants under LD conditions. Because E1/2 influences the expression of GmCOL1a, and vice versa, we conclude that these genes may function as part of a negative feedback loop, and GmCOL1a/b genes may serve as suppressors in photoperiodic flowering in soybean under LD conditions. PMID:26508522

  9. Cyberspace modernization :

    SciTech Connect

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  10. Transversal Stiffness and Beta-Actin and Alpha-Actinin-4 Content of the M. Soleus Fibers in the Conditions of a 3-Day Reloading after 14-Day Gravitational Unloading

    PubMed Central

    Ogneva, I. V.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyze the structural changes in different parts of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus of muscle fibers by measuring their transversal stiffness by atomic force microscopy in a three-day reloading after a 14-day gravity disuse, which was carried out by hind-limbs suspension. The object of the study was the soleus muscle of the Wistar rat. It was shown that after 14 days of disuse, there was a reduction of transversal stiffness of all points of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus. Readaptation for 3 days leads to complete recovery of the values of the transversal stiffness of the sarcolemma and to partial value recovery of the contractile apparatus. The changes in transversal stiffness of sarcolemma correlate with beta-actin and alpha-actinin-4 in membrane protein fractions. PMID:21941432

  11. Out-of-hours and weekend admissions to Danish medical departments: admission rates and 30-day mortality for 20 common medical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Knowledge on timing of admissions and mortality for acute medical patients is limited. The aim of the study was to examine hospital admission rates and mortality rates for patients with common medical conditions according to time of admission. Design Nationwide population-based cohort study. Setting Population of Denmark. Participants Using the Danish National Registry of Patients covering all Danish hospitals, we identified all adults with the first acute admission to a medical department in Denmark during 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Hourly admission rates and age-standardised and sex-standardised 30-day mortality rates comparing weekday office hours, weekday out of hours, weekend daytime hours and weekend night-time hours. Results In total, 174 192 acute medical patients were included in the study. The admission rates (patients per hour) were 38.7 (95% CI 38.4 to 38.9) during weekday office hours, 13.3 (95% CI 13.2 to 13.5) during weekday out of hours, 19.8 (95% CI 19.6 to 20.1) during weekend daytime hours and 7.9 (95% CI 7.8 to 8.0) during weekend night-time hours. Admission rates varied between medical conditions. The proportion of patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) increased outside of office hours. The age-standardised and sex-standardised 30-day mortality rate was 5.1% (95% CI 5.0% to 5.3%) after admission during weekday office hours, 5.7% (95% CI 5.5% to 6.0%) after admission during weekday out of hours, 6.4% (95% CI 6.1% to 6.7%) after admission during weekend daytime hours and 6.3% (95% CI 5.9% to 6.8%) after admission during weekend night-time hours. For the majority of the medical conditions examined, weekend admission was associated with highest mortality. Conclusions While admission rates decreased from office hours to weekend hours there was an observed increase in mortality. This may reflect differences in severity of illness as the proportion admitted to an ICU increased during the weekend. PMID:25762233

  12. Climatic controls on biophysical interactions in the Black Sea under present day conditions and a potential future (A1B) climate scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannaby, Heather; Fach, Bettina A.; Arkin, Sinan S.; Salihoglu, Baris

    2015-01-01

    A dynamical downscaling approach has been applied to investigate climatic controls on biophysical interactions and lower trophic level dynamics in the Black Sea. Simulations were performed under present day conditions (1980-1999) and a potential future (2080-2099) climate scenario, based on the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario. Simulations project a 3.7 °C increase in SST, a 25% increase in the stability of the seasonal thermocline and a 37 day increase in the duration of seasonal stratification. Increased winter temperatures inhibited the formation of Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) waters resulting in near complete erosion of the CIL, with implications for the ventilation of intermediate water masses and the subduction of riverine nutrients. A 4% increase in nitrate availability within the upper 30 m of the water column reflected an increase in the retention time of river water within the surface mixed-layer. Changes in thermohaline structure, combined with a 27% reduction in positive wind stress curl, forced a distinct change in the structure of the basin-scale circulation. The predominantly cyclonic circulation characteristic of contemporary conditions was reversed within the southern and eastern regions of the basin, where under A1B climatic conditions, anticyclonic circulation prevailed. The change in circulation structure significantly altered the horizontal advection and dispersion of high nutrient river waters originating on the NW self. Net primary production increased by 5% on average, with much spatial variability in the response, linked to advective processes. Phytoplankton biomass also increased by 5% and the higher nutrient environment of the future scenario caused a shift in species composition in favour of larger phytoplankton. No significant change in zooplankton biomass was projected. These results constitute one of many possible future scenarios for the Black Sea, being dependent on the modelling systems employed in addition to the choice of emission scenario. Our results emphasise in particular the sensitivity of dynamical downscaling studies to the regional wind forcing fields extracted from global models (these being typically model dependent). As atmospheric warming is projected with a high degree of confidence warming of the Black Sea upper layer, increased water column stability, and erosion of the CIL are believed to be robust results of this study.

  13. When and What to Modernize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, D. Dana

    After a brief discussion of when a school board should consider modernizing mechanical and electrical equipment the speaker explored the specifics of lighting, heating, and ventilation. Technical data on foot candles, types of light fixtures, and the importance of air conditioning in modern school buildings are presented. The presentation…

  14. Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merro, John; And Others

    Interviews on the quality of day care in the United States are presented in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Writers, day care center personnel and others describe and evaluate the current situation. Federal legislation concerning children is examined, and researchers…

  15. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  16. CEMI Days

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  17. AN APPROACH TO ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF RIPARIAN PLANT COMMUNITIES IN THE JOHN DAY AND DESCHUTES RIVER BASINS OF EASTERN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian vegetation represents unique plant communities and provides a variety of ecosystem services that influence in-stream condition. This research develops methods and indicators for evaluating vegetation condition. A key indicator of riparian vegetation condition is the deg...

  18. Effect of core body temperature, time of day, and climate conditions on behavioral patterns of lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress.

    PubMed

    Allen, J D; Hall, L W; Collier, R J; Smith, J F

    2015-01-01

    Cattle show several responses to heat load, including spending more time standing. Little is known about what benefit this may provide for the animals. Data from 3 separate cooling management trials were analyzed to investigate the relationship between behavioral patterns in lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress and their body temperature. Cows (n=157) were each fitted with a leg data logger that measured position and an intravaginal data logger that measures core body temperature (CBT). Ambient conditions were also collected. All data were standardized to 5-min intervals, and information was divided into several categories: when standing and lying bouts were initiated and the continuance of each bout (7,963 lying and 6,276 standing bouts). In one location, cows were continuously subjected to heat-stress levels according to temperature-humidity index (THI) range (THI≥72). The THI range for the other 2 locations was below and above a heat-stress threshold of 72 THI. Overall and regardless of period of day, cows stood up at greater CBT compared with continuing to stand or switching to a lying position. In contrast, cows lay down at lower CBT compared with continuing to lie or switching to a standing position, and lying bouts lasted longer when cows had lower CBT. Standing bouts also lasted longer when cattle had greater CBT, and they were less likely to lie down (less than 50% of lying bouts initiated) when their body temperature was over 38.8°C. Also, cow standing behavior was affected once THI reached 68. Increasing CBT decreased lying duration and increased standing duration. A CBT of 38.93°C marked a 50% likelihood a cow would be standing. This is the first physiological evidence that standing may help cool cows and provides insight into a communally observed behavioral response to heat. PMID:25468707

  19. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated

  20. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  1. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  2. Modern Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2014-01-01

    School reform alone cannot substantially improve the performance of the poorest African American students. This performance problem must be addressed primarily by improving the social and economic conditions that bring too many children to school unprepared to take advantage of what schools have to offer. Integrating disadvantaged black students…

  3. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Labor Day and the war on workers.

    PubMed

    Rosner, D; Markowitz, G

    1999-09-01

    We celebrate Labor Day every year with barbecues and picnics, rarely remembering that the holiday was born in the midst of tremendous labor struggles to improve working conditions. In the last century, 16-hour workdays and 6- and 7-day workweeks led to terribly high injury rates in the nation's mines and mills. Thousands upon thousands of workers died, caught in the grinding machinery of our growing industries. Today, despite improvements, thousands of workers still die in what has been described as a form of war on the American workforce. This commentary reminds us of the historical toll in lives and limbs that workers have paid to provide us with our modern prosperity. It also reminds us that the continuing toll is far too high and that workers who died and continue to die in order to produce our wealth deserve to be remembered and honored on this national holiday. PMID:10474546

  5. Labor Day and the war on workers.

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, D; Markowitz, G

    1999-01-01

    We celebrate Labor Day every year with barbecues and picnics, rarely remembering that the holiday was born in the midst of tremendous labor struggles to improve working conditions. In the last century, 16-hour workdays and 6- and 7-day workweeks led to terribly high injury rates in the nation's mines and mills. Thousands upon thousands of workers died, caught in the grinding machinery of our growing industries. Today, despite improvements, thousands of workers still die in what has been described as a form of war on the American workforce. This commentary reminds us of the historical toll in lives and limbs that workers have paid to provide us with our modern prosperity. It also reminds us that the continuing toll is far too high and that workers who died and continue to die in order to produce our wealth deserve to be remembered and honored on this national holiday. PMID:10474546

  6. Hydrology day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel-Seytoux, H. J.

    Registration for the Hydrology Day sponsored by the Front Range Branch of AGU on April 23 at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, totaled 121 participants, of whom 61 were students.Thirty-one individuals joined the Front Range Branch. Three students from Colorado State University won the awards for best paper in their category: Thomas W. Anzia (Sr.), ‘A Comprehensive Table of Standard Deviates for Confidence Limits on Extreme Events’ Victor Nazareth (M.S.), ‘Aquifer Properties from Single-Hole Aquifer Tests’ and Roy W. Koch (Ph.D.), ‘A Physically Based Derivation of the Distribution of Excess Precipitation.’ Judges for the awards were Dr. Bittinger, Resource Consultants, Fort Collins; George Leavesley and Daniel Bauer, USGS, Water Resources Division, Denver; Scott Tucker, Executive Director, Denver Urban Drainage and Flood Control District; Charles Brendecke, Department of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder.

  7. Progesterone status, parity, body condition, and days postpartum before estrus or ovulation synchronization in suckled beef cattle influence artificial insemination pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J S; Hill, S L; Bridges, G A; Larson, J E; Lamb, G C

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to assess the effects of progesterone before initiating an estrus- or ovulation-synchronization program in addition to the influence of parity, BCS, and days postpartum on resulting pregnancy rates per AI. Experimental data were combined from 73 herd-year studies consisting of more than 8,500 suckled beef cows exposed to variants of the CO-Synch program. Blood was harvested from samples collected at 10 and 0 d before the onset of CO-Synch, and progesterone concentrations of the samples were determined. The progesterone environment preceding synchronization was assessed in 3 ways on the basis of progesterone concentrations measured in the 2 defined blood samples. All binomial logistic regression models used procedure GLIMMIX in SAS and included the fixed effects of program duration, inclusion of progesterone via an intravaginal insert, parity, days postpartum at AI, BCS, and appropriate interactions. In addition, model 1 included 3 categories of progesterone concentrations (low [<1 ng/mL], medium [1.00 to 3.99 ng/mL], and high [≥4.00 ng/mL] concentrations) at 10 and 0 d before synchronization and their interaction. Model 2 included 4 categories defining the stage of the estrous cycle (late diestrus, early diestrus, and proestrus-estrus-metestrus) or anestrus, at which cows started the synchronization program. Model 3 defined cows as cycling or noncycling at the onset of the program. Significant effects of progesterone supplementation, which hormone was used to initiate the timed AI program, parity, BCS, days postpartum, and progesterone status assessed in 3 ways were consistent in nearly all models. Progesterone status at the onset of synchronization was not important to pregnancy outcomes in multiparous cows, whereas pregnancy rate per AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began in a low-progesterone environment (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, or anestrus). A significant 3-way interaction of parity, BCS, and days postpartum in 2 models reinforced the importance of these factors to AI pregnancy outcomes. Ancillary analyses identified the significant effects of cycling status and BCS as well as days postpartum on luteolytic response to PGF(2α). Pregnancy loss of 2.7% to 4.2% was detected to occur between a positive pregnancy diagnosis at 35 d post-AI and later stages of pregnancy. We concluded that progesterone status at the onset of the synchronization program is critical to pregnancy outcomes in primiparous but not multiparous cows. PMID:26020307

  8. Development and application of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for assessment of modern and historical flow conditions of Upper Mississippi River Pool 8 near La Crosse, Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafne, Brice E.

    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem that includes the main stem river channel, side channels, backwater floodplains and lakes, islands, wetlands, grasslands, and floodplain forests. The hydrology of this rich ecosystem is one of the key drivers for physical, chemical and biological processes. However, the hydrology and hydraulics of the UMRS has been drastically altered from its natural state as a result of the construction of the locks and dams in the 1930s. Beginning with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986, biologists, ecologists, and engineers have been working to restore the river to a more natural state within the current constraints imposed by the lock and dam system. In an effort to restore rivers to a more natural state, the determination of a hydraulic reference condition is essential to understanding the "why and how" of historical river system function. Understanding the fundamental processes of historical conditions will help prioritize resources and better quantify possible outcomes for riverine restoration. The main goal of this study was to construct a hydrodynamic reference condition for Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River System using hydrodynamic computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling. The CFD model will provide a better understanding of pre-impoundment flow conditions as compared to post-impoundment conditions today. The numerical model was constructed and developed primarily from a pre-impoundment 1890s topographic map with bathymetric cross-sections in the channels. The 1890s map and other sources from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers provided historic elevation and hydraulic reference data for model calibration. The calibrated historic model was then compared with a current model of similar scale representing post-impoundment conditions, allowing for quantitative analysis of the differences between the two conditions. Model results indicated large changes in average depth and average velocity between historic and current conditions in certain parts of the pool, while others remained relatively unchanged. For example, velocities decreased in main channel aquatic areas in the lower part of Pool 8 from an average of 0.6 m/s (2.0 ft/s) under historic conditions to 0.1 m/s (0.3 ft/s) under current conditions. In the same part of the pool, however, velocities in contiguous backwater areas remained relatively constant, with most remaining less than 0.25 m/s (0.82 ft/s). Additionally, in the lower part of the pool, discharge distribution between the floodplain areas and the main channel was historically much more dynamic, with flow concentrated in the main and secondary channels at discharges less than 2265 m3/s and in the floodplains at greater than 2265 m3/s. Under current conditions, discharge distribution is much less dynamic, with approximately 2/3 of the total discharge conveyed on the floodplain for all discharges modeled (283 m3/s to 2832 m3/s or 10,000 ft3/s to 100,000 ft 3/s).

  9. Systematic variations in sinter mineralogy, microtexture and diagenesis in modern siliceous hot springs: Clues for interpreting depositional conditions in ancient deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, V. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Ruff, S. W.; Nunez, J.; Jahnke, L. L.

    2011-12-01

    The deposits of siliceous hydrothermal springs are known to capture and preserve a wide range of microbial fossil information. The recent discovery of hydrothermal silica at Home Plate, Columbia Hills, Mars has once again raised interest in the potential importance of ancient spring sinters as targets for future astrobiological mission to Mars. To create additional context information to support future in situ missions to Mars, we have documented systematic changes in the mineralogy and microtexture of modern siliceous hot spring deposits, observed along gradients in temperature, pH and flow velocity. Specific objectives are to: 1) identify chemical and physical factors that promote early diagenetic transformations of amorphous silica (opal-A), to progressively more ordered and crystalline phases (cristobalite, tridymite and quartz); 2) determine the composition and abundance of minor mineral phases, especially clays, in relationship to pH, temperature and paragenesis; and 3) to assess the usefulness of sinter mineralogy and microtexture in reconstructing the paleoenvironmental records preserved in ancient deposits. Study sites for acidic (pH 2-5) sinters included Nymph Creek, located in the Norris Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Active alkaline (pH 7-10) springs included Rabbit Creek, Steep Cone and Mound Spring located in the Lower Geyser Basin, YNP. Field measurements in active springs included pH, temperature and flow velocity, along with general microfacies assignments. To better constrain types and rates of silica diagenesis, the study also sampled older (Holocene-Pleistocene-aged) deposits. Laboratory analyses included X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), thermal infrared spectroscopy (TIR) and thin section petrography for characterizing sinter microtextures and for placing mineral phases (identified by XRPD and TIR) into a time-ordered diagenetic framework. In analyzing the phyllosilicates present in sinters, we applied clay separation and glycolization methods, with XRPD. Results indicate that all of the acidic sinters we studied showed more extensive early diagenetic ordering of silica phases (opal-A to cristobalite and quartz) than the comparable microfacies of alkaline-neutral sinters. Clay analyses showed no evidence for smectitic (expansive) clays, but kaolin family clays (dickite, kaolinite and halloysite) were present in both acidic and alkaline sinters. The microfacies distribution observed for clays suggests: 1) dickite being more abundant in higher temperature (near-vent) microfacies, 2) kaolinite dominating mid-temperature outflow channels, slope and upper distal apron microfacies, and 3) halloysite being restricted to lower distal apron-marsh microfacies transitions. Future work will expand clay analyses to apply near-IR spectroscopy to a broader range of samples to assess the consistency with patterns suggested from XRPD.

  10. Computational Chemistry Using Modern Electronic Structure Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephen; Dines, Trevor J.; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Withnall, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Various modern electronic structure methods are now days used to teach computational chemistry to undergraduate students. Such quantum calculations can now be easily used even for large size molecules.

  11. Heliotropism in modern stromatolites

    SciTech Connect

    Awramik, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three different examples of modern microbial mats and stromatolites have been discovered that exhibit a preferred orientation towards specular sunlight. In Hamelin Pool of Shark Bay, Western Australia, subtidal decimeter-sized discrete columns and intertidal centimeter-sized tufts were found pointing north. In thermal spring effluents and pools of Yellowstone National Park, columnar and conical centimeter-sized microbial structures were found to be inclined to the south. None of these inclined structures show growth orientation in response to prevailing fluid directions. Each example occurs in markedly different environments and each has different photosynthetic microbes: (1) the subtidal Shark Bay columns are dominated by surficial diatoms: (2) the intertidal Shark Bay tufts constructed by a filamentous cyanobacterium; and (3) the cones and columns in Yellowstone are built by filamentous flexibacteria and cyanobacteria. Sunlight must be considered a major driving force in stromatolite morphogenesis. Extrapolation of these modern heliotropic columnar stromatolites to fossil examples supports the paleolatitude hypothesis of Vologdin (1961) and of Nordeng (1963) and the days per year hypothesis of Vanyo and Awramik (1982). Taken together, and especially when combined with paleomagnetic analyses, the procedures yield an impressive array of data on Earth and Earth-Sun-Moon histories.

  12. Stepwise transition from deglacial/Early Holocene to modern-like conditions in the eastern Fram Strait, sub-Arctic north, inferred from planktic foraminifer fauna and sea surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Spielhagen, R. F.; Kandiano, E.; Hass, H. C.

    2012-04-01

    The heat content of the Arctic Ocean is mainly controlled by the inflow of north-heading warm and saline Atlantic Water through eastern Fram Strait. The eastern Fram Strait is therefore ice-free all year, opposite to its perennially ice-covered western part where large amounts of Arctic sea ice are exported year-round to the Nordic Seas. The Early and Mid-Holocene phases (ca 12 to 5 cal ka BP) in the (sub-)Arctic have been especially marked not only by high summer insolation but also by rising sea level and the final disintegration of large ice sheets that had been established during the preceding glacial phase. Two sediment cores with multidecadal resolution from the Western Svalbard margin have been investigated for its planktic foraminiferal distribution, sea surface temperatures, planktic and benthic stable isotope ratios, and lithological parameters to derive information on the Holocene variability of the heat transport to the Arctic Ocean and related fluctuations of the marginal ice zone in the eastern Fram Strait. Planktic foraminifer fauna and a summer sea surface temperature reconstruction based on the modern analogue technique imply a stepwise transition from deglacial/Early Holocene to modern-like conditions in the eastern Fram Strait. Repeated short-term advances of the sea ice margin accompanied the generally strong heat transport to the Arctic Ocean during the Early to Mid-Holocene. Consistent with the decreasing solar insolation, cooler (sub-)surface conditions established after ca 5 cal ka BP most likely related to both a weakening of the Atlantic Water inflow and strong export of Arctic sea ice through Fram Strait. The Late Holocene Neoglacial phase was characterized by high contents of ice-rafted material and dominance of the cold water-indicating planktic foraminifer species Neogloboquadrina pachyderma. Cool Late Holocene conditions are reversed by a strong warming event likely caused by a significant strengthening of Atlantic heat advection to the Arctic during the present, anthropogenically influenced period.

  13. From the battlefront: peripheral nerve surgery in modern day warfare.

    PubMed

    Ecklund, James M; Ling, Geoffrey S F

    2009-01-01

    Warfare historically causes a large number of peripheral nerve injuries. During the current global war on terror, an increased use of advanced regional anesthesia techniques appears to have significantly reduced pain syndromes that have been previously reported with missile-induced nerve injuries. Additionally, a new program has been established to develop advanced prosthetic devises that can interface with neural tissue to obtain direct neural control. As this technology matures, the functional restoration gained from these new generation prosthetic devices may exceed that which can be obtained by standard nerve repair techniques. PMID:19064183

  14. The Challenges of Educational Reform in Modern-Day Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Jane; Lammert, Jill

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine a nationwide effort of educational reform in Peru. Specifically, the authors take a close look at the nation's efforts to change secondary education through the implementation of a 2-year postsecondary learning opportunity called the "bachillerato." First, the authors briefly present the contextual…

  15. The Nobel Foundation and its role for modern day science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Euler, U. S.

    1981-06-01

    A short account is given of the events leading to the creation, after Alfred Nobel's death 1896, of the Nobel Foundation for the management of the funds, and of the Nobel committees in charge of the selection of the Prize winners in the five areas mentioned in the will. The impact of the various and partly recently added activities of the Nobel organizations on contemporary international scientific and cultural life is briefly discussed.

  16. The Challenges of Educational Reform in Modern-Day Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Jane; Lammert, Jill

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine a nationwide effort of educational reform in Peru. Specifically, the authors take a close look at the nation's efforts to change secondary education through the implementation of a 2-year postsecondary learning opportunity called the "bachillerato." First, the authors briefly present the contextual

  17. Modern-Day Youth Gangs. OJJDP, Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Gleason, Debra K.

    This report draws on data from the 1996 and 1998 National Youth Gang Surveys to compare the characteristics of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions with later onset of gang problems with those of gangs and gang members with earlier onset of gang problems. The survey asked respondents from law enforcement agencies to describe when gangs began to…

  18. Straight talk: the challenge before modern day hinduism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajai R

    2009-01-01

    Hinduism, as an institution, offers very little to the poor and underprivileged within its fold. This is one of the prime reasons for voluntary conversion of Hindus from among its members. B.R. Ambedkar and A.R. Rahman provide poignant examples of how lack of education and health facilities for the underprivileged within its fold, respectively, led to their conversion. This can be countered by a movement to provide large-scale quality health [hospitals/PHCs] and educational [schools/colleges] facilities run by Hindu mission organisations spread over the cities and districts of India. A four point-four phase programmme is presented here to outline how this can be achieved. Those who have the genuine interests of Hinduism at heart will have to set such an agenda before them rather than strident and violent affirmations of its glories. One can understand the reasons for such stridency, but it is time it got converted into constructive affirmative action to keep the flock. PMID:21836787

  19. A quantitative determination of air-water heat fluxes in Hermit Lake, New Hampshire under varying meteorological conditions, time of day, and time of year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyper, Nicholas D.

    An extensive heat flux study is performed at Hermit Lake, New Hampshire from May 26, 2010 till November 7, 2010 to determine the effects of the five individual heat fluxes on Hermit Lake and the surrounding amphibian community. Hermit Lake was chosen due to the relatively long meteorological observations record within the White Mountains of New Hampshire, a new lakeside meteorological station, and ongoing phenology studies of the surrounding eco-system. Utilizing meteorological data from the lakeside weather station and moored water temperature sensors, the incident (Qi), blackbody ( Qbnet ), latent (Qe), sensible (Q s), and net (Qn) heat fluxes are calculated. The incident heat flux is the dominate term in the net flux, accounting for 93% of the variance found in Qn and producing a heat gain of ˜ 19x108 J m-2 throughout the period of study. This large gain produces a net gain of heat in the lake until October 1, 2010, where gains by Qi are offset by the large combined losses of Qbnet , Qs, and Qe thereby producing a gradual decline of heat within the lake. The latent and blackbody heat fluxes produce the largest losses of heat in the net heat flux with a total losses of ˜ -8x108 J m-2 and ˜ -7x108 J m-2, respectively. The sensible heat flux is negligible, producing a total minimal loss of ˜ -1x108 J m-2. Overall the net heat produces a net gain of heat of 2x108 J m-2 throughout the study period. Frog calls indicative of breeding are recorded from May 26, 2010 until August 16, 2010. The spring peeper, American toad, and green frog each produced enough actively calling days to be compared to air temperature, surface water temperature, and wind speed data, as well as data from the five heat fluxes. Linear regression analysis reveals that certain water temperature thresholds affect the calling activities of the spring peeper and green frog, while higher wind speeds have a dramatic effect on the calling activities of both the green frog and American toad. All three frog species phenological activities are also affected by certain thresholds in the incident, blackbody, latent, sensible, and net heat

  20. Aerosol direct, indirect, semidirect, and surface albedo effects from sector contributions based on the IPCC AR5 emissions for preindustrial and present-day conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi

    2012-01-01

    The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, with the hope that mitigation policies could be developed to target those emitters. Understanding the net effect of multisource emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is very challenging, and this paper will clarify forcing and feedback effects by separating direct, indirect, semidirect and surface albedo effects due to aerosols. To this end, we apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics to examine aerosol impacts on climate by isolating single emission sector contributions as given by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) emission data sets developed for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. For the modeled past 150 years, using the climate model and emissions from preindustrial times to present-day, the total global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing is -0.6 W/m2, with the largest contribution from the direct effect (-0.5 W/m2). Aerosol-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only the cloud albedo effect with -0.17 W/m2) and semidirect effects (-0.10 W/m2) can be isolated on a regional scale, and they often have opposing forcing effects, leading to overall small forcing effects on a global scale. Although the surface albedo effects from aerosols are small (0.016 W/m2), triggered feedbacks on top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing can be 10 times larger. Our results point out that each emission sector has varying impacts by geographical region. For example, the single sector most responsible for a net positive radiative forcing is the transportation sector in the United States, agricultural burning and transportation in Europe, and the domestic emission sector in Asia. These sectors are attractive mitigation targets.

  1. Aerosol Direct, Indirect, Semidirect, and Surface Albedo Effects from Sector Contributions Based on the IPCC AR5 Emissions for Preindustrial and Present-day Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi

    2012-01-01

    The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, with the hope that mitigation policies could be developed to target those emitters. Understanding the net effect of multisource emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is very challenging, and this paper will clarify forcing and feedback effects by separating direct, indirect, semidirect and surface albedo effects due to aerosols. To this end, we apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics to examine aerosol impacts on climate by isolating single emission sector contributions as given by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) emission data sets developed for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. For the modeled past 150 years, using the climate model and emissions from preindustrial times to present-day, the total global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing is -0.6 W/m(exp 2), with the largest contribution from the direct effect (-0.5 W/m(exp 2)). Aerosol-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only the cloud albedo effect with -0.17 W/m(exp 2)) and semidirect effects (-0.10 W/m(exp 2)) can be isolated on a regional scale, and they often have opposing forcing effects, leading to overall small forcing effects on a global scale. Although the surface albedo effects from aerosols are small (0.016 W/m(exp 2)), triggered feedbacks on top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing can be 10 times larger. Our results point out that each emission sector has varying impacts by geographical region. For example, the single sector most responsible for a net positive radiative forcing is the transportation sector in the United States, agricultural burning and transportation in Europe, and the domestic emission sector in Asia. These sectors are attractive mitigation targets.

  2. The efficacy of the appetite suppressant, diethylpropion, is dependent on both when it is given (day vs. night) and under conditions of high fat dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Kalyanasundar, B; Solorio, Jessica; Perez, Claudia I; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Simon, Sidney A; Gutierrez, Ranier

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a public health problem caused by excessive consumption of high caloric diets and/or lack of physical activity. Although treatments for obesity include low caloric diets and exercise programs, these activities frequently are supplemented with appetite suppressants. For the short-term treatment of weight loss, diethylpropion (DEP) is a commonly used appetite suppressant. However, little is known with regard to how to improve its weight loss efficacy. We therefore evaluated, in rats, two administration protocols where the animals received daily injections of DEP. First, when these nocturnal animals were normally active (at night) and when they were normally inactive (daytime), and second, with or without high fat dietary restriction (HFDR). We observed that DEP induced a greater weight-loss administered when the animals were in their active phase than in their inactive phase. Moreover, DEP's administration during the inactive phase (and to a lesser degree in the active phase) promotes the consumption of food during normal sleeping time. In addition, we found that DEP-induced weight loss under ad libitum access to a HF diet, but its efficacy significantly improved under conditions of HFDR. In summary, the efficacy of DEP, and presumably other like appetite suppressants, is enhanced by carefully controlling the time it is administered and under dietary restriction of HF diets. PMID:26867698

  3. Efficacy and safety profile of combination of tramadol-diclofenac versus tramadol-paracetamol in patients with acute musculoskeletal conditions, postoperative pain, and acute flare of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a Phase III, 5-day open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Chandanwale, Ajay S; Sundar, Subramanian; Latchoumibady, Kaliaperumal; Biswas, Swati; Gabhane, Mukesh; Naik, Manoj; Patel, Kamlesh

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of tramadol and diclofenac versus a standard approved FDC of tramadol and paracetamol, in patients with acute moderate to severe pain. Methods A total of 204 patients with moderate to severe pain due to acute musculoskeletal conditions (n=52), acute flare of osteoarthritis (n=52), acute flare of rheumatoid arthritis (n=50), or postoperative pain (n=50) were enrolled in the study at baseline. Each disease category was then randomized to receive either of two treatments for 5 days: group A received an FDC of immediate-release tramadol hydrochloride (50 mg) and sustained-release diclofenac sodium (75 mg) (one tablet, twice daily), and group B received an FDC of tramadol hydrochloride (37.5 mg) and paracetamol (325 mg) (two tablets every 4–6 hours, up to a maximum of eight tablets daily). The primary efficacy end points were reductions in pain intensity from baseline at day 3 and day 5 as assessed by a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score. Results Group A showed a significant reduction in the VAS score for overall pain from baseline on day 3 (P=0.001) and day 5 (P<0.0001) as compared with group B. The combination of tramadol-diclofenac resulted in few mild to moderate adverse events (nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, and gastritis), which required minimal management, without any treatment discontinuation. The number of adverse events in group A was nine (8.82%) compared with 22 (21.78%) in group B, after 5 days of treatment. Conclusion An FDC of tramadol-diclofenac showed a significantly greater reduction in pain intensity and was well tolerated compared with tramadol-paracetamol, resulting in better analgesia in patients suffering from moderate to severe pain due to acute musculoskeletal conditions, postoperative pain following orthopedic surgery, or acute flare of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:25152629

  4. Modernizing sports facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, R.

    1996-09-01

    Modernization and renovation of sports facilities challenge the design team to balance a number of requirements: spectator and owner expectations, existing building and site conditions, architectural layouts, code and legislation issues, time constraints and budget issues. System alternatives are evaluated and selected based on the relative priorities of these requirements. These priorities are unique to each project. At Alexander Memorial Coliseum, project schedules, construction funds and facility usage became the priorities. The ACC basketball schedule and arrival of the Centennial Olympics dictated the construction schedule. Initiation and success of the project depended on the commitment of the design team to meet coliseum funding levels established three years ago. Analysis of facility usage and system alternative capabilities drove the design team to select a system that met the project requirements and will maximize the benefits to the owner and spectators for many years to come.

  5. Modern carbonate mound systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriet, J. P.; Dullo, C.

    2003-04-01

    Carbonate mounds are prominent features throughout the geological record. In many hydrocarbon provinces, they form prime reservoir structures. But recent investigations have increasingly reported occurrences of large mound clusters at the surface of the seabed, or buried at shallow depth on modern ocean margins, and in particular in basins rich in hydrocarbons. Such exciting new observations along the West-European margin are promising for elucidating the setting and environment of modern carbonate mounds, but at the same time they confront us with puzzling or sometimes contradictory observations in the quest for their genesis. Spectacular cold-water coral communities have colonized such mounds, but convincing arguments for recognizing them as prime builders are still lacking. The geological record provides ample evidence of microbial mediation in mound build-up and stabilisation, but as long as mound drilling is lacking, we have no opportunity to verify the role of such processes and identify the key actors in the earliest stage of onset and development of modern mounds. Some evidence from the past record and from present very-high resolution observations in the shallow seabed suggest an initial control by fluid venting, and fluid migration pathways have been imaged or are tentatively reconstructed by modelling in the concerned basins, but the ultimate link in the shallow subsurface seems still to elude a large part of our efforts. Surface sampling and analyses of both corals and surface sediments have largely failed in giving any conclusive evidence of present-day or recent venting in the considered basins. But on the other hand, applying rigourously the interpretational keys derived from e.g. Porcupine Seabight settings off NW Ireland on brand new prospective settings e.g. on the Moroccan margin have resulted in the discovery of totally new mound settings, in the middle of a field of giant, active mud volcanoes. Keys are apparently working, but we still do not understand how or why. We are no doubt facing complex systems at the interface between the Biosphere and the Geosphere, owing their genesis and spectacular growth to a complex woven of internal and external controls, feedback and process relay processes.

  6. 76 FR 63807 - Leif Erikson Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-26726... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8734 of October 7, 2011 Leif Erikson Day, 2011 By the President of the United... the promise of adventure and dreams of new discoveries. When they landed in modern day Canada,...

  7. The differential expression of HvCO9, a member of the CONSTANS-like gene family, contributes to the control of flowering under short-day conditions in barley

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Rie; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Oshima, Masao; Ando, Tsuyu; Handa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    HvCO9 was characterized to elucidate the barley flowering control mechanisms and to investigate the functional diversification of the barley CONSTANS-like (CO-like) genes in flowering. HvCO9 was located on the same chromosome, 1HL, as Ppd-H2 (HvFT3), which is a positive regulator of short-day (SD) flowering. A phylogenetic analysis showed that HvCO9 was located on the same branch of the CO-like gene tree as rice Ghd7 and the barley and wheat VRN2 genes, which are all negative regulators of flowering. High level HvCO9 expressions were observed under SD conditions, whereas its expression levels were quite low under long-day (LD) conditions. HvCO9 expression correlated with HvFT1 and HvFT2 expression under SD conditions, although no clear effect of HvCO9 on HvFT3 expression, or vice versa, under SD conditions was observed. The over-expression of HvCO9 in rice plants produced a remarkable delay in flowering. In transgenic rice, the expression levels of the flowering-related Ehd1 gene, which is a target gene of Ghd7, and its downstream genes were suppressed, causing a delay in flowering. These results suggest that HvCO9 may act as a negative regulator of flowering under non-inductive SD conditions in barley; this activity is similar to that of rice Ghd7 under non-inductive LD conditions, but the functional targets of these genes may be different. Our results indicate that barley has developed its own pathways to control flowering by using homologous genes with modifications for the timing of expression. Further, it is hypothesized that each pathway may target different genes after gene duplication or species diversification. PMID:22016423

  8. Running Amok: A Modern Perspective on a Culture-Bound Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saint Martin, Manuel L.

    1999-01-01

    Running amok is considered a rare culture-bound syndrome by current psychiatric classification systems, but there is evidence that it occurs frequently in modern industrialized societies. The historical origins of running amok as a psychiatric condition are reviewed in this article, and its relevance to modern day episodes of violent behavior is discussed. Psychotic illnesses, personality disorders, and mood disorders are all possible causes of amok, and the identification and treatment of patients who are at risk for manifesting violent behavior are discussed. PMID:15014687

  9. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  10. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  11. MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

    CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

  12. Myth and Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patai, Raphael

    Various theories about the purpose of myth are described briefly, and then the place of myth in modern life is explored. Modern man is found to still create his own myths, and his life is still influenced by mythical prototypes and images. Myths, mythical beliefs, and mythical thinking are discovered in socialist, Communist, and totalitarian…

  13. When Every Day Is Professional Development Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Stonaker, Lew

    2007-01-01

    In the Monroe Township (New Jersey) Public Schools, teachers' learning occurs daily, not just on one day in October and February. Central office and school-level administrators foster job-embedded teacher growth. Every day is a professional development day in the district, but that has not always been so. How did the district become a system with

  14. When Every Day Is Professional Development Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Stonaker, Lew

    2007-01-01

    In the Monroe Township (New Jersey) Public Schools, teachers' learning occurs daily, not just on one day in October and February. Central office and school-level administrators foster job-embedded teacher growth. Every day is a professional development day in the district, but that has not always been so. How did the district become a system with…

  15. A comparative study of prebiotic and present day translational models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rein, R.; Raghunathan, G.; Mcdonald, J.; Shibata, M.; Srinivasan, S.

    1986-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the understanding of the molecular basis of primitive translation is a fundamental step in developing a theory of the origin of life. However, even in modern molecular biology, the mechanism for the decoding of messenger RNA triplet codons into an amino acid sequence of a protein on the ribosome is understood incompletely. Most of the proposed models for prebiotic translation lack, not only experimental support, but also a careful theoretical scrutiny of their compatibility with well understood stereochemical and energetic principles of nucleic acid structure, molecular recognition principles, and the chemistry of peptide bond formation. Present studies are concerned with comparative structural modelling and mechanistic simulation of the decoding apparatus ranging from those proposed for prebiotic conditions to the ones involved in modern biology. Any primitive decoding machinery based on nucleic acids and proteins, and most likely the modern day system, has to satisfy certain geometrical constraints. The charged amino acyl and the peptidyl termini of successive adaptors have to be adjacent in space in order to satisfy the stereochemical requirements for amide bond formation. Simultaneously, the same adaptors have to recognize successive codons on the messenger. This translational complex has to be realized by components that obey nucleic acid conformational principles, stabilities, and specificities. This generalized condition greatly restricts the number of acceptable adaptor structures.

  16. Bodily cleanliness in modern nursing.

    PubMed

    Boge, Jeanne; Kristoffersen, Kjell; Martinsen, Kari

    2013-04-01

    Why are bodily washing practices the way they are in nursing? Michel Foucault argues that modern democratic societies discipline human bodies in accordance with political interests. In the extension of that argumentation we will show that bodily cleanliness in modern nursing may have been used as a disciplining tool. The first part of our discussion takes as its point of departure the second half of the 19th/the beginning of the 20th centuries, the period in which modern nursing emerged. At that time scientific theories on hygiene seem to have legitimized the political effort to produce a clean, pleasant-smelling, decent, obedient, and productive population. Doctors, nurses and teachers played important roles in the implementation of hygienic bodily washing practices. The second part of the discussion focuses on the post-war period. At that time humanistic needs theories seem to have legitimized political argumentation for independent patients who washed themselves if possible. Those who could not manage on their own, should, as far as possible, be washed by cheaper staff, so that nurses could concentrate on medical treatment. Finally we argue that present day bodily washing practices in nursing are in accordance with the norms of appearance and smell that arose in the second half of the 19th and the first part of the 20th centuries. We further argue that staff with little or no education perform much of the bodily nursing work. Self-care seems to be of interest only when it reduces public expenses. PMID:23480034

  17. Modern pacemakers: hope or hype?

    PubMed

    DAS, Mithilesh K; Dandamudi, Gopi; Steiner, Hillel A

    2009-09-01

    In recent years, the role of implantable pacing devices has expanded beyond the arrhythmia horizon and contemporary pacemakers' attempt to meet the physiological needs of patients. Modern pacemakers' functions include various modes of dual-chamber pacing, rate-response algorithms with dual sensors for optimum physiological response, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), arrhythmia-prevention algorithms, antitachycardia pacing, and hemodynamic monitoring. The automaticity features of pacemakers enable continuous or intermittent monitoring of various pacemaker parameters including battery voltage, pacing impedance, sensing levels, pacing thresholds, and daily activity log. Modern pacemakers offer "physiological pacing" algorithms that minimize ventricular pacing and reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation significantly. Ventricular pacing in patients with intact atrioventricular (AV) conduction or intermittent advanced AV block should be minimized with a hope to reduce heart failure hospitalization and mortality. A reduction in all-cause mortality due to physiological pacing, except for the CRT, has yet to be demonstrated in a randomized trial. Overall, modern pacemakers have acceptable performances to fulfill the clinical needs and have a reasonable safety margin. Promising new technologies are currently under development and offer hope to patients who may one day derive both symptomatic and mortality benefit from these devices. PMID:19719501

  18. A modern trends retrospective.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Edward E

    2011-06-01

    Editorship of the Modern Trends section has been a great ride. The section raised the level of interest and readership of Fertility and Sterility, while providing important, up-to-date material for students, scientists and practitioners. PMID:21496803

  19. Escherichia Coli--Key to Modern Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregegere, Francois

    1982-01-01

    Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to modern-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from early gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.…

  20. Foundations for a Post-Modern Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, William E., Jr.

    This paper suggests that present-day curriculum, based on Newtonian thought, has been rendered obsolete by the holistic and interactive "post-modern" world view based on quantum physics, nonlinear mathematics, general systems theory, and Ilya Prigogine's nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The Newtonian world view, which is linear and reductionist, is…

  1. Escherichia Coli--Key to Modern Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregegere, Francois

    1982-01-01

    Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to modern-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from early gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.

  2. Foundations for a Post-Modern Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, William E., Jr.

    This paper suggests that present-day curriculum, based on Newtonian thought, has been rendered obsolete by the holistic and interactive "post-modern" world view based on quantum physics, nonlinear mathematics, general systems theory, and Ilya Prigogine's nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The Newtonian world view, which is linear and reductionist, is

  3. AYURVEDA AND MODERN MEDICE: (A critical study).

    PubMed

    Majumdar, K A

    1989-01-01

    The author highlights in this paper the differences between Ayurveda and Western medicine in the approach to healing process. Also the paper examines relevance of Ayurveda to the present day life style and thus, makes a critical study of both medical systems quoting references from various modern authors. PMID:22557648

  4. Schoolwide Literacy Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polder, Darlene D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes 10 "literacy day" activities that one California elementary school has used successfully schoolwide, typically one such day per month, to make reading fun and purposeful, while developing a sense of community. Includes: spread-a-quilt day; teacher exchange day; turn off the TV; Dr. Seuss day; community readers; schoolwide poets; original…

  5. First Day of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Child All About Food Allergies The First Day of Life KidsHealth > For Parents > The First Day ... continue What Your Baby Does on the First Day Many parents are surprised to see how alert ...

  6. Overview of computational structural methods for modern military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudva, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    Computational structural methods are essential for designing modern military aircraft. This briefing deals with computational structural methods (CSM) currently used. First a brief summary of modern day aircraft structural design procedures is presented. Following this, several ongoing CSM related projects at Northrop are discussed. Finally, shortcomings in this area, future requirements, and summary remarks are given.

  7. The Post-Modern Student: Piloting through Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askeland, Gurid Aga; Payne, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    The differences between present-day post-modern students and educators from older generations require changes in educational approach, but also challenge post-modern trends. Students' postmodern experiences may lead them to seek individuality among diverse sources of identity, seeing knowledge as a throwaway consumption good, and education…

  8. Family Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Carol, Ed.; Dittmann, Laura L., Ed.

    This handbook is intended to provide information for the family seeking day care for its children, the family wishing to begin a family day care service, and an agency considering implementing a network of family day care homes. The first section of the handbook is especially intended for parents who are trying to decide which type of day care…

  9. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePlus

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  10. From the Einstein-Szilard Patent to Modern Magnetohydrodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povh, I. L.; Barinberg, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    Examines present-day and future prospects of the applications of modern magnetohydrodynamics in a number of countries. Explains how the electromagnetic pump, which was invented by Einstein and Leo Szilard, led to the development of applied magnetohydrodynamics. (HM)

  11. The Amazing Labyrinth: An Ancient-Modern Humanities Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladensack, Carl

    1973-01-01

    The image of the labyrinth from mythology can find modern day parallelisms in architecture, art, music, and literature--all of which contributes to a humanities unit combining the old with the new. (MM)

  12. Neanderthal DNA May Play Role in Modern Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157206.html Neanderthal DNA May Play Role in Modern Human Health ... 11, 2016 THURSDAY, Feb. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Neanderthal DNA has a subtle but significant impact on ...

  13. Fundamentals--Rudolf Virchow and modern medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, D M

    1998-01-01

    The 19th century pathologist Rudolf Virchow was a physician, scientist, and revolutionary. The preeminent medical investigator of his day, Virchow remains best-known for his theory of cellular pathology, which laid the conceptual foundation for modern scientific medicine. Less appreciated are Virchow's numerous accomplishments in public health, anthropology, and European politics, including his quest for social justice and democracy in Imperial Germany. The study of Virchow's life and writings may provide contemporary physicians with a powerful role model as we grapple with the complexities of the modern medical enterprise. PMID:9735691

  14. Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping

    This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,…

  15. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  16. Dimensions of Modern Federalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Encapsulates a series of brief essays exploring different aspects of modern federalism. Issues include further protection of individual rights extended through state constitutions and federalism and the world economy. Authors include Robert F. Williams, Earl H. Fry, and Daniel J. Elazar. (MJP)

  17. Gnotobiology in modern medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podoprigora, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

  18. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  19. [Modern wound dressings].

    PubMed

    Triller, Ciril; Huljev, Dubravko; Planinsek Rucigaj, Tanja

    2013-10-01

    Chronic wounds are, due to the slow healing, a major clinical problem. In addition to classic materials, a great number of supportive wound dressings for chronic wound treatment, developed on the basis of new knowledge about the pathophysiological events in non-healing wounds, are available on the market. Today we know that modern wound dressings provide the best local environment for optimal healing (moisture, warmth, appropriate pH). Wound dressings control the amount of exudate from the wound and bacterial load, thus protecting local skin from the wound exudate and the wound from secondary infections from the environment. Using supportive wound dressings makes sense only when the wound has been properly assessed, the etiologic factors have been clarified and the obstacles making the wound chronic identified. The choice of dressing is correlated with the characteristics of the wound, the knowledge and experience of the medical staff, and the patient's needs. We believe that the main advantage of modern wound dressing versus conventional dressing is more effective wound cleaning, simple dressing application, painless bandaging owing to reduced adhesion to the wound, and increased absorption of the wound exudate. Faster wound granulation shortens the length of patient hospitalization, and eventually facilitates the work of medical staff. The overall cost of treatment is a minor issue due to faster wound healing despite the fact that modern supportive wound dressings are more expensive than conventional bandaging. The article describes different types of modern supportive wound dressings, as well as their characteristics and indications for use. PMID:24371980

  20. Modern School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2008-01-01

    There was much enthusiasm when the phrase "Modern School Mathematics" was coined shortly after the 1958 National Defense Education Act was passed. Many federally funded study groups came into being. Presently, criticisms in secondary teaching are just as great as it was in 1958. The innovations recommended by federally funded study groups has had…

  1. Principles of Modern Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beim, George

    This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…

  2. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  3. Modern Notions of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, Carol

    This paper addresses the changing definitions of "community" as addressed in the research literature. Beginning with Tocqueville's description of individuality in the United States, the paper identifies the following designations for the term "community": (1) "Modern Communitarians"; (2) "Communities of Memory"; and (3) "Moral Commitment and…

  4. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  5. Modern vs. Traditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  6. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic

  7. Teaching Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, G., Ed.

    Key areas of modern language teaching are addressed in 10 articles. In addition to a general overview of methods and aims of foreign language teaching, attention is directed to the audiolingual and audiovisual revolution, language study for the slow-learning child and for the child with above average ability, imaginative learning activities for…

  8. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  9. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of

  10. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned. PMID:19626302

  11. Modern management of obstructive salivary diseases

    PubMed Central

    Capaccio, P; Torretta, S; Ottaviani, F; Sambataro, G; Pignataro, L

    2007-01-01

    Summary Over the last fifteen years, increasing public demand for minimally-invasive surgery and recent technological advances have led to the development of a number of conservative options for the therapeutic management of obstructive salivary disorders such as calculi and duct stenosis. These include extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, sialoendoscopy, laser intra-corporeal lithotripsy, interventional radiology, the video-assisted conservative surgical removal of parotid and sub-mandibular calculi and botulinum toxin therapy. Each of these techniques may be used as a single therapeutic modality or in combination with one or more of the above-mentioned options, usually in day case or one-day case under local or general anaesthesia. The multi-modal approach is completely successful in about 80% of patients and reduces the need for gland removal in 3%, thus justifying the combination of, albeit, time-consuming and relatively expensive techniques as part of the modern and functional management of salivary calculi. With regard to the management of salivary duct anomalies, such as strictures and kinkings, interventional radiology with fluoroscopically controlled balloon ductoplasty seems to be the most suitable technique despite the use of radiation. Operative sialoendoscopy alone is the best therapeutic option for all mobile intra-luminal causes of obstruction, such as microliths, mucous plugs or foreign bodies, or for the local treatment of inflammatory conditions such as recurrent chronic parotitis or autoimmune salivary disorders. Finally, in the case of failure of one of the above techniques and regardless of the cause of obstruction, botulinum toxin injection into the parenchyma of the salivary glands using colour Doppler ultrasonographic monitoring should be considered before deciding on surgical gland removal. PMID:17957846

  12. World HABITAT Day message.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, A

    1990-01-01

    The Executive Director of the UN Centre for Human Settlements (HABITAT) discusses the 1989 World HABITAT Day message--Shelter, Health, and the Family. Women and children spend most of their time in their homes and neighborhoods. The environment and the way they live in that environment determine their health status and well being. Healthy housing encompasses protection against rain, heat, cold, and disease. Yet more than 25% of the world's population have inadequate housing which is responsible for various communicable and chronic diseases, injuries, and psychological stresses. For example, overcrowding leads to respiratory infection. Inferior building materials and designs foster the harboring and breeding of disease vectors and destruction by natural disasters. Limited access to potable water and sanitation facilities and poor personal hygiene cause death, disabilities, and blemishes to millions of people as well as fosters food contamination. 10,000 people die each day from injuries or conditions directly related to inadequate shelter and related services. The urban poor tend to be at the point where industrialization meets underdevelopment because they live in marginal areas often near refuse dumps, swamps, and areas subject to landslides, earthquake, or flooding. Social and psychological problems also emerge from such an environment which further undermine the underpinnings of a secure and pleasant family life. Few activities designed to improve shelter consider the health of the occupants, however. Education about the link between housing and health among the poor at the household and community levels may empower them to alleviate the health hazards. The Executive Director requests the international community, governments, their agencies, nongovernmental organizations, builders, planners, and policymakers to consider the link between housing and health when making policy and decisions. PMID:2326215

  13. Every Day Is National Lab Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen

    2010-01-01

    President Barack Obama recently issued a call for increased hands-on learning in U.S. schools in an address at the National Academy of Sciences. Obama concluded that the future of the United States depends on one's ability to encourage young people to "create, and build, and invent." In this article, the author discusses National Lab Day (NLD)…

  14. Riley-Day syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Riley-Day syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects nerves throughout the body. ... Riley-Day syndrome is passed down through families (inherited). A person must inherit a copy of the defective gene ...

  15. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  16. Growing degree day calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry IP...

  17. Every Day Is Mathematical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October…

  18. Every Day Is Mathematical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October

  19. The First Modern Human Dispersals across Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B.; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0’s sister clade, L1’6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by “mitochondrial Eve”) possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African “megadroughts” of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135–75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution. PMID:24236171

  20. The first modern human dispersals across Africa.

    PubMed

    Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0's sister clade, L1'6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by "mitochondrial Eve") possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African "megadroughts" of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135-75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution. PMID:24236171

  1. Lamarliquido plant modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, H.; Ortega, C.

    1996-12-31

    After more than 25 years of operation with its original pneumatic instrumentation, the offshore 7,500 b/d capacity Lamarliquido LPG plant was submitted to a modernization project, in order to innovate the whole plant control systems. This paper describes the phases of the project which includes the installation and integration of the following four control systems: distributed control system; fire prevention detection and control system; refrigeration process turbocompressor control system; and emergency shut down system. Details about the different functions developed by each one of the systems are given, emphasizing the logic of operation, main equipment involved and reasons for applications. After a successful completion of the modernization project, the plant is operating fully remote from a new central control room with a maximum production of 5,500 b/d and an expected one of 6,600 b/d.

  2. Modern Antarctic acorn worms form tubes.

    PubMed

    Halanych, Kenneth M; Cannon, Johanna T; Mahon, Andrew R; Swalla, Billie J; Smith, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    Acorn worms, or enteropneusts, are vermiform hemichordates that occupy an important position in deuterostome phylogeny. Allied to pterobranch hemichordates, small colonial tube dwellers, modern enteropneusts were thought to be tubeless. However, understanding of hemichordate diversity is poor, as evidenced by absence of reports from some oceanic regions and recent descriptions of large epibenthic deep-water enteropneusts, Torquaratoridae. Here we show, based on expeditions to Antarctica, that some acorn worms produce conspicuous tubes that persist for days. Interestingly, recent fossil descriptions show a Middle Cambrian acorn worm lived in tubes, leading to speculation that these fossils may have been pterobranch forbearers. Our discovery provides the alternative interpretation that these fossils are similar to modern-day torquaratorids and that some behaviours have been conserved for over 500 million years. Moreover, the frequency of Antarctic enteropneusts observed attests to our limited knowledge of Antarctic marine ecosystems, and strengthens hypotheses relating more northern deep-sea fauna to Antarctic shelf fauna. PMID:24201563

  3. Modern sports eye injuries

    PubMed Central

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

  4. Modern Anaesthesia Vapourisers

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Sucharita; Basu, Srabani

    2013-01-01

    Inhalational anaesthetic agents are usually liquids at room temperature and barometric pressure and need to be converted to vapour before being used and this conversion is effected using a vapouriser. Vapourisers have evolved from very basic devices to more complicated ones. Anaesthetists should understand the basic principles of anaesthetic vapouriser, including the principles that affect vapouriser output and how they influence vapouriser design. Most of the modern vapourisers in use are designed to be used between the flow meter and the common gas outlet on the anaesthesia machine. Modern vapourisers are flow and temperature compensated, concentration calibrated, direct reading, dial controlled and are unaffected by positive-pressure ventilation. Safety features include an anti-spill and a select-a-tec mechanism and a specific vapouriser filling device. Desflurane has unique physical properties requiring the use of a specific desflurane vapouriser. The most recently designed vapourisers are controlled by a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine. The concentration of vapour is continuously monitored and adjusted by altering fresh gas flow through the vapouriser. This article looks at the basic design and functioning of the modern vapourisers. PMID:24249879

  5. Evolution of the modern broiler and feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Paul B

    2014-02-01

    Although the chicken was domesticated during the Neolithic period, the development of the modern broiler is a recent event that has occurred within the past 100 years. The chicken's adaptability has allowed it to be grown globally under a range of husbandry conditions. That is, the same genetic stock may be found in a range of environments, where it is noted for rapid growth to market weight and efficiency of feed use, which has increased dramatically, mainly through genetic selection. Under good husbandry and a high-energy diet, at 35 days of age a 1.40-kg broiler required 3.22 kg of feed in 1985. Twenty-five years later, we have a 2.44-kg broiler produced on 3.66 kg of feed. This review attempts to address the history of factors contributing to these changes, obstacles that have had to be overcome, and future limitations. PMID:25384148

  6. Theories of Modern Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, W. Hal

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" identifies management theories that provide a fundamental conceptual knowledge base that school business officials can use to understand the school organizational setting and its influences on the day-to-day operation of the educational process. Particular attention is paid to aspects of

  7. Open Day at SHMI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosova, M.

    2010-09-01

    During the World Meteorological Day there has been preparing "Open Day" at Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. This event has more than 10 years traditions. "Open Day" is one of a lot of possibilities to give more information about meteorology, climatology, hydrology too to public. This "Day" is executed in whole Slovakia. People can visit the laboratories, the forecasting room....and meteo and clima measuring points. The most popular is visiting forecasting room. Visitors are interested in e.g. climatologic change in Slovakia territory, preparing weather forecasting, dangerous phenomena.... Every year we have more than 500 visitors.

  8. Modern Physics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Douglas; Hiller, John R.; Moloney, Michael J.

    1995-10-01

    The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.

  9. Our Modern Stone Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, W. D.

    Unlike most books dealing with industrial minerals and rocks, Our Modern Stone Age is a pleasure to read. Within a matter of several hours, one can get an excellent introduction to nonmetallic mineral resources and industries exclusive o f the mineral fuels. The book is very well written and well illustrated with photographs and drawings; although pitched for the intelligent layman, it is in no way dull reading for even a well-versed economic geologist. Nearly every geologist, mining engineer, mineral economist, planner, and politician will find points of interest in this book.

  10. Popular Chat Day Q & A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Read students most popular questions about ... New Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Chat Day Participant FAQs Popular Chat Day Q & ...

  11. Popular Chat Day Q & A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Read students’ most popular questions about ... New Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Chat Day Participant FAQs Popular Chat Day Q & ...

  12. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  13. For Just One Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, S.

    2004-01-01

    This essay explores the fantasy of a mother who wonders what her son would have been like if he were not severely disabled. For just one day, she confesses, she would like to know the anticipated son who disappeared from her life the day her disabled son was born, 21 years ago. The essay provides vivid examples of challenging experiences she has

  14. Science Challenge Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The…

  15. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  16. Day Nurseries in Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueye, Khady

    1977-01-01

    Describes a village day nursery organized by peasant women in 1962 to provide care for preschool children whose mothers must work in the rice fields. Outlines the aims of the day nursery and the prerequisites for its establishment. Community and parent participation is stressed. (JK)

  17. The Presidents' Day Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    The history behind the holiday commonly called "Presidents' Day" is a bit confusing. It started as a federal holiday called Washington's Birthday. It was a day set aside to honor George Washington for his accomplishments as a founding father of the country. Later, many northern states began to recognize Abraham Lincoln's Birthday as well for his…

  18. Science Challenge Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The

  19. Family Science Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought

  20. Family Science Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

  1. Who Cares? Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Children and Family Services, Springfield.

    The purpose of this report prepared by the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services is to describe the growth of day care services in Illinois during 1972 and to present information which will aid state agencies and citizens in planning for and coordinating day care services. The report is divided into discussions of past, present, and

  2. My Lucky Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olvey, Maura

    2010-01-01

    Teaching based on problem solving brings challenges for the teacher, primarily that of finding problems with multiple access points that accommodate all students. This article narrates the author's lucky day as she discovers the Four fours problem which impacted her passion for teaching math. The day she presented the Four fours problem to her

  3. The Presidents' Day Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    The history behind the holiday commonly called "Presidents' Day" is a bit confusing. It started as a federal holiday called Washington's Birthday. It was a day set aside to honor George Washington for his accomplishments as a founding father of the country. Later, many northern states began to recognize Abraham Lincoln's Birthday as well for his

  4. My Lucky Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olvey, Maura

    2010-01-01

    Teaching based on problem solving brings challenges for the teacher, primarily that of finding problems with multiple access points that accommodate all students. This article narrates the author's lucky day as she discovers the Four fours problem which impacted her passion for teaching math. The day she presented the Four fours problem to her…

  5. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  6. Day of the Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

  7. Infections in day care.

    PubMed

    Ferson, M J

    1993-02-01

    The number of preschool-aged children who attend day care has increased dramatically in recent years. Factors promoting spread of infections in this setting include crowding, lack of hygiene, high prevalence of early exploratory behaviors, and the likelihood of many susceptible children being in close contact. As a result, children attending day care experience a great number of episodes of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness than do other children. Moreover, the risk of a number of specific infections, including Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis A, is increased by attendance in day care. Day-care staff are at increased risk of a number of infections, some of which, including cytomegalovirus and parvovirus B19, may have adverse consequences to a fetus. The presence of children in day care increases the risk of illness among staff and family members and may promote the circulation of infections in the community as a whole. PMID:8374625

  8. The early days of incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Landfills reaching capacity, beaches fouled with trash, neighborhood residents protesting waste disposal sites in their backyards, and municipalities forced to recycle. Sound familiar? These issues might have been taken from today`s headlines, but they were also problems facing mechanical engineers a century ago. Conditions such as these were what led engineers to design the first incinerators for reducing the volume of municipal garbage, as well as for producing heat and electricity. The paper discusses these early days.

  9. Bio-inspired CO2 conversion by iron sulfide catalysts under sustainable conditions.

    PubMed

    Roldan, A; Hollingsworth, N; Roffey, A; Islam, H-U; Goodall, J B M; Catlow, C R A; Darr, J A; Bras, W; Sankar, G; Holt, K B; Hogarth, G; de Leeuw, N H

    2015-05-01

    The mineral greigite presents similar surface structures to the active sites found in many modern-day enzymes. We show that particles of greigite can reduce CO2 under ambient conditions into chemicals such as methanol, formic, acetic and pyruvic acid. Our results also lend support to the Origin of Life theory on alkaline hydrothermal vents. PMID:25835242

  10. Adult Day Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... care, to enhance self-esteem, and to encourage socialization. There are two types of adult day care: ... Meals Medical care Physical therapy Recreation Respite care Socialization Supervision Transportation Medication management Back to top Center ...

  11. Day care health risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus. It is spread by poor or no hand washing after going to the bathroom or changing a ... and then preparing food. In addition to good hand washing, day care staff and children should get the ...

  12. Pregnancy - identifying fertile days

    MedlinePlus

    ... between days 7 and 20 of a woman's menstrual cycle. In order to become pregnant, having sex every ... hours of ovulation. If you have an irregular menstrual cycle, an ovulation predictor kit can help you know ...

  13. Space Day 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Joyce

    2000-01-01

    Introduces three design challenges for fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students created by the Challenger Center for Space Science Education. Presents information on Space Day and the National Classroom and provides Internet site addresses. (YDS)

  14. Stennis Day Camper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Sara Beth Casey, 5, proudly displays her artwork, 'Planets.' Sara Beth created the art as a student of Stennis Day Camp, a free camp for Stennis Space Center employees' children whose schools have not resumed since Hurricane Katrina hit the region on Aug. 29. The camp has registered nearly 200 children and averages 100 children each day. The camp will continue until all schools are back in session.

  15. Modern turboprop engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanamuttoo, H. I. H.

    The turboprop engine has played a major role in short haul commuter aircraft and military transport and patrol aircraft where speed is not critical. In recent years NASA have proposed the application of turboprops, coupled to advanced propellers usually referred to as ‘propfans’, at conventional turbofan speeds. The achievement of this goal would provide significant savings in fuel without sacrifice of flight speed. The paper reviews the past history and current state of development of modern turboprops, noting that there has been very little recent development of high power units. Current trends suggest a shift from the NASA goal away from turboprops to a new breed of engine using the generic name Ultra High Bypass systems. Although the future of the turboprop for high speed transportation may appear dubious, there is no doubt that the turboprop is going to continue to play an increasingly important role in the short haul commuter aircraft market.

  16. Modern problems of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

  17. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  18. Modern carbonate environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Friedman, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    This book offers help in evaluating potential sites for oil and gas accumulations. Pointing the way to discovery of hydrocarbons in carbonate reservoirs, this volume discusses modern carbonate depositional environments in different geomorphic settings. It compiles papers by scientists whose observations have revolutionized current thinking on facies relationships in ancient carbonate rock. Contents include: Selected carbonate regions --The Algal Sediments on Androa Island in the Bahamas, Sedimentary Facies, Interaction of Genetic Processes in Holocene Reefs off North Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas, Recent Anhydrite, Holocene Shallow-Water Carbonate and Evaporite Sediments of Khor al Bazam; Carbonate production--On the Origin of Aragonite in the Dead Sea, Carbonate Production by Coral Reefs; Cold-water carbonates--Contributions on the Geology of the Northwestern Peninsula of Iceland, Evaluation of Cold-Water Carbonates as a Possible Paleoclimatic Indicator.

  19. Modern operative hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Centini, Gabriele; Troia, Libera; Lazzeri, Lucia; Petraglia, Felice; Luisi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Hysteroscopy is an endoscopic surgical procedure that has become an important tool to evaluate intrauterine pathology. It offers a direct visualization of the entire uterine cavity and provides the possibility of performing biopsy of suspected lesions that can be missed by dilatation and curettage (D&C). In most cases, the intrauterine pathologies can be diagnosed and treated at the same setting as office hysteroscopy ("see and treat approach"). For example, endometrial polyps can be diagnosed and removed; similarly, intrauterine adhesions can be liberated in the outpatient setting without the need for an operating theatre. Today, many hysteroscopic procedures can be performed in the office or outpatient setting. This is due to the feasibility of operative hysteroscopy using saline as a distending medium, the vaginoscopic approach of hysteroscopy and the availability of mini-hysteroscopic endoscopes. There is good evidence to suggest that hysteroscopy in an ambulatory setting is preferable for the patient, and that it avoids complications, allows a quicker recovery time and lowers cost. Advances in technology have led to miniaturization of high-definition hysteroscopes without compromising optical performance, thereby making hysteroscopy a simple, safe and well-tolerated office procedure. The new surgical technology such as bipolar electrosurgery, endometrial ablation devices, hysteroscopic sterilization, and morcellators has revolutionized this surgical modality. The modern development of hysteroscopy completely transformed the approach to the uterine intracavitary pathologies moving from a blind procedure under general anesthesia to an outpatient procedure performed under direct visualization, offering therapeutic and irreplaceable possibilities of treatment that should belong to every modern gynecologist. PMID:26930389

  20. Method and computer program product for maintenance and modernization backlogging

    DOEpatents

    Mattimore, Bernard G; Reynolds, Paul E; Farrell, Jill M

    2013-02-19

    According to one embodiment, a computer program product for determining future facility conditions includes a computer readable medium having computer readable program code stored therein. The computer readable program code includes computer readable program code for calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, for calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and for calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. In another embodiment, a computer-implemented method for calculating future facility conditions includes calculating a time period specific maintenance cost, calculating a time period specific modernization factor, and calculating a time period specific backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time period specific maintenance cost plus the time period specific modernization factor plus the time period specific backlog factor. Other embodiments are also presented.

  1. Teaching Modern Literature: Poetry and Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damashek, Richard

    This monograph, part of a series for language arts teachers, discusses the essential components for teaching modern poetry and modern fiction. The section on modern poetry considers traditional versus modern poetry, modernism in poetry, imagism, the function of poetry in modern times, social change in poetry, and offers a brief list of recommended

  2. FINAL REPORT - CENTER FOR GRID MODERNIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Markiewicz, Daniel R

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the CGM was to develop high-priority grid modernization technologies in advanced sensors, communications, controls and smart systems to enable use of real-time or near real-time information for monitoring, analyzing and managing distribution and transmission grid conditions. The key strategic approach to carry out individual CGM research and development (R&D) projects was through partnerships, primarily with the GridApp™ Consortium utility members.

  3. Dialogue on Modernity and Modern Education in Dispute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a dialogue or conversation between Michael Baker (MB) and Michael A. Peters (MP) on the concept of modernity and its significance for educational theory. The dialogue took place originally as a conversation about a symposium on modernity held at the American Educational Studies Association meeting 2010. It was later developed for…

  4. Zeno Meets Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silagadze, Z. K.

    2005-10-01

    ``No one has ever touched Zeno without refuting him''. We will not refute Zeno in this paper. Instead we review some unexpected encounters of Zeno with modern science. The paper begins with a brief biography of Zeno of Elea followed by his famous paradoxes of motion. Reflections on continuity of space and time lead us to Banach and Tarski and to their celebrated paradox, which is in fact not a paradox at all but a strict mathematical theorem, although very counterintuitive. Quantum mechanics brings another flavour in Zeno paradoxes. Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects are really paradoxical but now experimental facts. Then we discuss supertasks and bifurcated supertasks. The concept of localisation leads us to Newton and Wigner and to interesting phenomenon of quantum revivals. At last we note that the paradoxical idea of timeless universe, defended by Zeno and Parmenides at ancient times, is still alive in quantum gravity. The list of references that follows is necessarily incomplete but we hope it will assist interested reader to fill in details.

  5. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  6. Modern fueloil filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.

    1995-11-01

    Pumping out a home storage tank and filtering the oil through a cleaning machine is an excellent way to service a dirty tank, but even then proper filtration is still a must. Without good filteration, it can be very embarrassing for the service department to explain a sediment problem which can still occur even after charging a customer for pumping the tank. Modern filteration technology makes it possible to overcome the effects of poorer quality fueloil and provide better service to customers as well as lower service costs (therefore, more profit) to the oil heat company. Yesterday`s fueloil was plentiful and there was strong competition in the supply market. As a result refiners and distributors were careful to keep out contaminants. Today, however, that has changed and fueloil is no longer consistently delivered as pure as it used to be. While it is true that refinery production of No. 2 fueloil has reached new highs in btu content and clean burning characteristics, it is also true that increased use of the spot market has had a negative effect on fuel quality.

  7. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of

  8. One Play a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate theater students rarely get the chance to work on a major world premiere, but this year hundreds of them will. Currently, more than 70 colleges and universities are participating in "365 Days/365 Plays," an ambitious project from Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks. Every week, as they mount their portion of this epic…

  9. Make a Splash Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, Greg; Rust, April; Jensen, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    At the annual, all-day events-sponsored by Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) and held in nearly every state across the country each September--students participate in interactive activities and exhibits to learn about water resources and explore how human behaviors, such as development and recreation, can affect the quality of the…

  10. Seize the Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Tim

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve what happens in classrooms, a considerable amount of work needs to take place between teachers and principals. This can only happen if campus leaders make dramatic shifts in how and where they spend their daily time. Principals can have a greater impact on teaching and learning by transforming their work one day at a time. The…

  11. International School Library Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Laurel A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of an International School Library Day and discusses activities in Australian school libraries. Highlights include the development of Web pages; sponsorship by national, state, or provincial associations; publicity materials; joint activities with other countries; student involvement; and activities with public libraries.…

  12. Every Child, Every Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  13. An Earth Day Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Don, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presents what the author believes to be some of the most important environmental books published since Earth Day 1970. Discusses each selection and how it provides the historical background, basic information, and appreciation necessary to understand the character of our environmental dilemma and our need to address it. (MCO)

  14. Sun-Earth Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Michael Sandras, a member of the Pontchartrain Astronomical Society, explains his solar telescope to students of Second Street in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County and Nicholson elementary schools in StenniSphere's Millennium Hall on April 10. The students participated in several hands-on activities at Stennis Space Center's Sun-Earth Day celebration.

  15. No Treatment Day School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, Judith A.; Holder, Stanley R.

    2006-01-01

    At the No Treatment Day School, less than 15% of students used the dormitory during the school week. Located in the heart of a reservation and serving local students, the K-12 school enrolled over 1,000 students. The site received Therapeutic Residential Model funding for the 2001-2002 school year. Initial evaluation of this site found an array of…

  16. Family Day Care Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coordinated Child Care (4-C) in Dane County, Inc., Madison, WI.

    This handbook provides both general and specific information on child development and child care to help adults who are providing child care in their homes. Information is presented in six sections which describe: (1) the family day care system, the occupation of caregiver, and the development of relationships; (2) development of a health program,

  17. Marketing Your Day Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, George

    1997-01-01

    Marketing strategies for day camps include encouraging camp staff to get involved in organizations involving children, families, and communities; holding camp fairs; offering the use of camp facilities to outside groups; hosting sport leagues and local youth outings; planning community fairs; and otherwise involving the camp in the community. (LP)

  18. Dog Day Afternoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipczak, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the problem faced by trainers who are "on stage" for eight hours a day. Offers tips to relieve the stress caused by continuous training, including maintaining personal space, taking a lunch break, keeping physically energized, and avoiding burnout when teaching the same thing over and over. (JOW)

  19. First Day of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bort, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    In this brief article, the author, a science teacher at F. C. Hammond Middle School in Alexandria, Virginia, describes how the setting up of a simple science experiment on the first day of school can get students excited about learning science. The experiment involves heating a small amount of water in a flask, then covering the opening of the…

  20. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in

  1. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  2. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  3. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  4. Multigenerational Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerschner, Paul A.

    This study explores the potential benefits of multigenerational day care programs. Two small preschool programs serving predominantly low income black families were chosen for comparison. The programs were matched for child/staff ratio, level of staff professionalism, and characteristics of families served. The programs differed, however, in their

  5. We Love Science Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne

    1986-01-01

    Describes the goals and outcomes of the "We Love Science Day" programs that resulted from the inservice course, "Creative Integration of Science in Elementary Education" for Pennsylvania teachers. Provides samples of the hands-on activities that were offered to students, parents, and teachers. Includes a calendar of extracurricular science…

  6. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  7. A Five Day Training Course for Migrant Health Project Personnel in the Surveillance of Health Hazards of Sanitation Conditions in the Working and Living Environments of Migrant Farmworkers (Albany, New York, October 5-10, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besinaiz, Carlos, Ed.; Aranda, Roberto, Ed.

    The course aims to train migrant health personnel to recognize and identify adverse sanitary conditions related to the migrant farmworkers' living and working environments, and to outline approaches for the presentation and alleviation of health hazards through the referral of recognized sanitary deficiencies and code violations to responsible…

  8. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical

  9. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical…

  10. [Modern mitral valve surgery].

    PubMed

    Bothe, W; Beyersdorf, F

    2016-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Cutler and Levine performed the first successful surgical treatment of a stenotic mitral valve, which was the only treatable heart valve defect at that time. Mitral valve surgery has evolved significantly since then. The introduction of the heart-lung machine in 1954 not only reduced the surgical risk, but also allowed the treatment of different mitral valve pathologies. Nowadays, mitral valve insufficiency has become the most common underlying pathomechanism of mitral valve disease and can be classified into primary and secondary mitral insufficiency. Primary mitral valve insufficiency is mainly caused by alterations of the valve (leaflets and primary order chords) itself, whereas left ventricular dilatation leading to papillary muscle displacement and leaflet tethering via second order chords is the main underlying pathomechanism for secondary mitral valve regurgitation. Valve reconstruction using the "loop technique" plus annuloplasty is the surgical strategy of choice and normalizes life expectancy in patients with primary mitral regurgitation. In patients with secondary mitral regurgitation, implanting an annuloplasty is not superior to valve replacement and results in high rates of valve re-insufficiency (up to 30 % after 3 months) due to ongoing ventricular dilatation. In order to improve repair results in these patients, we add a novel subvalvular technique (ring-noose-string) to the annuloplasty that aims to prevent ongoing ventricular remodeling and re-insufficiency. In modern mitral surgery, a right lateral thoracotomy is the approach of choice with excellent repair and cosmetic results. PMID:26907868

  11. Type-f thioredoxins have a role in the short-term activation of carbon metabolism and their loss affects growth under short-day conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, Belén; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Lindahl, Marika; Cejudo, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Redox regulation plays a central role in the adaptation of chloroplast metabolism to light. Extensive biochemical analyses in vitro have identified f-type thioredoxins (Trxs) as the most important catalysts for light-dependent reduction and activation of the enzymes of the Calvin–Benson cycle. However, the precise function of type f Trxs in vivo and their impact on plant growth are still poorly known. To address this issue we have generated an Arabidopsis thaliana double knock-out mutant, termed trxf1f2, devoid of both f1 and f2 Trxs. Despite the essential function previously proposed for f-type Trxs, the visible phenotype of the trxf1f2 double mutant was virtually indistinguishable from the wild type when grown under a long-day photoperiod. However, the Trx f-deficient plants showed growth inhibition under a short-day photoperiod which was not rescued at high light intensity. The absence of f-type Trxs led to significantly lower photosynthetic electron transport rates and higher levels of non-photochemical energy quenching. Notably, the Trx f null mutant suffered from a shortage of photosystem I electron acceptors and delayed activation of carbon dioxide fixation following a dark–light transition. Two redox-regulated Calvin–Benson cycle enzymes, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and Rubisco activase, showed retarded and incomplete reduction in the double mutant upon illumination, compared with wild-type plants. These results show that the function of f-type Trxs in the rapid activation of carbon metabolism in response to light is not entirely compensated for by additional plastid redox systems, and suggest that these Trxs have an important role in the light adjustment of photosynthetic metabolism. PMID:26842981

  12. Type-f thioredoxins have a role in the short-term activation of carbon metabolism and their loss affects growth under short-day conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Belén; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Lindahl, Marika; Cejudo, Francisco Javier

    2016-04-01

    Redox regulation plays a central role in the adaptation of chloroplast metabolism to light. Extensive biochemical analyses in vitro have identified f-type thioredoxins (Trxs) as the most important catalysts for light-dependent reduction and activation of the enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle. However, the precise function of type f Trxs in vivo and their impact on plant growth are still poorly known. To address this issue we have generated an Arabidopsis thaliana double knock-out mutant, termed trxf1f2, devoid of both f1 and f2 Trxs. Despite the essential function previously proposed for f-type Trxs, the visible phenotype of the trxf1f2 double mutant was virtually indistinguishable from the wild type when grown under a long-day photoperiod. However, the Trx f-deficient plants showed growth inhibition under a short-day photoperiod which was not rescued at high light intensity. The absence of f-type Trxs led to significantly lower photosynthetic electron transport rates and higher levels of non-photochemical energy quenching. Notably, the Trx f null mutant suffered from a shortage of photosystem I electron acceptors and delayed activation of carbon dioxide fixation following a dark-light transition. Two redox-regulated Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and Rubisco activase, showed retarded and incomplete reduction in the double mutant upon illumination, compared with wild-type plants. These results show that the function of f-type Trxs in the rapid activation of carbon metabolism in response to light is not entirely compensated for by additional plastid redox systems, and suggest that these Trxs have an important role in the light adjustment of photosynthetic metabolism. PMID:26842981

  13. Burnout at Work in Modern Times

    PubMed Central

    Neves Pinheiro da Costa, Sofia; Teixeira, Luis Henrique Amorim; Bezerra, Luiza Neves Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    The theme of this research is burnout at work in modern times. The main objective is to analyze aspects of mental health worker. The specific objectives are to evaluate the issue of health and mental illness in the workplace, to understand the field of psychodynamics of work, and to analyze the work and the mental strain. The methodology used is the literature review. We conclude that is not the hostile environment that directly causes burnout and other conditions, but the inability to deal with the powerlessness of the working conditions. PMID:26345381

  14. Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The STS-107 second flight day begins with a shot of the Spacehab Research Double Module. Live presentations of experiments underway inside of the Spacehab Module are presented. Six experiments are shown. As part of the Space Technology and Research Student Payload, students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, New York, and Liechtenstein are studying the effect that microgravity has on ants, spiders, silkworms, fish, bees, granular materials, and crystals. Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla is seen working with the zeolite crystal growth experiment.

  15. Correlates of hot day air-conditioning use among middle-aged and older adults with chronic heart and lung diseases: the role of health beliefs and cues to action.

    PubMed

    Richard, Lucie; Kosatsky, Tom; Renouf, Annie

    2011-02-01

    Extreme ambient heat is a serious public health threat, especially for the elderly and persons with pre-existing health conditions. Although much of the excess mortality and morbidity associated with extreme heat is preventable, the adoption of effective preventive strategies is limited. The study reported here tested the predictive power of selected components of the Health Belief Model for air-conditioning (AC) use among 238 non-institutionalized middle-aged and older adults with chronic heart failure and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease living in Montréal, Canada. Respondents were recruited through clinics (response rate 71%) and interviews were conducted in their homes or by telephone. Results showed that 73% of participants reported having a home air conditioner. The average number of hours spent per 24-hour period in air-conditioned spaces during heat waves was 14.5 hours (SD = 9.4). Exploratory structural equation modeling showed that specific beliefs about the benefits of and drawbacks to AC as well as internal cues to action were predictive of its level of use, whereas the perceived severity of the effects of heat on health was not. The findings are discussed in light of the need to adequately support effective response to extreme heat in this vulnerable population. PMID:21068164

  16. Modern Thermocouple Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, K. N.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes a thermocouple circuit used to measure Joule heating as well as Peltier heating and cooling for a copper-Constantan metallic junction. Shows how the Seebeck effect from a thermocouple can monitor the temperature condition of a junction with regard to input power and Peltier effect. (Author/GA)

  17. Aristotle's ethical theory & modern health care.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, S K

    1996-01-01

    The Greek physician of antiquity - Hippocrates (460-356 B.C.) is called the Father of Modern Medicine and the Hippocratic Oath to which doctors of modern medicine traditionally and formally express their allegiance, forms the basic foundation of medical ethics. The tradition of Western ethical philosophy began with the ancient Greeks. From Socrates (469-399 B.C.) and his immediate successors, Plato (427-347 B.C.) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), there is a clear line of continuity, through Hellenistic period (from the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.) to the end of Ptolemic dynasty (30 B.C.) and the Roman annexation of Egypt - broadly post-Aristotelian and medieval thought to the present day. But the society has qualitatively and quantitatively changed since the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Society, today, is just a collection of discrete individuals, each with his or her own purposes and interests. Hence it has become almost imperative to apply the principle of autonomy to issues in the ethics of health care. The aim of this short essay is, therefore, an attempt to explore the relevance, if any, of Aristotelian ethical theory to the modern health care. PMID:11619400

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, Petr P.

    2006-12-01

    We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the `exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincaré algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical chartacteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to `duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the AdS/CFT correspondence. The author explains clearly most of the arguments in discussions and refers for further details to original papers (with corresponding arXiv numbers), selected lists of which appear at the end of each chapter (there are more than 300 references in the book). Considered as a whole the book covers primers on quantum fields, Feynman diagrams, renormalization procedure and renormalization groups, as well as the representation theory of classical linear Lie algebras. Some necessary information on irreducible representations of su(N), so(N) and sp(2N) is given in an appendix. There are in the text short historical and biographical notes concerning those scientists who made important contributions to the subject of the monograph: S Coleman, Yu Golfand, E Witten and others. Most of the seventeen chapters contain a few exercises to check the reader's understanding of the corresponding material. This monograph will be useful for graduate students and researchers in the field of elementary particles.

  19. Taking refuge from modernity: 21st century hermits.

    PubMed

    Boyd, I; Rubin, Gj; Wessely, S

    2012-12-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerances, such as 'multiple chemical sensitivity' and 'electrosensitivity,' can drastically affect the quality of life of those affected. A proportion of severely affected patients remove themselves from modern society, to live in isolation away from the purported causal agent of their ill health. This is not a new phenomenon; reports of hermits extend back to the 3(rd) century AD. We conducted a literature review of case reports relating to ancient hermits and modern day reclusion resulting from idiopathic environmental intolerance, in order to explore whether there are similarities between these two groups and whether the symptoms of these 'illnesses of modernity' are simply a present-day way of reaching the end-point of reclusion. Whilst there were some differences between the cases, recurring themes in ancient and modern cases included: dissatisfaction with society, a compulsion to flee, reports of a constant struggle and a feeling of fighting against the establishment. The similarities which exist between the modern-day cases and the historical hermits may provide some insight into the extreme behaviours exhibited by this population. The desire to retreat from society in order to escape from harm has existed for many centuries, but in different guises. PMID:23288087

  20. 2010 Day of Remembrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Patrick Scheuermann (left), deputy director at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, and Richard Gilbrech, associate director, place a wreath in memory of the 17 astronauts lost in service of the space program since 1967. The wreath was placed during NASA's 2010 Day of Remembrance, observed each year in January. The annual observance memorializes the three astronauts lost in the Apollo 1 launch pad fire in 1967, the seven astronauts lost in the Challenger tragedy in 1986 and the seven astronauts lost in the Columbia accident in 2003. During the Stennis observance, Scheuermann praised the fallen astronauts as 'brave space pioneers who gave their lives in the cause of exploration and discovery.'

  1. One Cold Autumn Day

    PubMed Central

    de Schweinitz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral change is at the heart of effective primary care, but when patients don’t change, how do we account for our days? In this personal essay, I relate an encounter with a patient who wants to quit smoking, lose weight, and control her diabetes. I am discouraged when she deflects my recommendations, but a colleague’s comment encourages a deeper inquiry. Knowing the patient’s story and deepening the conversation, however, do not guarantee change. The experience reminds me why patience, humility, and faith are core values of the primary care physician. PMID:25964410

  2. Martian Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a heart-shaped hill surrounded by cracked terrain within a depression in far northwestern Arabia Terra, near the Cydonia region of Mars. Happy St. Valentine's Day from the MGS MOC team!

    Location near: 39.1oN, 358.1oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  3. Three-day fever.

    PubMed

    Akakpo, A J

    2015-08-01

    Three-day fever is a viral disease caused by an Ephemerovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, transmitted by arthropod vectors. It is common in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where it affects mainly domestic cattle and buffaloes, especially in intensive dairy or fattening production systems. It is of economic importance because it reduces milk production and fertility and causes abortion. The disease is generally benign. It manifests in several susceptible subjects simultaneously, with a sudden episode of fever accompanied by muscle involvement with arthritis, stiffness of the limbs, and lameness, followed by rapid recovery. The presence of a serofibrinous exudate in the joints is indicative of the disease. Clinical diagnosis is often difficult in the absence of pathognomonic signs. Epidemiological factors (proliferation of arthropod vectors), associated with a short-lived fever and the presence of many immature neutrophils, point strongly to three-day fever. In the absence of any specific treatment, the symptoms are treated with antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. Medical prophylaxis currently uses live attenuated vaccines, pending the development of recombinant vaccines, which are giving promising results. PMID:26601454

  4. Modern Mathematics and the Mole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, R.; Stumbles, A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses several examples of the modern mathematics familiar to the pupils at the age where the mole concept is introduced, to help the teacher adopt an appropriate approach when dealing with this topic. (GA)

  5. Modern Thin-Layer Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Colin F.; Poole, Salwa K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the important modern developments of thin-layer chromatography are introduced. Discussed are the theory and instrumentation of thin-layer chromatography including multidimensional and multimodal techniques. Lists 53 references. (CW)

  6. Krakatoa Erupts!: Using a Historic Cataclysm to Teach Modern Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Through integration of geology, biology, chemistry, and the history of science, the historic Krakatoa eruption offers a unique portal for student inquiry in the classroom. Students are inherently fascinated by natural disasters, and modern comparisons to the Krakatoa cataclysm are as close as the day's news. This article uses the historic Krakatoa…

  7. Krakatoa Erupts!: Using a Historic Cataclysm to Teach Modern Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Through integration of geology, biology, chemistry, and the history of science, the historic Krakatoa eruption offers a unique portal for student inquiry in the classroom. Students are inherently fascinated by natural disasters, and modern comparisons to the Krakatoa cataclysm are as close as the day's news. This article uses the historic Krakatoa

  8. Modern Airfoil Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Sheldon, David W.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents results from the first icing tests performed in the Modem Airfoils program. Two airfoils have been subjected to icing tests in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Both airfoils were two dimensional airfoils; one was representative of a commercial transport airfoil while the other was representative of a business jet airfoil. The icing test conditions were selected from the FAR Appendix C envelopes. Effects on aerodynamic performance are presented including the effects of varying amounts of glaze ice as well as the effects of approximately the same amounts of glaze, mixed, and rime ice. Actual ice shapes obtained in these tests are also presented for these cases. In addition, comparisons are shown between ice shapes from the tests and ice shapes predicted by the computer code, LEWICE for similar conditions. Significant results from the tests are that relatively small amounts of ice can have nearly as much effect on airfoil lift coefficient as much greater amounts of ice and that glaze ice usually has a more detrimental effect than either rime or mixed ice. LEWICE predictions of ice shapes, in general, compared reasonably well with ice shapes obtained in the IRT, although differences in details of the ice shapes were observed.

  9. Modernizing Fortran 77 Legacy Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decyk, Viktor; Norton, Charles

    2003-01-01

    An incremental approach to modernization of scientific software written in the Fortran 77 computing language has been developed. This approach makes it possible to preserve the investment in legacy Fortran software while augmenting the software with modern capabilities to satisfy expanded requirements. This approach could be advantageous (1) in situations in which major rewriting of application programs is undesirable or impossible, or (2) as a means of transition to major rewriting.

  10. Proceedings, Dean's Day 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Zanner, M.A.

    1999-03-01

    On January 14--15, 1999, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored Deans Day, a conference for the Deans of Engineering and other executive-level representatives from 29 invited universities. Through breakout sessions and a wrap-up discussion, university and Sandia participants identified activities to further develop their strategic relationships. The four primary activities are: (A) concentrate joint efforts on current and future research strengths and needs; (B) attract the best students (at all grade levels) to science and engineering; (C) promote awareness of the need for and work together to influence a national science and technology R and D policy; and (D) enable the universities and Sandia to be true allies, jointly pursuing research opportunities and funding from government agencies and industry.

  11. [World Population Day editorial].

    PubMed

    1995-07-01

    Despite demographic progress in many regions, world population is growing by more than 90 million persons each year. This massive growth is relatively new in human history. 80 years were required to add 1 billion inhabitants after 1850, but at current rates only 11 years will be required. The course of world demographic evolution will be decided by the actions or inaction of each man and woman on the planet. Questions of population are at the center of sustainable development and should be an essential feature of any vision of the future. Correctly conducted population programs provide essential services for the health and well-being of individuals and families and facilitate the task of creating structures for sustainable economic growth. In honor of World Population Day on July 11, the Salvadoran Demographic Association has presented a series of informative articles on the relationship between population and health, environment, education, food and nutrition, reproductive health, and family planning. PMID:12179417

  12. The day of women.

    PubMed

    Jimenez David, R

    1994-09-01

    March, 1994, was celebrated as Women's Month in the Philippines, with a focus on women's health. The theme chosen was Me, Too, a response to the ideal of feminine martyrdom. The intended message was that it is acceptable for women to look after themselves first, because only this way could they look after the other people in their lives. The Woman Who is Okey is defined as the woman who looks after her health and who practices self-care. The major health problems of women include cancer of the breast and cervix; reproductive tract infections; HIV/AIDS; poor nutrition, exacerbated by pregnancy and lactation; and increased incidence of cardiovascular disease linked to an increase in women smokers. The Woman Who is Okey is a woman who: carries out breast self examination each month, submits to a pap smear examination every year, does not smoke, spaces her pregnancies by 2-3 year intervals, knows how to protect herself from HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, visits a health center regularly for prenatal check-ups and other health services, and meets her hygienic and fitness needs. The campaign was broadened to include rape, violence, sexual harassment, and discrimination and exploitation of women. The activities of the Department of Health (DOH) during March 8, International Women's Day, were coordinated with those planned by women's groups spearheaded by the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women (NCRFW). The DOH set up a permanent Women's Center in government hospitals throughout the country and began to institutionalize assistance to women who are victims of violence, including rape. The national celebration held in Manila was a day-long program organized by the NCRFW, in which close to 18,000 women participated from all political organizations. President Fidel V. Ramos was the keynote speaker. PMID:12288259

  13. Records management modernization study

    SciTech Connect

    Kadec, S.; Hill, L.G.; Riemer, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has a single purpose or mission: to provide benefits to the veterans of the nation. Most of these benefits are provided through its medical and health facilities located around the country: the hospitals, nursing homes, and clinics that give medical examinations and provide long-term care or hospitalization. A second sizeable program managed by the Veterans Benefit Administration (VBA) gives pensions, benefits for disability and education, insurance, and home loans to those veterans eligible under law and specific service conditions. In support of the benefits programs, VA staff in the regional offices (ROs) receive and create a large amount of documentation. This documentation supports the award or disallowance of benefits by providing the information necessary to determine eligibility and the amount of the award. This paperwork, which is necessary to document actions and support the appeals process, creates a huge record-keeping problem for the ROs. 6 tabs.

  14. Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Yvan; Regenstreif, Philippe; Fanton, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray gun in the present day, however, shows that these weapons are still present. The possibility that one might be used to spray a charge of cyanide is still very real, especially as it would not be very difficult for an informed amateur to produce homemade toxic ammunition by adapting existing civil or military cartridges. PMID:25354227

  15. 'Small change of the universal': beyond modernity?

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Sarat

    2010-09-01

    The paper is a sounding of Ulrich Beck's and Edgar Grande's conceptual map of the varieties of second modernity - Western and Non-Western, European and beyond - that makes up today's world. Their mapping is examined in the light of two, striking analytical perspectives associated with Ulrich Beck: everyday 'cosmopolitization' and his call for a methodological cosmopolitanism. A line of inquiry explores whether contemporary modernities are essentially expressions of a single, underlying modernization drive or whether they are utterly disparate entities. The implications of treating them as 'variants and variations' are unpacked with reference to musical models and how they generate difference. The probe into methodological cosmopolitanism touches on 'de-provincialization' that is somewhat at odds with the postcolonial project of 'provincializing' Europe. It looks at the attempt to go beyond 'nation-bound' sociological dualisms in determining the appropriate 'unit of analysis' for our ever-morphing current reality. Does this imply engaging with 'singularity'- with a mode of conceptualization that sidesteps the universal/particular couple and related either/or thinking? References to the making of the 'first modernity' under unequal centre/periphery relations of colonial power are aired for possible lessons in mappings of the second. Ulrich Beck's 'impure, really-existing cosmopolitanism'- in contrast to its speculative counterpart derived from the realm of pure ideas - springs from humdrum global economic and political links and institutions that span out across, above and beyond the 'container of the national space'. With the inadvertent cosmopolitical impact of the migrations it amounts in practice to a functioning 'cosmopolitan realpolitik'. Is there room for it to develop or will it stall as a mere front for national, tribal-territorial interests - going the way of 'multiculturalism and diversity' that seem increasingly to serve as governmental ideologies for managing global difference? Whether each of the varieties of second modernity throws up a 'cosmopolitan vision' of its own remains to be determined more fully. It seems possible that friction between the modernities might fetch up on a higher plane as clashing cosmopolitanisms. Historical precedents give scant comfort if we look at the fate of the ecumenic empires of the ancient world of the 'first cosmopolitan age' or at landmark cosmopolitan endeavours such as Aby Warburg's and WEB Du Bois' on the eve of counter-cosmopolitan currents of the 1930s. An abiding scepticism prevails about the capacity of 'impure cosmopolitanism' to bootstrap and elaborate itself from an involuntary, reflex condition into a self-reflexive, critical dispensation. PMID:20840432

  16. Day-1 chick development.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guojun

    2014-03-01

    The first day of chick development takes place inside the mother hen (in utero), during which the embryo progresses from fertilization to late blastula/early gastrula formation. The salient features of developmental anatomy in this period are conserved among the sauropsids (birds and reptiles). Many of these features are also shared in prototherian (monotreme) embryos, whereas metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian (placental) embryos display significant variations. Important for understanding the evolution of early development in amniotes, the knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating in utero chick development may also offer valuable insight into early lineage specification in prototherians and conserved features in mammalian early development. This commentary provides a snapshot of what is currently known about intrauterine chick development and identifies key issues that await further clarification, including the process of cellularization, allocation of maternal determinants, zygotic gene activation, mid-blastula transition, cell layer increase and reduction, radial symmetry breaking, early lineage segregation, and role of yolk syncytium in early patterning. PMID:24550174

  17. Network technology for depot modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

  18. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt mean its not typical. While we wait for more and better observations of exoplanet systems, theory can help us understand why the Solar System formed the way it did, and where to look for systems that formed the same way. For example, some of Murray-Clays previous work has shown that metal-rich stars tend to host more hot Jupiters and eccentric giant planets (very different from Solar System architecture). So if we want to find more systems like our own, we need to search around stars with low-to-moderate metallicity.Extrasolar Planets: Hosts, Interactions, Formation, and Interiors (by Caroline Morley)This session was a mashup of a variety of planetary topics ranging from solar flares to interiors to habitability.Leslie Rogers kicked off the session by presenting work done in collaboration with her student Ellen Price to constrain the composition of the ultra-short period (4 hours!?!) planet candidate KOI 1843.03 using models of the objects interior. Since its so close to the star, it can only exist without being torn apart if its very dense, which allows them to calculate that it must be iron-rich like Mercury!Next Kevin Thielen, an undergrad at Eckerd College, presented results from a summer project to apply a variable polytrope index to planet models. Tom Barclay then showed models that demonstrate the huge effect that having giant planets in the outer solar system has on the formation of terrestrial planets. He finds that without Jupiter and Saturn, more planets would form (8 instead of 3-4!) and giant impacts (like the moon-forming impact) would be more frequent but less energetic.Aomawa Shields shifted to discuss her 3D GCM models to determine the orbital configurations that would lead to liquid water on the surface of the planet Kepler-62f. She determines the effect of eccentricity, axis tilt (obliquity), and rotation rate on habitability. Edward Guinan brought us closer to home discussing the potential for superflares solar flares up to hundreds of times more energetic than normalin our solar system. Analyses of Kepler data suggest that these flares likely happen every 300-500 years in Sunlike stars (way more often than previously thought!), and would devastate communications systems on Earth (and hurt astronauts in space).Peter Buhler and Taisiya Kopytova finished up the session. Peter showed how he used Spitzer secondary eclipses and MESA models to determine the tidal love number and core mass of HAT-P-13b. Taisiya presented her thesis work on observations of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. She shows that in many cases, particularly for young objects and cold objects, the models for these objects do not fit the data very well!Press Conference: Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) IV (by Susanna Kohler)The final press conference of the meeting was all about the fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.In the opening talk, Michael Blanton (New York University) presented some early results from SDSS-IV, which is slated to run from 2014 to 2020. The major components to SDSS-IV are extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS), a cosmological survey of quasars and galaxies; APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-2), a stellar survey of the Milky Way; and Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA), a survey that will map the detailed internal structure of nearly 10,000 nearby galaxies.Next up was Melissa Ness (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy), speaking about APOGEEs creation of the first global age map of the Milky Way. APOGEE obtained the spectra for 70,000 red giant stars. These spectra, combined with the stars light curves, allowed the team to infer the ages of these stars distributed across the Milky Way galaxy. The resulting map is shown in the video below. From this map, Ness says its pretty clear: the Milky Way started as a small disk, and its expanded out from there, since. Our galaxy grew, and it grew up by growing out. Heres the press release. This is a big 3D map showing the age of stars in the Milky Way the latest from #aas227: https://t.co/HiPbm9eW6J pic.twitter.com/DqG6NNsPTU jonathan jb webb (@jjbw) January 8, 2016Francesco Belfiore (University of Cambridge) gave the next talk, cleverly titled Proof That Some Galaxies Are LIERs. The title is a play on the astrophysical source known as a LINER, or Low-Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region an area within a galactic center that displays line emission from weakly ionized or neutral atoms. These have commonly been interpreted as being a wimpy active galactic nucleus (AGN). But a closer look with MaNGA, which is able to take spectroscopic data for the whole galaxy at once, has revealed that these sources are actually distributed throughout the galaxy, rather than being nuclear hence, no N: these galaxies are LIERs. Instead of AGN, the sources may be newly born white dwarfs. Heres the press release.Artists conception of the changing look quasar as it appeared in early 2015. [Dana Berry / SkyWorks Digital, Inc.; SDSS collaboration]The final speaker was Jessie Runnoe (Pennsylvania State University), who captured everyones attention with the topic of changing look quasars. We know that quasars can transition from a bright state, where active accretion onto the galaxys central supermassive black hole is visible in their emission spectrum, to a dim state, where they look like a normal galaxy. But SDSS has just observed the quasar SDSS J1011+5442 turn off within the span of just 10 years. Based on the data, the team concludes that this quasar exhausted the supply of gas in its immediate vicinity, turning off when there was no longer anything available to accrete. Runnoe showed an awesome animation of this process, which you can check out here. Heres the press release.Coffee, Black Holes, Editors and Beer: The Science-Writing Life (by Susanna Kohler)This talk was a part of the series Beyond the Academy: Showcasing Astronomy Alumni in Non-Academic Careers. Matthew Francis is a former academic scientist (with a PhD in physics and astronomy) who transitioned to being a freelance science writer. Wearing a distinctive bowler hat, Francis talked to a room full of students (and some non-students!) about what its like to be a science writer. Here are some highlights from among his recommendations and comments.A day in the life of a science writer.About the mechanics of freelancing:Some sample numbers: he wrote 73 articles in 2015, for 12 different publications. These vary in length and time invested. He supports himself fully by freelancing.The time between pitching a story and getting it published can vary between a few hours for online news stories to months for feature articles.The answer to the question, What do science writers do all day? (see photo)About transitioning into science writing:If youre interested in a science writing career, start blogging now to build up a portfolio.Use your training! As a researcher, you can read plots, understand scientific articles, and talk to scientists as colleagues. These are great strengths.About writing for the public:Theres a difference in writing for academics and the public: when writing for academics, youre trying to bring them up to your level. When writing for the public, thats probably not the goal.That said, on the subject of dumbing down: If you think your audience is somehow deficient, youve already failed.writing for the web: youll make fundamental spelling/grammar errors, youll find them only when you read the published post. Truth! #aas227 astrobites (@astrobites) January 8, 2016At the end of the session, Francis told us what he considers to be the best part of being a science writer: getting to tell people something that theyve never heard before. Getting it right is communicating a mundane fact to you that is an astounding surprise to your audience.Plenary Talk: News on the Search for Milky Way Satellite Galaxies (by Susanna Kohler)The second-to-last plenary talk of the meeting was given by Keith Bechtol, John Bahcall fellow at University of Wisconsin-Madison. Bechtol spoke about the recent discovery of new satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. Dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are often hard to spot because they are so faint while globular clusters have mass-to-light ratios of around 1, the ultra-faint satellites around the Milky Way can have mass-to-light ratios of hundreds or thousands! A combination of better facilities and improved analysis techniques has been lengthening the list of known Milky Way satellites, however: SDSS took us from ~10 to ~30 in the last ten years, and facilities like the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DES), Pan-STARRS 1, SkyMapper, and Hyper Suprime-Cam pushed that number to ~50 in 2015.Bechtol plenary on the discovery of new MW satellites #aas227 pic.twitter.com/3GH0Sd2J8c Matthias Steinmetz (@GalacticRAVE) January 8, 2016The new candidates discovered with DES are all less luminous and more distant than previous satellites found. One interesting aspect of this sample is that 15/17 of the candidates fall in the southern half of the DES footprint, and are located near the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. This anisotropy is not thought to be a selection effect so is it coincidence, or could they possibly be satellites of satellites? Were not sure yet!Why do we care about finding Milky Way satellites? There are lots of reasons, but one of the biggest is that they may help us to unravel some of the mysteries of dark matter. These faint-but-massive galaxies were probably born in the Milky Ways dark-matter halo, and they could be great places to indirectly detect dark matter. In addition, theres the missing satellite problem the phenomenon wherein the cold-dark-matter model predicts there should be hundreds of satellites around the Milky Way, yet weve only found a few dozen. Finding more of these galaxies would help clear up whether its the theory or the observations that are wrong.One more time, it shouldnt be called the Missing Satellite Problem. The theorists have a Satellite Overabundance Problem. #aas227 Peter Yoachim (@PeterYoachim) January 8, 2016Overall, Bechtol declares, its been an exciting year for the discovery of new Milky Way satellites, and with new surveys and facilities still in development, the future looks promising as well!Hack Day (by Meredith Rawls)A large contingent of astronomers spent our Friday working on small projects or chunks of larger projects that could be accomplished in a day. Astrobites has written about hack days before. Look for a dedicated recap post with all the great projects later in January!

  19. Review essay: empires, ancient and modern.

    PubMed

    Hall, John A

    2011-09-01

    This essay drews attention to two books on empires by historians which deserve the attention of sociologists. Bang's model of the workings of the Roman economy powerfully demonstrates the tributary nature of per-industrial tributary empires. Darwin's analysis concentrates on modern overseas empires, wholly different in character as they involved the transportation of consumption items for the many rather than luxury goods for the few. Darwin is especially good at describing the conditions of existence of late nineteenth century empires, noting that their demise was caused most of all by the failure of balance of power politics in Europe. Concluding thoughts are offered about the USA. PMID:21899527

  20. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over many orbits has made it a powerhouse for learning about the temperatures, atmospheres, and orbits of exoplanets. The list of examples that Fazio provided included the first global temperature map of an exoplanet (HD 189733b), the detection of the closest transiting exoplanet (HD 219134b), and the measurement of thermal emission from a super-Earth (55 Cnc e). Spitzers large distance from the Earth (specifically, the ground-based telescopes on Earth) even allowed astronomers to observe an exoplanet via gravitational microlensing using a special technique called space-based parallax.Spitzer has also been extremely useful for observing everything from Solar System scales (such as the enormous infrared dust ring around Saturn) to galactic structures. Comparing images of galaxies observed at visible wavelengths with Spitzer images of the same galaxies at infrared wavelengths has allowed us to probe the structure and composition of galaxies at a new level.Astronomers have also used Spitzer to explore the evolution of stars. Thanks to its infrared detectors, Spitzer can look through large clouds of dust that are opaque at visible wavelengths, and observe young stellar objects in their birth environments. Cosmologists can use Spitzer to study the early universe and the formation of galaxies over twelve billion years ago. Fazio used all of these examples and more to demonstrate that Spitzer has truly changed our understanding of the universe.Climate Change for Astronomers (Meredith Rawls)Every astronomer at #aas227 wants to learn about climate change! WOW this room is ridiculously full. pic.twitter.com/ud9an0gLJG Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) January 7, 2016The second half of the session was a presentation by Doug Duncan featuring an activity from his 101-level college course. He uses climate change as a way to teach critical thinking and scientific reasoning. Members of the audience were walked through an exercise that included interpreting plots of changing surface temperatures, think-pair-share style clicker questions, and comparing excerpts from scientific articles and the media. Eventually, students discover that the Earths overall temperature is going up, but observations can vary from year to year because heat is moving between the atmosphere and the oceans.Press Conference: Fermis Vision, First Stars, Massive Galaxy Cluster, and Dark Energy (by Susanna Kohler)Todays afternoon press conference was an exciting assortment of results, difficult to categorize under a single umbrella.First up was Marco Ajello (Clemson University), who spoke about 2FHL, the second Fermi-LAT catalog of high-energy sources. LAT stands for Large Area Telescope, an instrument on board the Fermi gamma-ray space observatory that scans the entire sky every three hours. Ajello described the contents of the 2FHL catalog: 360 gamma-ray sources, of which 75% are blazars (distant galactic nuclei with jets pointed toward us), 11% are sources within the galaxy, and the remaining 14% are unknown. With this catalog, Fermi has expanded into higher energies than ever before, providing the first map of the 50 GeV 2 TeV sky. Heres the press release.OMeara: Im a lowly spectroscopist so I dont have fun pictures to show you, just squiggly lines. #aas227 astrobites (@astrobites) January 7, 2016Next to speak, John OMeara (St. Michaels College) told us about the discovery of a gas cloud that may be a remnant from the first population of stars. OMeara showed us the emission spectrum from a distant quasar, which displays abrupt absorption by a cloud of gas located at a redshift of z~3.5. Absorption by gas clouds is not unusual but what is unusual is that this cloud is extremely metal-poor, with only 1/2500th solar metallicity. This is the lowest heavy-element content ever measured, and a sign that the cloud might have been enriched by Population III stars the theoretical first population of stars, which were born when gas in the universe was still pristine. Heres the press release.Cluster IDCS J1426.5+3508. [NASA, European Space Agency, University of Florida, University of Missouri, and University of California]Mark Brodwin (University of Missouri, Kansas City) was up next, discussing the most distant massive galaxy cluster that has ever been discovered. The cluster IDCS J1426.5+3508, weighing in at several trillion solar masses (as measured by three independent techniques!), is located at a redshift of z=1.75. Since clusters take several billion years to form, and its redshift corresponds to a time when the universe was only 3.8 billion years old, were probably seeing it at a very early age. This combination of mass and youth is unique! Brodwin also pointed out another interesting feature: the clusters core isnt centered, which means it probably underwent a major merger with another cluster within the last 500 million years. Heres the press release.The final speaker was Sukanya Chakrabarti (Rochester Institute of Technology), who gave a very interesting talk about a topic Id never heard of: galactoseismology. Galactoseismology involves observing waves in the disk of a galaxy to learn about the properties of dwarf galaxies that caused the perturbations. In this case, Chakrabarti evaluated ripples in the outer disk of our galaxy, and used these to predict the location of a dwarf galaxy that must have skimmed the outskirts of our galaxy a few hundred million years ago, causing the waves. This is a cool technique for learning about dwarf galaxies whether or not theyre visible, since theyll cause ripples even if theyre dominated by dark matter. Chakrabarti showed an awesome simulation of this dwarfs interaction with the Milky Way, which you can check out on her website. Heres the press release.

  1. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts. PMID:12345405

  2. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical controversies that have relevance to modern curricular design, such as Fisher's (Ann Sci 1:115-137, 1936/2008) claim that Mendel's data were too good to be true. We also address questions about Mendel's status as the father of genetics as well as questions about the sequencing of Mendel's work in genetics instruction in relation to modern molecular genetics and evolution. Next, we present a systematic set of examples of research based approaches to the use of Mendel in the modern classroom along with criticisms of these designs and questions about the historical accuracy of the story of Mendel as presented in the typical classroom. Finally, we identify gaps in our understanding in need of further study and present a selected set of resources that, along with the references cited, should be valuable to science educators interested in further study of the story of Mendel.

  3. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new tests of GR, and performing predictive GRMHD simulations hydrodynamics simulations that include magnetic fields and full GR treatment. Ozel pointed out that one of the recent theoretical advancements in GRMHD simulations is harnessing the power of GPUs to render images in simulations; check out the tweet below for the awesome video she showed us!Watch C. Chan manipulate black hole simulation with hand motions https://t.co/O5BgaltYAu (more on the code: https://t.co/9GC46ReMGs) #aas227 Sarah Scoles (@ScolesSarah) January 6, 2016Deployment of the full EHT array is planned for early 2017, and theyve already got 10 targets selected black holes that are near enough and large enough that the EHT should be able to image their shadows. I, for one, cant wait to see the first results!Grad School and Postdocs as a Means to a Job (by Meredith Rawls)This morning session was presented by Karen Kelsky of The Professor Is In. She presented a very practical overview of the advice in her book (which this job-searching Astrobiter highly recommends). Her target audience is postdocs and graduate students who are finishing their PhDs and applying for tenure-track jobs. Karens background is in the social sciences, but she has worked with many scientists and her expertise easily transferred. Much of her writing advice also applies for undergraduates who are writing research statements and proposals to apply to graduate school. For example:What not to do, with @ProfessorIsIn #aas227 pic.twitter.com/afGAsSuPwN Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) January 6, 2016One of Karens main takeaways is that academia is not automatically good preparation for a job search. Writing documents like cover letters, resumes, and research statements will be harder and take more time than you think, and it is important to make them top-notch. Karen was also surprised that the majority of professional astronomers at the AAS meeting carry backpacks, because she typically advises against bringing a backpack to a job interview or campus visit. She conceded that astronomy is an exception to this rule!Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets (by Caroline Morley)I started my morning in a session near and dear to my heart on brown dwarfs. The session had four dissertation talks, showcasing each students (impressive!) work over the last 4+ years.Astrobites alumnus Ben Montet kicked off the session to talk about his recent work to study the eclipsing brown dwarf LHS 6343, discovered in Kepler data. This brown dwarf is one of the best so-called benchmark brown dwarfs that we have discovered. Unlike almost every other object, we can measure LHS 6343s mass, radius, luminosity, and metallicity. Bens Spitzer observations reveal that its a ~1100 K T dwarf.Joe Filippazzo spoke next about his work to put together a large and impressive database of 300 brown dwarfs ranging in spectral type from M to Y, stitching together literature photometry, parallaxes, and both low and high resolution spectra. He studies the effect of age on the fundamental properties of these objects, empirically without needing models! You can download the database at BDNYC.org and use Joes open-source Python package astrokit which includes the SQL management tools to use the database.Jonathan Gagn presented results from his survey to find young free-floating objects in young moving groups. These objects are really interesting because they have the masses of planets but are easier to observe since they dont have nearby stars. He is currently extending his survey from his PhD thesis to be able to find even cooler objects (literally and figuratively) in these groups.Sebastian Pineda gave a very interesting talk about his thesis work to understand auroral emission from brown dwarfs. Brown dwarfs with a range of temperatures have been observed to have both radio activity and H-alpha emission, despite their neutral atmospheres. These properties are believed to be generated by auroral emission just like aurorae on Jupiter! One of many interesting results is that cooler objects have rare and weak aurorae. Sebastian postulates that these brown dwarfs may have aurorae that are modulated by the presence of satellites (brown dwarf moons?!). Very cool idea that needs more study!The last speaker of the session was the only non-dissertation talk of the session. Nolan Grieves presented results from his statistical survey of brown dwarf companions using the MARVELS radial velocity survey and finds a brown dwarf companion occurrence rate around 0.7%.Science to Action: Thoughts on Convincing a Skeptical Public (by Meredith Rawls)This years Public Policy plenary talk was delivered by William Press from UT Austin. Many scientific stories follow a familiar narrative, and too often, scientific consensus about a hazard has been accepted by the public only after some catalyzing event like a catastrophic fire or a spike in deaths linked to smoking. Press suggested that climate change may be at the tipping point of mainstream acceptance. He also discussed how a definition of science can encompass two distinct ideas: a series of fact-based conclusions and a value judgment based on rational thinking. To illustrate this dichotomy, he posed a question to the audience:Debate about science vs about values. Speaker forced a vote by raise of hand; split 50/50 in big room. Wow. #aas227 pic.twitter.com/rdvqUuuR95 Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) January 6, 2016Press stated that he strongly supports the top view, but it was eye-opening to see a nearly even split of raised hands. His point was that GMO labeling ultimately boils down to a value judgement, not a scientific one, and we should be careful to understand the difference. Science communicators certainly have our work cut out for us! In the broadest sense, Press takeaway for effective science communication is a two-step approach: (1) communicate the value of a rationalist approach to decision making, and (2) communicate well-established scientific results.AAS Journals Workshop for Authors RefereesFirst half (by Susanna Kohler)Disclaimer: Im an employee of the AAS, as editor of AAS Nova.This 2-hour-long author referee workshop was intended partially as an overview of what it means to be an author or a referee (in any journal), and partly as a reveal of some of the new features that are now being implemented within the AAS publishing program. Many of the presentations have been uploaded here. A few highlights from the first half:Talks about authoring articles by Ethan Vishniac, and refereeing articles by Butler BurtonIntro to AAS Nova the AASs means of sharing its authors results with the broader community by me!Discussion of the AASs new policy for software citation by Chris LintottSecond half (by Becky Nevin)In between hopping between all the amazing science sessions today I made it to the last half of a very interesting Author Referee Workshop run by AAS journals. Even with missing the first half, I can still tell that theres a lot of changes coming to AAS journals (which include ApJ, AJ, ApJS, ApJL), in particular in the way that your research will be published. All good from what I saw in particular theyve addressed the long-standing problem of how to cite astronomical software (usually produced for free by a keen member of the community). Now they give guidelines for how to do this and have even appointed a new lead editor for instrumentation software.What got me most excited though was the demonstration by Greg Schwarz of AASTex v6.0 a markup package to assist authors in preparing manuscripts intended for submission to AAS-affiliated journals i.e. super cool amazing new LaTeX commands to satisfy even the most obsessive LaTeX-er! Check it out, because it will definitely ease the pain of writing and responding to referees. In the final talk (before free lunch, score!) Gus Muench showcased the new ways that authors will be able to include interactive JavaScript figures into articles in AAS journals. You can check out some of the amazing integrations in this nifty tutorial.A Report on the Inclusive Astronomy 2015 Meeting: Community Recommendations for Diversity and Inclusion in AstronomyThis very well-attended session recapped the Inclusive Astronomy 2015 meeting (see this link for a summary!)The IA2015 meeting results can be found here.A draft of the recommendations from IA2015 is here. Note that this document, termed the Nashville Recommendations, is a living document that isnt yet finalized, and feedback is welcome.Dannie Heineman Prize: From ~ to Precision Science: Cosmology from 1995 to 2025 (by Erika Nesvold)Marc Kamionkowski of Johns Hopkins University and David Spergel of Princeton University shared this years Heineman Prize for outstanding work in astronomy, and gave an impressive tag-team overview of the progress in the field of cosmology over the past 20 years.Spergel pointed out that in 1995, cosmologists were still debating over the value of the Hubble constant, and whether or not the universe is flat. Kamionkowski pointed out that back then, cosmology was an order of magnitude game where observations lagged far behind theory. He noted that in general, theorists tend to sit around predicting things, and not much progress is made in testing those predictions, at least not within the lifetime of an individual theorist. In cosmology, however, the measurements and observations made since 1995 have been more successful and precise than anyone could have anticipated.This is thanks in part to the WMAP mission and later the Planck satellite, which measured the cosmic microwave background and collected an amazing set of data. There is excellent agreement between the data from WMAP and Planck, a triumph for observational cosmologists. Much to the surprise of Spergel and other cosmologists, a simple model of only five fundamental parameters fits these data extremely well. Twenty years later, thanks to the hard work of cosmologists, we now know that the age of the universe is 13.8 billion years, and that it is composed of roughly 4% atoms, 23% dark matter, and 73% dark energy.Spergel and Kamionkowski then pointed towards the future, predicting even more spectacular results to come over the next decade or so. Our current model of the universe predicts gravitational waves, which we havent observed so far, but the search is heating up. Kamionkowski called this potentially the most important new physics result of this century! He also explained that we can now do neutrino physics using the cosmic microwave background, which already provides the strongest constraint on the sum of neutrinon masses. In the next decade, we should be able to further determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The coming years in cosmology could be even more exciting than the past twenty!HEAD Rossi Prize talk: A New View of the High Energy Universe with NuSTAR (by Susanna Kohler)This years Rossi Prize winner Fiona Harrison capped off the main part of the day with a plenary talk about some of the highlights from the first two years of the NuSTAR mission, NASAs space-based, high-energy X-ray telescope.Additional science results from the past two years with NuSTAR.Harrison began by telling us about NuSTARs launch in 2012, in which a Pegasus rocket with NuSTAR as its payload was launched from a L-1011 Stargazer aircraft. She claims to have been unconcerned about this part: The payload would go up or it would go down, there wasnt anything I could do about it. The real terror for the NuSTAR team came 9 days later when the telescope slowly unfolded itself over the span of 24 minutes, snapping components into place. All went well, however, and NuSTAR has since been forging exciting new territory in the high-energy X-ray regime!Harrison discussed science highlights from the last two years of NuSTAR, like the discovery of a population of dead stars in the inner parsecs of the galaxy, the identification of the mechanism that most likely re-energizes stalled shocks in supernovae and launches the explosion (in case youre keeping track, its because the star sloshes around. Seriously.), or the evidence that supernova 1987A exploded asymmetrically.NuSTAR is funded through the end of 2016 and is now in its extended mission, so we can expect to see more exciting science coming from it in the future!

  4. Taking refuge from modernity: 21st century hermits

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, I; Rubin, GJ; Wessely, S

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerances, such as ‘multiple chemical sensitivity’ and ‘electrosensitivity,’ can drastically affect the quality of life of those affected. A proportion of severely affected patients remove themselves from modern society, to live in isolation away from the purported causal agent of their ill health. This is not a new phenomenon; reports of hermits extend back to the 3rd century AD. We conducted a literature review of case reports relating to ancient hermits and modern day reclusion resulting from idiopathic environmental intolerance, in order to explore whether there are similarities between these two groups and whether the symptoms of these ‘illnesses of modernity’ are simply a present-day way of reaching the end-point of reclusion. Whilst there were some differences between the cases, recurring themes in ancient and modern cases included: dissatisfaction with society, a compulsion to flee, reports of a constant struggle and a feeling of fighting against the establishment. The similarities which exist between the modern-day cases and the historical hermits may provide some insight into the extreme behaviours exhibited by this population. The desire to retreat from society in order to escape from harm has existed for many centuries, but in different guises. PMID:23288087

  5. Family Day Care Training Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakatsu, Gail

    California's Family Day Care Training Program was designed to recruit and train in 7 weeks, Lao, Vietnamese, and Chinese refugees to establish their own state-licensed, family day care homes. Topics in the program's curriculum include an introduction to family day care, state licenses for family day care, state licensing requirements for family…

  6. Some aspects of the stalling of modern low-lying monoplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, Hartley A; GOUGH MELVIN N

    1938-01-01

    The factors affecting the stalling characteristics of modern airplanes are briefly discussed. The effect of present-day design trends is shown and means for improving the stalling characteristics of future airplanes are indicated.

  7. [Present-day metal-cutting tools and working conditions].

    PubMed

    Kondratiuk, V P

    1990-01-01

    Polyfunctional machine-tools of a processing centre type are characterized by a set of hygienic advantages as compared to universal machine-tools. But low degree of mechanization and automation of some auxiliary processes, and constructional defects which decrease the ergonomic characteristics of the tools, involve labour intensity in multi-machine processing. The article specifies techniques of allowable noise level assessment, and proposes hygienic recommendations, some of which have been introduced into practice. PMID:2328919

  8. Controlled microwave heating in modern organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kappe, C Oliver

    2004-11-26

    Although fire is now rarely used in synthetic chemistry, it was not until Robert Bunsen invented the burner in 1855 that the energy from this heat source could be applied to a reaction vessel in a focused manner. The Bunsen burner was later superseded by the isomantle, oil bath, or hot plate as a source for applying heat to a chemical reaction. In the past few years, heating and driving chemical reactions by microwave energy has been an increasingly popular theme in the scientific community. This nonclassical heating technique is slowly moving from a laboratory curiosity to an established technique that is heavily used in both academia and industry. The efficiency of "microwave flash heating" in dramatically reducing reaction times (from days and hours to minutes and seconds) is just one of the many advantages. This Review highlights recent applications of controlled microwave heating in modern organic synthesis, and discusses some of the underlying phenomena and issues involved. PMID:15558676

  9. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond PlutoThe mission was featured on the front pages of 450 newspapers worldwide on every single continent (including Antartica!)New Horizons reached the Moon in9 HOURSafter launch (compared to the ~3 days it took the Apollo missions)The mission controllers were aiming for a 100km window of space all the way from EarthThere was a window of ~400seconds which the probe had to arrive within the probe arrived90 seconds early! Putting tardy astronomers everywhere to shame.Charon was the only satellite of Pluto known at the time of the mission proposalThe canyon found on Charon is not only bigger than the Grand Canyon but bigger than Mariner Valley on Mars which is already4000 km (2500 mi) long and reaches depths of up to 7 km (4 mi)!Charons surface. Tectonic feature runs about 1500 km, around 10 km deep. Eat it, Mars. #aas227 pic.twitter.com/blewwJaXEn Danny Barringer (@HeavyFe_H) January 5, 2016The mountains ringing the Sputnik Planum (aka the heart of Pluto) are over 4km high and are snow capped with methane icePlutos mountain ranges. Means surface nitrogen layer is thin, probably water ice according to @AlanStern. #aas227 pic.twitter.com/0yyHZvpBOE Danny Barringer (@HeavyFe_H) January 5, 2016Plutos atmosphere has a dozendistincthaze layers but how they arecreated is a mystery#aas227 hazes on Pluto wow pic.twitter.com/VPx99ZhPj1 Lisa StorrieLombardi (@lisajsl) January 5, 2016Alan also spoke about the future of New Horizons there is a new mission proposal for a fly by of a Kuiper Belt object 2014MU69 in Jan 2019 which should give us a better understanding of this icy frontier at the edge ofthe Solar System. As a parting gift Alan playedthemost gorgeously detailed fly over video of Plutos surface that had all in the room melting into their flip flops. Its safe to say that the whole room is now Pluto-curious and wondering whether a change of discipline is in order!Press Conference: Black Holes and Exoplanets (by Susanna Kohler)This morning marked the first press conference of the meeting, covering some hot topics in black holes and exoplanets.Hubble (background) and Chandra (purple) image of SDSS J1126+2944. The arrow marks the second black hole. (From http://casa.colorado.edu/~comerford/press)The first speaker was Julie Comerford (University of Colorado Boulder), who told us about SDSS J1126+2944, a galaxy that was shown by Chandra X-ray detections to contain not just one, but two supermassive black holes. This is a sign of a recent merger between two galaxies, which can result in one new, larger galaxy with two nuclei for a while. The second black hole is surrounded by only a small sphere of stars. This may be because the rest have been stripped away in the process of the merger but its also possible that the second black hole is an elusive intermediate mass black hole of only 100-1,000,000 solar masses! Heres the press release.The second speaker was Eric Schlegel (University of Texas, San Antonio), who spoke about the galaxy NGC 5195. Eric discussed an interesting problem: we know that star formation ends in galaxies after a time, but the gas must be cleared out of the galaxy for the star formation to halt. What process does this? Schlegels collaboration found evidence in NGC 5195 for a burping supermassive black hole the shock from the black holes outflow sweeps up the hydrogen gas and blows it out of the galactic center. Heres the press release.NuSTAR image of Andromeda, inset on a UV image by NASAs Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Click for a better look! [NASA/JPL-Caltech/GSFC]Next up was Daniel Wik (NASA/Goddard SFC), who discussed recent high-energy X-ray observations of Andromeda galaxy with NASAs NuSTAR. As Wik described it, NuSTAR is like a CSI detective, working to identify what fraction of the compact remnants in X-ray binaries of Andromeda are neutron stars, and what fraction are black holes. Since X-ray binaries play a crucial role in heating gas in protogalaxies, shaping galaxy formation, its important that we learn more about this population and how it evolves over time. Heres the press release.The final speaker was grad studentSamuel Grunblatt (University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy), who spoke about measuring the mass of exoplanets around active stars. In radial velocity studies of exoplanets, a planet orbiting its star causes the star to wobble. This signal for an Earth-like planet is as tiny as 9 cm/s! Unfortunately, activity of the star can cause radial velocity noise of 1-10 m/s so to detect Earth-like planets, we need to find a way of subtracting off the noise. Grunblatt talked about an intriguing new method for determining planet masses that controls for the signature of their hosts activity. Heres his paper.Annie Jump Cannon Award Lecture: On the Dynamics of Planets, Stars and Black Holes (by Erika Nesvold)This year, the Annie Jump Cannon Award was given to Smadar Naoz, an assistant professor at UCLA. The Cannon Award is given every year to a young (less than 5 years since PhD), female astronomer for outstanding work in her field. Traditionally, the Cannon Award recipient delivers a lecture on her research, so this year we were lucky to see a dynamic and engaging talk by Smadar Naoz about her research in dynamical theory.You may have heard the common career advice that you should focus on becoming the expert on one particular facet of astronomy: a particular type of object, an observational technique, a type of instrument, etc. Naoz has managed to follow that advice while still managing to study a huge range of astronomical topics, from exoplanets to cosmology. She studies hierarchical triples, systems of three gravitational bodies in which two of the bodies orbit one another very closely, while the third orbits the other two from a much greater distance. For example, a planet in a tight orbit around a star, with a brown dwarf orbiting hundreds of AU away, make up a hierarchical triple system. So does a system in which two black holes orbit each other closely, with a third black hole orbiting farther away. The physics of these systems are all the same, so by studying the equations that govern a hierarchical triple system, Naoz can study a huge variety of astronomical objects.In particular, Naoz studies a mechanism called the Kozai-Lidov mechanism, named after the two researchers who discovered it independently. If the outer body in a hierarchical triple orbits at a high enough inclination to the inner body ( 40 degrees), the Kozai-Lidov mechanism will excite the inclination and eccentricity of the inner body. In fact, the inclination and eccentricity will oscillate opposite one another: as the inclination increases, the eccentricity will decrease, and vice versa. In the course of her research, Naoz discovered a flaw in Kozais original derivations of this mechanism, and derived a more accurate, general set of equations describing the Kozai-Lidov mechanism. These new equations indicate that the eccentricity of the inner object can become extremely high, and that the inclination can become so high that the objects orbit can flip from prograde to retrograde! In other words, the object can start orbiting in the opposite direction around the central body.Wondering how Naoz found the error in Kozai? I happen to know she rederives all the equations in every paper she reads. Wow. #aas227 Erika Nesvold (@erikanesvold) January 5, 2016This work has applications in many different types of systems. For example, over the past decade, observers have discovered a large number of retrograde hot Jupiters, gas giant planets orbiting very close to their star, in the opposite direction from the stars spin. Naoz showed that the new, correct Kozai-Lidov mechanism can explain the orbits of these exoplanets, because it increases the planets eccentricity until its orbit approaches very close to the star, and it flips the inclination into a retrograde orbit. Naoz: A puzzle: how to explain retrograde planets? Kozai mechanism can do that! #aas227 Peter Edmonds (@PeterDEdmonds) January 5, 2016Naoz also showed applications of the Kozai-Lidov mechanisms to dark matter halos around black holes, triple black hole systems, and so-called blue stragglers: main-sequence stars in clusters that are brighter and bluer than they should be. Her body of work is an excellent example of how theorists can adapt general physics theories to a wonderful variety of astronomical problems.holy styrofoam planets batman naoz just explained everything. #aas227 August Muench (@augustmuench) January 5, 2016Harassment in the Astronomical Sciences Town Hall(by Caroline Morley)The Town Hall on Harassment in the Astronomical Sciences involved a sobering panel discussion on the current state on workplace climate in astronomy and the current steps that the AAS and federal agencies are taking to improve it. Christina Richey kicked it off by presenting preliminary results from the CSWA Survey on workplace climate. This survey involved 426 participants, and reveals that many people, especially junior members of the field, experience harassment including both verbal and physical harassment. These results will be published this year. Next up, Dara Norman, a Councilor of the AAS and a member of the AAS Ethics Task Force, spoke about the proposed changes to the current AAS Ethics Statement. These changes will focus on corrective policies to improve the state of the field; they will solicit community feedback this Spring and vote on the changes at the Summer AAS meeting. Last, Jim Ulvestad, representing the federal agencies including NSF, NASA, and the DOE, spoke about the current policies for reporting to federal funding agencies. He reminds us that if an institution accepts money from the federal government, they are required by law to follow laws such as Title VI (covering racial harassment) and Title IX (covering sexual harassment), and that breaches can be reported to the funding agency.Tools and Tips for Better Software (aka Pain Reduction for Code Authors)(by Caroline Morley)This afternoon breakout session included a drinking-from-the-firehose set of short talks that covered everything from source-code management and software testing to building communities that create sustainable code. First, Kenza Arraki discussed software such as Git to do version control to keep track of code changes. (Version Control is my (science) New Years Resolution, so I was happy to learn that there is aCodeAcademy tutorial for Git!). Next up, AdrianPrice-Whelan described the merits of software testing and suggests that we actually do Test-driven development where we write tests for the code first, then write code, run tests and debug until tests all pass. Erik Tollerud spoke on Why Document code and how you might convince yourself to do so (documenting code is another good science New Years Resolution!) The most important rule is to always document as you code because you wont ever go back! Bruce Berriman described the best practices for code release, including, importantly, licensing it and describing it well (with tutorials, examples). Matthew Turk reminded us the importance of building community around code development. Robert Nemiroff ended the talks with a discussion of what to do withdeadcodes. The lowest bar? Put it in your Dropbox and share it with your collaborators and students!For more info on all of these topics and more, consider attending a Software Carpentry workshop.

  10. Full-Day or Half-Day Kindergarten? ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne

    This ERIC Digest examines how changing family patterns have affected the full-day/half-day kindergarten issue, discussing why schools are currently considering alternative scheduling and describing the advantages and disadvantages of each type of program. The following changing family patterns affecting the choice of full-day kindergarten programs…

  11. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are described in the

  12. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian Values" relates…

  13. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is the first in a series of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum which is to prepare chemical technicians. The chapters concentrate on gas chromatography, tests for purity, properties of gases, and gas measurements. Included is the appropriate content, exercises, laboratory activities, and all needed mathematics.…

  14. Modern midwifery: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S

    1985-01-01

    To gain more understanding of the practices of modern midwives, 2 births occurring in a Botswanan District Hospital Maternity Ward were observed by a research assistant. Naturalistic observation was considered more reliable than interviews with either patients or modern midwives to assess the biosocial aspects of birth in the modern sector. At admission to the labor room, these 2 midwives checked the patient's blood pressure, performed a vaginal examination, checked the fetal heart, palpated the uterus, shaved the public hair, and administered an enema. Both midwives did not communicate with their patients during these procedures or offer information on the results. The patients were told not to push; 1 midwife commented, "In the hospital, nobody delivers by herself." Rather, patients were instructed to do their "breathing exercises," a term with which they were not familiar and was not explained. In the 1st case, an episiotomy was performed. Both births were uneventful in terms of complications, but marked by a lack of attention to the psychological needs of the patient or sufficient explanations as to the progress of the delivery. Overall, all communications between the modern midwives observed and their patients were impersonal, with an emphasis on technical procedures. PMID:12282440

  15. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a

  16. Post-Modern Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    The history of software development includes elements of art, science, engineering, and fashion(though very little manufacturing). In all domains, old ideas give way or evolve to new ones: in the fine arts, the baroque gave way to rococo, romanticism, modernism, postmodernism, and so forth. What is the postmodern programming equivalent? That is, what comes after object orientation?

  17. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…

  18. MODERN PERSIAN READER. III, ADVANCED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AVERY, PETER W.; AND OTHERS

    THIS ADVANCED MODERN PERSIAN READER IS DESIGNED TO FAMILIARIZE ENGLISH-SPEAKING STUDENTS OF PERSIAN WITH CONTEMPORARY PERSIAN WRITING. IT ASSUMES A COMMAND OF THE CONTENTS OF THE ELEMENTARY AND INTERMEDIATE VOLUMES IN THE SAME SERIES (OR THE EQUIVALENT), ALTHOUGH NO SYSTEMATIC "GRADING" HAS BEEN UNDERTAKEN IN THE THREE VOLUMES. THE FIRST FIVE…

  19. Modern Egypt: A Development Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; And Others

    Egypt is a culture which combines the traditional with the modern. This text aims to foster an appreciation of Egypt as a changing culture facing the challenges of development. Topics included are: (1) Village Life; (2) Urban Life; (3) Nile; (4) Government; (5) Agriculture; (6) Economy; (7) Health/Games; (8) Education; (9) Religion; (10)…

  20. Education and Modernization in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazamias, Andreas M.

    This history of Greek education traces the path of modernization from the emergence of Greece as an independent state in the early 1800's up to the present date. Educational philosophy and content are seen as pawns in the social and political struggles of those years. Detailed coverage of the historical events describes the structure of education…

  1. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are described in the…

  2. Modern Standard Arabic Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These instructional materials in Modern Standard Arabic, contained in nine volumes of 120 lesson units, were developed at the Defense Language Institute for classroom use with native-speaker instructors employing audiolingual methodology. The course is designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and…

  3. Modern Teachers and Postmodern Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Matthew Ware

    1993-01-01

    Argues that the typical full-time community college instructor holds a "modern" world view whereas the typical traditional-age community college student holds a "postmodern" one. Discusses the implications of these differences in the classroom and suggests that classroom experience may be enhanced if teachers better understand students. (DMM)

  4. Modern Apprenticeships: A Regional Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of Modern Apprenticeships (n=2,222) in Devon and Cornwall was conducted in four industries: engineering manufacturing, hospitality, construction, and agriculture. Apprenticeship appeared to be a feasible vocational alternative to full-time education, attracting high-quality students. Trainers and career counselors played a crucial role in…

  5. Retraining the Modern Civil Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priscoli, Jerome Delli

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why modern engineering requires social science and the nature of planning. After these conceptional discussions, 12 practical tools which social science brings to engineering are reviewed. A tested approach to training engineers in these tools is then described. Tools include institutional analysis, policy profiling, and other impact…

  6. Modern Pulsed Fission Propulsion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the 1960's U.S. Government laboratories, under Project Orion, investigated a pulsed nuclear fission propulsion system. Based on Project Orion, an interplanetary vehicle using pulsed fission propulsion would incorporate modern technologies for momentum transfer, thermal management, and habitation design.

  7. The Modernization of Pedagogical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zasypkin, V. P.; Zborovskii, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    In the social, political, and social humanities lexicon of today's Russia there is probably no word that is in wider and more common use than modernization. What this refers to is the profound and systematic transformation of all the main structures and sub-systems of the social organism, including "education"--one of the most important, in which…

  8. Modern Languages in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Eric W.

    An overview of the modern language teaching situation in the United Kingdom--and by extension in English-speaking countries--is presented. The record of achievement in foreign language education for the last two decades is viewed as a move from euphoria about the possibilities for imparting second language skills to disenchantment over the failure…

  9. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Physics of Hypersonic Flow and TPS Considerations. Destinations, Missions and Requirements. State of the Art Thermal Protection Systems Capabilities. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS. Entry Systems Concepts. Flexible TPS for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators. Conformal TPS for Rigid Aeroshell. 3-D Woven TPS for Extreme Entry Environment. Multi-functional Carbon Fabric for Mechanically Deployable.

  10. Modern Physics, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Kenneth S.

    1995-08-01

    Bring Modern Physics to Life with a Realistic Software Simulation! Enhance the thorough coverage of Krane's Modern Physics 2e with hands-on, real-world experience! Modern Physics Simulations, developed by the Consortium for Upper-Level Physics Software (CUPS), offers complex, realistic calculations of models of various physical systems. Like all of the CUPS simulations, it is remarkably easy to use, yet sophisticated enough for explorations of new ideas. Important Features Include: * Powerful simulations covering Historic Experiments in Electron Diffraction, Laser Cavities & Dynamics, Classical Scattering, Nuclear Properties & Decays, Special Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, and the Hydrogen Atom & the H2+ Molecule. * Pascal source code for all programs and a number of exercises suggesting specific ways the programs can be modified. * Graphical (often animated) displays in most simulations. The entire CUPS simulation series consists of nine books/software simulations which cover Astrophysics, Electricity and Magnetism, Classical Mechanics, Modern Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Solid State Physics, Thermal and Statistical Physics, and Waves and Optics.

  11. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 8 to 13 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content is centered around the background needed to understand the structure of the atom, covalence, electrovalence, elements and compounds, liquids and solutions, and chemical…

  12. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 32-39 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional materials intended to prepare chemical technologists. The study of organic chemistry is continued as these major topics are considered: alcohols and phenols, alkyl and aryl halides, ethers, aldehydes and ketones,

  13. Modernizing Information Training in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Harry

    1985-01-01

    Discusses strains on China's existing library resources and personnel as affected by modernization, growth of foreign literature collections, Chinese publishing expansion, and increase in educated population. Training facilities available in Beijing and Shanghai, activities of national information college at Wuhan University, and opportunities for…

  14. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 32-39 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional materials intended to prepare chemical technologists. The study of organic chemistry is continued as these major topics are considered: alcohols and phenols, alkyl and aryl halides, ethers, aldehydes and ketones,…

  15. Cauchy's stress theory in a modern light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenemann, Falk H.

    2014-01-01

    The 180 year old stress theory by Cauchy is found to be insufficient to serve as a basis for a modern understanding of material behaviour. Six reasons are discussed in detail: (1) Cauchy's theory, following Euler, considers forces interacting with planes. This is in contrast to Newton's mechanics which considers forces interacting with radius vectors. (2) Bonds in solids have never been taken into account. (3) Cauchy's stress theory does not meet the minimum conditions for vector spaces because it does not have a metric. It is not a field theory, and not in the Euclidean space. (4) Cauchy's theory contains a hidden boundary condition that makes it less than general. (5) The current theory of stress is found to be at variance with the theory of potentials. (6) The theory is conceptually incompatible with thermodynamics for physical and geometrical reasons.

  16. Invisible World and Modern Physics: Modern Science and Theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    2010-07-01

    A characteristic of the Western thought is the effort to counter Christian theology through arguments based on scientific discoveries (antirrhetic theology). Two objections can be raised against this trait: a) Modern science considers as a fact the future expansions, corrections, even total abolishment of scientific knowledge in the face of new discoveries. Therefore, dogmatic positions must not be based on temporary scientific views. b) Antirrhetic theology is mostly based on out-of-date scientific views of the period 1650-1900, which are not valid any more. The example of modern physics and cosmology is prime among them; in these sciences, the prevailing theories are based on the existence of an imperceptible reality, or on apparently “illogical” (in the sense of classical logic) fundamental properties of matter and its particles in quantum mechanics.

  17. John Day Tailrace MASS2 Hydraulic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2003-06-03

    Recent biological results for the Juvenile Bypass System at John Jay Lock and Dam have raised concerns about the hydraulic conditions that are created in the tailrace under different project operations. This Memorandum for Record discusses the development and application of a truncated MASS2 model in the John Day tailrace.

  18. Myth or Truth: Independence Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    Most Americans think of the Fourth of July as Independence Day, but is it really the day the U.S. declared and celebrated independence? By exploring myths and truths surrounding Independence Day, this lesson asks students to think critically about commonly believed stories regarding the beginning of the Revolutionary War and the Independence Day…

  19. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  20. National Trails Day. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Mark

    This paper describes how a school district in Maine implemented an outdoor education program centered around National Trails Day (a day of awareness of outdoor recreational areas in the United States). The program combined classroom learning with an all-day hike on the Appalachian Trail by 240 seventh-grade students. Numerous teachers, school…

  1. Family Day Care Provider Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of Children and Family Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Family day care providers are responsible for creating a high-quality program where children have opportunities to grow, learn and thrive. Part of providing high-quality child care includes complying with the family day care regulations from the New York State Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS). This Handbook will help day care…

  2. The Geelwal Karoo heavy mineral deposit: a modern day beach placer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, W. G.; Rozendaal, A.

    1995-07-01

    The Geelwal Karoo heavy-mineral placer is situated in an active beach environment along the rugged southern Namaqualand coast of South Africa. The geomorphology of the coast is controlled by resistant Precambrian and Palaeozoic basement rocks, which also dictate the narrow, elongate geometry and limited 10 km strike length of this strandline deposit. Ore reserves are small compared to the multi-million tonne analogous Quaternary sands elsewhere in the world. However, the locally high, total heavy mineral content and the favourable ore to gangue mineral ratio, coupled with the possibility of replenishment style mining, makes this an attractive resource. Garnet and ilmenite are the dominant heavy minerals followed by pyroxene, zircon, rutile and titaniferous alteration products after ilmenite. The high Ti content of ilmenite (51%) and predominantly almandine garnet suggest metamorphic source rocks, most likely part of the Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. These rocks are considered to be the primary source. However, after numerous stages of reworking, large quantities of heavy minerals are concentrated in the Neogene marine terraces along the west coast. The 35 m terrace, a local, heavy, mineral-rich palaeostrandline, acted as a point source and supplied vast quantities to the coastal environment. A J-bay shaped headland to the south prevented excessive dispersion of the minerals by the strong northward-directed littoral drift. This allowed wave action to transport, concentrate and re-deposit the heavy minerals in their present beach environment at Geelwal Karoo.

  3. Platelet lipidomics: a modern day perspective on lipid discovery and characterization in platelets

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Valerie B; Murphy, Robert C.; Watson, Steve P

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are diverse families of biomolecules that perform essential structural and signaling roles in platelets. Their formation and metabolism is tightly controlled by enzymes and signal transduction pathways, and their dysregulation leads to significant defects in platelet function and disease. Platelet activation is associated with significant changes to membrane lipids, and formation of diverse bioactive lipids that play essential roles in hemostasis. In recent years, new generation mass spectrometry analysis of lipids (termed “lipidomics”) has begun to alter our understanding of how these molecules participate in key cellular processes. While, the application of lipidomics to platelet biology is still in its infancy, seminal earlier studies have shaped our knowledge of how lipids regulate key aspects of platelet biology, including aggregation, shape change, coagulation and degranulation, as well as how lipids generated by platelets influence other cells, such as leukocytes and the vascular wall, and thus how they regulate hemostasis, vascular integrity and inflammation, as well as contribute to pathologies including arterial/deep vein thrombosis and atherosclerosis. This review will provide a brief historical perspective on the characterization of lipids in platelets, then an overview of the new generation lipidomic approaches, their recent application to platelet biology, and future perspectives for research in this area. The major platelet-regulatory lipid families, their formation, metabolism, and their role in health and disease, will be summarized. PMID:24677238

  4. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement 2016: A Modern-Day "Through the Looking-Glass" Adventure.

    PubMed

    Vahl, Torsten P; Kodali, Susheel K; Leon, Martin B

    2016-03-29

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become a safe and effective therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). In recent trials, the hemodynamic performance and clinical outcomes of the latest generation of TAVR devices demonstrated at least parity with surgical outcomes in patients of similar risk. Many initial obstacles with TAVR have largely been overcome, including frequent access site complications and concerns about strokes and paravalvular leaks. Using a multidisciplinary heart team approach, patient selection, procedural planning, and device implantation have been refined and optimized such that clinical outcomes are generally predictable and reproducible. Future research will focus on the durability of TAVR devices, further enhancements in clinical outcomes, and adjunctive therapies. On the basis of initial results from ongoing clinical trials, the indication for TAVR will likely expand to lower-risk patients. This review provides an overview of recent progress in this field, and highlights future opportunities and directions. PMID:27012409

  5. Looking for (and Finding) Modern Day Pioneers in Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Mike

    2007-01-01

    For most people, the word "pioneer" conjures up romantic visions of sturdy, courageous people who crossed physical frontiers of land and/or water alone, or who took their families, communities, and cultures with them into those uncharted territories. Once settled, their pioneering efforts shifted to starting new societies with new laws and new…

  6. Simulating modern-day cropland and pasture burning in an Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Sam; Malyshev, Sergey; Shevliakova, Elena; Magi, Brian; Pacala, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the Holocene, humans have extended our influence across a larger and larger fraction of ecosystems, even creating some new ones in the process. Herds of livestock grazing either native vegetation (rangeland) or specially planted species (pasture) have modified huge areas of land. We have even developed new plant species and cultivated them as crops. The extent of our ecosystem modification intensified dramatically with the advent of industrialized agriculture, to the point where cropland and pasture (which will henceforth encompass rangeland as well) now cover over a third of the Earth's land area. One way we have altered the terrestrial biosphere is by intentionally and unintentionally altering fire's frequency, intensity, and seasonal timing. This is especially true for agricultural ecosystems. Because their maintenance and use require a level of human control, cropland and pasture often experience fire regimes substantially different from those of the ecosystems they replaced or what would occur in the absence of active fire management. For example, farmers might burn to prepare land for planting or to dispose of crop residues, and pastoralists often use fire to prevent encroachment of unpalatable woody plants. Due to the vast global extent of agriculture, and considering the myriad ways fire affects the Earth system, it is critical that we understand (a) the ways people manage fire on cropland and pasture and (b) the effects of this management on the Earth system. Earth system models are an ideal tool for examining this kind of question. By simulating the processes within and interactions among the atmosphere, oceans, land, and terrestrial ecosystems, Earth system models allow phenomena such as fire to be examined in their global context. However, while the past fifteen years have seen great progress in the simulation of vegetation fire within Earth system models, the direct human influence via cropland and pasture management burning has been mostly ignored. Instead, indirect functions are usually used to incorporate human influence based on population density and economic factors. This paper describes a global fire model that incorporates knowledge from new estimates of cropland and pasture burning to explicitly simulate fire on those lands across the world. After briefly describing some of the agricultural fire patterns observed in Eurasia, we detail the structure of the model and context in which it was developed. We then use the model to investigate the contribution of cropland and pasture fire to emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, as well as net carbon cycling across the globe.

  7. Hosts of the Plio-Pleistocene past reflect modern-day coral vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    van Woesik, Robert; Franklin, Erik C.; O'Leary, Jennifer; McClanahan, Tim R.; Klaus, James S.; Budd, Ann F.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of global extinction of reef-building coral species is increasing. We evaluated extinction risk using a biological trait-based resiliency index that was compared with Caribbean extinction during the Plio-Pleistocene, and with extinction risk determined by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Through the Plio-Pleistocene, the Caribbean supported more diverse coral assemblages than today and shared considerable overlap with contemporary Indo-Pacific reefs. A clear association was found between extant Plio-Pleistocene coral genera and our positive resilience scores. Regional extinction in the past and vulnerability in the present suggests that Pocillopora, Stylophora and foliose Pavona are among the most susceptible taxa to local and regional isolation. These same taxa were among the most abundant corals in the Caribbean Pliocene. Therefore, a widespread distribution did not equate with immunity to regional extinction. The strong relationship between past and present vulnerability suggests that regional extinction events are trait-based and not merely random episodes. We found several inconsistencies between our data and the IUCN scores, which suggest a need to critically re-examine what constitutes coral vulnerability. PMID:22337694

  8. Augustine Volcano's late Pleistocene rhyolite eruption and its modern-day residuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, M. L.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The pre-Holocene eruptive history of Augustine Volcano, the most active volcano in the populated Cook Inlet region of Alaska, is poorly known due to the effects of glaciation and voluminous products of Holocene eruptions that cover the majority of this island volcano. Among its oldest known deposits, thought to be latest Pleistocene in age, are a basalt-rhyolite hyaloclastite, which is interbedded with an overlying pumiceous rhyolite tephra fall, that crop out on the south side of the island (Waitt and Beget, 2009). Dense and pumiceous rhyolite clasts from the deposits are compositionally similar (71-74 wt. % SiO2; Larsen et al., 2010) and contain phenocrysts of plagioclase, quartz, amphibole, and Fe-Ti oxides. These basalt-rhyolite deposits are the most compositionally extreme products of the volcano; Holocene eruptions, including historical eruptions in 1976, 1986, and 2006, produced andesites and dacites. In 2006, one such eruption produced gabbro inclusions (54.4-60.2 wt% SiO2) that consist of plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxenes, Fe-Ti oxides, and small amounts of interstitial glass, suggesting a cumulate origin. Both the Pleistocene-age rhyolite and the 2006 gabbro inclusions fall along a whole-rock compositional trend depleted in incompatible elements relative to mid-Holocene-present andesites and dacites. To investigate differentiation and the timing of rhyolite magma generation at Augustine, we have determined high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th ages of zircon crystallization for the rhyolite as well as for the gabbros and high-silica andesites erupted in 2006. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) analyses of indium-mounted, unpolished zircon rims from the rhyolite yield a single 238U-230Th isochron age of ca. 27 ka, which we interpret to reflect the final interval of crystallization immediately prior to eruption. Sectioned core ages for rhyolite zircon, however, fall into two populations: one at ca. 27 ka, and a second, smaller population that appears as old as ca. 50 ka. Thus zircon crystallization in the rhyolite dominantly occurred just prior to eruption, with subordinate entrainment of older antecrysts. Gabbro inclusions erupted in 2006 contain zircons with core 238U-230Th ages that are indistinguishable from the dominant rhyolite age of ca. 27 ka. A few small zircons from gabbros are in 238U-230Th secular equilibrium, yield U-Pb ages of ca. 80-1800 Ma, and are true xenocrysts inherited from basement rocks. Based on the similarity in zircon ages and whole-rock geochemical affinity between late Pleistocene rhyolite and 2006 gabbroic inclusions, we suggest that the rhyolite formed via melt extraction from an andesitic crystal mush, of which the 2006 gabbro xenoliths are the residuum. A scarcity of zircons older than ca. 50 ka suggests that Augustine may not be underlain by a long-lived magmatic system, or conversely, that small but frequent andesitic eruptions of the sort that occurred prior to and after the generation of the Pleistocene rhyolite do not allow for significant zircon crystallization. Larsen, J.F., et al., 2010, USGS Prof. Paper 1769, Chap. 15, p. 335-382 Waitt, R.B., and Beget, J.E., 2009, USGS Prof. Paper 1762

  9. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  10. Depression as a disease of modernity: explanations for increasing prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Brandon H

    2012-01-01

    There has been much speculation about modern environments causing an epidemic of depression. This review aims to (1) determine whether depression rates have increased and (2) review evidence for possible explanations. While available data indicate rising prevalence and an increased lifetime risk for younger cohorts, strong conclusions cannot be drawn due to conflicting results and methodological flaws. There are numerous potential explanations for changing rates of depression. Cross-cultural studies can be useful for identifying likely culprits. General and specific characteristics of modernization correlate with higher risk. A positive correlation between a country’s GDP per capita, as quantitative measure of modernization, and lifetime risk of a mood disorder trended toward significance (p=0.06). Mental and physical well-being are intimately related. The growing burden of chronic diseases, which arise from an evolutionary mismatch between past human environments and modern-day living, may be central to rising rates of depression. Declining social capital and greater inequality and loneliness are candidate mediators of a depressiogenic social milieu. Modern populations are increasingly overfed, malnourished, sedentary, sunlight-deficient, sleep-deprived, and socially-isolated. These changes in lifestyle each contribute to poor physical health and affect the incidence and treatment of depression. The review ends with a call for future research and policy interventions to address this public health crisis. PMID:22244375

  11. Modernity and narcissistic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Paris, Joel

    2014-04-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a trait-based disorder that can be understood as a pathological amplification of narcissistic traits. While temperamental vulnerability and psychological adversity are risk factors for NPD, sociocultural factors are also important. This review hypothesizes that increases in narcissistic traits and cultural narcissism could be associated with changes in the prevalence of NPD. These shifts seem to be a relatively recent phenomenon, driven by social changes associated with modernity. While the main treatment for NPD remains psychotherapy, that form of treatment is itself a product of modernity and individualism. The hypothesis is presented that psychological treatment, unless modified to address the specific problems associated with NPD, could run the risk of supporting narcissism. PMID:22800179

  12. [Modernity in dreams and myths].

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The very presence of myths in psychoanalysis raises questions about their scientific status: that leads to reconsider the whole issue of Freudian mythology in a non-medical manner, by envisaging it in the more general context of modern myths, both political and artistic. Special attention is then paid to Surrealism, as the only avant-garde movement at the same time focused on psychoanalysis and politics: the role played by dreams in foundering myths is examined in both Surrealism and psychoanalysis. Surrealistic myths, such as Dalí's Grand Paranoïaque Comestible, finally prove to be so non-oedipian as the Nazi Ubermensch myth; nevertheless, their comparison with Freudian mythology points out their common origin, as they all fulfilled the need of the mass society for a modern myth, able to express his deeply renewed self-awareness. PMID:20695408

  13. Ancestors of modern plant crops.

    PubMed

    Salse, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Recent accumulation of plant genomic resources offers the opportunity to compare modern genomes and model their evolutionary history from their reconstructed Most Recent Common Ancestors (MRCAs) that can be used as a guide to unveil the forces driving the evolutionary success of angiosperms and ultimately to perform applied translational research from models to crops. This article reviews the current state of art of recent structural comparative genomics studies through ancestral genome reconstruction, that is, the field of in silico paleogenomics. PMID:26985732

  14. Modern Management of Clinical Chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Knuppel, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical chorioamnionitis continues to contribute to fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Significant advances have been made in the last 20 years in understanding the pathophysiologic processes leading to chorioamnionitis. This review addresses the history, incidence, pathophysiology, host defenses, risk factors, diagnosis, and maternal and neonatal management of clinically evident chorioamnionitis. After a detailed review of the physiologic processes leading to clinical chorioamnionitis and sepsis, we present a modern management scheme designed to optimize perinatal outcome for both mother and fetus. PMID:18476034

  15. The origins of modern divorce.

    PubMed

    Coontz, Stephanie

    2007-03-01

    High rates of marital dissolution and easy access to divorce are not unprecedented, historically or cross-culturally. But contemporary divorce in North America and Western Europe has different origins and features than divorce in previous cultures. The origins of modern divorce patterns date back more than 200 years, to the invention of the historically unprecedented idea that marriage should be based on love and mutual affection. Ironically, then, the fragility of modern marriage stems from the same values that have elevated the marital relationship above all other personal and familial commitments: the concentration of emotion, passion, personal identity, and self-validation in the couple relationship and the attenuation of emotional attachments and obligations beyond the conjugal unit. The immediate causes of divorce may range from factors as diverse as the personal psychological characteristics of one or both spouses to the stresses of economic hardship and community disintegration. But in a larger perspective, the role of divorce in modern societies and its relatively high occurrence both flow from the same complex of factors that have made good marriages so much more central to people's happiness than through most of the past, and deterioration of a marital relationship so much more traumatic. PMID:17375725

  16. Premature termination codons in modern human genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    The considerable range of genetic variation in human populations may partly reflect distinctive processes of adaptation to variable environmental conditions. However, the adaptive genomic signatures remain to be completely elucidated. This research explores candidate loci under selection at the population level by characterizing recently arisen premature termination codons (PTCs), some of which indicate a human knockout. From a total of 7595 participants from two population exome projects, 246 PTCs were found where natural selection has resulted in new alleles with a high frequency (from 1% to 96%) of derived alleles and various levels of population differentiation (FST = 0.00139–0.626). The PTC genes formed protein and regulatory networks limited to 15 biological processes or gene families, of which seven categories were previously unreported. PTC mutations have a strong tendency to be introduced into members of the same gene family, even during modern human evolution, although the exact nature of the selection is not fully known. The findings here suggest the ongoing evolutionary plasticity of modern humans at the genetic level and also partly provide insights into common human knockouts. PMID:26932450

  17. Premature termination codons in modern human genomes.

    PubMed

    Fujikura, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    The considerable range of genetic variation in human populations may partly reflect distinctive processes of adaptation to variable environmental conditions. However, the adaptive genomic signatures remain to be completely elucidated. This research explores candidate loci under selection at the population level by characterizing recently arisen premature termination codons (PTCs), some of which indicate a human knockout. From a total of 7595 participants from two population exome projects, 246 PTCs were found where natural selection has resulted in new alleles with a high frequency (from 1% to 96%) of derived alleles and various levels of population differentiation (FST = 0.00139-0.626). The PTC genes formed protein and regulatory networks limited to 15 biological processes or gene families, of which seven categories were previously unreported. PTC mutations have a strong tendency to be introduced into members of the same gene family, even during modern human evolution, although the exact nature of the selection is not fully known. The findings here suggest the ongoing evolutionary plasticity of modern humans at the genetic level and also partly provide insights into common human knockouts. PMID:26932450

  18. The landscape of Neandertal ancestry in present-day humans

    PubMed Central

    Sankararaman, Sriram; Mallick, Swapan; Dannemann, Michael; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of Neandertal genomes have revealed that Neandertals have contributed genetic variants to modern humans1–2. The antiquity of Neandertal gene flow into modern humans means that regions that derive from Neandertals in any one human today are usually less than a hundred kilobases in size. However, Neandertal haplotypes are also distinctive enough that several studies have been able to detect Neandertal ancestry at specific loci1,3–8. Here, we have systematically inferred Neandertal haplotypes in the genomes of 1,004 present-day humans12. Regions that harbor a high frequency of Neandertal alleles in modern humans are enriched for genes affecting keratin filaments suggesting that Neandertal alleles may have helped modern humans adapt to non-African environments. Neandertal alleles also continue to shape human biology, as we identify multiple Neandertal-derived alleles that confer risk for disease. We also identify regions of millions of base pairs that are nearly devoid of Neandertal ancestry and enriched in genes, implying selection to remove genetic material derived from Neandertals. Neandertal ancestry is significantly reduced in genes specifically expressed in testis, and there is an approximately 5-fold reduction of Neandertal ancestry on chromosome X, which is known to harbor a disproportionate fraction of male hybrid sterility genes20–22. These results suggest that part of the reduction in Neandertal ancestry near genes is due to Neandertal alleles that reduced fertility in males when moved to a modern human genetic background. PMID:24476815

  19. Day Fire in Ventura County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    The Day fire has been burning in Ventura County in Southern California since Labor Day, and has consumed more than 160,000 acres. As of September 29, it was 63 percent contained. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer on NASA's Terra satellite flew over the fire at 10 p.m. Pacific Time on September 28, and imaged the fire with its infrared camera. The hottest areas of active burning appear as red spots on the image. The blue-green background is a daytime image acquired in June, used as a background to allow firefighters to localize the hot spots.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission directorate.

    Size: 22.5 by 31.0 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 34.6 degrees North latitude, 119.1 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 4, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 15 meters (49.2 feet) and 30 meters (98.4 feet) Dates Acquired: September 28, 2006 and June 19 2006

  20. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health...

  1. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health...

  2. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health...

  3. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health...

  4. Day Care in Scandinavia: Denmark, Sweden and Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Steen B.

    Day care programs in the Scandinavian countries have been viewed as exemplary models to transfer to Canada and the United States. This publication, which provides an overview of day care in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, discusses conditions, facts, and programs contributing to the widespread acclaim. It is pointed out that day care in Denmark is an…

  5. Post-eruptive morphological evolution of island volcanoes: Surtsey as a modern case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagnoli, C.; Jakobsson, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Surtsey is a small volcanic island in the Vestmannaeyjar archipelago, off the south coast of Iceland. The eruption leading to the island's emersion lasted for 3.5 yr (1963-1967) while destructive forces have been active for over 50 yr (1963-present-day) during which Surtsey has suffered rapid subaerial and submarine erosion and undergone major morphological changes. Surtsey is a well-documented modern example of the post-eruptive degradational stage of island volcanoes, and has provided the unique opportunity to continuously observe and quantify the effects of intense geomorphic processes. In this paper we focus on coastal and marine processes re-shaping the shoreline and shallow-water portions of the Surtsey complex since its formation and on the related geomorphological record. Analogies with the post-eruptive morphological evolution of recently active island volcanoes at the emerging stage, encompassing different climatic conditions, wave regimes and geological contexts, are discussed.

  6. Study of the Half-Day/Full-Day Kindergarten Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInroy, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    This case study and problem analysis was an in-depth investigation of the half-day/full-day kindergarten model by utilizing interviews and focus groups to provide insight from parents, teachers, and other district personnel as to how the model has impacted the social, emotional, and academic development of the participating students. This study…

  7. Rethinking the Day of Silence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Back in 2006, 7th and 8th graders at Green Acres, the K-8 independent school where the author taught in suburban Maryland, participated in the Day of Silence. The Day of Silence is a national event: Students across the country take a one-day pledge of silence to show that they want to make schools safe for all students, regardless of their sexual

  8. Rethinking the Day of Silence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Back in 2006, 7th and 8th graders at Green Acres, the K-8 independent school where the author taught in suburban Maryland, participated in the Day of Silence. The Day of Silence is a national event: Students across the country take a one-day pledge of silence to show that they want to make schools safe for all students, regardless of their sexual…

  9. Sun-Earth Day, 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  10. Modern Management Practices and Hospital Admissions.

    PubMed

    McConnell, K John; Lindrooth, Richard C; Wholey, Douglas R; Maddox, Thomas M; Bloom, Nick

    2016-04-01

    We investigate whether the modern management practices and publicly reported performance measures are associated with choice of hospital for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We define and measure management practices at approximately half of US cardiac care units using a novel survey approach. A patient's choice of a hospital is modeled as a function of the hospital's performance on publicly reported quality measures and the quality of its management. The estimates, based on a grouped conditional logit specification, reveal that higher management scores and better performance on publicly reported quality measures are positively associated with hospital choice. Management practices appear to have a direct correlation with admissions for AMI-potentially through reputational effects-and indirect association, through better performance on publicly reported measures. Overall, a one standard deviation change in management practice scores is associated with an 8% increase in AMI admissions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25712429

  11. Day-night contrast as source of health for the human circadian system.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles

    2014-04-01

    Modern societies are characterized by a 24/7 lifestyle (LS) with no environmental differences between day and night, resulting in weak zeitgebers (weak day light, absence of darkness during night, constant environmental temperature, sedentary LS and frequent snacking), and as a consequence, in an impaired circadian system (CS) through a process known as chronodisruption. Both weak zeitgebers and CS impairment are related to human pathologies (certain cancers, metabolic syndrome and affective and cognitive disorders), but little is known about how to chronoenhance the CS. The aim of this work is to propose practical strategies for chronoenhancement, based on accentuating the day/night contrast. For this, 131 young subjects were recruited, and their wrist temperature (WT), activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep were recorded under free-living conditions for 1 week. Subjects with high contrast (HC) and low contrast (LC) for each variable were selected to analyze the HC effect in activity, body position, environmental temperature, light exposure and sleep would have on WT. We found that HC showed better rhythms than LC for every variable except sleep. Subjects with HC and LC for WT also demonstrated differences in LS, where HC subjects had a slightly advanced night phase onset and a general increase in day/night contrast. In addition, theoretical high day/night contrast calculated using mathematical models suggests an improvement by means of LS contrast. Finally, some individuals classified as belonging to the HC group in terms of WT when they are exposed to the LS characteristic of the LC group, while others exhibit WT arrhythmicity despite their good LS habits, revealing two different WT components: an exogenous component modified by LS and another endogenous component that is refractory to it. Therefore, intensifying day/night contrast in subject's LS has proven to be a feasible measure to chronoenhance the CS. PMID:24304407

  12. African Cultural Traditions and Modernization: A Reaffirmation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Felix A.

    1978-01-01

    The viability of African cultural traditions and their role in modernization and nation-building in Africa are examined. Social and political organization and formal education are discussed in relation to the process of modernization. Although Africa may utilize Western models of development, Westernization and modernization are not synonymous.…

  13. Rousseau and the Image of "Modern Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oelkers, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    The concept of "modern education" is directly connected with Rousseau's theory of education. It is often said that Rousseau "founded" modern education, or at least was its most influential predecessor. The paper argues that "modern learning" or "experimental education" was discussed within the late-17th century "quarrel of the ancients and

  14. Modern concepts of caries measurement.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B

    2004-01-01

    Following the consideration of several recent systematic and other reviews, there is a growing professional and scientific consensus that caries measurement methodology in caries clinical trials (CCT) should be updated to reflect progress made elsewhere in cariology. In this paper, therefore, "modern" means accepted in contemporary dental research and dental practice on the basis of sound research evidence--not necessarily new or requiring the use of new technology. Caries measurement should be seen in the context of the objectives of modern clinical caries management and the continuum of disease states, ranging from sub-surface carious changes through to more advanced lesions. Measurement concepts can be applied to at least three levels: the tooth surface, the individual, or the group/population. All are relevant to CCTs. Modern clinical caries management can be seen as comprised of seven discrete but linked steps (Steps 2, 3, and 4 are directly concerned with measurement.): (1) 'Caries detection' represents a yes/no decision as to whether caries is present; (2) lesion measurement assesses defined stages of the caries process, taking into account the histopatholgical morphology and appearance of different sizes and types of lesion and the diagnostic threshold(s) being used; (3) lesion monitoring by repeated measures at a series of examinations is used when lesions are less advanced than the stage judged to require operative intervention (A comparison of serial measurements permits the efficacy of preventive care aiming either to arrest or to reverse the lesion to be assessed.); (4) caries activity measures would be very valuable, but are relatively poorly developed and tested at present; (5) diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical decision-making are the important human processes in which all the information obtained from steps 1 to 4 is synthesised; (6) interventions/treatments, both preventive and operative, are now routinely used for caries management; and (7) outcome of caries control/management assesses caries management by examining evidence on the long-term outcomes. A challenge for the future is to define a range of optimal caries measurement methods--in use or in development in recent trials, in clinical practice, and/or in caries epidemiology--that will best contribute to more efficient, modern caries clinical trials. PMID:15286121

  15. Pharmacognosy: the oldest modern science.

    PubMed

    de Pasquale, A

    1984-06-01

    The use of drugs goes back to time immemorial, ever since primitive man resorted to the world around him to derive remedies which could alleviate pain and cure illnesses. The knowledge of drugs has developed together with the evolution of scientific and social progress. After a rapid historical review on the use of medicinal drugs in the diverse civilizations and on the origin and introduction of the term Pharmacognosy, the acquisitions of modern experimental Pharmacognosy in different countries of the world, and its contribution to therapy are briefly discussed. PMID:6381886

  16. 2014 Maine Earth Science Day

    On October 15, 2014 Maine Earth Science Day was held at the Maine State Museum in Augusta. The USGS was represented by Charlie Culbertson, left, and Nick Waldron, right. This photo was taken as the two were packing up for the day, and shows a main feature of the table, a touch screen display with th...

  17. Celebrate International School Library Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The Fourth Monday in October is International School Library Day (ISLD)--an opportunity for school libraries around the world to celebrate the contribution they make to the education of the children in their care. International School Library Day was proclaimed in 1999 by Dr Blanche Woolls, president of the International Association of School

  18. Day Care Infection Control Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle-King County Dept. of Public Health, Seattle, WA.

    This day care infection control manual was assembled to provide technical guidance for the prevention and control of communicable diseases to child day care facilities in Seattle and King County, Washington. For each disease, the manual provides background information, public health control recommendations, and letters that can be used to

  19. In Defense of Snow Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    In snowy climates, school superintendents must frequently decide whether an impending storm warrants closing schools for the day. Concerns about student and teacher safety must be weighed against the loss of student learning time, along with state requirements for days of instruction and the cost and inconvenience of extending the school year into…

  20. Day Care: Resources for Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotberg, Edith H., Ed.

    The question of federal day care programs on a mass scale oriented toward influencing family life is discussed, and a number of issues concerning the behavioral and social effects of such a system are raised. This document is divided into six parts. Part I discusses the following: day care settings--social, cultural, and anthropological…

  1. Dorothy Day's Vision of Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nancy L.

    An examination of Dorothy Day's role as chief journalist, editor, and publisher of "The Catholic Worker," the ideological monthly she cofounded in 1933, reveals that she was the final authority within the organization of the newspaper. Deeply committed to proselytizing for her cause, the Catholic Worker Movement, Day still simultaneously…

  2. Day Care Infection Control Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle-King County Dept. of Public Health, Seattle, WA.

    This day care infection control manual was assembled to provide technical guidance for the prevention and control of communicable diseases to child day care facilities in Seattle and King County, Washington. For each disease, the manual provides background information, public health control recommendations, and letters that can be used to…

  3. Day Care Center Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Welfare, Charleston.

    This guide to a West Virginia Department of Welfare project for upgrading the quality of day care centers throughout the state presents samples of the forms used in the program, accompanied by a brief description of the program's format, requirements and procedures. The Day Care Center Enrichment Program provides a monetary incentive for…

  4. In Defense of Snow Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    In snowy climates, school superintendents must frequently decide whether an impending storm warrants closing schools for the day. Concerns about student and teacher safety must be weighed against the loss of student learning time, along with state requirements for days of instruction and the cost and inconvenience of extending the school year into

  5. Youth Field Day Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Youth field days expose children to outdoor activities, land use ethics, and habitat conservation and encourage adults to be mentors in these areas. A typical youth field day could have programs in archery, fishing, boating, shooting, or safety. The event requires a diverse steering committee that usually includes sporting clubs and state…

  6. Montessori All Day, All Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Connie; Davis, Liza

    2015-01-01

    Introducing real community into the Children's House goes back to the roots of Montessori education through all-day Montessori. The all-day environment is a house where children live with a "developmental room" of Montessori materials including a living room, kitchen, dining area, bedroom, bathroom, greeting rooms, and outdoor spaces.…

  7. GIS application on modern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Bharath

    This is a GIS based tool for showcasing the history of modern Mexico starting from the post-colonial era to the elections of 2012. The tool is developed using simple language and is flexible so as to allow for future enhancements. The application consists of numerous images and textual information, and also some links which can be used by primary and high school students to understand the history of modern Mexico, and also by tourists to look for all the international airports and United States of America consulates. This software depicts the aftermaths of the Colonial Era or the Spanish rule of Mexico. It covers various topics like the wars, politics, important personalities, drug cartels and violence. All these events are shown on GIS (Geographic information Science) maps. The software can be customized according to the user requirements and is developed using JAVA and GIS technology. The user interface is created using JAVA and MOJO which contributes to effective learning and understanding of the concepts with ease. Some of the user interface features provided in this tool includes zoom-in, zoom-out, legend editing, location identifier, print command, adding a layer and numerous menu items.

  8. Trends in Modern Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Eder, Jörg; Herrling, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Drugs discovered by the pharmaceutical industry over the past 100 years have dramatically changed the practice of medicine and impacted on many aspects of our culture. For many years, drug discovery was a target- and mechanism-agnostic approach that was based on ethnobotanical knowledge often fueled by serendipity. With the advent of modern molecular biology methods and based on knowledge of the human genome, drug discovery has now largely changed into a hypothesis-driven target-based approach, a development which was paralleled by significant environmental changes in the pharmaceutical industry. Laboratories became increasingly computerized and automated, and geographically dispersed research sites are now more and more clustered into large centers to capture technological and biological synergies. Today, academia, the regulatory agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry all contribute to drug discovery, and, in order to translate the basic science into new medical treatments for unmet medical needs, pharmaceutical companies have to have a critical mass of excellent scientists working in many therapeutic fields, disciplines, and technologies. The imperative for the pharmaceutical industry to discover breakthrough medicines is matched by the increasing numbers of first-in-class drugs approved in recent years and reflects the impact of modern drug discovery approaches, technologies, and genomics. PMID:26330257

  9. Chandrasekhar and modern stellar dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. W.

    2011-03-01

    Stellar dynamics occupied Chandrasekhar's interest for a brief interlude between his more prolonged studies of stellar structure and radiative transfer. This paper traces the history of one of his ideas -- namely, that the shape of the galactic potential controls the orientation of the stellar velocity dispersion tensor. It has its roots in papers by Eddington (1915) and Chandrasekhar (1939), and provoked a fascinating dispute between these two great scientists -- less well-known than their famous controversy over the white dwarf stars. In modern language, Eddington claimed that the integral curves of the eigenvectors of the velocity dispersion tensor provide a one-dimensional foliation into mutually orthogonal surfaces. Chandrasekhar challenged this, and explicitly constructed a counter-example. In fact, the work of neither of these great scientists was without flaws, though further developments in stellar dynamics were to ultimately draw more on Eddington's insight than Chandrasekhar's. We conclude with a description of modern attempts to measure the orientation of the velocity dispersion tensor for populations in the Milky Way Galaxy, a subject that is coming into its own with the dawning of the age of precision astrometry.

  10. Chandrasekhar and modern stellar dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. W.

    2011-12-01

    Stellar dynamics occupied Chandrasekhar's interest for a brief interlude between his more prolonged studies of stellar structure and radiative transfer. This paper traces the history of one of his ideas - namely, that the shape of the galactic potential controls the orientation of the stellar velocity dispersion tensor. It has its roots in papers by Eddington (1915) and Chandrasekhar (1939), and provoked a fascinating dispute between these two great scientists - less well-known than their famous controversy over the white dwarf stars. In modern language, Eddington claimed that the integral curves of the eigenvectors of the velocity dispersion tensor provide a one-dimensional foliation into mutually orthogonal surfaces. Chandrasekhar challenged this, and explicitly constructed a counter-example. In fact, the work of neither of these great scientists was without flaws, though further developments in stellar dynamics were to ultimately draw more on Eddington's insight than Chandrasekhar's. We conclude with a description of modern attempts to measure the orientation of the velocity dispersion tensor for populations in the Milky Way Galaxy, a subject that is coming into its own with the dawning of the age of precision astrometry.

  11. Sun-Earth Day 2005: Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J. R.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Hawkins, I.; Odenwald, S.; Mayo, L.

    2005-05-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) annually promotes an event called Sun-Earth Day. For Sun-Earth Day 2005 SECEF has selected a theme called "Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge. This year's Sun-Earth Day theme is your ticket to a fascinating journey through time as we explore centuries of sun watching by a great variety of cultures. From ancient solar motion tracking to modern solar activity monitoring the Sun has always occupied an important spot in mankind's quest to understand the Universe. Sun-Earth Day events usually are centered on the spring equinox around March 21, but this year there has already been a webcast from the San Francisco Exploratorium and the Native American ruins at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico on the day of winter solstice 2004. There will be another webcast on March 20 live from Chichen Itza, Mexico highlighting the solar alignment that makes a serpent appear on one of the ancient pyramids. The website http://sunearthday.nasa.gov has been developed to provide the necessary resources and opportunities for participation by scientists and educators in giving school or general public programs about Sun-Earth Day. The goal is to involve as much of the student population and the public in this event as possible and to help them understand the importance of the Sun for ancient and modern peoples. Through engaging activities available on the website, classrooms and museums can create their own event or participate in one of the opportunities we make available. Scientists, educators, amateur astronomers, and museums are invited to register on the website to receive a free packet of materials about Sun-Earth Day for use in making presentations or programs about the event. Past and future Sun-Earth Days will be discussed as well.

  12. Day-to-day variability of the global post-sunset equatorial ionization anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Clayton; Dymond, Kenneth; Budzien, Scott; Chua, Damien

    We report global observations of the daily variability of the post-sunset Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA). Multiple Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP) sensors on the Constellation Ob-serving System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) constellation are used to produce high resolution maps the global pattern of the post-sunset equatorial anomaly for indi-vidual days. TIP is a compact, nadir directed, ultraviolet photometer operating at the 135.6-nm wavelength. TIP measures the horizontal structure of the ionosphere with 15-30 km resolution and high sensitivity. For the near solar minimum condition and equinox period of Septem-ber 2006, evidence of tidal influences is observed in the equatorial anomaly. The day-to-day persistence of the 4-cell pattern produced by the diurnal eastward zonal wavenumber-3 (DE3) tide is remarkable. The daily 4-cell patterns display more dramatic variation in the equatorial anomaly than indicated by earlier studies using multi-day averages. In some longitude sectors the anomaly disappears completely on some days. The crest width is also much narrower than indicated by multi-day averages of the 4-cell pattern. Additionally, daily variations in magni-tude of individual cells are observed and appear to occur on hemispheric scales, suggesting a large scale day-to-day variability in the global neutral wind pattern. Finally, the impact of this daily variability on low latitude irregularity development and scintillation is examined.

  13. Days to heading 7, a major quantitative locus determining photoperiod sensitivity and regional adaptation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, He; Jin, Mingna; Zheng, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Jun; Yuan, Dingyang; Xin, Yeyun; Wang, Maoqing; Huang, Dongyi; Zhang, Zhe; Zhou, Kunneng; Sheng, Peike; Ma, Jin; Ma, Weiwei; Deng, Huafeng; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Shijia; Wang, Haiyang; Wu, Chuanyin; Yuan, Longping; Wan, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Success of modern agriculture relies heavily on breeding of crops with maximal regional adaptability and yield potentials. A major limiting factor for crop cultivation is their flowering time, which is strongly regulated by day length (photoperiod) and temperature. Here we report identification and characterization of Days to heading 7 (DTH7), a major genetic locus underlying photoperiod sensitivity and grain yield in rice. Map-based cloning reveals that DTH7 encodes a pseudo-response regulator protein and its expression is regulated by photoperiod. We show that in long days DTH7 acts downstream of the photoreceptor phytochrome B to repress the expression of Ehd1, an up-regulator of the “florigen” genes (Hd3a and RFT1), leading to delayed flowering. Further, we find that haplotype combinations of DTH7 with Grain number, plant height, and heading date 7 (Ghd7) and DTH8 correlate well with the heading date and grain yield of rice under different photoperiod conditions. Our data provide not only a macroscopic view of the genetic control of photoperiod sensitivity in rice but also a foundation for breeding of rice cultivars better adapted to the target environments using rational design. PMID:25378698

  14. The ocean sampling day consortium.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z; Sonnenschein, Eva C; Cariou, Thierry; O'Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion Mf; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C; Kandil, Mahrous M; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L'Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; Dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N; Gasol, Josep M; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M; Collins, R Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Gilbert, Jack A; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world's oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits. PMID:26097697

  15. The ocean sampling day consortium.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Kopf A; Bicak M; Kottmann R; Schnetzer J; Kostadinov I; Lehmann K; Fernandez-Guerra A; Jeanthon C; Rahav E; Ullrich M; Wichels A; Gerdts G; Polymenakou P; Kotoulas G; Siam R; Abdallah RZ; Sonnenschein EC; Cariou T; O'Gara F; Jackson S; Orlic S; Steinke M; Busch J; Duarte B; Caçador I; Canning-Clode J; Bobrova O; Marteinsson V; Reynisson E; Loureiro CM; Luna GM; Quero GM; Löscher CR; Kremp A; DeLorenzo ME; Øvreås L; Tolman J; LaRoche J; Penna A; Frischer M; Davis T; Katherine B; Meyer CP; Ramos S; Magalhães C; Jude-Lemeilleur F; Aguirre-Macedo ML; Wang S; Poulton N; Jones S; Collin R; Fuhrman JA; Conan P; Alonso C; Stambler N; Goodwin K; Yakimov MM; Baltar F; Bodrossy L; Van De Kamp J; Frampton DM; Ostrowski M; Van Ruth P; Malthouse P; Claus S; Deneudt K; Mortelmans J; Pitois S; Wallom D; Salter I; Costa R; Schroeder DC; Kandil MM; Amaral V; Biancalana F; Santana R; Pedrotti ML; Yoshida T; Ogata H; Ingleton T; Munnik K; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta N; Berteaux-Lecellier V; Wecker P; Cancio I; Vaulot D; Bienhold C; Ghazal H; Chaouni B; Essayeh S; Ettamimi S; Zaid el H; Boukhatem N; Bouali A; Chahboune R; Barrijal S; Timinouni M; El Otmani F; Bennani M; Mea M; Todorova N; Karamfilov V; Ten Hoopen P; Cochrane G; L'Haridon S; Bizsel KC; Vezzi A; Lauro FM; Martin P; Jensen RM; Hinks J; Gebbels S; Rosselli R; De Pascale F; Schiavon R; Dos Santos A; Villar E; Pesant S; Cataletto B; Malfatti F; Edirisinghe R; Silveira JA; Barbier M; Turk V; Tinta T; Fuller WJ; Salihoglu I; Serakinci N; Ergoren MC; Bresnan E; Iriberri J; Nyhus PA; Bente E; Karlsen HE; Golyshin PN; Gasol JM; Moncheva S; Dzhembekova N; Johnson Z; Sinigalliano CD; Gidley ML; Zingone A; Danovaro R; Tsiamis G; Clark MS; Costa AC; El Bour M; Martins AM; Collins RE; Ducluzeau AL; Martinez J; Costello MJ; Amaral-Zettler LA; Gilbert JA; Davies N; Field D; Glöckner FO

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world's oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.

  16. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z.; Sonnenschein, Eva C.; Cariou, Thierry; O’Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R.; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E.; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P.; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M.; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion M. F.; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C.; Kandil, Mahrous M.; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L’Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M.; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A. Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J.; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N.; Gasol, Josep M.; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S.; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M.; Collins, R. Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.

  17. Psychiatry after virtue: a modern practice in the ruins.

    PubMed

    Michel, Andrew A

    2011-04-01

    Contemporary psychiatry maintains the myth that it is value neutral by appeal to modern medical science for both its diagnostic categories and its therapeutic interventions, leaving the impression that it relies on reason--that is to say, reason divorced from tradition--to master human nature. Such a practice has a certain way of characterizing and defining humanity's lapses from acceptable human behavior--a lapse from human being. The modern practice of psychiatry applies a particular notion (largely influenced by Enlightenment ideals) of scientific instrumentation to the human person in order to diagnose the ailment and manufacture a corresponding treatment in keeping with a hidden conception of human biological flourishing. This covert vision is an impoverished (and possibly dangerous) one. As much as the practice of psychiatry is constrained by the goals of the dominant moral tradition of our day, it becomes a tool (or technique) for achieving the transient and partial ends of modern individualism. Given this truncated view of human nature and human end, modern psychiatry fails to attend comprehensively to the unity of a life, missing altogether the essential relevance of character formation, and thereby forfeiting excellence in human flourishing. PMID:21357653

  18. Career Day - Duration: 62 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's 2013 Career Days was a joint collaboration between NASA Langley and the Newport News Shipbuilding where 600 high school students from Virginia took on two design challenges -- designing a ca...

  19. Earth Day Illustrated Haiku Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-02-01

    As part of their 2007 Chemists Celebrate Earth Day Celebration, the American Chemical Society is sponsoring an illustrated haiku contest for students in grades K 12 around the theme, Recycling—Chemistry Can!

  20. STS-79 Flight Day 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this fifth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, in the first full day of joint Shuttle/Mir operations begin in with the transfer of a biotechnology investigation and logistical supplies from Atlantis to Mir. The Biotechnology System, an investigation that will study the long-term development of cartilage cells in microgravity, was transported to Mir early this morning. During his planned four-month stay on Mir, John Blaha will take weekly samples of the culture which may provide researchers with information on engineering cartilage cells for possible use in transplantation. They also took time out of their schedules to talk with Good Morning America's Elizabeth Vargas in a brief interview. Prior to beginning the day's transfer activities, all nine astronauts and cosmonauts participated in a joint planning session to outline the day's schedule.

  1. Modernity and putty-clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, Trichur Kailas

    This dissertation addresses issues arising out of the problems of capital accumulation, productivity growth and 'putty-clay' technology. The concept of economic modernity occupies a central place in the subject-matter studied here in that it expresses both the incessant drive for newness that characterizes economic reality and the persistence of dated techniques that successfully resist replacement. This study examines the way in which an expansive development-theoretic 'putty-clay' framework may be employed to explain the historical processes behind both the avalanche of newness (innovations) and the conservatism of technology in the U.S. economy. The guiding link is the fixity of investments in physical capital equipment over time and space. The dilemma of fixed capital is studied in the context of the constant entrepreneurial search for flexibility and liquidity. The thesis advanced is that a development (Entwicklung)-theoretic 'putty-clay' conceptualization of the economic system adequately addresses the recurring problems of fixity, flexibility, and liquidity, and thereby permits important insights into the enigma surrounding the persistent productivity growth slowdown and 'stagflation' of the late sixties and seventies and the related phenomena of physical 'capital obsolescence' and the financial or 'speculative explosions' of our times. The notion of 'putty-clay' used here is an innovative one in that it departs from the growth-theoretic literature to re-appear as a Schumpeterian theory of modernity modified by a Veblenite view of an economic system directed by the exigencies of the 'machine-process'. The empirical aptitude of a macroeconomic 'putty-clay' model to explain capital obsolescence mediated by the energy 'crises' (supply shocks) of the seventies and eighties is examined in a separate chapter with results that differ markedly from the standard (Berndt and Wood) conclusions for the U.S. economy. The final chapter in the dissertation reverts to the modernity problematic but relates it to the philosophical discussion on causation and causality. In doing so this dissertation advances a 'distanced nearness' (Adorno) between the disciplines of economics and philosophy.

  2. Modern control techniques for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, R.W.; Shea, M.F.

    1984-05-01

    Beginning in the mid to late sixties, most new accelerators were designed to include computer based control systems. Although each installation differed in detail, the technology of the sixties and early to mid seventies dictated an architecture that was essentially the same for the control systems of that era. A mini-computer was connected to the hardware and to a console. Two developments have changed the architecture of modern systems: (a) the microprocessor and (b) local area networks. This paper discusses these two developments and demonstrates their impact on control system design and implementation by way of describing a possible architecture for any size of accelerator. Both hardware and software aspects are included.

  3. Modern solid state laser materials

    SciTech Connect

    Krupke, W.F.

    1984-06-20

    This document contains visual aids used in an invited talk entitled Modern Solid State Laser Materials, presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) held in Anaheim, California, on June 20, 1984. Interest at LLNL in solid state lasers focuses on evaluating the potential of solid state laser media for high average power applications, including inertial fusion power production. This talk identifies the relevant bulk material parameters characterizing average power capacity and uses chromium and neodymium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nd:Cr:GSGG) as an example of a laser material with improved laser properties relative to Nd:YAG (plausible large-scale growth, more efficient spectral coupling to xenon flashlamp radiation, reduced stimulated emission cross section, adequate thermal shock and optical damage threshold parameters, etc.). Recently measured spectroscopic, kinetic, and thermo-mechanical properties of Nd:Cr:GSGG are given.

  4. Modern Messaging for Distributed Sytems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnoni, L.

    2015-05-01

    Modern software applications rarely live in isolation and nowadays it is common practice to rely on services or consume information provided by remote entities. In such a distributed architecture, integration is key. Messaging, for more than a decade, is the reference solution to tackle challenges of a distributed nature, such as network unreliability, strong-coupling of producers and consumers and the heterogeneity of applications. Thanks to a strong community and a common effort towards standards and consolidation, message brokers are today the transport layer building blocks in many projects and services, both within the physics community and outside. Moreover, in recent years, a new generation of messaging services has appeared, with a focus on low-latency and high-performance use cases, pushing the boundaries of messaging applications. This paper will present messaging solutions for distributed applications going through an overview of the main concepts, technologies and services.

  5. New challenges in modern vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Centlivre, Mireille; Combadière, Béhazine

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination has been a major advance for health care, allowing eradication or reduction of incidence and mortality of various infectious diseases. However, there are major pathogens, such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or the causative agent of malaria, for which classical vaccination approaches have failed, therefore requiring new vaccination strategies. The development of new vaccine strategies relies on the ability to identify the challenges posed by these pathogens. Understanding the pathogenesis and correlates of protection for these diseases, our ability to accurately direct immune responses and to vaccinate specific populations are such examples of these roadblocks. In this respect, the use of a robust, cost-effective and predictive animal model that recapitulates features of both human infection and vaccination is currently a much-needed tool. We discuss here the major limitations faced by modern vaccinology and notably, the development of humanized mice for assessing the immune system, along with their potential as vaccine models. PMID:25879661

  6. Antarctica Day: An International Celebration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Hambrook Berkman, J.; Berkman, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For more than half a century, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty continues to shine as a rare beacon of international cooperation. To celebrate this milestone of peace in our civilization with hope and inspiration for future generations, Antarctica Day is celebrated each year on December 1st , the anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty signing. As an annual event - initiated by the Foundation for the Good Governance of International Spaces (www.internationalspaces.org/) in collaboration with the Association of Polar Early Carer Scientists (www.apecs.is) - Antarctica Day encourages participation from around the world. The Antarctic Treaty set aside 10% of the earth, 'forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes in the interest of mankind.' It was the first nuclear arms agreement and the first institution to govern all human activities in an international region beyond sovereign jurisdictions. In this spirit, Antarctica Day aims to: - Demonstrate how diverse nations can work together peacefully, using science as a global language of cooperation for decision making beyond national boundaries, - Provide strategies for students learning about Antarctica through art, science and history at all school levels, - Increase collaboration and communication between classrooms, communities, researchers and government officials around the world, and - Provide a focus for polar educators to build on each year. Through close collaboration with a number of partners. Antarctica Day activities have included: a Polar Film Festival convened by The Explorers Club; live sessions connecting classrooms with scientists in Antarctica thanks to PolarTREC and ARCUS; an international activity that involved children from 13 countries who created over 600 flags which exemplify Antarctica Day (these were actually flown in Antarctica with signed certificates then returned to the classes); a map where Antarctica Day participants all over the world could share what they were doing; an Antarctic bird count involving the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators; and public lectures and online videos (including a notable submission from Polar Educators International). Antarctica Day was initiated as a legacy of the 2009 Antarctic Treaty Summit (www.atsumit50.aq), which was convened at the Smithsonian Institution with 40 sponsoring institutions from around the world as part of the International Polar Year. Antarctic Day involved participants from 14 nations in 2010. 28 nations in 2011, and 26 nations in 2012 with representatives from all 7 continents. Antarctica Day 2013 will have recently taken place before the AGU Fall Meeting 2013, and we will present updates at that time. Our aim is to continue expanding Antarctica Day as a globally-accessible platform to share, interpret and cherish the values associated with Antarctica for the benefit of present and future generations. We look forward to the discussion and sharing that this session will provide.

  7. Neandertal versus Modern Human Dietary Responses to Climatic Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    El Zaatari, Sireen; Grine, Frederick E.; Ungar, Peter S.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The Neandertal lineage developed successfully throughout western Eurasia and effectively survived the harsh and severely changing environments of the alternating glacial/interglacial cycles from the middle of the Pleistocene until Marine Isotope Stage 3. Yet, towards the end of this stage, at the time of deteriorating climatic conditions that eventually led to the Last Glacial Maximum, and soon after modern humans entered western Eurasia, the Neandertals disappeared. Western Eurasia was by then exclusively occupied by modern humans. We use occlusal molar microwear texture analysis to examine aspects of diet in western Eurasian Paleolithic hominins in relation to fluctuations in food supplies that resulted from the oscillating climatic conditions of the Pleistocene. There is demonstrable evidence for differences in behavior that distinguish Upper Paleolithic humans from members of the Neandertal lineage. Specifically, whereas the Neandertals altered their diets in response to changing paleoecological conditions, the diets of Upper Paleolithic humans seem to have been less affected by slight changes in vegetation/climatic conditions but were linked to changes in their technological complexes. The results of this study also indicate differences in resource exploitation strategies between these two hominin groups. We argue that these differences in subsistence strategies, if they had already been established at the time of the first contact between these two hominin taxa, may have given modern humans an advantage over the Neandertals, and may have contributed to the persistence of our species despite habitat-related changes in food availabilities associated with climate fluctuations. PMID:27119336

  8. Neandertal versus Modern Human Dietary Responses to Climatic Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    El Zaatari, Sireen; Grine, Frederick E; Ungar, Peter S; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The Neandertal lineage developed successfully throughout western Eurasia and effectively survived the harsh and severely changing environments of the alternating glacial/interglacial cycles from the middle of the Pleistocene until Marine Isotope Stage 3. Yet, towards the end of this stage, at the time of deteriorating climatic conditions that eventually led to the Last Glacial Maximum, and soon after modern humans entered western Eurasia, the Neandertals disappeared. Western Eurasia was by then exclusively occupied by modern humans. We use occlusal molar microwear texture analysis to examine aspects of diet in western Eurasian Paleolithic hominins in relation to fluctuations in food supplies that resulted from the oscillating climatic conditions of the Pleistocene. There is demonstrable evidence for differences in behavior that distinguish Upper Paleolithic humans from members of the Neandertal lineage. Specifically, whereas the Neandertals altered their diets in response to changing paleoecological conditions, the diets of Upper Paleolithic humans seem to have been less affected by slight changes in vegetation/climatic conditions but were linked to changes in their technological complexes. The results of this study also indicate differences in resource exploitation strategies between these two hominin groups. We argue that these differences in subsistence strategies, if they had already been established at the time of the first contact between these two hominin taxa, may have given modern humans an advantage over the Neandertals, and may have contributed to the persistence of our species despite habitat-related changes in food availabilities associated with climate fluctuations. PMID:27119336

  9. Modern and past volcanic degassing of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, H.; Auzende, A.-L.; Marocchi, M.; Raepsaet, C.; Munsch, P.; Testemale, D.; Mézouar, M.; Kubsky, S.; Carrière, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2016-01-01

    We have monitored iodine degassing from a melt to a water vapor during decompression (i.e. magma ascent). Experiments have been performed by combining diamond anvil cells experiments with synchrotron X-rays fluorescence analysis. Partition coefficients DIfluid/melt measured for a pressure and temperature range of 0.1-1.8 GPa and 500-900 °C, range from 41 to 1.92, values for room conditions DIfluid/glass (quenched samples) are equal to or higher than 350. We show that iodine degassing with water is earlier and much more efficient than for lighter halogen elements, Cl and Br. Iodine is totally degassed from the silicate melt at room conditions. By applying these results to modern volcanology, we calculate an annual iodine flux for subduction related volcanism of 0.16-2.4 kt yr-1. We suggest that the natural iodine degassing may be underestimated, having possible consequences on the Earth's ozone destruction cycle. By applying this results to the Early Earth, we propose a process that may explain the contrasted signature of I, Br and Cl, strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth, the most depleted being iodine, whereas fluorine is almost enriched. The Earth may have lost heavy halogen elements during an early water degassing process from the magma ocean.

  10. FOREWORD: Modern Applications of Timescales Modern Applications of Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. F.; Lewandowski, W.

    2011-08-01

    The development of the first atomic frequency standard by Louis Essen in the 1950s is at the origin of the adoption of the atomic definition of the SI second by the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1967 and the consequent adoption of the atomic timescale. After the short reign of ephemeris time as the world's reference timescale from 1954 until 1967, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), synchronized to universal time UT1, appeared as the best compromise for satisfying the requests of all users. At the moment of the discussion on the adoption of an atomic timescale to replace ephemeris time, the possibility of having both an astronomical time and an atomic time to serve different purposes was discussed. In the words of Essen [1], this 'would cause endless confusion as well as involving duplication of equipment'. Forty years after the adoption of the definition of Coordinated Universal Time at the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), we are close to the moment of making a decision on whether or not to decouple UTC from its tight link to the rotation of the Earth embodied in UT1. It has been a ten-year process of discussion, mainly at the ITU with the input of the International Astronomical Union, the BIPM, the Consultative Committee for Time and Frequency and other organizations. The majority opinion supported the change based on developers and users of systems that need time synchronization to a stable and continuous reference timescale; others insist on the necessity of keeping the leap-second strategy for serving some applications or just for tradition. It is our hope that, as happened in the seventies, the most appropriate definition to serve all modern applications will be adopted with the consensus of the different sectors. The redirection of international timekeeping from astronomy to metrology can be considered the benchmark that started the era of modern timescales, all based on atomic properties. The aim of this special issue of Metrologia is to review timescales in use today, either the internationally recognized references or those adapted to some specific applications, to discuss new and future developments and to present the sometimes complex procedures for making international recommendations. We are grateful to our colleagues who, without exception, accepted our invitation to contribute to this special issue. Reference Henderson D 2005 Metrologia 42 S4-29 The pdf file contains an appendix: "Glossary of acronyms related to timescales used in this issue".

  11. Uncovering physical processes responsible for the asymmetry of day-to-day temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Radan; Piskala, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Day-to-day temperature changes, and especially those of minimum temperature in winter and maximum temperature in summer, are asymmetrical: in winter, large warmings occur more frequently than large coolings and small coolings occur more frequently than small warmings. In summer, the opposite is the case. We investigate causes of this asymmetry for Prague, Czech Republic. First, we relate strong temperature changes to passages of atmospheric fronts. More specifically, large warmings in winter are related with passages of warm fronts and large coolings in summer are related with passages of cold fronts. In particular, we test the hypothesis that the days with large temperature changes (changes exceeding 3°C or 5°C) are accompanied with passages of corresponding atmospheric fronts more frequently than other days. We prove statistical significance of such a relationship between front passages and large temperature changes by means of a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Second, we demonstrate that small temperature changes (by up to 2°C), namely, small warmings in summer and small coolings in winter, are tightly related to anticyclonic circulation conditions and, hence, occur due to radiative processes. This relationship is investigated by comparing frequencies of anticyclonic circulation types in selected classifications from the COST733 database between the days with small temperature changes and all other days. The relationship appears to be highly statistically significant. Although the findings may seem a bit trivial, we are not aware of any study that would examine and prove the relationships between front passages and anticyclonic circulation conditions on one side, and the asymmetry of day-to-day temperature changes on the other side.

  12. [The succession of the Hippocratic corpus in modern Greece].

    PubMed

    Sugano, Yukiko; Honda, Katsuya

    2010-03-01

    This paper examines how the Hippocratic corpus was passed on during the Enlightenment of modern Greece, introducing part of the latest Greek research on the history of medicine. Although classical studies at large had stagnated at the time under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, with the movement toward independence in the second half of the 18th century the Greeks raised their consciousness of the fact that they were the successors to their ancestral great achievements. From that time classical studies, including the history of medicine, had been activated. From some medical dissertations and books written by Greek doctors or researchers of those days, we will recognize that they made efforts to deepen the substance of modern Greek medicine, seeking the principles of medical practice from the ancient heritage. PMID:20614734

  13. Basics, principles, techniques and modern methods in paediatric ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Riccabona, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is the mainstay of paediatric Radiology. This review aims at revisiting basic US principles, to list specific needs throughout childhood, and to discuss the application of new and modern US methods. The various sections elude to basic US physics, technical requisites and tips for handling, diagnostically valuable applications of modern techniques, and how to properly address hazards, risks and limitations. In conclusion, US holds vast potential throughout childhood in almost all body regions and many childhood specific queries - helping to reduce the need for or to optimize more invasive or irradiating imaging. Make the most of US and offerings a dedicated paediatric US service throughout the day, the week and the year thus is and will stay a major task of Paediatric Radiology. PMID:24932845

  14. Malocclusion in Early Anatomically Modern Human: A Reflection on the Etiology of Modern Dental Misalignment

    PubMed Central

    Sarig, Rachel; Slon, Viviane; Abbas, Janan; May, Hila; Shpack, Nir; Vardimon, Alexander Dan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Malocclusions are common in modern populations. Yet, as the study of occlusion requires an almost intact dentition in both the maxilla and mandible, searching for the ultimate cause of malocclusion is a challenge: relatively little ancient material is available for research on occlusal states. The Qafzeh 9 skull is unique, as its preserved dentition allowed us to investigate the presence and manifestations of malocclusion. The aim of this study was thus to examine the occlusal condition in the Qafzeh 9 specimen in light of modern knowledge regarding the etiology of malocclusion. We revealed a pathologic occlusion in the Qafzeh 9 skull that probably originated in the early developmental stage of the dentition, and was aggravated by forces applied by mastication. When arch continuity is interrupted due to misalignment of teeth as in this case, force transmission is not equal on both sides, causing intra-arch outcomes such as mesialization of the teeth, midline deviation, rotations and the aggravation of crowding. All are evident in the Qafzeh 9 skull: the midline deviates to the left; the incisors rotate mesio-buccally; the left segment is constricted; the left first molar is buccally positioned and the left premolars palatally tilted. The inter-arch evaluation revealed anterior cross bite with functional shift that might affect force transmission and bite force. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that malocclusion of developmental origin was already present in early anatomically modern humans (AMH) (the present case being the oldest known case, dated to ca. 100,000 years); that there is no basis to the notion that early AMH had a better adjustment between teeth and jaw size; and that jaw-teeth size discrepancy could be found in prehistoric populations and is not a recent phenomenon. PMID:24278319

  15. English Day--A Whole Day of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Yehudit Od

    1997-01-01

    English Day is celebrated annually at one Israeli school through language- and culture-related activities. One year, the school implemented whole-language learning strategies and involved parents and students in related activities at a series of activity stations featuring movies, books, television, fashion, comics, games, technology, science,…

  16. Starting a Day Care Center: The Day Care Center Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Checkett, Donald

    Designed to be of help to individuals and groups seeking to establish a day care center in the metropolitan St. Louis area, this manual calls attention to important and basic information which must be taken into account if planning is to produce tangible results. Following a brief section defining commonly used terms referring to organized…

  17. The moon-day project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, C.

    1982-07-01

    With the development of Astronautics very large projects become possible. The Moon-Day project comes from a simple idea: 2000 km 2 of mirrors on the Moon reflecting the solar light toward the Earth will make it possible to turn off street lighting during the Moon nights. With more mirrors it is even possible to produce a "moon-day" similar to the light at sunrise or sunset, that will be a great improvement on the quality of life, especially in tropical and equatorial countries where people, and above all farmers, will have the possibility to work during the cool night hours instead of the exhausting day hours. Comparison with mirrors on a geostationary orbit shows the many advantages of the mirrors on the Moon.

  18. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; et al

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and theirmore » embedded functional traits.« less

  19. STS-74 flight day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    On this fourth day of the STS-74 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Kenneth Cameron, Pilot James Halsell, and Mission Specialists William McArthur, Jerry Ross, and Chris Hatfield, perform a successful docking between the space shuttle and the Mir space station using the Russian-made docking module that had been previously installed on the third day of the mission. The astronauts and the Mir 20 cosmonauts, Cmdr. Yuri Gidzenko, Flight Engineer Gergei Avdeyev, and Cosmonaut-Researcher (ESA) Thomas Reiter, are shown greeting each other from inside the docking module and an in-orbit interview between the crews and NASA is conducted in both English and Russian.

  20. STS-91 Day 08 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-91 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Charles J. Precourt, Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet L. Kavandi, and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin focus on science investigations and participate in several special interviews and phone calls. Following yesterday's undocking with the Russian Mir space station, crew members are given a couple of hours off duty during the day to provide a brief rest break from the hectic pace of their flight.

  1. [Diabetes and the day hospital].

    PubMed

    Zghal, A; el Fehik, N; Bousnina, O; Daoud, I; Zghal, I; Gaigi, S

    2000-04-01

    The day hospital is a relatively new way of hospitalization in Tunisia, the first experience beginning in 1985 to the National Institute of Nutrition. This hospitalization avoid the drawbacks of classic hospitalization (dependency, discomfort, separation) and boredom and present a lot of advantages of social command, humanitarian, psychological, medical and economical the cost of hospitalization is clearly reduced). This day hospitalization is beneficial in several pathologies notably the illness nutrition and metabolic diseases (diabetes, obesity, dyslipoproteinemia, hyperuricemia), where the patients continue to have a good physical activity and where the education médico sanitary and dietary hygiéno occupies a position of choice. PMID:11026830

  2. Problems of the Modern Romanian Astronomy: TELEROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Valentin; Minti, Harry; Vaduvescu, Ovidiu

    2011-06-01

    The TV broadcast discusses problems of the modernization of the Romanian astronomical infrastructure, the worst in Eastern Europe. It presents the TELEROM project which proposed to establish a new EU-funded robotic 1,3 m telescope, a project finally rejected by the Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy mainly due to the incompetence of the director of this Institute, Dr. Vasile Mioc. It is mentioned that this was the second very promising project failed under the same director, after the project ASTEROS in value of 15 million Euro to establish two modern telescopes was also lost in the recent years. The total cost of the TELEROM project was 1,5 million Euro, according to the agreement with the EU foundation for Regional Development (director Hanns Ruder Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Tübingen, Germany - the TELEROM auto-dimissed project director). The facilities from this implementation were very promising in observations of Solar system objects (asteroids, near Earth asteroids, comets), few hundred millions of faint stars, quasars, exoplanets and galaxies. Initially, the director Vasile Mioc and the governing body of the Romanian Astronomical Institute intended to place the telescope in Romania in very bad astroclimatic conditions, namely in the old Feleac observatory, very close to the very highly polluted and quite clouded city of Cluj-Napoca. Many opposite considerations (Dr. Marian Doru Suran from Bucharest, many Romanian astronomers from the Diaspora and a group of 68 astronomers, professors, public outreach people and students from Romania and Diaspora supporting TELEROM) were totally disregarded! Due to refuse to place the telescope in very good astroclimatic conditions (in Canary Islands or Chile) and also due to the impossibility to establish a decent national astronomical observatory in Romania by the direction of the Institute in agreement with the State body of Romania ("Academia Romana" and "Autoritatea Nationala pentru Cercetare") the TELEROM project was finally rejected and its funding was lost, after 10 months of discussions and granted funding! Other problems, such as the proliferation of the astrology between Romanian professional astronomers, a reduced weight of physicists between Romanian professional astronomers in comparison with mathematicians, as well as very reduced issue from the professional Romanian astronomers in international journals in the last years and the intellectual theft of publications have been also discussed in this 4 TV series presented by the weekly astronomy show "We and the Sky" of Columna TV (in Romanian).

  3. Experiments for a Special Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Special events like science days, teacher's meetings and physics recruiting efforts require spectacular and, if possible, interactive experiments for the audience. Based on past experience with such events, we have gathered and present here a series of demonstration experiments in mechanics, optics, waves and electricity which are suitable, and…

  4. The Last Day of Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Willard J.

    1982-01-01

    A narrative account of what might occur the first day of a nuclear war is interspersed with facts about the nuclear arms race and about the destructive power of weapons already stockpiled in the United States and the Soviet Union. A plea is made for preserving civilization from such a catastrophe. (PP)

  5. From Five Days to Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Rachel; Gilman, David Alan

    2006-01-01

    Facing financial difficulties, the Webster County Public School System in rural Kentucky implemented a four-day school week to save money on transportation and staffing. The district's research in the experience of other rural districts had indicated that such a calendar change could increase efficiency and also yield some unexpected benefits.…

  6. International Literacy Day Tool Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This tool kit suggests various International Literacy Day activities to raise awareness of the issues of adult literacy and language learning, to connect local literacy programs with national programs, and to help achieve the National Literacy Summit goal by 2010. The kit is intended for individuals, programs, and organizations that want to call…

  7. Day Care Management. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Janet

    A curriculum was developed and a pilot project was conducted to train 20 day care center directors at Lake Washington Vocational Technical Institute. This document summarizes the curriculum development project and provides the curriculum that was developed. The report contains a summary and outline of the course, a skills assessment, pretests and…

  8. Festivals of the Darkest Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacha, Frances B.

    1980-01-01

    Presents historical background on various winter festivals around the world including Saturnalia, Christmas, winter solstice, Yule festivals, Hannukah, Divali, and New Year's Day. Suggests how teachers can help elementary school students understand their own culture by studying these and other festivals using maps, mobiles, discussion, and reading…

  9. Experiments for a Special Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Special events like science days, teacher's meetings and physics recruiting efforts require spectacular and, if possible, interactive experiments for the audience. Based on past experience with such events, we have gathered and present here a series of demonstration experiments in mechanics, optics, waves and electricity which are suitable, and

  10. Earth Day Changes in Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Betty; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes recycling related activities associated with the Earth Day celebration at the University School of East Tennessee State University. Activities involve tree planting, campus clean-up, student posters, assemblies, a schoolwide rally, and displays of recyclable items. A study examining attitude change revealed that hands-on activities…

  11. A New Day for Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Martin Luther King School in Boston and nine other Massachusetts public schools used a grant from the Massachusetts Department of Education to expand their school days by at least two hours. Each school lengthened the time students spent in reading and math instruction. Farbman focuses on the Martin Luther King School's foray into an extended…

  12. Bright Ideas for Dark Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Dauna

    2005-01-01

    In this brief column, the author of "Teachers Touch Eternity," provides 20 tips that teachers can use to motivate themselves and others through the dark days of winter: (1) Fake it till you make it; (2) Allow for spontaneity; (3) Build an encouragement folder; (4) Lighten up! (5) Read motivational books or inspirational thoughts late at night or…

  13. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the idea and…

  14. United Nations Day, 24 October.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ken, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Serving as the journal of the Manitoba Social Science Teachers' Association, this issue commemorates United Nations Day with the editorial, "Teaching about the United Nations" (Ken Osborne). Another article devoted to the international organization is "The United Nations and International Peace and Security" (Ken Osborne). The article is intended…

  15. Bright Ideas for Dark Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Dauna

    2005-01-01

    In this brief column, the author of "Teachers Touch Eternity," provides 20 tips that teachers can use to motivate themselves and others through the dark days of winter: (1) Fake it till you make it; (2) Allow for spontaneity; (3) Build an encouragement folder; (4) Lighten up! (5) Read motivational books or inspirational thoughts late at night or

  16. Make Your Own Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robeck, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Children love snow days, even when they come during the warmest weather. In this lesson the snow isn't falling outside, it's in the classroom--thanks to "Snowflake Bentley" (Briggs Martin 1998) and several models of snowflakes. A lesson on snow demonstrates several principles of practice for using models in elementary science. Focusing on snow was…

  17. A New Day for Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbanco, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Soon after election day, the columnist Nicholas D. Kristof wrote in "The New York Times" that the "second most remarkable thing" about the election was that "American voters have just picked a president who is an open, out-of-the-closet, practicing intellectual." Surely, one of the secrets of President Obama's rhetorical power is his ability to…

  18. Giving Students Their School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watchorn, Vince; Willingham, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities, not obligations. That is how Providence Country Day School (Rhode Island) characterizes its daily one-hour "Community Time." The block, from 9:25 to 10:25 a.m., is used chiefly for students to partake in activities of their own making--as a daily lesson in the value of students taking charge of their own education. On any…

  19. Modernizing the Physics Curriculum by Being Less Modern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleckman, Philip

    2010-03-01

    This presentation offers suggestions for changes that could be made to the undergraduate physics program to better prepare scientists and engineers for careers in energy, and in particular, renewable energy. The author's perspective comes from the traditional academic training at the undergraduate and PhD levels in physics followed by work experience in industrial research in solar energy. The traditional physics undergraduate curriculum is composed of Hamiltonian mechanics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and special relativity. In the laboratory, students typically repeat famous experiments in modern physics. While these subjects are essential to a comprehensive understanding of the physical world they do not provide the foundation necessary for work in energy production. The subjects at the core of energy production are classical thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics, yet they receive little if any attention in the physics curriculum. Most students of physics are familiar with the historic year 1905 but few know that one year earlier Prandtl revolutionized our understanding of fluid mechanics with his invention of the boundary layer which is at the heart of heat transfer. Reynolds and Nusselt are equally obscure. We will give examples of how the design of solar power plants requires solving elementary physical problems that are foreign to most physics students. Thermodynamic analysis, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer are core disciplines underlying the production of steam from which 90 per cent of the electricity in the US is derived. Knowledge of these subjects will continue to be essential for the future development of renewable energy. Unlike quantum mechanics, classical physics also helps to explain the phenomena of everyday life.

  20. Manage plant modernization projects 'humanistically'

    SciTech Connect

    Coonan, T. ); Strobhar, D. )

    1993-05-01

    To accommodate modernization and what should be altered to enhance productivity, optimize selection, training, staffing and job design. But in the process, be aware that change creates anxiety among employees. Fear of change always accompanies job realignment. Consequently, the transition manager should: (1) Conduct an accurate assessment of the needs-real and perceived-of impacted personnel to master proposed changes to their work style; (2) Develop a comprehensive plan to satisfy these needs; (3) Secure a firm, visible commitment by senior management to that plan; and (4) Execute that plan with assistance of as many impacted personnel as possible. As a case study, the paper considers the experience with the merger of several control rooms from different operating departments into a single consolidated control room. There was an accompanying upgrade of instrumentation from pneumatic to electronic. Operator roles shifted from independent unit operators to co-dependent mini-teams of control and field operators. This situation provided an opportunity to overlay additional organizational changes and productivity improvements in a transitional environment.

  1. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    PubMed Central

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  2. Origins of modern premedical education.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, R H

    2001-05-01

    The author reviews the contributions of those individuals and major academic and professional organizations responsible for the development of the modern concepts of the premedical education of a physician. The late 19th century gave rise to scientifically-based medical education in U.S. medical education. It followed that this new emphasis, in medical schools, on laboratory investigation of disease processes demanded a sound introduction to the natural sciences by those who would be candidates for this type of challenging education. Starting with a vocal few, the message gradually was received throughout the country that a properly schooled physician must have the equivalent of a broad baccalaureate education in the natural sciences as well as in the traditional humanities. This essential was recognized by a small nucleus of individuals responsible for the creation of The Johns Hopkins University in 1876 and its school of medicine in 1893; the group was led by the university's first president, Daniel Coit GILMAN: Almost simultaneously other established academic institutions incorporated similar changes and a new era began. PMID:11346515

  3. Modern rotor balancing - Emerging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Von Pragenau, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    Modern balancing methods for flexible and rigid rotors are explored. Rigid rotor balancing is performed at several hundred rpm, well below the first bending mode of the shaft. High speed balancing is necessary when the nominal rotational speed is higher than the first bending mode. Both methods introduce weights which will produce rotor responses at given speeds that will be exactly out of phase with the responses of an unbalanced rotor. Modal balancing seeks to add weights which will leave other rotor modes unaffected. Also, influence coefficients can be determined by trial and error addition of weights and recording of their effects on vibration at speeds of interest. The latter method is useful for balancing rotors at other than critical speeds and for performing unified balancing beginning with the first critical speed. Finally, low-speed flexible balancing permits low-speed tests and adjustments of rotor assemblies which will not be accessible when operating in their high-speed functional configuration. The method was developed for the high pressure liquid oxygen turbopumps for the Shuttle.

  4. Modern control concepts in hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, N.; Johnson, G. R.; Winn, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    Two approaches to an identification problem in hydrology are presented based upon concepts from modern control and estimation theory. The first approach treats the identification of unknown parameters in a hydrologic system subject to noisy inputs as an adaptive linear stochastic control problem; the second approach alters the model equation to account for the random part in the inputs, and then uses a nonlinear estimation scheme to estimate the unknown parameters. Both approaches use state-space concepts. The identification schemes are sequential and adaptive and can handle either time invariant or time dependent parameters. They are used to identify parameters in the Prasad model of rainfall-runoff. The results obtained are encouraging and conform with results from two previous studies; the first using numerical integration of the model equation along with a trial-and-error procedure, and the second, by using a quasi-linearization technique. The proposed approaches offer a systematic way of analyzing the rainfall-runoff process when the input data are imbedded in noise.

  5. Wave and sediment dynamics along a shallow subtidal sandy beach inhabited by modern stromatolites.

    PubMed

    Eckman, J E; Andres, M S; Marinelli, R L; Bowlin, E; Reid, R P; Aspden, R J; Paterson, D M

    2008-01-01

    To help define the habitat of modern marine stromatolites, wave-dominated flow and sediment transport were studied in the shallow subtidal region (1-2 m depth) along the slightly concave, windward face of Highborne Cay, Exuma, Bahamas - the only face of the cay that includes a population of stromatolites concentrated near the region of highest curvature of the beach. Wave energy impacting this island's most exposed beach was driven by local wind forcing which increases largely in response to the passage of atmospheric disturbances that typically affect the region for periods of a few days. Although some wave energy is almost always noted (maximum horizontal orbital speeds at the bottom are rarely <10 cm s(-1)), wave conditions remain comparatively calm until local winds increase above speeds of approximately 3-4 m s(-1) at which point maximum wave speeds rapidly increase to 50-80 cm s(-1). Stromatolites, which are largely restricted to the shoreward side of a shallow platform reef, are sheltered by the reef beyond which wave speeds are one to four times higher (depending on tidal stage). Moreover, stromatolite populations are predominantly found along a region of this wave-exposed beach that experiences comparatively reduced wave energy because of the curved morphology of the island's face. Maximum wave speeds are 1.4 to 2 times higher along more northern sections of the beach just beyond the locus of stromatolite populations. A quantitative model of sediment transport was developed that accurately predicted accumulation of suspended sediment in sediment traps deployed in the shallow subtidal zone along this beach. This model, coupled with in situ wave records, indicates that gross rates of suspended sediment deposition should be two to three times higher northward of the main stromatolite populations. Regions of the beach containing stromatolites nevertheless should experience significant rates of gross suspended sediment deposition averaging 7-10 g cm(-2) day(-1) ( approximately 4-6 cm day(-1)). Results suggest that one axis of the habitat of modern marine stromatolites may be defined by a comparatively narrow range of flow energy and sediment transport conditions. PMID:18380883

  6. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  7. Genetic mapping of day-neutrality in cultivated strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day-neutrality is a highly desirable trait in strawberry (Fragaria L.) breeding programs worldwide due to its importance in extending the harvest season in commercial production. Day-neutral genotypes are photoperiod insensitive and will initiate flowers under any photoperiod conditions as long as t...

  8. Modernity: a non-European conceptualization.

    PubMed

    Mouzelis, N

    1999-03-01

    In the light of insights drawn from historical sociology and Parsons' theory of differentiation/modernization, an attempt is made to conceptualize modernity in such a way as to avoid both eurocentrism and the total rejection of the concept by those who view it as an ideological means for the further advancement of western cultural imperialism. PMID:15266678

  9. On Distinctions between Classical and Modern Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ede, Lisa; Lunsford, Andrea

    The emergence of a modern or "new" rhetoric has been characterized by its attempt both to recover and reexamine the concepts of classical rhetoric and to define itself against that classical tradition. The distinctions that are persistently drawn between classical and modern rhetoric fall under four related heads: images of man and society,…

  10. The Chinese guided missiles stride toward modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhangnuo, H.; Mu, Y.

    1986-05-01

    The 1985 April issue of the Japanese Aviation Intelligence magazine published an article written by Doi Hiroshi on the status of our country's guided missile technology striding toward modernization. It is solely to provide our readers with some information on what comments are being made abroad about our country's modernization of national defense.

  11. Secondary Modern Schools: Are Their Pupils Disadvantaged?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levacic, Rosalind; Marsh, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    There are still 10 English local educational authorities (LEAs) that are wholly selective and a further 10 with some grammar and secondary modern schools. This article examines the academic performance of pupils in secondary modern schools and the funding of these schools using national data sets matching pupils' performance at Key Stage 2 and…

  12. Modern Dilemmas - Science (World History Series).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    The publication, referred to as a unit on "Modern Dilemmas," was completed in 1969 and is part of a Modern World History pilot project integrating areas of art, literature, philosophy, and science into the social studies curriculum. The unit seeks to explore all of the facets of science as part of man's search for meaning, but because of time…

  13. "On Making Man Modern"--A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    A. Inkeles' cross-cultural work is reviewed. Inkeles studied young factory workers in six developing countries (Argentina, Chile, India, Israel, Nigeria, and East Pakistan) to determine their "modernity" characteristics versus their "traditional" or rural orientations. The use of the "modern man" thesis in this study, that is, that the factory can…

  14. On the Emergence of Modern Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amati, Daniele; Shallice, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of modern humans with their extraordinary cognitive capacities is ascribed to a novel type of cognitive computational process (sustained non-routine multi-level operations) required for abstract projectuality, held to be the common denominator of the cognitive capacities specific to modern humans. A brain operation (latching) that…

  15. Childhood and Citizenship: A Conversation across Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the problematic nature of citizenship as a modern achievement faced with the challenge of vindicating ancient ideals in what is increasingly considered to be a "postmodern" world. It offers a parallel analysis of childhood as a characteristically modern construct whose reality in children's life-worlds is threatened by social…

  16. The mormon health traditions: An evolving view of modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Simmerman, S R

    1993-09-01

    The Mormon church has long been seen as an unusual group in relation to its health practices. But its health traditions and practices go much further than the ban on tobacco, coffee, and alcohol for which it is so well known. Church teachings and influences pervade the entire Mormon existence. This paper briefly discusses these traditions, first by examining their roots in the teachings of its first two prophet/presidents, Joseph Smith and Brigham Young. Then, how these ideas have evolved into the church's current thought is examined; and finally, the church's responses to many modern-day health care issues are presented. PMID:24271495

  17. Classical Greek and Roman rhetoric and the modern audience.

    PubMed

    Purdie, David W

    2003-12-01

    The formal structuring of oral discourse or rhetoric was highly developed in antiquity. Both Greek and Roman authorities on the subject codified for orators an arrangement of material and a contextual format which have utility in the present day. The art of public lecturing should encompass relevance of material, structure of presentation and style of delivery in order to render the whole enjoyable and memorable. Teaching does not cause learning, but skilful rhetorical technique can imbue the student with a potent desire for further self-directed study. In this field, the ancient is auxiliary to the modern. PMID:14984125

  18. STS-110 Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The second flight day of the STS-110 mission begins with Pilot Stephen Frick, and Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa and Jerry Ross shown in the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Ellen Ochoa answers questions about the goals of the mission which are to install the S(0) truss segment on the International Space Station. Television cameras are attached to the robotic arm to take pictures of the truss in orbit. Commander Mike Bloomfield and Stephen Frick talks about the physical condition of the robotic arm.

  19. Problems and Possibilities: The Public Library in the Borderline between Modernity and Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Casper Hvenegaard; Jochumsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The public library is a product of modernity that follows in the wake of industrialization, urbanization, and popular movements, while at the same time the public library itself supports the building up and development of the modern. This article will examine the arrival of modernity and the prerequisites for the rise of public libraries, as well

  20. Problems and Possibilities: The Public Library in the Borderline between Modernity and Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Casper Hvenegaard; Jochumsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The public library is a product of modernity that follows in the wake of industrialization, urbanization, and popular movements, while at the same time the public library itself supports the building up and development of the modern. This article will examine the arrival of modernity and the prerequisites for the rise of public libraries, as well…

  1. STS-79 Flight Day 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, are seen bidding the crew of Mir farewell and then closing the hatches between their two spacecraft in preparation for undocking. The nine astronauts and cosmonauts gathered in the Core Module of the Russian space station for a formal goodbye. With the official ceremony complete, the crewmembers shared a final meal together and exchanged private farewells as Shannon Lucid prepared to return home in Atlantis and her replacement on Mir, John Blaha, began a four month stay on the station. Walz and Apt and Mir 22 Commander Valery Korzun with assistance from Flight Engineer 2 John Blaha, swung the hatches between their spacecraft closed concluding five days of joint operations. The vestibule between Atlantis and Mir was depressurized and leak checks were performed in readiness for undocking.

  2. STS-73 flight day 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    On this fifteenth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown hosting an in-orbit interview with various newspaper reporters from Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center via satellite hookup. The astronauts were asked questions regarding the status of the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2) experiments, their personal goals regarding their involvement in the mission, their future in the space program, and general questions about living in space. Earth views included cloud cover and a tropical storm.

  3. STS-73 flight day 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    On this fourteenth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown include the Drop Physics Module (DPM) experiment, the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE), the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) experiment, and an experiment on fuel combustion and combustion products. Bowersox, Sacco, Thornton, and Rominger (the red team) were interviewed by high school students from Worcester, Massachusetts, who asked questions regarding the mission's experiments and general questions about living in space. Earth views included a black and white image of the Earth's atmospheric boundary layers.

  4. The burrowing origin of modern snakes.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hongyu; Norell, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    Modern snakes probably originated as habitat specialists, but it controversial unclear whether they were ancestrally terrestrial burrowers or marine swimmers. We used x-ray virtual models of the inner ear to predict the habit of Dinilysia patagonica, a stem snake closely related to the origin of modern snakes. Previous work has shown that modern snakes perceive substrate vibrations via their inner ear. Our data show that D. patagonica and modern burrowing squamates share a unique spherical vestibule in the inner ear, as compared with swimmers and habitat generalists. We built predictive models for snake habit based on their vestibular shape, which estimated D. patagonica and the hypothetical ancestor of crown snakes as burrowers with high probabilities. This study provides an extensive comparative data set to test fossoriality quantitatively in stem snakes, and it shows that burrowing was predominant in the lineages leading to modern crown snakes. PMID:26702436

  5. The burrowing origin of modern snakes

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hongyu; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern snakes probably originated as habitat specialists, but it controversial unclear whether they were ancestrally terrestrial burrowers or marine swimmers. We used x-ray virtual models of the inner ear to predict the habit of Dinilysia patagonica, a stem snake closely related to the origin of modern snakes. Previous work has shown that modern snakes perceive substrate vibrations via their inner ear. Our data show that D. patagonica and modern burrowing squamates share a unique spherical vestibule in the inner ear, as compared with swimmers and habitat generalists. We built predictive models for snake habit based on their vestibular shape, which estimated D. patagonica and the hypothetical ancestor of crown snakes as burrowers with high probabilities. This study provides an extensive comparative data set to test fossoriality quantitatively in stem snakes, and it shows that burrowing was predominant in the lineages leading to modern crown snakes. PMID:26702436

  6. Radiation chemistry for modern nuclear energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Szołucha, Monika M.

    2016-07-01

    Radiation chemistry plays a significant role in modern nuclear energy development. Pioneering research in nuclear science, for example the development of generation IV nuclear reactors, cannot be pursued without chemical solutions. Present issues related to light water reactors concern radiolysis of water in the primary circuit; long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel; radiation effects on cables and wire insulation, and on ion exchangers used for water purification; as well as the procedures of radioactive waste reprocessing and storage. Radiation effects on materials and enhanced corrosion are crucial in current (II/III/III+) and future (IV) generation reactors, and in waste management, deep geological disposal and spent fuel reprocessing. The new generation of reactors (III+ and IV) impose new challenges for radiation chemists due to their new conditions of operation and the usage of new types of coolant. In the case of the supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), water chemistry control may be the key factor in preventing corrosion of reactor structural materials. This paper mainly focuses on radiation effects on long-term performance and safety in the development of nuclear power plants.

  7. Do Modern Spectacles Endanger Surgeons?

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Simon J.; Smith, Charlotte; Bialostocki, Adam; McEwan, Christopher N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite documented cases of infectious disease transmission to medical staff via conjunctival contamination and widespread recommendation of protective eyewear use during surgical procedures, a large number of surgeons rely on their prescription spectacles as sole eye protection. Modern fashion spectacles, being of increasingly slim design, may no longer be adequate in this role. Methods: A survey was conducted among the surgeons at Waikato Hospital from December 7, 2004 to February 1, 2005, to assess current operating theater eyewear practices and attitudes. Those who wore prescription spectacles were asked to assume a standardized “operating position” from which anatomic measurements were obtained. These data were mathematically analyzed to determine the degree of palebral fissure protection conferred by their spectacles. Results: Of 71 surgical practitioners surveyed, 45.1% required prescription lenses for operating, the mean spectacle age being 2.45 years; 84.5% had experienced prior periorbital blood splashes; 2.8% had previously contracted an illness attributed to such an event; 78.8% participants routinely used eye protection, but of the 27 requiring spectacles, 68.0% used these as their sole eye protection. Chief complaints about safety glasses and facial shields were of fogging, poor comfort, inability to wear spectacles underneath, and unavailability. Our model predicted that 100%, 92.6%, 77.8%, and 0% of our population were protected by their spectacles laterally, medially, inferiorly, and superiorly, respectively. Conclusions: Prescription spectacles of contemporary styling do not provide adequate protection against conjunctival blood splash injuries. Our model predicts the design adequacy of currently available purpose-designed protective eyewear, which should be used routinely. PMID:17435558

  8. Argonne's 2012 Earth Day Event

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Argonne's 2012 Earth Day event drew crowds from across the laboratory. Argonne and U.S. Department of Energy employees toured booths and interactive displays set up by Argonne programs and clubs. Several of Argonne's partners participated, including U.S. Department of Energy, University of Chicago, Abri Credit Union, DuPage County Forest Preserve, DuPage Water Commission, PACE and Morton Arboretum. Argonne scientists and engineers also participated in a poster session, discussing their clean energy research.

  9. Argonne's 2012 Earth Day Event

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-04-19

    Argonne's 2012 Earth Day event drew crowds from across the laboratory. Argonne and U.S. Department of Energy employees toured booths and interactive displays set up by Argonne programs and clubs. Several of Argonne's partners participated, including U.S. Department of Energy, University of Chicago, Abri Credit Union, DuPage County Forest Preserve, DuPage Water Commission, PACE and Morton Arboretum. Argonne scientists and engineers also participated in a poster session, discussing their clean energy research.

  10. STS-70 flight: Day 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-07-01

    The fifth day of the STS-70 Space Shuttle Discovery mission is contained on this video. The crew continues working on experiments, such as the Space Tissue Loss Analysis and the Bioreactor Development System. CNN reporter, John Holliman, interviewed the flight crew and the crew also answered questions posed by Internet users while on NASA's Shuttle Web. There are brief views of Earth's surface included.

  11. STS-79 Flight Day 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this ninth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz having completed five days of joint operations between the American astronauts and the Russian cosmonauts are seen flying solo once again after undocking from the Mir Space Station. As Atlantis/Mir flew over the Ural Mountains of central Asia, the docking hooks and latches that joined the vehicles together were commanded open and Atlantis drifted slowly away from Mir. Wilcutt then initiated a tail-forward fly-around of the Russian space station. After one and one-half revolutions around Mir, Atlantis' jets were fired in a separation maneuver to enable Atlantis to break away from Mir. On board Atlantis, the six-member crew is settling back into its normal routine with a fairly light schedule for the remainder of the day. Early in the morning as Atlantis flew over the United States, the crew took time to talk with anchors for the CBS Up to the Minute' network news broadcast.

  12. (IN) FERTILITY AND THE MODERN FEMALE LIFE COURSE IN TWO SOUTHERN NIGERIAN COMMUNITIES

    PubMed Central

    Hollos, Marida; Whitehouse, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Being “modern” is an aspiration for many in sub-Saharan Africa and entails certain widely held expectations regarding material living conditions and social status. Using ethnographic and survey data on female fertility from two communities of southern Nigeria, this article describes some of the ways women are becoming modern and analyzes the forces behind these changes. The discussion includes education, initiation rites, premarital pregnancy, marriage, and the influence of Pentecostal Christianity. In agreement with modernization theory, there is a trend toward women becoming more educated and autonomous. They also increasingly valorize monogamy, companionate marriage, smaller families, and inclusion in the formal economy. In contradiction to the expectations of modernization theory, there is no decline in supernatural beliefs. Contemporary Christian churches are important to women becoming modern by helping them develop networks through voluntary associations, responding to women’s aspirations for material goods, alleviating kin obligations, and encouraging personal spiritual advancement. (Southern Nigeria women, fertility, modernity, Pentecostal Christianity) PMID:23894209

  13. STS-69 flight day 3 highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-09-01

    On the third day of the STS-69 mission, the flight crew (Cmdr. Dave Walker, Pilot Ken Cockrell, and Mission Specialists Jim Voss, Mike Gernhardt, and Jim Newman) test the Orbital Maneuvering System and prepare for the retrieval of the SPARTAN satellite with a checkout procedure of the space shuttle's robot arm. Physiological and chemical experiments on fluid dynamics are conducted as part of the Sea Lab project. Urine and blood samples from the crew are collected and studied under microgravity conditions, and a slime mold experiment is conducted to determine the properties of motion, growth, and chemistry in zero gravity conditions. Earth views include cloud cover, a hurricane, and a close-up of its eye.

  14. STS-69 Flight Day 3 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    On the third day of the STS-69 mission, the flight crew (Cmdr. Dave Walker, Pilot Ken Cockrell, and Mission Specialists Jim Voss, Mike Gernhardt, and Jim Newman) test the Orbital Maneuvering System and prepare for the retrieval of the SPARTAN satellite with a checkout procedure of the space shuttle's robot arm. Physiological and chemical experiments on fluid dynamics are conducted as part of the Sea Lab project. Urine and blood samples from the crew are collected and studied under microgravity conditions, and a slime mold experiment is conducted to determine the properties of motion, growth, and chemistry in zero gravity conditions. Earth views include cloud cover, a hurricane, and a close-up of its eye.

  15. Encapsulated radiophosphorescent standards for day-to-day photometer calibration.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, D J; Lee, J

    1990-10-01

    Solid, unquenched, radiophosphorescent standards for use in the day-to-day calibration of bottom viewing photometers (luminometers) were prepared by encapsulating commercially-available phosphor powders that are excited to phosphoresce by the beta- decay of 63Ni (t0.5 = 96 yr) or 14C (t0.5 = 5730 yr). The radionuclides are physically adsorbed on the phosphors by precipitation either as a "basic nickel carbonate" or as barium carbonate. The radioactive phosphors are then deposited by centrifugation as a thin layer at the bottom of the vials or tubes that are normally used in the photometer. The phosphor layer is infiltrated with a plastic resin and embedded. A light absorbing layer is subsequently cast over the phosphor layer to prevent stray light excitation of phosphorescence. The encapsulated photometer standards have remained mechanically and photometrically stable since their fabrication, which in some cases is 3 years ago. An equivalent level of visible luminescence emitted from the standards of up to 2.3 x 10(10) photons.s-1 was achieved by using an appropriate amount of radioactivity and the proper phosphor. The phosphor used in the standards could be chosen such that the radiophosphorescence emission spectrum corresponded approximately to the chemiluminescence or bioluminescence spectrum under investigation. PMID:2089419

  16. Macrocognition in Day-To-Day Police Incident Response

    PubMed Central

    Baber, Chris; McMaster, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Using examples of incidents that UK Police Forces deal with on a day-to-day basis, we explore the macrocognition of incident response. Central to our analysis is the idea that information relating to an incident is translated from negotiated to structured and actionable meaning, in terms of the Community of Practice of the personnel involved in incident response. Through participant observation of, and interviews with, police personnel, we explore the manner in which these different types of meaning shift over the course of incident. In this way, macrocognition relates to gathering, framing, and sharing information through the collaborative sensemaking practices of those involved. This involves two cycles of macrocognition, which we see as ‘informal’ (driven by information gathering as the Community of Practice negotiates and actions meaning) and ‘formal’ (driven by the need to assign resources to the response and the need to record incident details). The examples illustrate that these cycles are often intertwined, as are the different forms of meaning, in situation-specific ways that provide adaptive response to the demands of the incident. PMID:27014117

  17. Modern recharge to fossil aquifers: Geochemical, geophysical, and modeling constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, M.; Metwally, S.; Milewski, A.; Becker, D.; Ahmed, M.; Sauck, W.; Soliman, F.; Sturchio, N.; Yan, E.; Rashed, M.; Wagdy, A.; Becker, R.; Welton, B.

    2011-06-01

    The Nubian Sandstone (NSS) aquifer of northeast Africa is believed to have been recharged in previous wet climatic periods in the Quaternary Period. While this is largely true, we show using the Sinai Peninsula as our test site that the aquifer is locally receiving modern recharge under the current dry climatic conditions. The validity of the advocated model was tested using geophysical (conventional electrical resistivity [ER]) and isotopic (O, H) data, and estimates for modern recharge were obtained using continuous rainfall-runoff modeling over the period 1998-2007. Interpretations of ER profiles are consistent with the presence of unconfined NSS aquifers flooring recharge areas at the foothills of the crystalline basement in Sinai at Baraga (thickness: 20 to >188 m; resistivity: 16-130 Ω m) and Zalaga (thickness: 27 to >115 m; resistivity: 3-202 Ω m). The isotopic composition ( δD: -22.7 to -32.8‰; δ18O: -4.47 to -5.22‰) of groundwater samples from wells tapping the NSS aquifer underlying recharge areas is consistent with mixing between two endmembers: (1) fossil groundwater with isotopic compositions similar to those of the Western Desert NSS aquifer ( δD: -72 to -81‰; δ18O: -10.6 to -11.9‰), and (2) average modern meteoric precipitation ( δD: -9.84‰; δ18O: -3.48‰) in Sinai, with the latter endmember being the dominant component. A first-order estimate for the average annual modern recharge for the NSS aquifer was assessed at ˜13.0 × 10 6 m 3/yr using the SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) model. Findings bear on the sustainable exploitation of the NSS aquifer, where the aquifer is being locally recharged, and on the exploitation of similar extensive aquifers that were largely recharged in previous wet climatic periods but are still receiving modest modern meteoric contributions.

  18. Modern Imaging Technology: Recent Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.

    2004-06-18

    This 2-day conference is designed to bring scientist working in nuclear medicine, as well as nuclear medicine practitioners together to discuss the advances in four selected areas of imaging: Biochemical Parameters using Small Animal Imaging, Developments in Small Animal PET Imaging, Cell Labeling, and Imaging Angiogenesis Using Multiple Modality. The presentations will be on molecular imaging applications at the forefront of research, up to date on the status of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as in related imaging areas. Experts will discuss the basic science of imaging techniques, and scheduled participants will engage in an exciting program that emphasizes the current status of molecular imaging as well as the role of DOE funded research in this area.

  19. STS-95 Day 02 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this second day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, are seen preparing a glovebox device in the middeck area of Discovery, an enclosed research facility that will support numerous science investigations throughout the mission. Payload Specialist John Glenn, activates the Microgravity Encapsulation Process experiment (MEPS). This experiment will study the formation of capsules containing two kinds of anti-tumor drugs that could be delivered directly to solid tumors with applications for future chemotherapy treatments and the pharmaceutical industry.

  20. STS-74 flight day 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-74 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Kenneth Cameron, Pilot James Halsell, and Mission Specialists William McArthur, Jerry Ross, and Chris Hatfield and the Mir 20 cosmonauts, Cmdr. Yuri Gidzenko, Flight Engineer Sergei Avdeyev, and Cosmonaut-Researcher (ESA) Thomas Reiter, were greeted and briefly interviewed by the Secretary General of the United Nations, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, on the 50th anniversary of the United Nations via a radio satellite hookup. An additional interview with other journalists from different areas of the United States and Canada was also presented.

  1. Assessing an early modern Fenland population: Whittlesey (Cambridgeshire).

    PubMed

    Falvey, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Improvement writers argued that drainage would bring prosperity and population growth to fenland communities; locals counter-argued that their communities were already thriving. The detailed surviving records from early modern Whittlesey, in the Isle of Ely, are analysed here to test the accuracy of these opposing claims. Using the returns of the 1523 Lay Subsidy, the 1563 ecclesiastical census, the Lady Day 1674 Hearth Tax records and the 1676 Compton Census, together with bishops' transcripts and probate inventories, this article finds that although the population did indeed increase after drainage, the pre-drainage population was also increasing. The Michaelmas 1664 Hearth Tax records are analysed to uncover something of the character of the inhabitants and the 1674 Lady Day returns are then used to test the relative wealth of the community compared with that of sub-regions throughout England identified by Tom Arkell. Finally, there is a discussion of Whittlesey's housing stock. PMID:25080616

  2. Levantine cranium from Manot Cave (Israel) foreshadows the first European modern humans.

    PubMed

    Hershkovitz, Israel; Marder, Ofer; Ayalon, Avner; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Yasur, Gal; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Caracuta, Valentina; Alex, Bridget; Frumkin, Amos; Goder-Goldberger, Mae; Gunz, Philipp; Holloway, Ralph L; Latimer, Bruce; Lavi, Ron; Matthews, Alan; Slon, Viviane; Mayer, Daniella Bar-Yosef; Berna, Francesco; Bar-Oz, Guy; Yeshurun, Reuven; May, Hila; Hans, Mark G; Weber, Gerhard W; Barzilai, Omry

    2015-04-01

    A key event in human evolution is the expansion of modern humans of African origin across Eurasia between 60 and 40 thousand years (kyr) before present (bp), replacing all other forms of hominins. Owing to the scarcity of human fossils from this period, these ancestors of all present-day non-African modern populations remain largely enigmatic. Here we describe a partial calvaria, recently discovered at Manot Cave (Western Galilee, Israel) and dated to 54.7 ± 5.5 kyr bp (arithmetic mean ± 2 standard deviations) by uranium-thorium dating, that sheds light on this crucial event. The overall shape and discrete morphological features of the Manot 1 calvaria demonstrate that this partial skull is unequivocally modern. It is similar in shape to recent African skulls as well as to European skulls from the Upper Palaeolithic period, but different from most other early anatomically modern humans in the Levant. This suggests that the Manot people could be closely related to the first modern humans who later successfully colonized Europe. Thus, the anatomical features used to support the 'assimilation model' in Europe might not have been inherited from European Neanderthals, but rather from earlier Levantine populations. Moreover, at present, Manot 1 is the only modern human specimen to provide evidence that during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic interface, both modern humans and Neanderthals contemporaneously inhabited the southern Levant, close in time to the likely interbreeding event with Neanderthals. PMID:25629628

  3. Comparison of Leiomyoma of Modern Medicine and Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Tajadini, Haleh

    2016-04-01

    Leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the pelvic that is associated with reproductive problems such as infertility, frequent abortions, and undesirable prenatal outcomes. High prevalence of leiomyoma and its relation with important gynecological complications, especially during reproductive ages, on the one hand, and high medical expenses and significant complications of common treatments, on the other, made us search traditional Persian medicine texts for a similar disease. In traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to leiomyoma (Oram-e-rahem). In this article, by collecting materials from traditional medicine texts on leiomyoma, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topic, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to leiomyoma. When modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment, reviewing of traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise. PMID:26177818

  4. Anomalous 13C enrichment in modern marine organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arthur, M.A.; Dean, W.E.; Claypool, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Marine organic carbon is heavier isotopically (13C enriched) than most land-plant or terrestrial organic C1. Accordingly, ??13C values of organic C in modern marine sediments are routinely interpreted in terms of the relative proportions of marine and terrestrial sources of the preserved organic matter2,3. When independent geochemical techniques are used to evaluate the source of organic matter in Cretaceous or older rocks, those rocks containing mostly marine organic C are found typically to have lighter (more-negative) ??13C values than rocks containing mostly terrestrial organic C. Here we conclude that marine photosynthesis in mid-Cretaceous and earlier oceans generally resulted in a greater fractionation of C isotopes and produced organic C having lighter ??13C values. Modern marine photosynthesis may be occurring under unusual geological conditions (higher oceanic primary production rates, lower PCO2) that limit dissolved CO2 availability and minimize carbon isotope fractionation4. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. From legacy systems towards modern health information systems.

    PubMed

    Bercic, B; Zelic, I; Cerkvenik, G; Slavec, S; Rems, M

    1998-01-01

    This article describes an approach of transferring legacy hospital information system to a modern HIS, which would support requirements of modern information age. There are several reasons, which force us to perform such a migration: from the weakness of design of legacy system to the need of covering new technologies (such as Inter/intranet) and new business conditions. The transition should be gradual, therefore a multilevel approach to the data is suggested, enabling us the transition, as well as including of the new, upcoming standards. The process of transition was started by the system covering the doctor's work. Responses to this part were very positive; therefore, we estimate that we are on the right way. We, however, know that the transitions will be neither fast nor cheap and this is the reason we shall have to find some more solutions. PMID:10384595

  6. Cassini Scientist for a Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Michael W.; Murray, C. D.; Piazza, E.; McConnell, S.

    2007-10-01

    The Cassini Mission's "Scientist for a Day" program allows students the opportunity to be in scientists' shoes, evaluate various options and learn how to make decisions based on scientific value. Students are given three or more possible imaging targets. They research these targets and decide which one will bring the best scientific results. They then defend their choice in a 500-word essay. The essay with the best scientific argument for a chosen target wins the contest. Cassini will take the images on Nov. 30, 2007. A few days later, winners (and as many other students as possible) are invited to discuss the results with Cassini scientists via videoconferences. Entries are judged by a committee composed of Cassini scientists, Cassini mission planners, Cassini Outreach and JPL Education Specialists. The contest has been held on a smaller scale three times. This edition is open to all U.S. schools. Students will be divided in two groups, grades 5 to 8 and grades 9 to 12. The contest will also be held in England, and possibly in other countries.

  7. STS-90 Day 14 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fourteenth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk focus on the efforts of Neurolab's Neuronal Plasticity Team to better understand how the adult nervous system adapts to the new environment of space. Columbia's science crew -- Mission Specialists Rick Linnehan and Dave Williams and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey and Jim Pawelczyk -- perform the second and final in-flight dissections of the adult male rats on board. The crew euthanizes and dissects nine rats and remove the vestibular or balance organs of the inner ear; the cerebellum, the part of the brain critical for maintaining balance and for processing information from the limbs so they can be moved smoothly; and the cerebrum, one part of which controls automatic functions such as body temperature regulation and the body's internal clock, and the cortical region that controls cognitive functions such as thinking. The first dissection, which was performed on the second day of the flight, went extremely well, according to Neurolab scientists.

  8. [Day hospital treatment in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Eikelmann, B

    2010-03-01

    Day hospitals provide an organizational framework for complex psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatments. They have been developed regarding treatment and in number, perhaps surprisingly, to fit existing standards in almost all domains of psychiatry. Similarities exist in the emphasis on acute treatment, in the orientation towards social inclusion, and particularly in the ability to connect with previous treatment settings. Day treatment guidelines exist only in basic form. In general the complex outpatient treatment is led by psychiatrists; the treatment is planned and pre-defined regarding time and goal orientation. It is directed exclusively at patients with severe mental health disorders and practiced by a multi-professional team. A structured treatment milieu is likely to be the main ingredient which includes all somatic-biological and many psychotherapeutic methods. Special options that for the most part have been empirically validated are available for the treatment of post-acute patients, prevention of social exclusion from families and work, detoxification of addicts and psychotherapy of personality disorders. The rapid increase of facilities is expected to persist for some time. Scientific evidence is relatively strong. Given proper indication, financial resources are used with a high degree of efficiency. PMID:20119657

  9. First Complete Day from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular, full-color image of the Earth is a composite of the first full day of data gathered by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. MODIS collected the data for each wavelength of red, green, and blue light as Terra passed over the daylit side of the Earth on April 19, 2000. Terra is orbiting close enough to the Earth so that it cannot quite see the entire surface in a day, resulting in the narrow gaps around the equator. Although the sensor's visible channels were combined to form this true-color picture, MODIS collects data in a total of 36 wavelengths, ranging from visible to thermal infrared energy. Scientists use these data to measure regional and global-scale changes in marine and land-based plant life, sea and land surface temperatures, cloud properties, aerosols, fires, and land surface properties. Notice how cloudy the Earth is, and the large differences in brightness between clouds, deserts, oceans, and forests. The Antarctic, surrounded by clockwise swirls of cloud, is shrouded in darkness because the sun is north of the equator at this time of year. The tropical forests of Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America are shrouded by clouds. The bright Sahara and Arabian deserts stand out clearly. Green vegetation is apparent in the southeast United States, the Yucatan Peninsula, and Madagascar. Image by Mark Gray, MODIS Atmosphere Team, NASA GSFC

  10. Earth Day 25 years later

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.

    1995-08-01

    The idea of Earth Day 1970 was to have a national demonstration of environmental concern big enough to shake up the political establishment--get its attention, get some action, force environmental issues onto the political agenda of national priorities. The idea worked, thanks to the spontaneous response of millions of concerned Americans, and the event served as a wake-up call to the political establishment. Suddenly, the environment became a national political priority. Since Earth Day 1970, Congress has enacted nearly 40 major federal environmental laws addressing a wide range of issues, including clean air, clean water, energy conservation, hazardous wastes, and herbicides and other pesticides. Dozens of individual public land bills have been enacted since 1970 to designate or expand wilderness areas, wild and scenic rivers, national parks, and wildlife refuges. Perhaps most important, more than 80 percent of Americans now regard themselves as environmentalists. Since 1970 man has come a long way. After 25 years of researching, debating, and learning, increasing numbers of people recognize that the state of the environment is the key factor in determining this way of life and the quality of it.

  11. Historical development of modern anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Daniel H; Toledo, Alexander H

    2012-06-01

    Of all milestones and achievements in medicine, conquering pain must be one of the very few that has potentially affected every human being in the world. It was in 1846 that one of mankind's greatest fears, the pain of surgery, was eliminated. This historical review article describes how the various elements of anesthesiology (gasses, laryngoscopes, endotracheal tubes, intravenous medications, masks, and delivery systems) were discovered and how some brilliant entrepreneurs and physicians of the past two centuries have delivered them to humanity. One name stands out amongst all others when the founder of modern anesthesia is discussed, William T.G. Morton (1819-1868). A young Boston Dentist, Dr. Morton had been in the search for a better agent than what had been used by many dentists: nitrous oxide. With Dr. Morton's tenacity driven by enthusiasm and discovery, he and renowned surgeon at Massachusetts General Hospital, John Collins Warren (1778-1856) made history on October 16, 1846 with the first successful surgical procedure performed with anesthesia. Dr. Morton had single-handedly proven to the world that ether is a gas that when inhaled in the proper dose, provided safe and effective anesthesia. One of the first accounts of an endotracheal tube being used for an airway comes from the pediatrician Joseph O'Dwyer (1841-1898). He used the metal "O'dwyer" tubes in diphtheria cases and passed them into the trachea blindly. Adding a cuff to the tube is credited to Arthur Guedel (1883-1956) and Ralph M. Waters (1883-1979) in 1932. This addition suddenly gave the practitioner the ability to provide positive pressure ventilation. The anesthesiologist Chevalier Jackson (1865-1958) promoted his handheld laryngoscope for the insertion of endotracheal tubes and its popularity quickly caught hold. Sir Robert Reynolds Macintosh's (1897-1989) breakthrough technique of direct laryngoscopy came after being appointed Nuffield professor of anesthetics at the University of Oxford in 1937. He was the first to describe the routinely placing of the tip of his newly re-designed laryngoscope in the epiglottic vallecula which is attached to the base of the tongue, thus when lifted exposed the entire larynx. Macintosh was genuinely astonished at what a great view he could achieve with his new blade and technique. The use of barbiturates as an intravenous anesthetic began in 1932. Sodium thiopental gained popularity after its use was described in detail by a Dr. John Lundy (1894-1973) of the Mayo Clinic. Other I.V. medications were tried over the past seventy years, but the newest induction drug which provided for a substantially shorter recovery period and seemed to actually suppress laryngeal reflexes has brought with it many benefits. Propofol, introduced clinically in 1977, demonstrated many positive effects even as an anti-emetic compound. Before October of 1846, surgery and pain were synonymous but not thereafter. As we entered the information age where the infrastructure of evidence based medicine and newer fields of genetics, transplantation, imaging radiology and even stem cells became quickly integrated into mainstream medicine, we can predict an excellent future on the progress to be made in anesthesia. PMID:22583009

  12. Speleotherapy – modern bio-medical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lăzărescu, H; Simionca, I; Hoteteu, M; Mirescu, L

    2014-01-01

    Speleotherapy – a special form of climatotherapy – uses certain conditions specific to caves and salt-mines to treat several medical conditions, especially respiratory and skin-related. This reduces all types of irritations and therefore disease symptoms are mitigated or fully suppressed while the patient is accommodated into the salt-mine. Objective: Influence of microclimate in salt-mines of Turda, Dej and Cacica on morphology and electrophoretic expression of in vitro lung and skin fibroblasts acquired from the lung and hypodermic tissues of Wistar rats, in normal conditions and after ovalbumin-induced asthma, respectively after experimental injuries and burns. Materials and methods: skin fibroblast cultures acquired from lung and hypodermic tissue sampled from Wistar rats. Cultures acquired are developed in fibroblast monolayer attached to the culture dish. Wistar rats with weight between 75 -100 g were divided in three groups: one control group, one group with experimental asthma, one group with injuries and burns. 10 animals from each group were sent to salt-mines in Turda, Dej and Cacica for 14 days and kept in a saline environment, similar to speleotherapy. Results: Speleotherapy applied to Wistar rats determined significant differences in cellular morphology and in electrophoretic expression of lung and skin fibroblasts from primary cultures. Conclusions: Results of this survey indicates that speleotherapy induces changes in morphology and protein expression of in vitro lung and skin fibroblasts, and these changes support the therapeutic effects of speleotherapy. PMID:25870679

  13. Applicability of day-to-day variation in behavior for the automated detection of lameness in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    de Mol, R M; André, G; Bleumer, E J B; van der Werf, J T N; de Haas, Y; van Reenen, C G

    2013-06-01

    Lameness is a major problem in modern dairy husbandry and has welfare implications and other negative consequences. The behavior of dairy cows is influenced by lameness. Automated lameness detection can, among other methods, be based on day-to-day variation in animal behavior. Activity sensors that measure lying time, number of lying bouts, and other parameters were used to record behavior per cow per day. The objective of this research was to develop and validate a lameness detection model based on daily activity data. Besides the activity data, milking data and data from the computerized concentrate feeders were available as input data. Locomotion scores were available as reference data. Data from up to 100 cows collected at an experimental farm during 23 mo in 2010 and 2011 were available for model development. Behavior is cow-dependent, and therefore quadratic trend models were fitted with a dynamic linear model on-line per cow for 7 activity variables and 2 other variables (milk yield per day and concentrate leftovers per day). It is assumed that lameness develops gradually; therefore, a lameness alert was given when the linear trend in 2 or more of the 9 models differed significantly from zero in a direction that corresponded with lameness symptoms. The developed model was validated during the first 4 mo of 2012 with almost 100 cows on the same farm by generating lameness alerts each week. Performance on the model validation data set was comparable with performance on the model development data set. The overall sensitivity (percentage of detected lameness cases) was 85.5% combined with specificity (percentage of nonlame cow-days that were not alerted) of 88.8%. All variables contributed to this performance. These results indicate that automated lameness detection based on day-to-day variation in behavior is a useful tool for dairy management. PMID:23548300

  14. Thermographic inspection of a tennis court building with modern steel construction: constructional mistakes and bad craftsmanship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1994-03-01

    The use of indoor thermography for inspection of building of modern steel construction gives rise to several questions about the consequences of constructional mistakes and poor craftsmanship. In this paper is presented the result from a case study of a newly constructed tennis court building, with a modern steel construction. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the consequences of unsuitable choice of construction related to function and to different climate conditions, constructional mistakes and poor craftsmanship.

  15. U.S. Army Modernizes Munitions Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Headquartered at Joliet, Illinois, the Army Ammunition Procurement and Supply Agency aims to mechanize and clean up its manufacturing facilities. Six go-co (government owned - contractor operated) plants involved in the modernization program are described. (BL)

  16. The Evolution of Modern Dance Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Fran

    1988-01-01

    The article traces the impact of the modern dance movement from the early 1900s and its emphasis on creativity and self-expression on the professional and institutional development of dance therapy. (CB)

  17. Intrusions of Modernity on a Traditional Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne Horsfall

    1991-01-01

    Presents a teacher's impressions of India, gathered during a Fulbright-sponsored study tour. Examines modernizing influences in the midst of traditional culture, religious cultural groups and potential religious conflict, women's status, and problems due to overpopulation. (CH)

  18. Windmills in the light of modern research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A

    1928-01-01

    The chief contribution of modern research in the field of windmills is a better understanding of the phenomena and of the available means for the accomplishment of certain results, but also of the natural limits to their productive capacity.

  19. STS-74 flight day 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    On this fifth day of the STS-74 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Kenneth Cameron, Pilot James Halsell, and Mission Specialists William McArthur, Jerry Ross, and Chris Hatfield, were awakened to the theme from the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey'. The Mir 20 cosmonauts, Cmdr. Yuri Gidzenko, Flight Engineer Sergei Avdeyev, and Cosmonaut-Researcher (ESA) Thomas Reiter, and shuttle astronauts are shown giving each other plaques and presents to commemorate their historic docking event and the start towards the development of the International Space Station. There is a press conference from Moscow by a one of the officers of the Russian Space Agency with both flight crews and an additional separate press interview of the crews by Canadian reporters. There is video footage of the two docked spacecraft taken from various angles.

  20. STS-90 Day 15 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fifteeth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk turns its attention to dexterity tests and dissections of rats neonates and the ball-catch experiment. Mission Specialists Rick Linnehan and Dave Williams and Payload Specialist Jim Pawelczyk will dissect the newborn rats. The dexterity test will test the response of young rats as they are tilted and turned while walking and climbing on a special apparatus with various surfaces. Later, all four payload crew members will repeat the ball-catch experiment. This experiment studies the ability of the central nervous system to accept and interpret new stimuli in space. The astronauts have performed this test at various points in the mission so scientists can compare their responses as their bodies adapt to weightlessness.